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Sample records for deter illicit trafficking

  1. The Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K

    2007-01-30

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the movement of nuclear contraband. To achieve the objectives, all cases involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials must be vigorously pursued and prosecuted when appropriate. The importance of outreach and formal government-to-government relationships with partner nations affected by nuclear trafficking cannot be under-estimated. States that are situated on smuggling routes may be well motivated to counter nuclear crimes to bolster their own border and transportation security as well as strengthen their economic and political viability. National law enforcement and atomic energy agencies in these states are aggressively pursuing a comprehensive strategy to counter nuclear smuggling through increasing reliance on technical nuclear forensics. As part of these activities, it is essential that these organizations be given adequate orientation to the best practices in this emerging discipline including the categorization of interdicted nuclear material, collection of traditional and nuclear forensic evidence, data analysis using optimized analytical protocols, and how to best fuse forensics information with reliable case input to best develop a law enforcement or national security response. The purpose of formalized USG relationship is to establish an institutional framework for collaboration in international forensics, improve standards of forensics practice, conduct joint exercises, and pursue case-work that benefits international security objectives. Just as outreach and formalized relationships are important to cultivate international nuclear forensics, linking nuclear forensics to ongoing national assistance in border and transpiration security, including port of entry of entry monitoring

  2. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  4. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  5. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  6. Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowell, Andrew J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Riensche, Roderick M.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-03-29

    Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

  7. Illicit trafficking of radiological & nuclear materials : modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks.

    SciTech Connect

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  8. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR SMUGGLING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TO THWART ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Biro, T; Chartier, B; Mayer, K; Niemeyer, S; Thompson, P

    2007-10-25

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal association of nuclear forensic practitioners working in partnership with law enforcement, first responder, and nuclear regulatory professionals that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to advance the science of nuclear forensics and to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance. the ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time 30 nations and organizations have participated in 12 annual meetings and two analytical round-robin trials involving plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A third analytical round-robin as well as several table-top exercises are planned for later in 2007-2008. International interest in the ITWG has grown in over the past five years measured by the number of participants at its annual meetings. This growth has spawned the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories as a companion technical affiliate focusing exclusively on the scientific aspects of nuclear forensics and nuclear smuggling incident response.

  9. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791

  10. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2009-01-01

    Subcommittee 45B Radiation Protection Instrumentation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation , IEC 62401 Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material and IEC 62244 Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders .

  11. Action by the Customs Co-operation Council to combat illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gotschlich, G D

    1983-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1953, the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) has been actively involved in combating illicit drug trafficking. CCC has adopted legal measures designed to meet the requirements of member States in their efforts to promote the prevention, investigation and repression of customs offences, including drug smuggling. CCC studies patterns and trends in drug trafficking and promotes ways and means of detecting drug smuggling and financial transactions related to such smuggling. CCC publishes studies and handbooks that serve as practical guides to national customs administrations of member States. In its work to combat drug trafficking, the CCC co-operates with the United Nations bodies concerned with drug control and the International Criminal Police Organizations (ICPO/Interpol). PMID:6563930

  12. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-07-28

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  13. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. K.; Kristo, M. J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, Gordon B.

    2008-05-04

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unathorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  14. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    SciTech Connect

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-04-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation.

  15. Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    The illicit trafficking in small arms is an international problem with grave consequences to those who live in less developed nations. To stop any form of trafficking it is important to ensure the ability to track weapons to their sources, there must be a common international system for the marking and tracing of weapons. Under current international law, states may adopt various different weapons marking systems, complicating the identification of the country-of-origin of a weapon [1]. However, these marking technologies are only good for those firearms that are recovered or captured. By instituting Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) a technology that provides a link to a serial or production build number, by embossing the IFM code on to the cartridge that is fired and ejected at the scene. IFM will provide critical forensic intelligence in regions of conflict by helping to identify patterns, trafficking routes and ultimately shut down illicit arms sources and markets that fuel the violence associated with regional genocide, terrorism and/or insurgency groups within warzