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Sample records for detector solenoid effects

  1. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on Disrupted Beam in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Toprek, Dragan; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    This paper presents calculations of detector solenoid effects on disrupted primary beam in the ILC 14 mrad extraction line. Particle tracking simulations are performed for evaluation of primary beam loss along the line as well as of beam distribution and polarization at Compton Interaction Point. The calculations are done both without and with solenoid compensation. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

  2. COMPENSATION OF DETECTOR SOLENOID IN SUPER-B

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Bertsche, Kirk; Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The SUPER-B detector solenoid has a strong 1.5 T field in the Interaction Region (IR) area, and its tails extend over the range of several meters. The main effect of the solenoid field is coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion which must be corrected in order to preserve the small design beam size at the Interaction Point. The additional effects are orbit and dispersion caused by the angle between the solenoid and beam trajectories. The proposed correction system provides local compensation of the solenoid effects independently for each side of the IR. It includes 'bucking' solenoids to remove the solenoid field tails and a set of skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and anti-solenoids to cancel linear perturbations to the optics. Details of the correction system are presented.

  3. Report of the large solenoid detector group

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Mori, S.; Pondrom, L.G.; Williams, H.H.; Barnett, B.; Barnes, V.; Cashmore, R.; Chiba, M.; DeSalvo, R.; Devlin, T.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region.

  4. High speed data transmission for the SSC solenoidal detector

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1991-04-24

    High speed data transmission using fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider solenoidal detector has been studied. The solenoidal detector system will consist of nine subsystems involving more than a total 10{sup 7} channels of readout electronics. Consequently, a new high performance data acquisition system, incorporating high-speed optical fiber networks, will be required to process this large quantity of data. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0{degrees}C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0{degrees}C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length.

  6. Design of the 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D0 detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, B.; Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.; Kristalinski, A.; Lee, A.; Markley, D.; Mesin, A.; Orr, S.; Rucinski, R.

    1994-12-31

    A thin superconducting solenoid has been designed for an upgrade to the Fermilab D0 detector, one of two major hadron collider detectors at Fermilab. The original design of the D0 detector did not incorporate a central magnetic field which necessitates a retrofit within the parameters of the existing tracking volume of the detector. The two layer solenoid coil is indirectly cooled and provides a 2 T magnetic field for a central tracking system. To minimize end effects in this no iron configuration, the conductor width is varied thereby increasing current density at the ends and improving field uniformity. This paper summarizes the results of the conceptual design study for the D0 superconducting solenoid.

  7. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at the SSCL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our primary interest is the detection and measurement of muons and the design of the muon detector and trigger for the SDC. We have been concentrating on the design of the forward muon system (in the approximate pseudo-rapidity region of 1.5 <{vert bar} {eta} {vert bar}<2.5 corresponding to azimuthal angles of 9.4{degrees} to 26. 0{degrees}) and at present are responsible for the engineering design of the detector support system in this rapidity region. We are also participating in the development of a liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter adapted to the bunch structure of the SSC machine. At present a LAr calorimeter still remains an option for the choice of calorimetry for the SDC. Recent measurements at BNL in a 20 GeV pion beam confirm that many of the problems associated with long signal collection times of LAr can be solved.

  8. 2 T superconducting detector solenoid for the PANDA target spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, Y. Y.; Makarov, A. F.; Orth, H.; Sissakian, A. N.; Vodopianov, A. S.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the JINR design of the large 2 T superconducting solenoid for the target spectrometer of the PANDA experiment at HESR (FAIR, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The solenoid coil has an inner radius of 1.08 m and a length of 2.90 m. This solenoid is non-centrally split providing a warm bore of 100 mm in diameter through the coil to accommodate sufficient space for the internal target installations. Maximally stored energy in the windings is 22.3 MJ. All tracking and calorimetric detectors surrounding the target point, with exception of a forward cone of 5∘ opening, are placed inside the lqHe-cryostat. The main features of the design and technique are as follows: a copper stabilizer and soldering technique for the superconducting cable; a stainless steel cryostat; winding technique over a mandrel; coreless type of the coil; low operational current. The details of the PANDA solenoid design including the magnetic field and stress-strain calculations are covered.

  9. Measured Effects of a Longitudinal Solenoidal Field on an Iron Quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecklund, S.; Seeman, J. T.; Wolf, Z.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured the effects of a longitudinal solenoidal field on the field harmonics of an iron dominated quadrupole. These measurements are useful when designing a colliding beam interaction region where the first quadrupole is very near the solenoidal field of the physics detector. The effects of mirror plates, quadrupole excition, skew quadrupole windings, dipole windings, and solenoidal fields that enter at an angle have been measured. Conclusions and interpretations are given.

  10. Thermal design of the Mu2e detector solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, N.; Wands, R.; Buehler, M.; Feher, S.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-12-18

    The reference design for a superconducting detector solenoid (DS) for the Mu2e experiment has been completed. In this study, the main functions of the DS are to provide a graded field in the region of the stopping target, which ranges from 2 to 1 T and a uniform precision magnetic field of 1 T in a volume large enough to house a tracker downstream of the stopping target. The inner diameter of the magnet cryostat is 1.9 m and the length is 10.9 m. The gradient section of the magnet is about 4 m long and the spectrometer section with a uniform magnetic field is about 6 m long. The inner cryostat wall supports the stopping target, tracker, calorimeter and other equipment installed in the DS. This warm bore volume is under vacuum during operation. It is sealed on one end by the muon beam stop, while it is open on the other end where it interfaces with the Transport Solenoid. The operating temperature of the magnetic coil is 4.7 K and is indirectly cooled with helium flowing in a thermosiphon cooling scheme. This paper describes the thermal design of the solenoid, including the design aspects of the thermosiphon for the coil cooling, forced flow cooling of the thermal shields with 2 phase LN2 (Liquid Nitrogen) and the transient studies of the cool down of the cold mass as well.

  11. Thermal design of the Mu2e detector solenoid

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dhanaraj, N.; Wands, R.; Buehler, M.; Feher, S.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-12-18

    The reference design for a superconducting detector solenoid (DS) for the Mu2e experiment has been completed. In this study, the main functions of the DS are to provide a graded field in the region of the stopping target, which ranges from 2 to 1 T and a uniform precision magnetic field of 1 T in a volume large enough to house a tracker downstream of the stopping target. The inner diameter of the magnet cryostat is 1.9 m and the length is 10.9 m. The gradient section of the magnet is about 4 m long and the spectrometer section withmore » a uniform magnetic field is about 6 m long. The inner cryostat wall supports the stopping target, tracker, calorimeter and other equipment installed in the DS. This warm bore volume is under vacuum during operation. It is sealed on one end by the muon beam stop, while it is open on the other end where it interfaces with the Transport Solenoid. The operating temperature of the magnetic coil is 4.7 K and is indirectly cooled with helium flowing in a thermosiphon cooling scheme. This paper describes the thermal design of the solenoid, including the design aspects of the thermosiphon for the coil cooling, forced flow cooling of the thermal shields with 2 phase LN2 (Liquid Nitrogen) and the transient studies of the cool down of the cold mass as well.« less

  12. The LHC Compact Muon Solenoid experiment Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Beccati, B.; Behrens, U.; Biery, K.; Bouffet, O.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cano, E.; Cheung, H.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hatton, D.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Moser, R.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, M.; Sumorok, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a multi-purpose experiment designed to exploit the physics of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider collision energy (14TeV at centre of mass) over the full range of expected luminosities (up to 1034cm-2s-1). The CMS detector control system (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient operation of the detector so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The system is also required to operate the detector with a small crew of experts who can take care of the maintenance of its software and hardware infrastructure. The subsystems size sum up to more than a million parameters that need to be supervised by the DCS. A cluster of roughly 100 servers is used to provide the required processing resources. A scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made clear a division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing plugging in of functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ensure the correct operation of the detector, DCS organizes the communication between the accelerator and the experiment systems making sure that the detector is in a safe state during hazardous situations and is fully operational when stable conditions are present. This paper describes the current status of the CMS DCS focusing on operational aspects and the role of DCS in this communication.

  13. The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.

  14. Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

  15. Development of Aluminum Stabilized Superconducting Cables for the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; Buehler, M.; Lamm, M.; Page, T.; Curreli, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.

    2015-10-16

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to measure the rare process of direct muon-to-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. The experiment comprises a system of three superconducting solenoids, which focus secondary muons from the production target and transport them to an aluminum stopping target, while minimizing the associated background. The Detector Solenoid (DS) is the last magnet in the transport line and its main functions are to provide a graded field in the region of the stopping target as well as a precision magnetic field in a volume large enough to house the tracker downstream of the stopping target. The Detector Solenoid coils are designed to be wound using NbTi Rutherford cables conformed in high purity aluminum for stabilization and then cold-worked for strength. Two types of Al-stabilized conductor are required to build the DS coils, one for the gradient section and one for the spectrometer section of the solenoid. The dimensions are optimized to generate the required field profile when the same current is transported in both conductors. The conductors contain NbTi Rutherford cables with 12 (DS1) and 8 (DS2) strands respectively and are manufactured by two different vendors. This paper describes the results of the manufacturing of production lengths of the Al-stabilized cables needed to build the Mu2e Detector Solenoid as well as the testing campaigns and main results. The main cable properties and results of electrical and mechanical tests are summarized and discussed for each stage of the cable development process. Results are compared to design values to show how the production cables satisfy all the design criteria starting from the NbTi wires to the Al-stabilized cables.

  16. Technical specification for the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid for the BaBar detector. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.G.; Bell, R.; Fabbricatore, P.; Giorgi, M.; Hitlin, D.

    1997-03-07

    This document sets forth the specification of the BABAR superconducting solenoid and power supply which is being supplied to the BABAR collaboration by INSTITUTO NAZIONALE DI FISICA NUCLEARE (INFN). The solenoid will be installed in the BABAR detector which will be located at Interaction Region 2 (IR2) of the PEP II machine, a positron electron collider, presently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) located in Menlo Park, California. The solenoid will become part of the BABAR detector which will be used in SLAC`s high energy physics program. Intense beams of electrons and positrons are made to collide inside the solenoid magnet. High field uniformity quality, precise mechanical alignment and long term stability are essential characteristics of the solenoid. INFN will set up a committee that will provide contractual and technical oversight throughout the design, fabrication and installation phases of the BABAR solenoid construction. That committee will be the final authority to resolve any differences between these specifications and the INFN supplied drawings, in addition to any differences between these specifications or the INFN supplied drawings and the proposals from the vendor. All submissions for approval to INFN whether for design changes, material approval, design submissions or others as required by this specification shall be acted upon INFN within two (2) weeks of receipt of the submissions. If no answer is given the vendor may assume approval and proceed.

  17. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R.W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D.C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1995-02-01

    The authors group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. A detailed description of the concepts they developed and the work they performed can be found in a report titled ``Silicon Subsystem Mechanical Engineering Work for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration`` which they submitted to the SSC Laboratory. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report.

  18. Solenoid Fringe Field Effects for the Neutrino Factory Linac - MAD-X Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslaninejad,C. Bontoiu,J. Pasternak,J. Pozimski,Alex Bogacz

    2010-05-01

    International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) assumes the first stage of muon acceleration (up to 900 MeV) to be implemented with a solenoid based Linac. The Linac consists of three styles of cryo-modules, containing focusing solenoids and varying number of SRF cavities for acceleration. Fringe fields of the solenoids and the focusing effects in the SRF cavities have significant impact on the transverse beam dynamics. Using an analytical formula, the effects of fringe fields are studied in MAD-X. The resulting betatron functions are compared with the results of beam dynamics simulations using OptiM code.

  19. Effect of epoxy cracking resistance on the stability of impregnated superconducting solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, H.; Moriyama, H.; Mitsui, H.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    The stability and quench positions of superconducting test solenoids impregnated with three types of epoxy resin, with different crack resistances, have been studied. Voltage signals and acoustic emission (AE) were monitored during training tests. Premature quenches in the solenoids almost occurred at the innermost layer of windings; voltage spikes and AE appeared just prior to the premature quench initiation. This suggested that premature quenches were due to friction or debonding between ground insulation and winding. The solenoid with a release film between ground insulation and winding showed high stability and reached critical current at the second charging. From the results, the effects of epoxy cracking resistance on the stability of impregnated superconducting test solenoids are discussed.

  20. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  1. Solenoid Compensation for the SuperB Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, Kirk; Sullivan, Michael K.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    We present an approach for compensating adverse effects of the detector solenoid in the SuperB Interaction Region (IR). We place compensating solenoids around the IR quadrupole magnets to reduce the magnetic fields nearly to zero. This allows more operational headroom for superconducting IR magnets and avoids saturation of ferric IR magnets. We place stronger compensating solenoids between IR magnets to reverse the magnetic field direction. This allows adjusting the total integrated solenoid field to zero, which eliminates coordinate plane rotation and reduces vertical beam displacements in the IR.

  2. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired ..delta..p/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200..mu.. resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10/sup 6/ A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A.

  3. EFFECT OF SOLENOID FIELD ERRORS ON ELECTRON BEAM TEMPERATURES IN THE RHIC ELECTRON COOLER.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.KEWISCH,J.

    2003-05-12

    As part of a future upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), electron cooling is foreseen to decrease ion beam emittances. Within the electron cooling section, the ''hot'' ion beam is immersed in a ''cold'' electron beam. The cooling effect is further enhanced by a solenoid field in the cooling section, which forces the electrons to spiral around the field lines with a (Larmor) radius of 10 micrometers, reducing the effective transverse temperature by orders of magnitude. Studies of the effect of solenoid field errors on electron beam temperatures are reported.

  4. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL. PMID:26931976

  5. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  6. Effect of high solenoidal magnetic fields on breakdown voltages of high vacuum 805 MHz cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Qian, Z.; Norem, J.; Li, D.; Zisman, M.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Errede, D.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-10-01

    There is an on going international collaboration studying the feasibility and cost of building a muon collider or neutrino factory [1,2]. An important aspect of this study is the full understanding of ionization cooling of muons by many orders of magnitude for the collider case. An important muon ionization cooling experiment, MICE [3], has been proposed to demonstrate and validate the technology that could be used for cooling. Ionization cooling is accomplished by passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF Cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal field. To determine the effect of very large solenoidal magnetic fields on the generation of dark current, x-rays and on the breakdown voltage gradients of vacuum RF cavities, a test facility has been established at Fermilab in Lab G. This facility consists of a 12 MW 805 MHz RF station and a large warm bore 5 T solenoidal superconducting magnet containing a pill box type cavity with thin removable window apertures. This system allows dark current and breakdown studies of different window configurations and materials. The results of this study will be presented. The study has shown that the peak achievable accelerating gradient is reduced by a factor greater than 2 when solenoidal field of greater than 2 T are applied to the cavity.

  7. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at the SSCL. Progress report, March 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Our primary interest is the detection and measurement of muons and the design of the muon detector and trigger for the SDC. We have been concentrating on the design of the forward muon system (in the approximate pseudo-rapidity region of 1.5 <{vert_bar} {eta} {vert_bar}<2.5 corresponding to azimuthal angles of 9.4{degrees} to 26. 0{degrees}) and at present are responsible for the engineering design of the detector support system in this rapidity region. We are also participating in the development of a liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter adapted to the bunch structure of the SSC machine. At present a LAr calorimeter still remains an option for the choice of calorimetry for the SDC. Recent measurements at BNL in a 20 GeV pion beam confirm that many of the problems associated with long signal collection times of LAr can be solved.

  8. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877

  9. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.

  10. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a “hairline” solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877

  11. Effect of superconducting solenoid model cores on spanwise iron magnet roll control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with conventional ferromagnetic fuselage cores, superconducting solenoid cores appear to offer significant reductions in the projected cost of a large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system. The provision of sufficient magnetic roll torque capability has been a long-standing problem with all magnetic suspension and balance systems; and the spanwise iron magnet scheme appears to be the most powerful system available. This scheme utilizes iron cores which are installed in the wings of the model. It was anticipated that the magnetization of these cores, and hence the roll torque generated, would be affected by the powerful external magnetic field of the superconducting solenoid. A preliminary study has been made of the effect of the superconducting solenoid fuselage model core concept on the spanwise iron magnet roll torque generation schemes. Computed data for one representative configuration indicate that reductions in available roll torque occur over a range of applied magnetic field levels. These results indicate that a 30-percent increase in roll electromagnet capacity over that previously determined will be required for a representative 8-foot wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system design.

  12. Thermal analysis of the cold mass of the 2T solenoid for the PANDA detector at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Dudarev, A.; Pais Da Silva, H.; Vodopyanov, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2015-12-01

    The superconducting solenoid of the PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt (Germany) is designed to provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a length of about 4 m in a bore of 1.9 m. To allow a warm target feed pipe oriented transversely to the solenoid axis and penetrating through the cryostat and solenoid cold mass, the magnet is split into 3 inter-connected coils fitted in a common support cylinder. During normal operation, cooling of the cold mass to the working temperature of 4.5 K will be achieved through the circulation by natural convection of two-phase helium in cooling pipes attached to the Al-alloy support cylinder. Pure aluminium strips acting as heat drains and glued to the inner surface of the three coils and thermally bonded to the cooling pipes allow minimizing the temperature gradient across the 6-layers coils. In this paper the thermal design of the cold mass during normal operation and current ramps up and down is validated using an analytical approximation and numerical simulation.

  13. Effect of ground insulation contact on stability of epoxy-impregnated superconducting solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, H.; Sekiya, H.; Mitsui, H.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    To clarify the effect of ground insulation contact on the stability of epoxy-impregnated superconducting solenoids, test coils with ground insulation between a winding and a metal former were fabricated. Aluminium and stainless steel were used as the former materials. The training effects of coils and the circumferential strains of former inner surfaces were measured. The training effects of aluminium former coils were larger than those of the stainless steel former coils. The strains of stainless steel formers became greater as the exciting current increased, but the strains of the aluminium formers did not change. These results show that the insulation of aluminium former coils became a floating state, the insulation of stainless steel former coils maintained a pressed state, and the floating state caused the large training effects.

  14. Conceptual design report for a superconducting coil suitable for use in the large solenoid detector at the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Krebs, H.J.; Kephart, R.D.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-09-15

    The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was done at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 1.7 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictability of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Our conceptual design of the magnet and calorimeter has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology and is therefore feasible. The principal difficulties anticipated are those associated with the very large physical dimensions and stored energy of the magnet. 5 figs.

  15. Self-compensating solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, Fritz H. (Inventor); Matsumoto, Yutaka (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A solenoid valve is described in which both an inlet and an outlet of the valve are sealed when the valve is closed. This double seal compensates for leakage at either the inlet or the outlet by making the other seal more effective in response to the leakage and allows the reversal of the flow direction by simply switching the inlet and outlet connections. The solenoid valve has a valve chamber within the valve body. Inlet and outlet tubes extend through a plate into the chamber. A movable core in the chamber extends into the solenoid coil. The distal end of the core has a silicone rubber plug. Other than when the solenoid is energized, the compressed spring biases the core downward so that the surface of the plug is in sealing engagement with the ends of the tubes. A leak at either end increases the pressure in the chamber, resulting in increased sealing force of the plug.

  16. Superconducting solenoids for the MICE channel

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Barr, G.; Baynham, D.E.; Rockford, J.H.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinin, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rey, J.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report describes the channel of superconductingsolenoids for the proposed international Muon Ionization CoolingExperiment (MICE). MICE consists of two cells of a SFOFO cooling channelthat is similar to that studied in the level 2 study of a neutrinofactory[1]. MICE also consists of two detector solenoids at either end ofthe cooling channel section. The superconducting solenoids for MICEperform three functions. The coupling solenoids, which are largesolenoids around 201.25 MHz RF cavities, couple the muon beam between thefocusing sections as it passes along the cooling channel. The focusingsolenoids are around the liquid hydrogen absorber that reduces themomentum of the muons in all directions. These solenoids generate agradient field along the axis as they reduce the beta of the muon beambefore it enters the absorber. Each detector solenoid system consists offive coils that match the muon beam coming to or from an absorber to a4.0 T uniform solenoidal field section that that contains the particledetectors at the ends of the experiment. There are detector solenoids atthe beginning and at the end of the experiment. This report describes theparameters of the eighteen superconducting coils that make up the MICEmagnetic channel.

  17. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Grote, D P; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Seidl, P; Roy, P K; Coleman, J E; Haber, I

    2007-06-29

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  18. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Grote, D. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Molvik, A. W.; Vay, J.-L.; Seidl, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Coleman, J. E.; Haber, I.

    2007-06-20

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  19. Combined effects of hydrazine exposure and endurance testing on solenoid-actuated valve performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented from a test program which was conducted to assess the capability of various solenoid-actuated valve design concepts to provide performance characteristics commensurate with long-duration (ten-year) missions to explore the outer planets. The valves were installed in a hydrazine flow test setup and periodically cycled during a nine-month test period under test conditions comparable to anticipated mission operating conditions. In situ valve performance was periodically determined, and leakage was continuously monitored.

  20. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  1. D0 Solenoid Commissioning September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-10-12

    D-Zero installed a new 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet into the central tracking region of the D-Zero detector. This report documents the cryogenic performance of the superconducting solenoid during its first cryogenic operation at Fermilab. By necessity, the liquid helium refrigerator was also operated. This was the second time the refrigerator plant has been operated. The refrigerator's performance is also documented herein.

  2. The superconducting solenoid magnets for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2002-12-22

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a channel of superconducting solenoid magnets. The magnets in MICE are around the RF cavities, absorbers (liquid or solid) and the primary particle detectors [1], [2]. The MICE superconducting solenoid system consists of eighteen coils that are grouped in three types of magnet assemblies. The cooling channel consists of two complete cell of an SFOFO cooling channel. Each cell consists of a focusing coil pair around an absorber and a coupling coil around a RF cavity that re-accelerates the muons to their original momentum. At the ends of the experiment are uniform field solenoids for the particle detectors and a set of matching coils used to match the muon beam to the cooling cells. Three absorbers are used instead of two in order to shield the detectors from dark currents generated by the RF cavities at high operating acceleration gradients.

  3. On the effects of solenoidal and compressive turbulence in pre-stellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of an ensemble of SPH simulations that follow the evolution of pre-stellar cores for 0.2 Myr. All the cores have the same mass, and start with the same radius, density profile, thermal and turbulent energy. Our purpose is to explore the consequences of varying the fraction of turbulent energy, δsol, that is solenoidal, as opposed to compressive; specifically, we consider δsol = 1, 2/3, 1/3, 1/9 and 0. For each value of δsol, we follow 10 different realizations of the turbulent velocity field, in order also to have a measure of the stochastic variance blurring any systematic trends. With low δsol(<1/3), filament fragmentation dominates and delivers relatively high-mass stars. Conversely, with high values of δsol(>1/3) disc fragmentation dominates and delivers relatively low-mass stars. There are no discernible systematic trends in the multiplicity statistics obtained with different δsol.

  4. Effects of Slip Planes on Stresses in MICE Coupling Solenoid Coil Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, XingLong; Cheng, Y.; Green, Michael A

    2010-06-28

    The MICE superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is made from copper matrix Nb-Ti conductors with inner radius of 750 mm, length of 285 mm and thickness of 110.4 mm at room temperature. The coil is to be wound on a mandrel made of aluminum. The peak magnetic field on the conductor is about 7.3 T when fully charged at 210 A. High magnetic field and large size make the stress inside the coupling coil assembly relatively high during cool down and full energizing. The shear stress between coil winding and aluminum casing may cause premature quench. To avoid quench potential induced by stress, slip planes were designed for the coil assembly. In this paper, FE models with and without slip planes for it have been developed to simulate the stresses during the process including winding, cooling down and charging. The stress distribution in the coil assembly with and without slip planes was investigated. The results show that slip planes with low friction coefficients can improve the stress condition in the coil, especially reduce the shear stress largely so that improve the stability.

  5. Tolerance Studies of the Mu2e Solenoid System

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Ambrosio, G.; Buehler, M.; Coleman, R.; Evbota, D.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lamm, M.; Miller, J.; Moretti, G.; Ostojic, R.; Page, T.; Popp, J.; Tartaglia, M.

    2014-01-01

    The muon-to-electron conversion experiment at Fermilab is designed to explore charged lepton flavor violation. It is composed of three large superconducting solenoids, namely, the production solenoid, the transport solenoid, and the detector solenoid. Each subsystem has a set of field requirements. Tolerance sensitivity studies of the magnet system were performed with the objective of demonstrating that the present magnet design meets all the field requirements. Systematic and random errors were considered on the position and alignment of the coils. The study helps to identify the critical sources of errors and which are translated to coil manufacturing and mechanical support tolerances.

  6. Beam-Based Solenoid Compensation for the PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    1999-08-26

    Commissioning the compensation system of the solenoid in the BaBar detector presents a challenging problem due to the complexity of the system, which uses twelve normal quadrupoles and twelve skew quadrupoles in each ring. The setting of these skew quadrupoles needs to be readjusted according to the machine optical parameters since the machines always have some unknown errors. In this paper, we will describe a beam based method to match the coupling and optics in the interaction region to compensate for the optical effects due to the solenoid. The method has been successfully used to find the wrong polarities and the wrong scaling factor of the skew quadrupoles in the early stage of the commissioning. It is being refined to set the skew quadrupoles in the machines in order to reduce the beam size at the interaction point and improve the luminosity of PEP-II.

  7. Research on Key Factors and Their Interaction Effects of Electromagnetic Force of High-Speed Solenoid Valve

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liyun; Xu, De; Ma, Xiuzhen; Song, Enzhe

    2014-01-01

    Analysis consisting of numerical simulations along with lab experiments of interaction effects between key parameters on the electromagnetic force based on response surface methodology (RSM) has been also proposed to optimize the design of high-speed solenoid valve (HSV) and improve its performance. Numerical simulation model of HSV has been developed in Ansoft Maxwell environment and its accuracy has been validated through lab experiments. Effect of change of core structure, coil structure, armature structure, working air gap, and drive current on the electromagnetic force of HSV has been analyzed through simulation model and influence rules of various parameters on the electromagnetic force have been established. The response surface model of the electromagnetic force has been utilized to analyze the interaction effect between major parameters. It has been concluded that six interaction factors including working air gap with armature radius, drive current with armature thickness, coil turns with side pole radius, armature thickness with its radius, armature thickness with side pole radius, and armature radius with side pole radius have significant influence on the electromagnetic force. Optimal match values between coil turns and side pole radius; armature thickness and side pole radius; and armature radius and side pole radius have also been determined. PMID:25243217

  8. Bent Superconducting Solenoids for the Muon Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenney, S.; Miller, J. R.; Prestemon, S.; Wang, S.T.

    1999-03-18

    This report describes some solenoid design work done for the cooling experiment for the muon collider collaboration. This report describes an analysis section of superconducting solenoids that have a center line induction of 3.0 T. The section is bent in the shape of an S. Each bend in the S bends the muon beam one radian (57.3 degrees). The warm bore diameter of the solenoid bent solenoid is 300 to 320 mm. The radius of the bend at the solenoid center line is 1000 mm. This report shows the results of three dimensional field calculations and presents a solenoid design that will include four TPC detectors that are 240 mm in diameter and 550 mm long as well as a 1300 mm long section of 1300 MHz RF cavities. The TPC sections need a solenoid wann bore diameter of about 300 320 mm while RF cavities require a warm bore diameter of 440 mm. The superconducting solenoid design must take into account the varying warm bore diameter requirements for the magnet string yet meet the stringent solenoidal field uniformity requirements within the active volume of the four TPCs.

  9. Solenoid Magnet System for the Fermilab Mu2e Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, M. J.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Brandt, J.; Coleman, R.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lopes, M.; Miller, J.; Nicol, T.; Ostojic, R.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Popp, J.; Pronskikh, V.; Tang, Z.; Tartaglia, M.; Wake, M.; Wands, R.; Yamada, R.

    2011-12-14

    The Fermilab Mu2e experiment seeks to measure the rare process of direct muon to electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. Key to the design of the experiment is a system of three superconducting solenoids; a muon production solenoid (PS) which is a 1.8 m aperture axially graded solenoid with a peak field of 5 T used to focus secondary pions and muons from a production target located in the solenoid aperture; an 'S shaped' transport solenoid (TS) which selects and transports the subsequent muons towards a stopping target; a detector solenoid (DS) which is an axially graded solenoid at the upstream end to focus transported muons to a stopping target, and a spectrometer solenoid at the downstream end to accurately measure the momentum of the outgoing conversion elections. The magnetic field requirements, the significant magnetic coupling between the solenoids, the curved muon transport geometry and the large beam induced energy deposition into the superconducting coils pose significant challenges to the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal design of this system. In this paper a conceptual design for the magnetic system which meets the Mu2e experiment requirements is presented.

  10. Failure Scenarios and Mitigations and for the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, EunJoo; Candia, A.; Craddock, W.W.; Racine, M.; Weisend, J.G., II; /SLAC

    2005-12-13

    The cryogenic department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is responsible for the operation, troubleshooting, and upgrade of the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid detector for the BABAR B-factory experiment. Events that disable the detector are rare but significantly impact the availability of the detector for physics research. As a result, a number of systems and procedures have been developed over time to minimize the downtime of the detector, for example improved control systems, improved and automatic backup systems, and spares for all major components. Together they can prevent or mitigate many of the failures experienced by the utilities, mechanical systems, controls and instrumentation. In this paper we describe various failure scenarios, their effect on the detector, and the modifications made to mitigate the effects of the failure. As a result of these modifications the reliability of the detector has increased significantly with only 3 shutdowns of the detector due to cryogenics systems over the last 2 years.

  11. Mu2e production solenoid cryostat conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.M.; Peterson, T.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Mu2e is a muon-to-electron conversion experiment being designed by an international collaboration of more than 65 scientists and engineers from more than 20 research institutions for installation at Fermilab. The experiment is comprised of three large superconducting solenoid magnet systems, production solenoid (PS), transport solenoid (TS) and detector solenoid (DS). A 25 kW, 8 GeV proton beam strikes a target located in the PS creating muons from the decay of secondary particles. These muons are then focused in the PS and the resultant muon beam is transported through the TS towards the DS. The production solenoid presents a unique set of design challenges as the result of high radiation doses, stringent magnetic field requirements, and large structural forces. This paper describes the conceptual design of the PS cryostat and will include discussions of the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation, cooling system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system.

  12. Solenoid magnetic fields calculated from superposed semi-infinite solenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Flax, L.

    1966-01-01

    Calculation of a thick solenoid coils magnetic field components is made by a superposition of the fields produced by four solenoids of infinite length and zero inner radius. The field produced by this semi-infinite solenoid is dependent on only two variables, the radial and axial field point coordinates.

  13. Solenoid Magnet System for the Fermilab Mu2e Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lamm, M. J.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Brandt, J.; Coleman, R.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lopes, M.; Miller, J.; Nicol, T.; et al

    2011-12-14

    The Fermilab Mu2e experiment seeks to measure the rare process of direct muon to electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. Key to the design of the experiment is a system of three superconducting solenoids; a muon production solenoid (PS) which is a 1.8 m aperture axially graded solenoid with a peak field of 5 T used to focus secondary pions and muons from a production target located in the solenoid aperture; an 'S shaped' transport solenoid (TS) which selects and transports the subsequent muons towards a stopping target; a detector solenoid (DS) which is an axially graded solenoidmore » at the upstream end to focus transported muons to a stopping target, and a spectrometer solenoid at the downstream end to accurately measure the momentum of the outgoing conversion elections. The magnetic field requirements, the significant magnetic coupling between the solenoids, the curved muon transport geometry and the large beam induced energy deposition into the superconducting coils pose significant challenges to the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal design of this system. In this paper a conceptual design for the magnetic system which meets the Mu2e experiment requirements is presented.« less

  14. Investigation of effect of solenoid magnet on emittances of ion beam from laser ablation plasma.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shunsuke; Romanelli, Mark; Cinquegrani, David; Sekine, Megumi; Kumaki, Masafumi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    A magnetic field can increase an ion current of a laser ablation plasma and is expected to control the change of the plasma ion current. However, the magnetic field can also make some fluctuations of the plasma and the effect on the beam emittance and the emission surface is not clear. To investigate the effect of a magnetic field, we extracted the ion beams under three conditions where without magnetic field, with magnetic field, and without magnetic field with higher laser energy to measure the beam distribution in phase space. Then we compared the relations between the plasma ion current density into the extraction gap and the Twiss parameters with each condition. We observed the effect of the magnetic field on the emission surface. PMID:24593624

  15. Investigation of effect of solenoid magnet on emittances of ion beam from laser ablation plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Shunsuke; Romanelli, Mark; Cinquegrani, David; Sekine, Megumi; Kumaki, Masafumi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    A magnetic field can increase an ion current of a laser ablation plasma and is expected to control the change of the plasma ion current. However, the magnetic field can also make some fluctuations of the plasma and the effect on the beam emittance and the emission surface is not clear. To investigate the effect of a magnetic field, we extracted the ion beams under three conditions where without magnetic field, with magnetic field, and without magnetic field with higher laser energy to measure the beam distribution in phase space. Then we compared the relations between the plasma ion current density into the extraction gap and the Twiss parameters with each condition. We observed the effect of the magnetic field on the emission surface.

  16. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  17. Magnetic latching solenoid

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.; Albano, Richard K.; Morrison, Jr., John L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized.

  18. Magnetic latching solenoid

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.; Albano, R.K.; Morrison, J.L. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized. 2 figs.

  19. Charging effects in passivated silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, D. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K. B.; Renshaw Foxford, E.; Komisarcik, K.; Rader, A. J.; Viola, V. E.

    1995-02-01

    Ion-implanted passivated silicon detectors undergo a gradual, then rapid increase in leakage current when exposed to ionizing radiation in the presence of gas between 5-200 Torr. Conditions for generating this effect are discussed and a mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior. Methods for preventing this effect and for recovering detectors damaged in this way are presented.

  20. Effect of strong solenoidal focusing on beam emittance of low-energy intense proton beam in the SARAF LEBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, A.; Weissman, L.

    2016-07-01

    Influence of strong solenoidal beam focusing on beam emittance was studied at the SARAF LEBT beam line using 5 mA 20 keV proton quasi-DC beams. The measurements show that within the experimental uncertainties, emittance does not change over the whole focusing range. Detailed beam dynamics simulations were performed to achieve better understanding of the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are fully consistent with the assumption of nearly full space charge neutralization for the quasi-DC proton beam.

  1. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  2. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  3. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  4. The D0 solenoid NMR magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sten Uldall Hansen Terry Kiper, Tom Regan, John Lofgren et al.

    2002-11-20

    A field monitoring system for the 2 Tesla Solenoid of the D0 detector is described. It is comprised of a very small NMR probe cabled to a DSP based signal processing board. The design magnetic field range is from 1.0 to 2.2 Tesla, corresponding to an RF frequency range of 42.57 to 93.67 MHz. The desired an accuracy is one part in 10{sup 5}. To minimize material in the interaction region of the D0 detector, the overall thickness of the NMR probe is 4 mm, including its mounting plate, and its width is 10 mm. To minimize cable mass, 4mm diameter IMR-100A cables are used for transmitting the RF signals from a nearby patch panel 25 meters to each of four probes mounted within the bore of the solenoid. RG213U cables 45 meters long are used to send the RF from the movable counting house to the patch panel. With this setup, the detector signal voltage at the moving counting room is in the range of 250-400 mV.

  5. The Wisconsin Pegasus solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernambuco-Wise, P.; Lesch, B. L.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.; Intrator, T. P.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    1998-05-01

    A 1.6 m long x0.1m diameter coil has just been constructed by the NHMFL for the University of Wisconsin Pegasus Tokamak. It will form the central solenoid for the high plasma energy density fusion machine. The magnet consists of two layers of Glidcop conductor, reinforced with S2 glass, carbon fiber and steel. Normal operating parameters will be 14 T in a 58 mm bore with a number of pulses to 20 T+. Current densities will approach 1 kA/mm2 and the stored energy will be >2 MJ. The philosophy behind the design will be presented and details of the construction and testing will be shown.

  6. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  7. Radiation damage effects on solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Totally depleted silicon diodes are discussed which are used as nuclear particle detectors in investigations of galactic and solar cosmic radiation and trapped radiation. A study of radiation and chemical effects on the diodes was conducted. Work on electron and proton irradiation of surface barrier detectors with thicknesses up to 1 mm was completed, and work on lithium-drifted silicon devices with thicknesses of several millimeters was begun.

  8. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Thermal Contraction Analysis for the D0 Solenoid Chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-09-30

    This engineering note documents the thermal contraction analysis that was done for the D-Zero solenoid chimney. The analysis was done as support of the 'Design Report of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab DO Detector upgrade.' The cryogenic LHE and LN2 lines were analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight. The tubing was stress analyzed per ASME code for Pressure Piping, standard ANSI AS:ME B31.3, for eight combinations ofthermal loading. A commercial pipe stress analysis and design system by Algor{reg_sign} was used for the analysis. Stresses calculated were well below allowables. Based on the analysis, the cryogenic lines will be installed at an offset from the vacuum jacket centerline so that during steady state cold operation, the cryogenic lines will be in a proper location.

  9. Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnell, L.; Langford, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    During the calibration and testing of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) focal plane, it was observed that the extrinsic photoconductor detectors were affected by gamma radiation at dose levels of the order of one rad. Since the flight environment will subject the focal plane to dose levels of this order from protons in single pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly, an extensive program of radiation tests was carried out to measure the radiation effects and to devise a method to counteract these effects. The effects observed after irradiation are increased responsivity, noise, and rate of spiking of the detectors after gamma-ray doses of less than 0.1 rad. The detectors can be returned almost to pre-irradiation performance by increasing the detector bias to breakdown and allowing a large current to flow for several minutes. No adverse effects on the detectors have been observed from this bias boost, and this technique will be used for IRAS with frequent calibration to ensure the accuracy of observations made with the instrument.

  10. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Vacuum Pumping Calculations for the D0 Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-08-02

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the vacuum pumping speed for the D-Zero solenoid. The raw calculations are attached. A summary of the results are listed. The vacuum pumping speed of the solenoid is determined by the conductance of the pumping path. At higher pressure ranges during initial pumpdown, the conductances will be rather high. Calculations were not done for the transient pumpdown period, only the steady state type pumping situation. The pressure is assumed to be on the order of 10E-7 torr. This is the free molecular flow regime based on Knudsen number. This pressure regime is also where the pumping speed would be least. The conductances were calculated based on pumping helium gas at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. The total conductance of the pumping path from the solenoid to the inlet of the turbomolecular pump is 11.8 L/s. The effective pumping speed of a 1000 L/s turbo pump attached to this pumping path is 11.7 L/s. The minimum required pumping speed for design purposes was set at 4.3 L/s. This value was arrived at by assuming a warm leak size (10E-8 atm-cc/sec) was not detected during fabrication of the solenoid. It is then assumed that the leak leaks cold liquid helium into the vacuum space. With this leak rate, a 4.3 L/s pumping speed would be able to maintain a 2 x 10E-7 torr pressure in the solenoid vacuum jacket. The solenoid would be able to be operated with this small leak with continuous pumping.

  11. Scattering detection of a solenoidal Poynting vector field.

    PubMed

    Fardad, Shima; Salandrino, Alessandro; Samadi, Akbar; Heinrich, Matthias; Chen, Zhigang; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2016-08-01

    The Poynting vector S plays a central role in electrodynamics as it is directly related to the power and the momentum carried by an electromagnetic wave. In the presence of multiple electromagnetic waves with different polarizations and propagation directions, the Poynting vector may exhibit solenoidal components which are not associated to any power flow. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the presence of such solenoidal components has physical consequences, and it is not a mere artifact of the gauge invariance of S. In particular, we identify a simple field configuration displaying solenoidal components of S and theoretically show that a judiciously designed scatterer can act as a "Poynting vector detector" which when immersed in such field distribution would experience a transverse optical force orthogonal to the incidence plane. We experimentally validate our theoretical predictions by observing a pronounced asymmetry in the scattering pattern of a spherical nanoparticle. PMID:27472632

  12. Cylindrical magnets and ideal solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    Both wire-wound solenoids and cylindrical magnets can be approximated as ideal azimuthally symmetric solenoids. We present an exact solution for the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid in an easy to use form. The field is expressed in terms of a single function that can be rapidly computed by means of a compact efficient algorithm, which can be coded as an add-in function to a spreadsheet, making field calculations accessible to introductory students. These expressions are not only accurate but are also as fast as most approximate expressions. We demonstrate their utility by simulating the dropping of a cylindrical magnet through a nonmagnetic conducting tube and comparing the calculation with data obtained from experiments suitable for an undergraduate laboratory.

  13. D0 Cryogenic System Superconducting Solenoid Platform I/O

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1997-10-09

    The Dzero detector is scheduled for a major upgrade between 1996 and 1999. This note describes the specifications and configuration of the physical Input/Output devices and instrumentation of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid. The Solenoid and the VLPC cryostats both reside on the detector platform and are cooled by the Dzero Helium Refrigerator. The cryogenic process control s for these two components will be an extension of the TI565 programmable logic controller system used for other Dzero cryogenic controls. Two Input/Output Bases will be installed on the Dzero detector platform near the cryo corner. These I/O bases will handle all the sensor input and process control output devices from the Solenoid and VLPC cryostats. Having the I/O bases installed on the detector platform makes the connecting cabl ing to the platform much easier . All the instruments are wired directly to the I/O base. The bases have only one communications network cabl e that must be routed off the platform to the South side of the Dzero building.

  14. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  15. The Design and Construction of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bert; Wahrer, Bob; Taylor, Clyde; Xu, L.; Chen, J. Y.; Wang, M.; Juang, Tiki; Zisman, Michael S.; Virostek, Steve P.; Green, Michael A.

    2008-08-02

    The purpose of the MICE spectrometer solenoid is to provide a uniform field for a scintillating fiber tracker. The uniform field is produced by a long center coil and two short end coils. Together, they produce 4T field with a uniformity of better than 1% over a detector region of 1000 mm long and 300 mm in diameter. Throughout most of the detector region, the field uniformity is better than 0.3%. In addition to the uniform field coils, we have two match coils. These two coils can be independently adjusted to match uniform field region to the focusing coil field. The coil package length is 2544 mm. We present the spectrometer solenoid cold mass design, the powering and quench protection circuits, and the cryogenic cooling system based on using three cryocoolers with re-condensers.

  16. Linear Coupling for B-Factory Tilted Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.

    2005-02-16

    In this thesis they have presented the transfer matrix for B Factory tilted solenoid with the expansion of magnetic field up to the fifth order. Starting with the general theory of linear coupling, we got the Hamiltonian for solenoid with the bending magnet and quadrupole inside. The solenoid axis is tilted by 20 mrad horizontally w.r.t. the collision axis and at the entrance and the exit of the solenoid the beam will sense transverse and longitudinal non-linear fields. To account both this effects the expansion of the magnetic field was done. The code of coordinate transformation, which relates the frame of the reference orbit to the frame of the collision axis and to the solenoid frame, has been introduced. They tried to show that not symplectic fourth-order Runge Kutta integration method, which had been used for integration of the Hamiltonian equations, might be used as a model for ''not tracking'' problems. The deviation from a symplectic transfer matrix is smaller than 10{sup -5}. Using the transfer matrix, the change in beam shape and blow up of emittance, due to the solenoid coupling, was discussed. In order to compensate this effect they used 4 tilted quadrupoles on each side of the IP. The method based on the Hamiltonian in Eq.19 integrates along a reference orbit which is defined only by the horizontal and vertical bending fields and not by the tilted solenoid. In order to get the Hamiltonian, which is associated with a non-planar curvature of the reference orbit, it is necessary to account the effect of torsion. In that case the transformation between the three different coordinate systems will become more complicated.

  17. Refrigerator and Solenoid Run Summary August/September 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1999-09-20

    The helium refrigerator was cooled down and operated for the third time since its installation. D-Zero's 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid was cooled down and operated for its second time since its installation into the D-Zero detector. This engineering note summarizes the cryogenic aspects of the test run and performance measurements made. The main purpose of this run was to do field mapping of the solenoid with different combinations of field polarity on the Solenoid and CF iron magnets. This was accomplished. A second purpose was to test the lower field joint repair that was done in January 1999. This field joint had a measurable voltage drop across the soldered bus splice. The repair was an undoing of the joint, extensive cleaning of the bus, and then welding the splice. The repair was successful, no voltage drop was measured and the magnet behaved nicely. A parasitic purpose was to get some operating time on the refrigerator, measure the refrigeration performance, and measure the heat leak in the VLPC lines mounted on the detector platform. Refrigerator performance was spot checked, and was found to be 60 watts (10%) less than generic operating curves. At this level of performance, the operating margin for the full solenoid and VLPC system will be 75 watts (15%) which is somewhat uncomfortable from an operational stand point. The VLPC lines were operated and heat leak numbers of around 40 watts was measured for each pipe section including the supply u-tubes to the detector, the bayonet can, valve box on the platform and the piping back to the refrigerator valve box. Another purpose of the test run was to test the compatibility of other detector components with the new central magnetic field environment. I do not know the results of these tests.

  18. Casimir interaction between a microscopic dipole oscillator and a macroscopic solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Dechoum, K.; França, H. M.; Santos, E.

    1998-02-01

    We discuss the interaction between a microscopic electric dipole oscillator and a long solenoid which are separated by a small distance. The solenoid belongs to a simple RLC circuit and the zero point and thermal current fluctuations within the solenoid coils are taken into account. We describe how they affect the equilibrium state and the excited states of the oscillator, thus providing a description of the Casimir interaction of the system. We calculate the modification in the lifetime of the oscillator excited states as a function of the parameters of the circuit, the dipole orientation, and the distance between the dipole and the solenoid. The Casimir force between the solenoid and the electric dipole is calculated, and it is shown that this Casimir interaction always exists, that is, it occurs even when the macroscopic current in the solenoid is zero. We suggest experiments which can exhibit these effects related to the electromagnetic interactions between atoms or molecules and simple circuits.

  19. An ultra-thin-walled solenoid for the CELSIUS/WASA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Blom, M.; Calén, H.; Fridén, C.-J.; Larsson, A.; Norman, G.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Makida, Y.; Kimura, N.; Tanaka, K.; Iida, M.; Ohhata, H.; Hirabayashi, H.; Takasu, N.; Nawrot, A.

    2003-05-01

    An ultra-thin-walled superconducting warm bore solenoid has been developed for the WASA detector set-up at the CELSIUS accelerator of the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL), Sweden. It gives a central magnetic field up to 1.3 T, and can be operated in persistent mode. The total thickness of the superconducting coil is 9 mm with an inner diameter of 554 mm and an energy-to-cold-mass ratio of 6 kJ/ kg. The total wall thickness is a record low 0.18 in units of the radiation length ( X0) including the material of the cryostat. The solenoid has been successfully operated in combination with the WASA detector set-up since 1998. The solenoid has a coil split in two parts with a central gap of 40 mm for a tube guiding small frozen hydrogen target pellets into the accelerator beam. The solenoid is fixed by glass-fibre supports. It has a vacuum vessel with 1 mm thick corrugated walls of aluminium and it has high-purity aluminium strips in axial direction to improve heat conduction. The solenoid is enclosed by an iron yoke which shields the detector readout electronics from the magnetic field. A diagnostics, control and safety system has been developed for the solenoid itself and for the associated cryogenics.

  20. Heavy ion physics at LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Bedjidian, M.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.

    1995-07-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is one of the two detectors proposed to achieve the primary goal of the LHC: the discovery of the Higgs boson(s). For this purpose, the detector is optimized for the precise measurement of muons, photons, electrons and jets. It is a clear motivation to investigate its ability to measure the hard processes probing the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in ion collisions. It is the case of the heavy quark bound states, long predicted to be suppressed in a QGP. In CMS they can be detected, via their muonic decay according to the principle adopted for the p-p physics.

  1. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    An ion source which generates ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal magnetic field to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  2. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, John Paul; Burns, Erskine John Thomas; Draper, Charles Hadley

    1997-01-01

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  3. D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1994-02-23

    This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z

  4. Simulation of Electron Cloud Multipacting in Solenoidal Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A

    2004-01-27

    A simulation algorithm is based on a numerical solution of the Vlasov equation for the distribution function of an electron cloud density in a cylindrical vacuum chamber with solenoidal magnetic field. The algorithm takes into consideration space charge effects. This approach improves the simulation of multipacting effects as it is free of statistical fluctuations. Simulation studies were carried for the SLAC B-factory vacuum chamber for different bunch patterns and solenoidal field strength. Space charge and the magnetic field limit the maximum density of the electron cloud. Magnetic resonant damping of multipacting was found in special cases of positron beam parameters and magnetic field amplitude.

  5. A solenoid failure detection system for cold gas attitude control jet valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The development of a solenoid valve failure detection system is described. The technique requires the addition of a radioactive gas to the propellant of a cold gas jet attitude control system. Solenoid failure is detected with an avalanche radiation detector located in the jet nozzle which senses the radiation emitted by the leaking radioactive gas. Measurements of carbon monoxide leakage rates through a Mariner type solenoid valve are presented as a function of gas activity and detector configuration. A cylindrical avalanche detector with a factor of 40 improvement in leak sensitivity is proposed for flight systems because it allows the quantity of radioactive gas that must be added to the propellant to be reduced to a practical level.

  6. Studies on the Magnetic Center of the Mu2e Solenoid System

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Ambrosio, G.; Buehler, M.; Coleman, R.; Evbota, D.; Khalatian, V.; Lamm, M.; Miller, J.; Moretti, G.; Page, T.; Tartaglia, M.

    2014-01-01

    The definition of the magnetic center in the Mu2e solenoid system is not trivial given the S-shaped nature of the transport solenoid. Moreover, due to the fringe field of the larger bore adjacent magnets-production solenoid and the detector solenoid-the magnetic center does not coincide with the geometric center of the system. The reference magnetic center can be obtained by tracking a low-momentum charged particle through the whole system. This paper will discuss this method and will evaluate the deviations from the nominal magnetic center given the tolerances in the manufacturing and the alignment of the coils. Methods for the correction of the magnetic center will also be presented.

  7. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: D0 Solenoid Current Leads

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note documents information gathered and design decisions made regarding the vapor cooled current leads for the D-Zero Solenoid. The decision was made during design group meetings that the D-Zero Solenoid, rated at 4825 amps, should use vapor cooled current leads rated at 6000 amps. CDF uses 6000 amp leads from American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) and has two spares in their storage lockers. Because of the spares situation and AMI's reputation, AMI would be the natural choice of vendor. The manufacturer's listed helium consumption is 19.2 liters/hr. From experience with these types of leads, more stable operation is acheived at an increased gas flow. See attached E-Mail message from RLS. We have decided to list the design flow rate at 28.8 liquid liters/hr in the design report. This corresponds to COFs operating point. A question was raised regarding how long the current leads could last at full current should the vapor cooling flow was stopped. This issue was discussed with Scott Smith from AMI. We do not feel that there is a problem for this failure scenario.

  8. Plans for building the largest thin solenoid ever

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, J.; Bowers, J.; Deis, G.

    1993-09-08

    The superconducting solenoid magnet for the GEM detector poses unusual fabrication and handling challenges because of its extraordinary size. It will be more than 30% larger in diameter than the largest existing particle detector coils. Each of the two coil elements that compose the air-core solenoid, will be about 19 meters in diameter and 15 meters long. Major components weighing as much as 1500 Mg must be transported and manipulated at the Interaction Region 5 (IR5) fabrication site of the SSC Laboratory as the magnets are fabricated. Because of their large size, the magnets will be fabricated, assembled and tested at special purpose facilities at the IR5 site. The site-use plan must accommodate the fabrication of other detector components and the assembly of large flux shaping iron structures in a timely manner to allow subsequent testing and detector assembly. Each cold mass will be composed of twelve 45-Mg coil windings that are joined prior to assembly into the 19-m diam annular cryostat.

  9. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  10. Effect of space exposure of pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Pyroelectric detectors are one of many different types of infrared radiation detectors. The pyroelectric detectors are of interest for long term space use because they do not require cooling during operation. Also, they can detect at very long wavelengths and they have a relatively flat spectral response. A disadvantage is that the radiation must be chopped in order to be detected by a pyroelectric detector. The objective was to determine the effects of launch and space exposure on the performance of commercially available pyroelectric detectors. The approach was to measure certain detector parameters before and after flight and try to determine the amount and cause of the degradation. The experiment was passive: no data was taken during flight. It is concluded that lithium-tantalate and strontium-barium-niobate are suitable materials for pyroelectric detectors for long term space applications.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CDZNTE SINGLE CRYSTAL DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Teague, L.

    2010-05-12

    The production of high-quality ternary single-crystal materials for radiation detectors has progressed over the past 15 years. One of the more common materials being studied is CdZnTe (CZT), which can be grown using several methods to produce detector-grade materials. The work presented herein examines the effects of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity on detector performance [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] using the single pixel with guard detector configuration. The effects of electrical probe placement, reproducibility, and aging are also presented.

  12. R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

  13. Note: High temperature pulsed solenoid valve.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Sulkes, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a high temperature pulsed solenoid valve with reliable long term operation to at least 400 degrees C. As in earlier published designs, a needle extension sealing a heated orifice is lifted via solenoid actuation; the solenoid is thermally isolated from the heated orifice region. In this new implementation, superior sealing and reliability were attained by choosing a solenoid that produces considerably larger lifting forces on the magnetically actuated plunger. It is this property that facilitates easily attainable sealing and reliability, albeit with some tradeoff in attainable gas pulse durations. The cost of the solenoid valve employed is quite low and the necessary machining quite simple. Our ultimate level of sealing was attained by making a simple modification to the polished seal at the needle tip. The same sealing tip modification could easily be applied to one of the earlier high T valve designs, which could improve the attainability and tightness of sealing for these implementations. PMID:20113132

  14. Whistler Wave Excitation and Effects of Self-Focusing on Ion Beam Propagation through a Background Plasma along a Solenoidal Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail, Dorf A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2010-02-02

    This paper extends studies of ion beam transport through a background plasma along a solenoidal magnetic field [I. Kaganovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 103108 (2008)] to the important regime of moderate magnetic field strength satisfying ωce > 2βbωpe . Here, ωce and ω pe are the electron cyclotron frequency and electron plasma frequency, respectively, and βb = vb/ c is the directed ion beam velocity normalized to the speed of light. The electromagnetic field perturbations excited by the ion beam pulse in this regime are calculated analytically, and verified by comparison with the numerical simulations. The degrees of beam charge neutralization and current neutralization are estimated, and the transverse component of the Lorentz force associated with the excited electromagnetic field is calculated. It is found that the plasma response to the ion beam pulse is significantly different depending on whether the value of the solenoidal magnetic field is below or above the threshold value specified by ω cr ce = 2βbωpe, and corresponding to the resonant excitation of large-amplitude whistler waves. The use of intense whistler wave excitations for diagnostic purposes is also discussed.

  15. ITER central solenoid model coil impregnation optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, J. B.; Munshi, N. A.; Smith, K. B.

    The success of the vacuum-pressure impregnation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor central solenoid is critical to success of the magnet system. Analysis of fluid flow through a fabric bed is extremely complicated, and complete analytical solutions are not available, but semiempirical methods can be adapted to model these flows. Several of these models were evaluated to predict the impregnation characteristics of a liquid resin through a mat of reinforcing glass fabric, and an experiment was performed to validate these models. The effects of applied pressure differential, glass fibre volume fraction, resin viscosity and impregnation time were examined analytically. From the results of this optimization, it is apparent that use of elevated processing temperature resin systems offer significant advantages in large scale impregnation due to their lower viscosity and longer working life, and they may be essential for large scale impregnations.

  16. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors (A0135)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Clark, I. O.; Crouch, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of long-duration space exposure and launch environment on the performance of pyroelectric detectors which is important for the prediction of performance degradation, setting exposure limits, or determining shielding requirements was investigated. Air pollution monitoring and thermal mapping of the Earth, which includes the remote sensing of aerosols and limb scanning infrared radiometer projects, requires photodetection in the 6- to 20 micro m region of the spectrum. Pyroelectric detectors can detect radiation in the 1- to 100 micro m region while operating at room temperature. This makes tahe pyroelectric detector a prime candidate to fill the thermal infrared detector requirements.

  17. ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, W.; Pak, S.; Lee, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kim, M.; Oh, S.; Kaneda, H.; Matsuura, S.; Patrashin, M.; Shibai, H.

    Based on the present hardware specifications and configurations of the ASTRO-F/FIS (Far-Infrared Surveyor), we are developing a software that simulates the observations with this instrument. Various kinds of detector effects affect the quality of the signal obtained from the detector. In order to correct the signal exactly, we need to analyze the characteristics of the detector and simulate various detector effects. In this presentation, we will show the simulated data sets based on the experimental data measured in the laboratory. Using the simulator, we will discuss the effects of cosmic-ray hitting, transient, crosstalk and non-uniformity of detectors, and propose an appropriate methods for the data reduction.

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Cryogenic Line Routing: Refrigerator to VLPC Cryostats & Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1994-10-04

    This engineering note documents the proposed cryogenic line routing from the liquid helium (LHe) refrigeration plant to the detector solenoid and VLPC cryostats. Many figures are included to aid in understanding the route. As an appendix, I include some general comments relevant to the topic. Also listed are a number of routing options that were considered before the proposed route was finalized.

  19. Interference effects in Reticon photodiode array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, George H.; Sanders, Ryan W.; Brault, James W.

    1992-03-01

    A detector system incorporating the Reticon RL1024S photodiode array has been constructed as part of a double spectrograph to be used to study the earth's atmosphere from ground-based and aircraft-based platforms. To determine accurately the abundances of atmospheric trace gases, this new system must be able to measure spectral absorptions as small as 0.02 percent. The detector exhibits superior signal-to-noise characteristics at the light levels characteristic of scattered skylights, but interference in the passivating layer causes problems in achieving the required precision. The mechanism of the problems and the solution implemented are described in detail.

  20. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  1. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  2. Earth's stopping effect in directional dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We explore the stopping effect that results from interactions between dark matter and nuclei as the dark matter particles travel underground towards the detector. Although this effect is negligible for heavy dark matter particles, there is parameter phase space where the underground interactions of the dark matter particles with the nuclei can create observable differences in the spectrum. Dark matter particles that arrive on the detector from below can have less energy from the ones arriving from above. These differences can be potentially detectable by upcoming directional detectors. This can unveil a large amount of information regarding the type and strength of interactions between nuclei and light dark matter candidates.

  3. An Investigation into the Electromagnetic Interactions between a Superconducting Torus and Solenoid for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka; Ghoshal, Probir K.; Fair, Ruben J.; Hogan, John P.; Kashy, David H.

    2015-06-01

    The Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade in Hall B will need CLAS12 detector that requires two superconducting magnets. One is a magnet system consisting of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a Toroidal configuration (Torus) and the second is an actively shielded solenoidal magnet (Solenoid). Both the torus and solenoid are located in close proximity to one another and are surrounded by sensitive detectors. This paper investigates the electromagnetic interactions between the two systems during normal operation as well as during various fault scenarios as part of a Risk Assessment and Mitigation (RAM).

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on cryogenic infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Lakew, B.

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is one of three experiments to be carried aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite scheduled to be launched by NASA on a Delta rocket in 1989. The DIRBE is a cryogenic absolute photometer operating in a liquid helium dewar at 1.5 K. Photometric stability is a principal requirement for achieving the scientific objectives of this experiment. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, which used detectors similar to those in DIRBE, revealed substantial changes in detector responsivity following exposure to ionizing radiation encountered on passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Since the COBE will use the same 900 Km sun-synchronous orbit as IRAS, ionizing radiation-induced performance changes in the detectors were a major concern. Here, ionizing radiation tests carried out on all the DIRBE photodetectors are reported. Responsivity changes following exposure to gamma rays, protons, and alpha particle are discussed. The detector performance was monitored following a simulated entire mission life dose. In addition, the response of the detectors to individual particle interactions was measured. The InSb photovoltaic detectors and the Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors revealed no significant change in responsivity following radiation exposure. The Ge:Ga detectors show large effects which were greatly reduced by proper thermal annealing.

  5. Effects Of Ionizing Radiation On Cryogenic Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Lakew, B.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1988-04-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is one of three experiments to be carried aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite scheduled to be launched by NASA on a Delta rocket in 1989. The DIRBE is a cryogenic absolute photometer operating in a liquid helium dewar at 1.5K. Photometric stability is a principal requirement for achieving the scientific objectives of this experiment. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, which used detectors similar to those in DIRBE, revealed substantial changes in detector responsivity following exposure to ionizing radiation encountered on passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Since the COBE will use the same 900 Km sun-synchronous orbit as IRAS, ionizing radiation-induced performance changes in the detectors were a major concern. We report here on ionizing radiation tests carried out on all the DIRBE photodetectors. Responsivity changes following exposure to gamma rays, protons, and alpha particle are discussed. The detector performance was monitored following a simulated entire mission life dose. In addition, the response of the detectors to individual particle interactions was measured. The InSb photovoltaic detectors and the Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors revealed no significant change in responsivity following radiation exposure. The Ge:Ga detectors show large effects which were greatly reduced by proper thermal annealing.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on cryogenic infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Lakew, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is one of three experiments to be carried aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite scheduled to be launched by NASA on a Delta rocket in 1989. The DIRBE is a cryogenic absolute photometer operating in a liquid helium dewar at 1.5 K. Photometric stability is a principal requirement for achieving the scientific objectives of this experiment. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, which used detectors similar to those in DIRBE, revealed substantial changes in detector responsivity following exposure to ionizing radiation encountered on passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Since the COBE will use the same 900 Km sun-synchronous orbit as IRAS, ionizing radiation-induced performance changes in the detectors were a major concern. Here, ionizing radiation tests carried out on all the DIRBE photodetectors are reported. Responsivity changes following exposure to gamma rays, protons, and alpha particle are discussed. The detector performance was monitored following a simulated entire mission life dose. In addition, the response of the detectors to individual particle interactions was measured. The InSb photovoltaic detectors and the Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors revealed no significant change in responsivity following radiation exposure. The Ge:Ga detectors show large effects which were greatly reduced by proper thermal annealing.

  7. Optical detectors based on thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.

    2015-06-01

    Optical detectors developed on base of thermo elastic effect In quartz crystalline (PTEK) attributed to the thermal detectors group. Such detectors occurred very effective for the registration of pulsed light energy or power of harmonically modulated laser radiation flux in a wide spectral (from UV to far IR) and dynamic ranges (from 10-6 to 300 W / cm2 with cooling) with a time constant up to10-6 seconds. When exposed to electromagnetic radiation occurs at the receiver thermal field which causes mechanical stress in the transient crystalline quartz, which in turn leads to a change in the polarization of crystalline quartz and, as a consequence, to an electric potential difference at the electrodes (the front surface with a conductive coating and damper). The capacitive characteristic of the detector, based on a thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz, eliminates the possibility of working with constant flow of radiation, which also affects at the frequency response of the detector, since the potential difference appearance in the piezoelectric plate depends on the direction of the forces relative to the axes X, Y, Z of the crystal. Therefore, a certain choice of orientation of the receiving element is necessary in accordance with the physical properties of crystalline quartz. In this paper, a calculation of the sensitivity and frequency characteristics of optical detectors based on the thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz at the harmonic effects of electromagnetic radiation flux are reported.

  8. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, S; Takahashi, K; Okamura, M; Horioka, K

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons. PMID:26931973

  9. Analysis of eddy current distributions in the CMS magnet yoke during the solenoid discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Campi, D.; Cure, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grillet, J.P.; Herve, A.; Loveless, R.; Smith, R.P.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Flux loops have been installed on selected segments of the magnetic flux return yoke of the 4 T superconducting coil of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector under construction at CERN. Voltages induced in the loops during discharge of the solenoid will be sampled on-line during the entire discharge and integrated off-line to provide a measurement of the initial magnetic flux density in steel at the maximum field to an accuracy of a few percent. Although the discharge of the solenoid is rather slow (190 s time constant), the influence of eddy currents induced in the yoke elements should be estimated. The calculation of eddy currents is performed with Vector Fields program ELEKTRA. The results of calculations are reported.

  10. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  11. The upgraded DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

    2006-09-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

  12. Rapid-Chill Cryogenic Coaxial Direct-Acting Solenoid Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James; Castor, Jim; Sheller, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A commercially available cryogenic direct- acting solenoid valve has been modified to incorporate a rapid-chill feature. The net effect of the modifications is to divert some of the cryogenic liquid to the task of cooling the remainder of the cryogenic liquid that flows to the outlet. Among the modifications are the addition of several holes and a gallery into a valve-seat retainer and the addition of a narrow vent passage from the gallery to the atmosphere.

  13. EFFECTS OF MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT ON CZT DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CHU, M.; CARINI, G.A.; ET AL.

    2006-08-13

    CZT material quality improvement has been achieved by optimizing the crystal growth process. N-type conductivity has been measured on as-grown, undoped, Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te. Cd{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.15}Te crystals have been grown. for producing high resistivity CZT radiation detectors. The best FWHM of {sup 57}Co 122KeV spectrum was measured to be 3.7% and ({mu}{tau}){sub e} was 3 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}. The microscopic gamma ray response using a beam size of 10 {micro}m has been used to map the entire 4 mm x 4 mm detector. Several black spots indicating no signal responses were observed while all other areas showed an average of 65-70% collection efficiency. The black spots suggest that at those locations, the Te precipitates are larger than 10 {micro}m. Detailed microscopic infrared transmission measurement on the sample found that most Te precipitates have sizes of 4-6 {micro}m. Theoretical analysis of the results suggests that singly and doubly ionized Te{sub Cd}V{sub Cd}{sup 2} might be the shallow and deep donors previously assigned to Te{sub Cd} by us.

  14. High P/sub T/ detectors for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Trilling, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Summarized in this report is some of the work done at the recent Workshop on Experiments, Detectors, and Experimental Areas for the Supercollider held at Berkeley. The major goal was to develop an understanding of what complement of detectors would provide the capability for a well-balanced physics program at the SSC. Unlike earlier studies which had emphasized individual components such as tracking, calorimetry, etc., the intention was to focus on complete detectors. The particular detectors discussed in this paper are: the large solenoid detectors, the compact solenoid detectors, the non-magnetic detectors, the dipole detectors and muon detectors. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (LSP)

  15. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  16. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  17. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  18. Search for Gluino-Mediated Supersymmetry in Events With Bottom-Quark Jets and Missing Transverse Energy With the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector at the Large Hadron Collider With Proton-Proton Collisions at 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Harold

    A search is presented for physics beyond the standard model based on events with significant missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one identified bottom-quark jet. The study is based on a sample of 19 fb-1 collected at 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. The background from standard model processes is evaluated using data control samples, and a global likelihood fit is performed. The data are found to be consistent with standard model processes, and the results are interpreted in the context of simplified models (SMS). Upper limits on the production cross sections of the T1bbbb and T1tttt SMS new physics scenarios are determined. Gluino masses up to 1170 GeV are excluded for the T1bbbb scenario and up to 1020 GeV for the T1tttt scenario, at 95% confidence level.

  19. Comparison of activation effects in {gamma}-ray detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, P.R.; Evans, H.E.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Flatman, J.C.; Cosby, M.; Knight, P.; Moss, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    Activation induced by cosmic and trapped radiation in {gamma}-ray detector materials represents a significant source of background for space-based detector systems. Selection of detector materials should therefore include consideration of this background source. Results are presented from measurements of induced radioactivity in different scintillators activated either as a result of irradiation by mono-energetic protons at accelerator facilities, or flight on board the Space Shuttle. Radiation transport computer codes are used to help compare the effects observed from the scintillators, by identifying and quantifying the influence on the background spectra from more than one hundred of the radionuclides produced by spallation. For the space experiment data, the simulation results also permit determination of the contributions to detector activation from the different sources of radiation in the Shuttle cabin.

  20. Lessons Learned for the MICE Coupling Solenoid from the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, Xinglong; Li, S. Y.; Zheng, S. X.; Virostek, Steve P.; DeMello, Allen J.; Li, Derun; Trillaud, Frederick; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-05-30

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have taught us some important lessons. The spectrometer magnet lessons learned fall into two broad categories that involve the two stages of the coolers that are used to cool the magnets. On the first spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the connection of the cooler 2nd-stage to the magnet cold mass. On the first test of the second spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the cooler 1st-stage temperature and its effect on the operation of the HTS leads. The second time the second spectrometer magnet was tested; the cooling to the cold mass was still not adequate. The cryogenic designs of the MICE and MuCOOL coupling magnets are quite different, but the lessons learned from the tests of the spectrometer magnets have affected the design of the coupling magnets.

  1. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  2. Muon Collider Final Cooling in 30-50 T Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow, R.C.; Lederman, J.

    2011-03-28

    Muon ionization cooling to the required normalized rms emittance of 25 microns transverse, and 72 mm longitudinal, can be achieved with liquid hydrogen in high field solenoids, provided that the momenta are low enough. At low momenta, the longitudinal emittance rises from the negative slope of energy loss versus energy. Assuming initial emittances that have been achieved in six dimensional cooling simulations, optimized designs are given using solenoid fields limited to 30, 40, and 50 T. The required final emittances are achieved for the two higher field cases. Preliminary simulations of transverse cooling in hydrogen, at low energies, suggests that muon collider emittance requirements can be met using solenoid fields of 40 T or more. It might also be acceptable with 30 T. But these simulations did not include hydrogen windows,matching or reacceleration, whose performance, with one exception, was based on numerical estimates. Full simulations of more stages are planned. The design and simulation of hydrogen windows must be included, and space charge effects, and absorber heating, calculated.

  3. EFFECT OF TE PRECIPITATES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARINI, G.A.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; WRIGHT, G.W.; LI, L.; JAMES, R.B.

    2005-09-20

    A recent study of long-drift CdZnTe (CZT) Frisch-ring detectors showed that fluctuations of the collected charge (and device response) depend on the device dimensions and the concentration of Te precipitates in the material. This observation, which could be explained as the cumulative effect of precipitates, led to the investigation of thin (1 mm) planar detectors, where the effects of precipitates can be more clearly ascertained. To perform the investigation, a measurement facility was developed that allowed for high-resolution spatial mapping of the performance of CZT devices. New measurements emerging from this facility provided the first detailed comparisons of the micro-scale X-ray maps and infrared microscopy images for thin CZT samples. Analysis of the data showed conclusively that local deteriorations of device response fully correlate with Te precipitates seen in the IR images. Effects of surface processing conditions on the detector response were also clearly observed.

  4. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  5. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  6. High current ion beam transport using solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, R.; Spaedtke, P.

    2008-02-15

    In the framework of the future project FAIR several upgrade programs and construction of new facilities are in progress such as the U{sup 4+} upgrade for the existing high current injector and the new 70 MeV proton injector. For both injectors solenoids in the low energy beam transport section are foreseen to inject the beam into the following rf accelerator. The paper presents beam quality measurements of high current ion beams behind a solenoid using a slit-grid emittance measurement device, viewing targets, and a pepper pot measurement device at the high current test bench at GSI.

  7. How current loops and solenoids curve spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füzfa, André

    2016-01-01

    The curved spacetime around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null geodesics in the curved spacetime of current loops and solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an experimental setup achievable with current technology of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of light of the same order of magnitude as astrophysical signals in ground-based gravitational wave observatories.

  8. Radiation damage effects in CZT drift strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe; Jensen, H. J.

    2003-03-01

    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of dose loads in the range from 2*108 to 60*108 p+/cm2. Even for the highest dose loads, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as function of depth inside the detector material. A numerical model that emulates the physical processes of the charge transport in the CZT detector was used to derive the charge trapping parameter , μτe (the product of charge mobility and trapping time) as function of dose. The analysis showed that the electron trapping increased proportional with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (μτe)-1rad =(2.5±0.2)*10-7*Φ (V/cm2) with the proton fluence, Φ in p+/cm2. The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well the damage profile calculated using the standard Monte Carlo simulations, TRIM for the proton induced radiation effects. The present results suggest that proton induced nuclear reactions contribute significantly to the radiation damage. Further work will elaborate on these effects. The detector energy resolution was investigated as function of proton dose. It was found that the observed degradation is well explained by the decrease of μτe when the fluctuations of the electron path length are taken into account. The proton irradiation produced In meta stable isotopes in the CZT material. Their decay and production yield as function of depth were analyzed.

  9. Some options for the muon collider capture and decay solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael A.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses some of the problems associated with using solenoid magnets to capture the secondary particles that are created when an intense beam of 8 to 10 GeV protons interacts with the target at the center of the capture region. Hybrid capture solenoids with inductions of 28 T and a 22 T are described. The first 14 to 15 T of the solenoid induction will be generated by a superconducting magnet. The remainder of the field will be generated by a Bitter type of water cooled solenoid. The capture solenoids include a transition section from the high field solenoid to a 7 T decay channel where pions and kaons that come off of the target decay into muons. A short 7 T solenoidal decay channel between the capture solenoid system and the phase rotation system is described. A concept for separation of negative and positive pions and kaons is briefly discussed.

  10. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  11. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  12. Solenoid Valve With Self-Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, Fritz H.; Matsumoto, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    New solenoid-operated miniature shutoff valve provides self-compensation of differential pressure forces that cause jamming or insufficient valve closure as in single-seal valves. Dual-seal valve is bidirectional. Valve simultaneously seals both inlet and outlet tubes by pressing single disk of silicone rubber against ends of both.

  13. First experiment with the double solenoid RIBRAS system

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Condori, R. Pampa; Lepine-Szily, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morais, M. C.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V. B.; Gasques, L. R.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2013-05-06

    A description of the double solenoid system (RIBRAS) operating since 2004 in one of the beam lines of the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is presented. The recent installation of the secondary scattering chamber after the second solenoid is reported and the first experiment in RIBRAS using both solenoids is described.

  14. Space-Charge Effects in a Gas Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    Discussion of space-charge effects in a photoluminescence cell that will be used as a nondisruptive total energy monitor at the LCLS facility is presented. Regimes where primary photoelectrons will be confined within the X-ray beam aperture are identified. Effects of the space-charge on the further evolution of the electron and ion populations are discussed. Parameters of the afterglow plasma are evaluated. Conditions under which the detector output will be proportional to the pulse energy are defined.

  15. Polarization effects in thallium bromide x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozorezov, A.; Wigmore, J. K.; Gostilo, V.; Shorohov, M.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Webb, M. A.

    2010-09-15

    We present the results of a detailed experimental study of polarization effects in thallium bromide planar x-ray detectors. Measurements were carried out in the range 10-100 keV by scanning a highly focused x-ray beam, 50 {mu}m in diameter, from a synchrotron source across the detector. Above a certain radiation threshold the detector response showed a systematic degradation of its spectroscopic characteristics, peak channel position, peak height, and energy resolution. Using a pump-and-probe technique, we studied the dynamics of spectral degradation, the spatial extent and relaxation of the polarized region, and the dependence of the detector response on bias voltage and temperature. For comparison, we modeled polarization effects induced by the charging of traps by both electrons and holes using a model based on recent theoretical work of Bale and Szeles. We calculated the charge collection efficiency and spectral line shapes as functions of exposure time, beam position, count rate, and photon energy, and obtained credible agreement with experimental results.

  16. Bent solenoids for spectrometers and emittance exchange sections.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.

    1999-03-26

    Bent solenoids can be used to transport low energy beams as they provide both confinement and dispersion of particle orbits. Solenoids are being considered both as emittance exchange sections and spectrometers in the muon cooling system as part of the study of the muon collider. They present the results of a study of bent solenoids which considers the design of coupling sections between bent solenoids to straight solenoids, drift compensation fields, aberrations, and factors relating to the construction, such as field ripple, stored energy, coil forces and field errors.

  17. Shielding optimization studies for the detector systems of the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    Preliminary shielding optimization studies for the Superconducting Super Collider`s Solenoidal Detector Collaboration detector system were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993. The objective of the study was to reduce the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes leaving the shield to a level that resulted in insignificant effects on the functionality of the detector system. Steel and two types of concrete were considered as components of the shield, and the shield was optimized according to thickness, weight, and cost. Significant differences in the thicknesses, weights, and costs were noted for the three optimization parameters. Results from the study are presented.

  18. Optimization of the Mu2e Production Solenoid Heat and Radiation Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Coleman, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to study the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. Observation of this process would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, and can point to new physics beyond the reach of the LHC. The main parts of the Mu2e apparatus are its superconducting solenoids: Production Solenoid (PS), Transport Solenoid (TS), and Detector Solenoid (DS). Being in the vicinity of the beam, PS magnets are most subjected to the radiation damage. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably, the peak neutron flux in the PS coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude by means of sophisticatedly designed massive Heat and Radiation Shield (HRS), optimized for the performance and cost. An issue with radiation damage is related to large residual electrical resistivity degradation in the superconducting coils, especially its Al stabilizer. A detailed MARS15 analysis and optimization of the HRS has been carried out both to satisfy the Mu2e requirements to the radiation quantities (such as displacements per atom, peak temperature and power density in the coils, absorbed dose in the insulation, and dynamic heat load) and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of these radiation quantities are reported and optimized HRS models are presented; it is shown that design levels satisfy all requirements.

  19. Determining if an axially rotated solenoid will induce a radial EMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermott, Dustin R.

    The nature of the electromagnetic field of an axially rotated solenoid or magnet is investigated. The investigations reviewed suggest the possibility of a radially emitted electric field by either: axially rotated magnetic field lines, or a relativistic change in charge of the electron. For a very long solenoid a relativistic change in charge leaves no electric field inside while leaving an electric field outside. The concept of axially rotating magnetic field lines gives an opposite prediction. They both seem to be in contradiction to the standard model of induction, which gives no change in the electric field for a rotated solenoid or magnet. An experiment by Joseph B. Tate [48], [49] conducted in 1968 seemed to have measured a change in charge outside of a rotated solenoid. Another experiment by Barnett [3] in 1912 reported measuring no electric field inside of a rotated solenoid. Further experimentation was decided necessary and the method decided upon to attempt detection of the radial E or EMF induced by an axially rotating B field or change in charge is two concentric capacitor plates, one inside and the other outside an axially rotated solenoid. The solenoid was rotated on a lathe for the test. A concentric capacitor around an axially rotated permanent neodymium magnet was also used as a test. These experiments proved very challenging because of the small magnitude of the predicted effect. Nevertheless, the bulk of the evidence obtained indicates that no induced E arises when a magnetic source is rotated about its magnetic axis, thus supporting the standard field model of electromagnetic induction, and casting doubt on the alternative theories of magnetic field line rotation or relativistic charge enhancement.

  20. (Effects of ionizing radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors)

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is my task to summarise the great variety of topics (covering a refreshing mix of physics, chemistry and technology) presented at this conference, which has focused on the effects of ionising radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors. One of the reasons and the central interest of many of the participants was the use of such detectors in experiments at two future large hadron colliders: the Superconducting Super Collider to be operating outside of Dallas in the United States by the turn of the decade and its European counterpart the Large Hadron Collider to be operating outside of Geneva in Switzerland on a similar time scale. These accelerators are the apple of the high energy physicist's eye.'' Their goal is to uncover the elusive Higgs particle and thereby set the cornerstone in our current knowledge of elementary particle interactions. This is the Quest, and from this lofty height the presentations rapidly moved on to the specific questions of experimental science: how such an experiment is carried out; why radiation damage is an issue; how radiation damage affects detectors; which factors affect radiation damage characteristics; which factors are not affected by radiation damage; and how better detectors may be constructed. These were the substance of this conference.

  1. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  2. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  3. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore » was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  4. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  5. Restoration of the DIII-D solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.M.; Robinson, J.I.; Gonzales, E.; Rolens, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has been operated since June 1995 with constrained ohmic heating capability as imposed by the abandonment of half of it`s solenoid system due to a cooling water leak. The solenoid is comprised of A and B windings with separate multiple power leads to each. The cooling water leak occurred in the lead of the B winding. This leak occurred in a remote area under the DIII-D vessel and is believed to be caused by magnetic forces developing cyclic bending loads on the conductor. Visual inspection of the lead using flexible bore scopes indicated that the structural fiberglass overwrap intended to band the supply and return leads into a primary-force canceling group had failed allowing individual conductors to become inadequately supported against bending loads. The overwrap failed as a result of poor epoxy encapsulation of the lead which was manufactured in 1978. Inspection of the A lead confirmed no overwrap failure and that the vacuum encapsulation of the A lead was proper and to specification. In order to continue operations, it was decided to abandon the B winding of the solenoid and operate under reduced (5 V-sec) capability. An in-situ repair approach was mandated by the extensive and lengthy effort required to disassemble, repair, and reassemble the tokamak. Access from outside the tokamak was severely limited. A plan to repair the damaged lead was developed and implemented over a 10 month period. This paper describes the repair of the solenoid lead. A VCR video tape of these remote installation efforts has been assembled and will be shown.

  6. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  7. Simulation and analysis of solenoidal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alderwick, A. R.; Jardine, A. P.; Hedgeland, H.; MacLaren, D. A.; Allison, W.; Ellis, J.

    2008-12-15

    We present a detailed analysis and simulation of solenoidal, magnetically confined electron bombardment ion sources, aimed at molecular beam detection. The aim is to achieve high efficiency for singly ionized species while minimizing multiple ionization. Electron space charge plays a major role and we apply combined ray tracing and finite element simulations to determine the properties of a realistic geometry. The factors controlling electron injection and ion extraction are discussed. The results from simulations are benchmarked against experimental measurements on a prototype source.

  8. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  9. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-11-01

    results obtained with it are also presented. Details of design, fabrication, installation, and operation of magnet systems are not included; here we are concerned with calculations that precede or supplement detailed design. Mathematical derivations are presented with only a moderate number of steps. While there is no claim of originality, except for various numerical approximations and a conceptual induction module design in section 20, many of the results and discussions are not readily available elsewhere. Our primary topic is axisymmetric solenoidal systems with no magnetic materials. These simplifying features allow useful analytical calculations, which occupy sections 2-13. Deviations from axisymmetry are considered in sections 14, 15, 21, 22, and 23 and the effects of magnetic materials are treated in sections 16-20. Since magnetic aberrations are mixed with geometric aberrations in computing ion orbits, section 22 on the ion equations of motion in an arbitrary field is included.

  10. The Effect of Personalization on Smartphone-Based Fall Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Carlos; Plaza, Inmaculada; Igual, Raúl; Sánchez, Ángel; Castro, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The risk of falling is high among different groups of people, such as older people, individuals with Parkinson's disease or patients in neuro-rehabilitation units. Developing robust fall detectors is important for acting promptly in case of a fall. Therefore, in this study we propose to personalize smartphone-based detectors to boost their performance as compared to a non-personalized system. Four algorithms were investigated using a public dataset: three novelty detection algorithms—Nearest Neighbor (NN), Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OneClass-SVM)—and a traditional supervised algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effect of personalization was studied for each subject by considering two different training conditions: data coming only from that subject or data coming from the remaining subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was selected as the primary figure of merit. The results show that there is a general trend towards the increase in performance by personalizing the detector, but the effect depends on the individual being considered. A personalized NN can reach the performance of a non-personalized SVM (average AUC of 0.9861 and 0.9795, respectively), which is remarkable since NN only uses activities of daily living for training. PMID:26797614

  11. The Effect of Personalization on Smartphone-Based Fall Detectors.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Carlos; Plaza, Inmaculada; Igual, Raúl; Sánchez, Ángel; Castro, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The risk of falling is high among different groups of people, such as older people, individuals with Parkinson's disease or patients in neuro-rehabilitation units. Developing robust fall detectors is important for acting promptly in case of a fall. Therefore, in this study we propose to personalize smartphone-based detectors to boost their performance as compared to a non-personalized system. Four algorithms were investigated using a public dataset: three novelty detection algorithms--Nearest Neighbor (NN), Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OneClass-SVM)--and a traditional supervised algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effect of personalization was studied for each subject by considering two different training conditions: data coming only from that subject or data coming from the remaining subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was selected as the primary figure of merit. The results show that there is a general trend towards the increase in performance by personalizing the detector, but the effect depends on the individual being considered. A personalized NN can reach the performance of a non-personalized SVM (average AUC of 0.9861 and 0.9795, respectively), which is remarkable since NN only uses activities of daily living for training. PMID:26797614

  12. Space-Charge Effects in the Gas Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Hau-Riege, S; Bionta, R

    2007-09-24

    Discussion of space-charge effects in a photoluminescence cell that will be used as a non-disruptive total energy monitor at the LCLS facility is presented. Regimes where primary photoelectrons will be confined within the X-ray beam aperture are identified. Effects of the space-charge on the further evolution of the electron and ion populations are discussed. Parameters of the afterglow plasma are evaluated. Conditions under which the detector output will be proportional to the pulse energy are defined.

  13. Electrons in a positive-ion beam with solenoid or quadrupole magnetic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Sharp, W.; Bieniosek, F.; Friedman, A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.M.; Faltens, A.; Vay, J.L.; Prost, L.

    2007-06-04

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) is used to study beam transport and accumulation of electrons in quadrupole magnets and the Neutralized Drift-Compression Experiment (NDCX) to study beam transport through and accumulation of electrons in magnetic solenoids. We find that both clearing and suppressor electrodes perform as intended, enabling electron cloud densities to be minimized. Then, the measured beam envelopes in both quadrupoles and solenoids agree with simulations, indicating that theoretical beam current transport limits are reliable, in the absence of electrons. At the other extreme, reversing electrode biases with the solenoid transport effectively traps electrons; or, in quadrupole magnets, grounding the suppressor electrode allows electron emission from the end wall to flood the beam, in both cases producing significant degradation in the beam.

  14. Electrons in a Positive-Ion Beam with Solenoid or Quadrupole Magnet Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Covo, M K; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Seidl, P A; Bieniosek, F M; Coleman, J E; Faltens, A; Roy, P K; Vay, J L; Prost, L

    2007-06-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) is used to study beam transport and accumulation of electrons in quadrupole magnets and the Neutralized Drift-Compression Experiment (NDCX) to study beam transport through and accumulation of electrons in magnetic solenoids. We find that both clearing and suppressor electrodes perform as intended, enabling electron cloud densities to be minimized. Then, the measured beam envelopes in both quadrupoles and solenoids agree with simulations, indicating that theoretical beam current transport limits are reliable, in the absence of electrons. At the other extreme, reversing electrode biases with the solenoid transport effectively traps electrons; or, in quadrupole magnets, grounding the suppressor electrode allows electron emission from the end wall to flood the beam, in both cases producing significant degradation in the beam.

  15. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  16. Functional and Genomic Analyses of Alpha-Solenoid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, David; Palidwor, Gareth A.; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Szengel, Angelika; Schaefer, Martin H.; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/. PMID:24278209

  17. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests.

  18. Microwave detectors based on the spin-torque diode effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, O. V.; Slavin, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    The spin-transfer torque (STT) effect provides a new method of manipulation of magnetization in nanoscale objects. The STT effect manifests itself as a transfer of spin angular momentum between the parallel magnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic spacer and traversed by a dc electric current. The transfer of the spin angular momentum from one layer to another could result in the excitation of the microwave-frequency magnetization dynamics in one of the magnetic layers. On the other hand, when a magnetization dynamics is excited in a magnetic layered structure by an external microwave signal both the structure electrical resistance and current through the structure will acquire microwave components resulting in the appearance of a rectified dc voltage on the magnetic structure. This "spin-torque diode effect" can be used for the development of ultra-sensitive spin-torque microwave detectors (STMD). Below we present a brief review of our recent work on the general properties of STMDs, analyze the performance of the "resonance-type" and "threshold-type STMD" and consider the possible applications for such microwave detectors.

  19. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of new Solid State Detector Technology as Particle Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; Babu, S. R.; Herrero, F. A.; Yan, F.; Funsten, H. O.; Harper, R.

    2005-05-01

    There is great interest in expanding the use of solid state detectors (SSD) in the field of particle detection. For instance, extending the sensitivity of the detectors to lower energy particles could allow for simpler and thus smaller instrument designs. Several new technologies have been introduced recently in the region of semiconductor material for SSDs. This work will compare some of the more promising technologies to SSD material currently being used. In particular recent results from several laboratories make it possible to compare the properties of "100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiode", delta doped silicon, and silicon carbide (SiC) detectors and to compare these new technologies to pure silicon and germanium SSDs. The properties of interest are the detectors gain, ability to withstand the temperature extremes of space environments, radiation hardness, and responses to incident particles mass and energy particularly at low energies.

  20. Engineering Sheets of 12 Metre Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Krienen, Frank

    1981-03-30

    The solenoid design follows closely the considerations qiven in {bar p} note 116. In particular we try to make the solenoid undivided, but with a centre tap for the cooling water. We found a variant for the centre tap, so that the two layers are now electrically in series. Due to the very long length, it seems better not to fill the clearance between return yoke and OD of the second layer with epoxy. Instead, we support and adjust the coil every 2 m with three bolts at 120 deqrees screwed in the return yoke. The latter is then supposed to be sufficiently stiff, so as to give the weaker mandrel the desired straightness. We give a positive pitch, i.e. somewhat more than the width of the copper section including insulation and tolerances. The precise pitch cannot be stated here, because the copper section will be somewhat trapezoidal. How much, depends on the winding procedure. The layers are epoxy impregnated and solidair with the mandrel. The Figures show an axial section and the construction of the central water tap. The dimensions shown are on the assumption of a free choice of the diameters of return yoke and mandrel. This may not be the case, and a reshuffling of the dimensions may be needed.

  1. The HERMES Recoil Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.

    2006-07-11

    The HERMES Collaboration is installing a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the spectrometer for measurements of hard exclusive electron/positron scattering reactions, in particular deeply virtual Compton scattering. These measurements will provide access to generalised parton distributions and hence to the localisation of quarks inside hadrons and to their orbital angular momentum. The HERMES Recoil Detector consists of three active components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector consisting of three layers of tungsten/scintillator. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The Recoil Detector was extensively tested with cosmic muons over the summer of 2005 and is being installed in the winter of 2005/6 for data taking until summer 2007.

  2. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p{sub T} particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p{sub T} > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p{sub T} quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic medium produced in HI interactions. The larger Q{sup 2} causes jets to materialize very soon after the collision. They are thus embedded in and propagate through the dense environment as it forms and evolves. Through

  3. Optimum dimensions of power solenoids for magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaznacheyev, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization of power solenoids for controllable and stabilizable magnetic suspensions with force compensation in a wind tunnel is shown. It is assumed that the model of a levitating body is a sphere of ferromagnetic material with constant magnetic permeability. This sphere, with a radius much smaller than its distance from the solenoid above, is to be maintained in position on the solenoid axis by balance of the vertical electromagnetic force and the force of gravitation. The necessary vertical (axial) force generated by the solenoid is expressed as a function of relevant system dimensions, solenoid design parameters, and physical properties of the body. Three families of curves are obtained which depict the solenoid power for a given force as a function of the solenoid length with either outside radius or inside radius as a variable parameter and as a function of the outside radius with inside radius as a variable parameter. The curves indicate the optimum solenoid length and outside radius, for minimum power, corresponding to a given outside radius and inside radius, respectively.

  4. Solenoid permits remote control of stop watch and assures restarting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodai, C.

    1964-01-01

    Stop watch which may be remotely controlled by the use of a solenoid mechanism is described. When the solenoid is energized, the coil spring pulls the lever arm and starts the balance wheel. When it is not energized, the spring pulls the lever and stops the watch.

  5. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  6. Plasma confinement apparatus using solenoidal and mirror coils

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Condit, William C.

    1979-01-01

    A plasma confinement apparatus, wherein multiple magnetic mirror cells are linked by magnetic field lines inside of a solenoid with the mirroring regions for adjacent magnetic mirror cells each formed by a separate mirror coil inside of the solenoid. The magnetic mirror cells may be field reversed.

  7. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  8. Radiation and thermal analysis of production solenoid for Mu2e experimental setup

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Muon-to-Electron (Mu2e) experiment at Fermilab, will seek the evidence of direct muon to electron conversion at the sensitivity level where it cannot be explained by the Standard Model. An 8-GeV 25-kW proton beam will be directed onto a tilted gold target inside a large-bore superconducting Production Solenoid (PS) with the peak field on the axis of {approx}5T. The negative muons resulting from the pion decay will be captured in the PS aperture and directed by an S-shaped Transport Solenoid towards the stopping target inside the Detector Solenoid. In order for the superconducting magnets to operate reliably and with a sufficient safety margin, the peak neutron flux entering the coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude that is achieved by means of a sophisticated absorber placed in the magnet aperture. The proposed absorber, consisting of W- and Cu-based alloy parts, is optimized for the performance and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of energy deposition and radiation are reported. The results of the PS magnet thermal analysis, coordinated with the coil cooling scheme, are reported as well for the selected absorber design.

  9.  Note: High temperature pulsed solenoid valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Sulkes, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a high temperature pulsed solenoid valve with reliable long term operation to at least 400 °C. As in earlier published designs, a needle extension sealing a heated orifice is lifted via solenoid actuation; the solenoid is thermally isolated from the heated orifice region. In this new implementation, superior sealing and reliability were attained by choosing a solenoid that produces considerably larger lifting forces on the magnetically actuated plunger. It is this property that facilitates easily attainable sealing and reliability, albeit with some tradeoff in attainable gas pulse durations. The cost of the solenoid valve employed is quite low and the necessary machining quite simple. Our ultimate level of sealing was attained by making a simple modification to the polished seal at the needle tip. The same sealing tip modification could easily be applied to one of the earlier high T valve designs, which could improve the attainability and tightness of sealing for these implementations.

  10. The DARHT-II-DC Final Focus Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.C.

    2000-03-06

    The baseline DARHT2 external beam uses a pulsed solenoid final focus lens. The design of this lens was presented at TOS2 and has been considered as the final focus lens in all of the Livermore beamlines for DARHT2. In this note, we consider a new alternative DC final focus solenoid. A crude comparison between the parameters of these two designs is given in table 1. The small spot size required by the radiography and the small drift distance available between the last magnetic focusing element and the final focus solenoid imposed by the close proximity between the DARHT 2 building and the DARHT 1 axis, implies a short focal length solenoid. This in turn requires that the final focus solenoid mount inside the re-entrant cavity of the containment vessel in order to accommodate the 0.9 meter conjugate: figure 1. The ID of this cavity is 13.88 inches (35.25 cm).

  11. The CMS muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.

    2002-02-01

    The muon detection system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is described. It consists of three different detector technologies: drift tubes in the barrel region, cathode strip chambers in the endcap region and resistive plate chambers in both barrel and endcap regions. The CMS muon detection system ensures excellent muon detection and efficient triggering in the pseudorapidity range 0< η<2.4. The most recent developments and some results from the R&D program will also be discussed.

  12. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  13. D-Zero Cryogenic System VLPC & Solenoid Vacuum System Instrumentation, Control, and Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1998-01-16

    The DZERO VLPC Cryostat and the Superconducting Solenoid both require an insulating Vacuum of 10{sup -5} Torr or less. There is a vacuum system on the Detector Platform consisting of 2 Turbomolecular vacuum pumps and their associated piping, valves, instrumentation that are dedicated to this task. This vacuum equipment requires an operator interface and control logic in order to function properly. The operator interface allows an operator to monitor, control and configure the proper pumping setup required at any given time. The control logic is needed to protect the Vacumm vessels and Vacuum equipment from catastrophic events that may harm them. This is typically done with interlock chains or strings.

  14. Resin Permeation Through Compressed Glass Insulation for Iter Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R.; Roundy, F.; Martovetsky, N.; Miller, J.; Mann, T.

    2010-04-01

    Concern has been expressed about the ability of the resin system to penetrate the compressed dry glass of the turn and layer insulation during vacuum-pressure impregnation of ITER Central Solenoid (CS) modules. The stacked pancake layers of each module result in compression loads up to 9×104 kg (100 tons) on the lowest layers of each segment. The objective of this program was to assess the effects of this compressive load on resin permeation under resin-transfer conditions and with materials identical to that expected to be used in actual coil fabrication [45-50 °C, vacuum of 133 Pa (1 torr), DGEBF/anhydride epoxy resin system, E-glass satin weave, applied pressure of 125 kPa]. The experimental conditions and materials are detailed and the permeation results presented in this paper.

  15. A new muon-pion collection and transport system design using superconducting solenoids based on CSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ran; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xu, Wen-Zhen; Ni, Xiao-Jie; Pan, Zi-Wen; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2016-05-01

    A new muon and pion capture system is proposed for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), currently under construction. Using about 4% of the pulsed proton beam (1.6 GeV, 4 kW and 1 Hz) of CSNS to bombard a cylindrical graphite target inside a superconducting solenoid, both surface muons and pions can be acquired. The acceptance of this novel capture system - a graphite target wrapped up by a superconducting solenoid - is larger than the normal muon beam lines using quadrupoles at one side of the separated muon target. The muon and pion production at different capture magnetic fields was calculated using Geant4. The bending angle of the capture solenoid with respect to the proton beam was also optimized in simulation to achieve more muons and pions. Based on the layout of the muon experimental area reserved at the CSNS project, a preliminary muon beam line was designed with multi-purpose muon spin rotation areas (surface, decay and low-energy muons). Finally, high-flux surface muons (108/s) and decay muons (109/s) simulated by G4beamline will be available at the end of the decay solenoid based on the first phase of CSNS. This collection and transport system will be a very effective beam line at a proton current of 2.5 μA. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11527811)

  16. ITER CENTRAL SOLENOID COIL INSULATION QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Mann, T L; Miller, J R; Freudenberg, K D; Reed, R P; Walsh, R P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2009-06-11

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4 x 4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  17. ITER Central Solenoid Coil Insulation Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Mann Jr, Thomas Latta; Miller, John L; Freudenberg, Kevin D; Reed, Richard P; Walsh, Robert P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2010-01-01

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4x4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  18. Radiation damage effects by electrons, protons, and neutrons in Si/Li/ detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. M.; Coleman, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation in performance of lithium-compensated silicon nuclear particle detectors induced by irradiation at room temperature with 0.6-MeV and 1.5-MeV electrons, 1.9-MeV protons, and fast neutrons from a plutonium-beryllium source has been investigated. With increasing fluence, the irradiations produced an increase of detector leakage current, noise, capacitance, and a degradation in the performance of the detector as a charged-particle energy spectrometer. Following the irradiations, annealing effects were observed when the detectors were reverse-biased at their recommended operating voltages. Upon removal of bias, a continuous degradation of detector performance characteristics occurred. Detectors which had been damaged by electrons and protons exhibited a stabilization in their characteristics within two weeks after irradiation, whereas detectors damaged by neutrons had a continuous degradation of performance over a period of several months.

  19. Velocity effects on an accelerated Unruh-DeWitt detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an unbounded spatial trajectory in a two-dimensional spatial plane with constant independent magnitudes of both the four-acceleration and of a timelike proper time derivative of the four-accelration. In a Fermi-Walker frame moving with the detector, the direction of the acceleration rotates at a constant rate around a great circle. This is the motion of a charge in a uniform electric field when in the frame of the charge there is both an electric and a magnetic field. We compare the response of this detector to a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath of the corresponding temperature for non-relativistic velocities and two regimes: ultraviolet and infrared. In the infrared regime, the detector in the Minkowski space-time moving along the spatially two-dimensional trajectory should move with a higher speed to keep up with the same excitation rate of the inertial detector in a thermal bath. In the ultraviolet regime, the dominant modification in the response of this detector compared with the blackbody spectrum of Unruh radiation is the same as the dominant modification perceived by a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath.

  20. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, E. M. Ellis, J.

    2013-11-15

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  1. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2009-10-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  2. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Pipe Sizing for Solenoid / VLPC Cryogenic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

    1995-02-20

    The addition of a solenoid magnet and VLPC detectors are two of a number of upgrades which will occur at the D-Zero detector in the near future. Both of these upgrades will require cryogenic services for their operation. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the pipe/tube size choices made for these cryogenic services. This was done by calculating the required flow rates to cool down the magnet and VLPC's over a reasonable length of time and to determine the required piping sizes for a given allowable pressure drop. The pressure drops for steady state conditions also are addressed. The cool down requirements drove the pipe size decision. The raw engineering calculations that were done for this project are included as an appendix to this note. The body of this document discusses the methods and results of the calculations. As a quick summary, Figures 1 and 2 show the size selections. Tables 1 and 2 give a more detailed size and description of each section of Solenoid and VLPC transfer line.

  3. Solenoid valve design minimizes vibration and sliding wear problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Two-way cryogenic solenoid valve resists damage from vibration and metallic interfacial sliding. The new system features a flat-faced armature guided by a flexure disk which eliminates sliding surfaces and is less subject to contamination and wear.

  4. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  5. Solenoid operated safety valve and submersible pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, T.M.; Perkins, D.H.

    1989-01-17

    A submersible pump and solenoid operated safety valve system is described for use in a borehole, comprising: a submersible pump driven by an electric motor positioned down in a borehole and connected to conduit means to produce a flow of well fluids within the borehole toward the surface; a solenoid operated safety valve connected to interrupt the flow of well fluids toward the surface in response to the interruption of current to the solenoid holding the safety valve in an open condition; a surface control unit; a downhole control unit positioned down in the borehole and connected to the surface control unit and to the motor of the pump by means of an electrical cable; means for supplying AC electrical power from the surface unit down the conductors of the cable; and means mounted within the downhole control unit for providing electric current for operating the solenoid to open the safety valve.

  6. 25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH SIDE OF SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Radio frequency interference effect on PN code sequence lock detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Hyuck M.; Tu, Kwei; Loh, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors find the probabilities of detection and false alarm of the pseudonoise (PN) sequence code lock detector when strong radio frequency interference (RFI) hits the communications link. Both a linear model and a soft-limiter nonlinear model for a transponder receiver are considered. In addition, both continuous wave (CW) RFI and pulse RFI are analyzed, and a discussion is included of how strong CW RFI can knock out the PN code lock detector in a linear or a soft-limiter transponder. As an example, the Space Station Freedom forward S-band PN system is evaluated. It is shown that a soft-limiter transponder can protect the PN code lock detector against a typical pulse RFI, but it can degrade the PN code lock detector performance more than a linear transponder if CW RFI hits the link.

  8. Summary of Session 6: Aging Effects in RPC Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, Jaroslav

    2003-09-26

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are a very important part of present and future large-scale experiments. The present B-factory experiments, Belle and BaBar, operate at much larger luminosity (>3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}) compared to their predecessors at LEP, where the RPC rates were not much higher than cosmic ray rates. Both Belle and BaBar RPC detectors operate in streamer mode. On the other hand, the LHC RPC detectors will operate in proportional mode, which is advantageous in terms of lower accumulated charge per track; however, it may be offset by considerably higher rates, assuming that the aging scales simply as total accumulated charge. The fear that the LHC RPC detectors may encounter similar difficulties as the B-factory RPCs prompted a very intensive R&D effort of rate-related deterioration.

  9. Effects of induced charge in the kinestatic charge detector.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, D J; Terwilliger, R A

    1995-05-01

    The principle of the kinestatic charge detector (KCD) for digital radiography depends on the synchronization of the scan velocity of a parallel plate drift chamber with the cation drift velocity. Compared with line-beam scanners, this motion-compensated imaging technique makes better use of the x-ray tube output. A Frisch grid traditionally has been used within the KCD to minimize unwanted signal contributions from both cations and negative charge carriers during irradiation. In this work the charge induction process in a parallel plate geometry was investigated for the special case of the KCD. In the limit of infinite plates, the cathode charge density due to both cations and negative charge carriers increases quadratically in time for a kinestatically scanned narrow slit. In the KCD the cathode is segmented into an array of narrow electrodes, each aligned with the incident x-ray beam. Our conformal mapping computation determined that the shape of the induced charge signal depends critically on delta x/w, the ratio of electrode width to drift gap. Our conclusion introduces the possibility of eliminating the Frisch grid from the KCD design because the value of delta x/w required for transverse sampling in the KCD is sufficiently low as to allow "self-gridding" to take effect. PMID:7643803

  10. Dispersion in a bent-solenoid channel with symmetric focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2001-08-21

    Longitudinal ionization cooling of a muon beam is essential for muon colliders and will be useful for neutrino factories. Bent-solenoid channels with symmetric focusing has been considered for beam focusing and for generating the required dispersion in the ``emittance exchange'' scheme of longitudinal cooling. In this paper, we derive the Hamiltonian that governs the linear beam dynamics of a bent-solenoid channel, solve the single-particle dynamics, and give equations for determining the latticefunctions, in particular, the dispersion functions.

  11. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.; Smits, R. G.; Taylor, J. D.; Vanslyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C. E.; Rinta, R. I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R. D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin.

  12. EFFECTS OF P / N IN HOMOGENEITY ON CDZNTE RADIATION DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CHU,M.; TERTERIAN,S.; TING,D.; JAMES,R.B.; SZAWLOWSKI,M.; VISSER,G.J.

    2002-07-08

    Spectrometer grade, room-temperature radiation detectors have been produced on Cd{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te grown by the low-pressure Bridgman technique. Small amount of indium has been used to compensate the uncompensated Cd vacancies for the crystals to be semi-insulating. The properties of the detectors are critically dependent on the amount of excess Te introduced into the growth melts of the Cd{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te crystals and the best detectors are fabricated from crystals grown with 1.5% excess Te. Detector resolution of {sup 57}Co and {sup 241}Am radiation peaks are observed on all detectors except the ones produced on Cd{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te grown from the melt in the stoichiometric condition. The lack of resolution of these stoichiometric grown detectors is explained by a p/n conduction-type inhomogeneity model.

  13. Backreaction and the Unruh effect: New insights from exact solutions of uniformly accelerated detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Hu, B. L.

    2007-09-15

    Using nonperturbative results obtained recently for a uniformly accelerated Unruh-DeWitt detector, we discover new features in the dynamical evolution of the detector's internal degree of freedom, and identified the Unruh effect derived originally from time-dependent perturbation theory as operative in the ultraweak coupling and ultrahigh acceleration limits. The mutual interaction between the detector and the field engenders entanglement between them, and tracing out the field leads to a mixed state of the detector even for a detector at rest in Minkowski vacuum. Our findings based on this exact solution show clearly the differences from the ordinary result where the quantum field's backreaction is ignored in that the detector no longer behaves like a perfect thermometer. From a calculation of the evolution of the reduced density matrix of the detector, we find that the transition probability from the initial ground state over an infinitely long duration of interaction derived from time-dependent perturbation theory is existent in the exact solution only in transient under special limiting conditions corresponding to the Markovian regime. Furthermore, the detector at late times never sees an exact Boltzmann distribution over the energy eigenstates of the free detector, thus in the non-Markovian regime covering a wider range of parameters the Unruh temperature cannot be identified inside the detector.

  14. Solenoid-free plasma start-up in spherical tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R.; Shevchenko, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    The central solenoid is an intrinsic part of all present-day tokamaks and most spherical tokamaks. The spherical torus (ST) confinement concept is projected to operate at high toroidal beta and at a high fraction of the non-inductive bootstrap current as required for an efficient reactor system. The use of a conventional solenoid in a ST-based fusion nuclear facility is generally believed to not be a possibility. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is therefore an area of extensive worldwide research activity. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is also relevant to steady-state tokamak operation, as the central transformer coil of a conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactor would be located in a high radiation environment but would be needed only during the initial discharge initiation and current ramp-up phases. Solenoid-free operation also provides greater flexibility in the selection of the aspect ratio and simplifies the reactor design. Plasma start-up methods based on induction from external poloidal field coils, helicity injection and radio frequency current drive have all made substantial progress towards meeting this important need for the ST. Some of these systems will now undergo the final stages of test in a new generation of large STs, which are scheduled to begin operations during the next two years. This paper reviews research to date on methods for inducing the initial start-up current in STs without reliance on the conventional central solenoid.

  15. Dynamic magnetic shield for the CLAS12 central TOF detector photomultiplier tubes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-01

    The Central Time-of-Flight detector for the Jefferson Laboratory 12-GeV upgrade is being designed with linear-focused photomultiplier tubes that require a robust magnetic shield against the CLAS12 main 5-T solenoid fringe fields of 100 mT (1 kG). Theoretical consideration of a ferromagnetic cylinder in an axial field has demonstrated that its shielding capability decreases with increasing length. This observation has been confirmed with finite element analysis using Poisson model software. Several shields composed of coaxial ferromagnetic cylinders have been studied. All difficulties caused by saturation effects were overcome with a novel dynamical shield, which utilizes a demagnetizing solenoid between the shielding cylinders. Basic dynamical shields for ordinary linear-focused 2-in. photomultiplier tubes were designed and tested both with models and experimental prototypes at different external field and demagnetizing current values. Our shield design reduces the 1 kG external axial field by a factor of 5000.

  16. Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

    2011-09-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

  17. On The Solenoidal Heat Flux in Quasi-Ballistic Thermal Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Ashok; Bowers, John

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise in a right-circular cylinder when the transport is in the quasi-ballistic regime. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature. Effects due to circulating heat fluxes are noted in the effective thermal conductivity of silicon discs. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, USA under Project Number CMMI-1363207.

  18. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  19. CALCULATIONS FOR A MERCURY JET TARGET IN A SOLENOID MAGNET CAPTURE SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; PALMER, R.B.; THIEBERGER, P.; WEGGEL, R.J.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-06-18

    A mercury jet is being considered as the production target for a muon storage ring facility to produce an intense neutrino beam. A 20 T solenoid magnet that captures pions for muon production surrounds the mercury target. As the liquid metal jet enters or exits the field eddy currents are induced. We calculate the effects that a liquid metal jet experiences in entering and exiting the magnetic field for the magnetic configuration considered in the Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study II.

  20. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  1. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  2. The GlueX Detector

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence

    2009-12-01

    The GlueX detector is being built along with the new experimental Hall D at Jefferson lab as part of the 12~GeV upgrade project which received CD-3 approval in fall 2008. GlueX is a fixed target experiment built around a 2~Tesla superconducting solenoid having charged particle tracking and calorimetry with large acceptance. A high rate DAQ system consisting of pipeline electronics will allow the detector to operate at high luminosity ($10^{8}$ tagged $\\gamma$/sec on target). Details on the photon beam and GlueX detector are given including capabilities in resolutions and rates.

  3. The effect of spacers on the performance of Micromegas detectors: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Bhattacharya, Sudeb

    2015-09-01

    Micromegas detector is considered to be a promising candidate for a large variety of high-rate experiments. Micromegas of various geometries have already been established as appropriate for these experiments for their performances in terms of gas gain uniformity, energy and space point resolution, and their capability to efficiently pave large read-out surfaces with minimum dead zone. The present work investigates the effect of spacers on different detector characteristics of Micromegas detectors having various amplification gaps and mesh hole pitches. Numerical simulation has been used as a tool of exploration to evaluate the effect of such dielectric material on detector performance. Some of the important and fundamental characteristics such as electron transparency, gain and signal of the Micromegas detector have been estimated.

  4. Solenoid-free startup experiments in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Leuer, J. A.; Cunningham, G.; Mueller, D.; Brooks, N. H.; Eldietis, N. W.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Lohr, J.; Politzer, P. A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Taylor, P. L.; Walker, M. L.; Budny, R. V.; Gates, D.A.; Nagy, Alex; Hahn, S. H.; Oh, Y. K.; Yoon, S. W.; Yu, J.H.; Murakami, Masanori; Park, J. M.; Sontag, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    A series of DIII-D experiments was performed to investigate the potential for initiating plasma current using only poloidal field coils located outside the DIII-D central solenoid, i.e. 'solenoid-free'. Plasma current to 166 kA was achieved using 2-3MW of electron cyclotron (EC) heating and was limited by coil and power supply constraints. Flux conversion to plasma current was similar to standard DIII-D startup with some degradation at higher plasma current associated with stray fields and vertical stability issues. In preliminary solenoid-free experiments, neutral beam (NB) current drive (CD) levels were small and attributed to reduced CD efficiency associated with low electron temperature produced by the low current, low confinement plasma. Lack of plasma radial position control also contributed to a reduction of NBCD. Similarly, ECCD was small owing to low plasma temperature and outside EC launch which is required in the solenoid-free scenario. Synergistic experiments were carried out using standard solenoid initiated plasmas in order to study noninductive CD in limited, Lmode plasmas, typical of that generated by solenoid-free startup. While substantial noninductive current can be driven, self-sustaining levels of noninductive current have not yet been achieved with our present six-source co-injection NB system combined with EC and fast wave systems. At low plasma current and high levels of localized EC heating, substantial MHD is generated and this was seen to severely limit plasma performance. Although further optimization is possible in the limited plasma regime, full noninductive, steady-state operation may require diverted plasma with H-mode quality confinement. Discharges obtained during the solenoid-free campaign are compared with results of previous DIII-D campaigns aimed at achieving a steady state, noninductive CD solution.

  5. Variable force solenoid pressure control for an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, G.E.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a hydraulic pressure control circuit for an automatic transmission having fluid pressure operated clutch and brake servo. The controlling transmission consists of: a pump and a main pressure regulator valve means for establishing a regulated pressure in the control circuit; a variable force solenoid valve means for developing a pressure proportional to engine torque including a variable force solenoid connected to pressure regulating portions of the torque proportional pressure; a torque signal passage connecting to the variable force solenoid valve means with the pressure regulator valve means whereby the regulated pressure level maintained by the main regulator valve means is controlled in response to changes in the torque proportional pressure; and a variable force solenoid pressure relief valve means communicating with the torque signal passage and with the variable force solenoid valve means whereby the variable force solenoid valve means is adapted to regulate and to develop a pressure of reduced value relative to the regulated pressure of the main pressure regulator valve means as it establishes the torque proportional pressure, the solenoid pressure relief valve means comprising a pressure regulating valve spool, a valve chamber receiving the spool. The spool and the valve chamber having registering valve lands, a valve spring on one side of the spool urging the spool in one direction, a first pressure area on the pool being exposed to the torque proportional pressure, a second pressure area on the valve spool exposed to the pressure of reduced value whereby the spring, the pressure of reduced value and the torque proportional pressure establish a balanced force on the spool.

  6. Confinement physics for thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasmas in nested-well solenoidal traps.

    PubMed

    Dolliver, D D; Ordonez, C A

    1999-06-01

    A theoretical study is presented which indicates that it is possible to confine a neutral plasma using static electric and solenoidal magnetic fields. The plasma consists of equal temperature electrons and highly stripped ions. The solenoidal magnetic field provides radial confinement, while the electric field, which produces an axial nested-well potential profile, provides axial confinement. A self-consistent, multidimensional numerical solution for the electric potential is obtained, and a fully kinetic theoretical treatment on axial transport is used to determine an axial confinement time scale. The effect on confinement of the presence of a radial electric field is explored with the use of ion trajectory calculations. A thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasma confined in a nested-well trap opens new possibilities for fundamental studies on plasma recombination and cross-field transport processes under highly controlled conditions. PMID:11969700

  7. Finite mirror effects in advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, Andrew P.; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Tsang, David; Bondarescu, Mihai

    2008-02-15

    Thermal noise is expected to be the dominant source of noise in the most sensitive frequency band of second-generation, ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Reshaping the beam to a flatter, wider profile which probes more of the mirror surface reduces this noise. The 'Mesa' beam shape has been proposed for this purpose and was subsequently generalized to a family of hyperboloidal beams with two parameters: twist angle {alpha} and beam width D. Varying {alpha} allows a continuous transition from the nearly flat ({alpha}=0) to the nearly concentric ({alpha}={pi}) Mesa beam configurations. We analytically prove that in the limit D{yields}{infinity} hyperboloidal beams become Gaussians. The ideal beam choice for reducing thermal noise is the widest possible beam that satisfies the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) diffraction loss design constraint of 1 part per million (ppm) per bounce for a mirror radius of 17 cm. In the past the diffraction loss has often been calculated using the clipping approximation that, in general, underestimates the diffraction loss. We develop a code using pseudospectral methods to compute the diffraction loss directly from the propagator. We find that the diffraction loss is not a strictly monotonic function of beam width, but has local minima that occur due to finite mirror effects and leads to natural choices of D. For an {alpha}={pi} Mesa beam a local minimum occurs at D=10.67 cm and leads to a diffraction loss of 1.4 ppm. We then compute the thermal noise for the entire hyperboloidal family. We find that if one requires a diffraction loss of strictly 1 ppm, the {alpha}=0.91{pi} hyperboloidal beam is optimal, leading to the coating thermal noise (the dominant source of noise for fused-silica mirrors) being lower by about 10% than for a Mesa beam while other types of thermal noise decrease as well. We then develop an iterative process that reconstructs the mirror to specifically account for finite

  8. Finite mirror effects in advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Andrew P.; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Tsang, David; Bondarescu, Mihai

    2008-02-01

    Thermal noise is expected to be the dominant source of noise in the most sensitive frequency band of second-generation, ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Reshaping the beam to a flatter, wider profile which probes more of the mirror surface reduces this noise. The “Mesa” beam shape has been proposed for this purpose and was subsequently generalized to a family of hyperboloidal beams with two parameters: twist angle α and beam width D. Varying α allows a continuous transition from the nearly flat (α=0) to the nearly concentric (α=π) Mesa beam configurations. We analytically prove that in the limit D→∞ hyperboloidal beams become Gaussians. The ideal beam choice for reducing thermal noise is the widest possible beam that satisfies the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) diffraction loss design constraint of 1 part per million (ppm) per bounce for a mirror radius of 17 cm. In the past the diffraction loss has often been calculated using the clipping approximation that, in general, underestimates the diffraction loss. We develop a code using pseudospectral methods to compute the diffraction loss directly from the propagator. We find that the diffraction loss is not a strictly monotonic function of beam width, but has local minima that occur due to finite mirror effects and leads to natural choices of D. For an α=π Mesa beam a local minimum occurs at D=10.67cm and leads to a diffraction loss of 1.4 ppm. We then compute the thermal noise for the entire hyperboloidal family. We find that if one requires a diffraction loss of strictly 1 ppm, the α=0.91π hyperboloidal beam is optimal, leading to the coating thermal noise (the dominant source of noise for fused-silica mirrors) being lower by about 10% than for a Mesa beam while other types of thermal noise decrease as well. We then develop an iterative process that reconstructs the mirror to specifically account for finite mirror effects. This allows us to increase the

  9. Quantitative SPECT brain imaging: Effects of attenuation and detector response

    SciTech Connect

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Bowsher, J.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Liang, Z.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-06-01

    Two physical factors that substantially degrade quantitative accuracy in SPECT imaging of the brain are attenuation and detector response. In addition to the physical factors, random noise in the reconstructed image can greatly affect the quantitative measurement. The purpose of this work was to implement two reconstruction methods that compensate for attenuation and detector response, a 3D maximum likelihood-EM method (ML) and a filtered backprojection method (FB) with Metz filter and Chang attenuation compensation, and compare the methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and image noise. The methods were tested on simulated data of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. The simulation incorporated attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Bias and standard deviation of reconstructed voxel intensities were measured in the gray and white matter regions. The results with ML showed that in both the gray and white matter regions as the number of iterations increased, bias decreased and standard deviation increased. Similar results were observed with FB as the Metz filter power increased. In both regions, ML had smaller standard deviation than FB for a given bias. Reconstruction times for the ML method have been greatly reduced through efficient coding, limited source support, and by computing attenuation factors only along rays perpendicular to the detector.

  10. A simulation study on angular and micro pattern effects in GEM detectors.

    PubMed

    Kim, H G; Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2016-04-01

    A useful approach for the enhancement of thermal neutrons detection has been reported here. This technique, based on the angular and micro pattern effects, has been developed and applied to the boron-coated ((10)B) Gas Electron multiplier (GEM) detector. In the angular effect case, as a general rule, the detector device is turned at an angle which improves the device response per unit area of the detector. While for the latter case, a regular pattern in the form of micrometer deep grooves is fabricated onto the converter coating, consequently it enhances the capture probability of the detector. For the current study, both of these techniques using a (10)B-coated GEM detector have been simulated for low energy neutrons. For the evaluation of detector response thermal neutrons in the energy ranges from 25meV to 100meV were transported onto the detector surface. For this work, FLUKA MC code has been utilized. The output in both cases has been estimated as a function of incident thermal neutron energies. By employing both techniques, the angle and the micro pattern dependent efficiencies for (10)B-coated GEM detectors are presented, which indicate an improved efficiency response of the device. We anticipate that by using these modifications can lead a further forward step in the development and improvement of thermal neutron detection technology. PMID:26773818

  11. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Solenoid Insulatiing Vacuum Vessels; Relief Path Capacity Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; Bell, D.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the relief capacity of the solenoid vacuum pumping line. The calculations were done by David Bell, a co-op student from the University of Wisconsin. The calculations are attached. The conclusion is that the vacuum pumping line has a venting capacity of 129 g/s warm helium or 298 g/s warm nitrogen. Both of these capacities are much larger than the expected operating mass flow rates of the liquid helium (5 to 15 g/s) or liquid nitrogen (2 or 3 g/s) circuits. The calculations assume the solenoid vacuum vessel is at 3 psig and the relief plate is set at 1.5 psig. Additional calculations were done to prove that the venting capacity of the vacuum pumping line exceeded flowrates due to a failure mode. These calculations are attached. Since the system is not finalized, (pipe sizes not determined, components sized...) the calculations were done by first picking reasonable line sizes based on known allowed pressure drops in the system and then doing a maximum delivery rate calculation if a line was completely severed in the vacuum space of the solenoid/control dewar. The numbers from these calculations say that failure mode flow rates are 80 g/s liquid helium or 80 g/s liquid nitrogen. Both these values are less than the capacity of the relief line. In the five months since the (12/92 Dave Bell) calculations were done, some changes occured to the relief path. The most notable is that the radiation shield is now considered to be 6.625-inch O.D. instead of 6.00-inch used in the venting calculation. This change would tend to lower the capacity numbers. Another change was that for about half the venting path the chimney vacuum shell size was increased to 10-inch pipe. This change tends to increase the capacity numbers which were done assuming 8-inch pipe. These changes taken together probably offset each other or make the capacity numbers better. In either case, since the margin of safety is large, the

  12. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  13. Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.-Z.; Liu, J.; Mei, D.-M.

    2016-07-01

    We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

  14. Improvement of terahertz field effect transistor detectors by substrate thinning and radiation losses reduction.

    PubMed

    Coquillat, Dominique; Marczewski, Jacek; Kopyt, Pawel; Dyakonova, Nina; Giffard, Benoit; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-01-11

    Phenomena of the radiation coupling to the field effect transistors based terahertz (THz) detectors are studied. We show that in the case of planar metal antennas a significant portion of incoming radiation, instead of being coupled to the transistors, is coupled to an antenna substrate leading to responsivity losses and/or cross-talk effects in the field effect based THz detector arrays. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the responsivity versus substrate thickness are performed. They clearly show how to minimize the losses by the detector/ array substrate thinning. In conclusion simple quantitative rules of losses minimization by choosing a proper substrate thickness of field effect transistor THz detectors are presented for common materials (Si, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in semiconductor technologies. PMID:26832258

  15. Parasitic antenna effect in terahertz plasmon detector array for real-time imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Ryu, Min Woo; Rok Kim, Kyung; Han, Seong-Tae

    2015-10-01

    The performance uniformity of each pixel integrated with a patch antenna in a terahertz plasmon detector array is very important in building the large array necessary for a real-time imaging system. We found a parasitic antenna effect in the terahertz plasmon detector whose response is dependent on the position of the detector pixel in the illumination area of the terahertz beam. It was also demonstrated that the parasitic antenna effect is attributed to the physical structure consisting of signal pads, bonding wires, and interconnection lines on a chip and a printed circuit board. Experimental results show that the performance of the detector pixel is determined by the sum of the effects of each parasitic antenna and the on-chip integrated antenna designed to detect signals at the operating frequency. The parasitic antenna effect can be minimized by blocking the interconnections with a metallic shield.

  16. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Heat Load Calculations for the Solenoid Chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the chimney heat loads. These heat load numbers were reported in the D0 solenoid upgrade design report. The heat loads to the LN2 circuit were done by Andrew Stefanik, RDIMechanical Systems group. They were part of his LN2 shield calculations dated 2/23/93. Pages 1 thru 3 of his calculations that apply to the chimney are attached. The heat loads to the LHe circuit were done originally on 12/16/92 and then revised on 12/23/92 to be more conservative. The raw calculations are attached. I include both the original 12/16 version and the 12/23 revised version to document the amount of conservativeness added.

  17. Space weather effects on Solid State detectors on low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesnes Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine; Sandanger, Marit; Søraas, Finn; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Stadsnes, Johan

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the degradation of the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) on board the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) with respect to isolated events that severely accelerate the detector degradation. It is known that the proton detectors of the MEPED instrument are subjected over time to radiation damage. This is manifested with an increase in the energy thresholds of the detectors due to a thicker dead layer at the front of the detector as well as damage to the silicon lattice within the detector leading to reduced charge collection. By comparing energy spectra of old and recently launched POES the changes in the energy levels of the detectors can be monitored. Our preliminary analyses indicates that, on top of the gradually increase in the energy levels, there are rapid changes in these levels during SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) events and geomagnetic storms. These single events thus accelerate the degradation of the detectors, and can give information on Space Weather effects on satellite instrumentation.

  18. The STAR detector magnet subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    The RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Accelerator currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will have large detectors at two of its six intersection regions. One of these detectors, known as STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC), weighs 1100 tons and is being built around a large solenoid magnet. The magnet is 7.32 in in diameter, 7.25 m long and utilizes three different sizes of room temperature aluminum coils. The magnet will operate with a field set from 0.25 T to 0.5 T and have a field uniformity of better than 1000 ppm over a portion of its interior region. This paper describes the magnet design, fabrication and assembly requirements and presents the current construction status.

  19. Spectral line-diode registry effects with photodiode array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Winge, R.K.; Fassel, V.A.; Eckels, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    A limitation of photodiode array detectors for spectroscopic intensity measurements relates to the spacing of the diodes and the errors generated when a spectral line is not in exact registry with the diode or diodes from which its intensity is being measured. These misregistry intensity errors, which may be as high as 25 to 30%, are documented for a range of spectral bandwidths and for single diode (pixel) intensities and multiple diode summations of intensities.

  20. Constructing a 4-TESLA Large Thin Solenoid at the Limit of what can BE Safely Operated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, A.

    The 4-tesla, 6 m free bore CMS solenoid has been successfully tested, operated and mapped at CERN during the autumn of 2006 in a surface hall and fully recommissioned in the underground experimental area in the autumn of 2008. The conceptual design started in 1990, the R&D studies in 1993, and the construction was approved in 1997. At the time the main parameters of this project were considered beyond what was thought possible as, in particular, the total stored magnetic energy reaches 2.6 GJ for a specific magnetic energy density exceeding 11 kJ/kg of cold mass. During this period, the international design and construction team had to make several important technical choices, particularly mechanical ones, to maximize the chances of reaching the nominal induction of 4 T. These design choices are explained and critically reviewed in the light of what is presently known to determine if better solutions would be possible today for constructing a new large high-field thin solenoid for a future detector magnet.

  1. Ohmic-heating solenoid design utilizing forced-cooled windings

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using NbTi internally cooled cable superconductor (ICCS) in the ohmic-heating central solenoid for the fusion engineering device (FED). The ICCS conductor provides cryostable operation with liberal stability margin. The forced cooled concept has a high winding current density which reduces the size and the cost of the device. The forced-cooled concept requires complex helium manifolding, but a unique approach has been developed to solve the problem. The conductor design, the winding design, and the performance analyses are described. The solenoid is designed to operate at 8-T peak field and provides 60 MAT. The operating current for the solenoid is 21.3 kA, which is 60% of the critical current at 8 T.

  2. Precision Motion Control of Linear DC Solenoid Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeharu; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    High speed and high precision control has been required in various cases. Hence, a new linear actuator based on Linear DC Solenoid Motor (LDSM), is developed for that purpose. In addition, we propose a precision motion control for LDSM. LDSM is composed of solenoid stator and moving permanent magnet. It has simple and light structure. Moreover, the solenoid form provides small leakage and generates more power than non-linear motor. Nevertheless, the nonlinear disturbance force such as friction force prevents LDSM from controlling precisely. In this paper, the high gain disturbance observer is applied to LDSM to suppress the force. The observer is able to estimate and compensate the nonlinear disturbance force. It is confirmed that the proposed precision motion control provides LDSM with precise observer control position and force through the experiments.

  3. A Superconducting Solenoid for Heavy Ion Beam Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Takeo; Imai, Yoshio; Minato, Tsuneaki; Seo, Kazutaka

    1997-05-01

    A superconducting solenoid has been constructed to use as a final focusing element at the entrance of the projectile fragment separator RIPS (T. Kubo et al, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. B70 (1992) 309) at RIKEN. The design field on axis is 6 tesla, the average current density being 9,600 A/cm^2. The overall coil length is 1.1 meter, and the coil is divided into three sections of equal length to ease winding and possibly to distribute the stored energy. A major feature of the magnet is that cooling is conductive without LHe involved, using a cryocooler directly attached onto the coil. The solenoid is currently being tested, and the test results will be presented. After magnet testing, the solenoid will be installed in the beamline. The results of beam experiment will also be presented, along with calculation results with TRANSPORT.

  4. The magnetic design and field measurement of Fermilab collider detectors: CDF (the Collider Detector at Fermilab) and D0

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.

    1990-02-01

    General magnetic characteristics of the CDF and D0 hadron collider detectors at Fermilab are described. The method and equipment for the field measurement for both detectors are described, and their field measurement data are presented. The magnetic field distribution inside the CDF solenoid magnet was measured extensively only at the boundaries, and the field values inside the volume were reconstructed. The effects due to the joints and the return conductor were measured and are discussed. The flux distribution inside the yokes and the fringing field of the D0 toroids were calculated and compared with measured data. A proposal to generate dipole magnetic field inside the D0 toroidal magnet is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The Results of Recent MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoid Test

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A; Virostek, Steve P.; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-10-15

    The MICE spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The MICE spectrometer solenoids may be the largest magnets that have been cooled using small two stage coolers. During the previous test of this magnet, the cooler first stage temperatures were too high. The causes of some of the extra first stage heat load has been identified and corrected. The rebuilt magnet had a single stage GM cooler in addition to the three pulse tube coolers. The added cooler reduces the temperature of the top of the HTS leads, the shield and of the first stage of the pulse tube coolers.

  6. Note: An improved solenoid driver valve for miniature shock tubes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, P T

    2016-05-01

    A solenoid driver valve has been built to improve the operating performance of diaphragmless shock tubes, which are used for high pressure, high temperature chemical kinetics, and fluid mechanics studies. For shock tube driver application, the most important characteristics are those of sealing, strength, and quality of the generated shock waves and repeatability of opening characteristics and therefore subsequent post-shock conditions. The main features of the new driver valve are a face o-ring sealing design of the valve, the large internal volume, and through inserts near the solenoid core: adjustable opening characteristics of the valve. PMID:27250485

  7. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  8. Large area Si low-temperature light detectors with Neganov-Luke effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giordano, C.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Margesin, B.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.

    2015-10-01

    Next generation calorimetric experiments for the search of rare events rely on the detection of tiny amounts of light (of the order of 20 optical photons) to discriminate and reduce background sources and improve sensitivity. Calorimetric detectors are the simplest solution for photon detection at cryogenic (mK) temperatures. The development of silicon based light detectors with enhanced performance thanks to the use of the Neganov-Luke effect is described. The aim of this research line is the production of high performance detectors with industrial-grade reproducibility and reliability.

  9. The Effect of Twin Boundaries on the Spectroscopic Performance of CdZnTe Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.; Stahle, C. M.; Roth, D.; Babu, S.; Tueller, Jack; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most single grains in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) grown by the high-pressure Bridgman (HPB) technique contain multiple twin boundaries. As a consequence, twin boundaries are one of the most common macroscopic material defects found in large area (400 to 700 sq mm) CdZnTe specimens obtained from HPB ingots. Due to the prevalence of twin boundaries, understanding their effect on detector performance is key to the material selection process. Twin boundaries in several 2 mm thick large area specimens were first, documented using infrared transmission imaging. These specimens were then fabricated into either 2 mm pixel or planar detectors in order to examine the effect of the twin boundaries on detector performance. Preliminary results show that twin boundaries, which are decorated with tellurium inclusions, produce a reduction in detector efficiency and a degradation in resolution. The extent of the degradation appears to be a function of the density of tellurium inclusions.

  10. Energy losses in the D0 {beta} solenoid cryostat caused by current changes

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-11-01

    The proposed D0 {beta} solenoid is a superconducting solenoid mounted inside an aluminum tube which supports the solenoid winding over it`s full length. This aluminum support tube, also called bobbin, is therefore very tightly coupled to magnetic flux changes caused by solenoid current variations. These current changes in the solenoid, will cause answer currents to flow in the resistive bobbin wall and therefore cause heat losses. The insertion of an external dump resistor in the solenoid current loop reduces energy dissipation inside the cryostat during a quench and will shorten the discharge time constant. This note presents a simple electrical model for the coupled bobbin and solenoid and makes it easier to understand the circuit behavior and losses. Estimates for the maximum allowable rate of solenoid current changes, based on the maximum permissible rate of losses can be made using this model.

  11. Single event effects and their mitigation for the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, Richard J.; D'Auria, Saverio; Dong, Peter; Hocker, Andy; Kordas, Kostas; McGimpsey, Susan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Wallny, Rainer; Schmitt, Wayne; Worm, Steven; /Fermilab /Toronto U. /Glasgow U. /Rutherford /UCLA

    2005-11-01

    We present an overview of radiation induced failures and operational experiences from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). In our summary, we examine single event effects (SEE) in electronics located in and around the detector. We present results of experiments to identify the sources and composition of the radiation and steps to reduce the rate of SEEs in our electronics. Our studies have led to a better, more complete understanding of the radiation environment in a modern hadron collider experiment.

  12. The HERMES recoil detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

    2013-05-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  13. Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors and the effect on measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gookin, Ben

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a high-energy cosmic ray observatory located in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina. It is used to probe the highest energy particles in the Universe, with energies greater than 1018 eV, which strike the Earth constantly. The observatory uses two techniques to observe the air shower initiated by a cosmic ray: a surface detector composed of an array of more than 1600 water Cherenkov tanks covering 3000 km2, and 27 nitrogen fluorescence telescopes overlooking this array. The Cherenkov detectors run all the time and therefore have high statistics on the air showers. The fluorescence detectors run only on clear moonless nights, but observe the longitudinal development of the air shower and make a calorimetric measure of its energy. The energy measurement from the the fluorescence detectors is used to cross calibrate the surface detectors, and makes the measurements made by the Auger Observatory surface detector highly model-independent. The calibration of the fluorescence detectors is then of the utmost importance to the measurements of the Observatory. Described here are the methods of the absolute and multi-wavelength calibration of the fluorescence detectors, and improvements in each leading to a reduction in calibration uncertainties to 4% and 3.5%, respectively. Also presented here are the effects of introducing a new, and more detailed, multi-wavelength calibration on the fluorescence detector energy estimation and the depth of the air shower maximum measurement, leading to a change of 1+-0.03% in the absolute energy scale at 1018 eV, and a negligible change in the measurement on shower maximum.

  14. A unidirectional rotary solenoid as applied to stronglinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1989-01-01

    The design goals and results of an advanced development stronglink are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on a new rotary solenoid concept to provide improved security during the handling, storage, transporting, and deployment of weapons to prevent accidental detonation of the weapons in the event of abnormal environments, such as impact, fire, crush, etc.

  15. Monitoring circuit accurately measures movement of solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Solenoid operated valve in a control system powered by direct current issued to accurately measure the valve travel. This system is currently in operation with a 28-vdc power system used for control of fluids in liquid rocket motor test facilities.

  16. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  17. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-05-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  18. A Computer Study of Beam Transport by Solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chun Fai; Lee, Edward P.

    1997-11-01

    Beam transport by solenoids provides an alternative to the use of electrostatic quadrupole arrays that has been less studied for applications to heavy ion fusion drivers. A 1-d code (named SALT, for Solenoid Applications to Linac Transport) has been developed to simulate the axisymmetric beam dynamics through a sequence of solenoids. The beam is modeled as a set of ringlets, with radius and momentum traced in the axial coordinate. Solenoid fringe field aberrations, envelope matching, phase space evolution and emittance growth are studied using relativistically correct equations that include the electric and magnetic fields of the beam. Initial application is to the transport of a 2 MeV, 31.10 Ampere of K^+ beam through a channel of strength 6 Tesla. This implies a line charge density of 10 μC/m, a factor of 40 above the realistic limit for electrostatic quadrupoles. A second application is to the focusing of a 20 MeV, 4 kA electron beam down to its emittance limit.

  19. Marketing solenoid power saving device. Third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-06

    I am continuing to explore three methods of marketing the solenoid power saving device. Since the redesign reported in the last report, we are pursuing both the OEM market, the distributor market in both turf and agricultural areas, and the export market. Progress in these areas is discussed: OEM, distribution; and export.

  20. 24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS AND BREAKERS FOR RECEPTACLES ON SEVERAL STATIONS. BOXES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Physics capabilities of the DO upgrade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.

    1994-11-01

    The D0 detector at Fermilab is being upgraded to meet the demands imposed by high luminosity Tevatron running planned to begin in 1998. The central tracking detectors will be replaced with silicon and scintillating fiber tracking systems inside a solenoidal magnetic field and a preshower detector will be added to aid in electron identification. The design and performance of these systems are described and detailed simulations of the physics capabilities of the upgraded detector are presented. In particular the authors focus on the study of electroweak boson properties and top quark physics and briefly describe the b-physics capabilities.

  2. THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS DETECTOR GEOMETRIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CZT USING ONE CRYSTAL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Teague, L.

    2011-06-21

    CdZnTe (CZT) continues to be a major thrust interest mainly due to its potential application as a room temperature radiation detector. The performance of CZT detectors is directly related to the charge collection ability which can be affected by the configuration of the electrical contact. The charge collection efficiency is determined in part by the specific geometry of the anode contact which serves as the readout electrode. In this report, contact geometries including single pixel, planar, coplanar, and dual anode will be systematically explored by comparing the performance efficiencies of the detector using both low and high energy gamma rays. To help eliminate the effect of crystal quality variations, the contact geometries were fabricated on the same crystal detector with minimal polishing between contact placements.

  3. Avalanche Effect in Si Heavily Irradiated Detectors: Physical Model and Perspectives for Application

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin V.; Li Z.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Harkonen, J.

    2011-05-07

    The model explaining an enhanced collected charge in detectors irradiated to 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} is developed. This effect was first revealed in heavily irradiated n-on-p detectors operated at high bias voltage ranging from 900 to 1700 V. The model is based on the fundamental effect of carrier avalanche multiplication in the space charge region and in our case is extended with a consideration of p-n junctions with a high concentration of the deep levels. It is shown that the efficient trapping of free carriers from the bulk generation current to the deep levels of radiation induced defects leads to the stabilization of the irradiated detector operation in avalanche multiplication mode due to the reduction of the electric field at the junction. The charge collection efficiency and the detector reverse current dependences on the applied bias have been numerically simulated in this study and they well correlate to the recent experimental results of CERN RD50 collaboration. The developed model of enhanced collected charge predicts a controllable operation of heavily irradiated detectors that is promising for the detector application in the upcoming experiments in a high luminosity collider.

  4. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Inyong; Kang, Taehoon; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage.

  5. Terahertz 3D printed diffractive lens matrices for field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Sypek, Maciej; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Suszek, Jarosław; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Anna; Yahniuk, Ivan; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Nowakowska-Siwińska, Anna; Coquillat, Dominique; But, Dmytro B; Rachoń, Martyna; Węgrzyńska, Karolina; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    We present the concept, the fabrication processes and the experimental results for materials and optics that can be used for terahertz field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays. More specifically, we propose 3D printed arrays of a new type - diffractive multi-zone lenses of which the performance is superior to that of previously used mono-zone diffractive or refractive elements and evaluate them with GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistor terahertz detectors. Experiments performed in the 300-GHz atmospheric window show that the lens arrays offer both a good efficiency and good uniformity, and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the terahertz field-effect transistor detectors by more than one order of magnitude. In practice, we tested 3 × 12 lens linear arrays with printed circuit board THz detector arrays used in postal security scanners and observed significant signal-to-noise improvements. Our results clearly show that the proposed technology provides a way to produce cost-effective, reproducible, flat optics for large-size field-effect transistor THz-detector focal plane arrays. PMID:27607620

  6. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  7. The effect of symmetry on resonant and nonresonant photoresponses in a field-effect terahertz detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. D.; Qin, H. Yang, X. X.; Zhang, Z. P.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, Y.; Wu, D. M.; Zhang, B. S.; Lewis, R. A.; Sun, Y. F.

    2015-01-19

    The effect of the symmetries in the terahertz (THz) field distribution and the field-effect channel on THz photoresponse is examined. Resonant excitation of cavity plasmon modes and nonresonant self-mixing of THz waves are demonstrated in a GaN/AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas with symmetrically designed nanogates, antennas, and filters. We found that the self-mixing signal can be effectively suppressed by the symmetric design and the resonant response benefits from the residual asymmetry. The findings suggest that a single detector may provide both high sensitivity from the self-mixing mechanism and spectral resolution from the resonant response by optimizing the degree of geometrical and/or electronic symmetries.

  8. The effect of magnetic field on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Renema, J. J.; Rengelink, R. J.; Komen, I.; Wang, Q.; Kes, P.; Aarts, J.; Exter, M. P. van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaudio, R.; Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Fiore, A.; Sahin, D.; Driessen, E. F. C.

    2015-03-02

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a magnetic field on photon detection in superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). At low fields, the effect of a magnetic field is through the direct modification of the quasiparticle density of states of the superconductor, and magnetic field and bias current are interchangeable, as is expected for homogeneous dirty-limit superconductors. At the field where a first vortex enters the detector, the effect of the magnetic field is reduced, up until the point where the critical current of the detector starts to be determined by flux flow. From this field on, increasing the magnetic field does not alter the detection of photons anymore, whereas it does still change the rate of dark counts. This result points at an intrinsic difference in dark and photon counts, and also shows that no enhancement of the intrinsic detection efficiency of a straight SSPD wire is achievable in a magnetic field.

  9. Cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Weijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    A prototype of cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors is proposed. Based on the framework of compressive sensing, it is possible to recognize cat-eye effect targets by projecting a series of known random patterns and measuring the backscattered light with three single-pixel detectors in different locations. The prototype only requires simpler, less expensive detectors and extends well beyond the visible spectrum. The simulations are accomplished to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed prototype. We compared our results to that obtained from conventional cat-eye effect target recognition methods using area array sensor. The experimental results show that this method is feasible and superior to the conventional method in dynamic and complicated backgrounds.

  10. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.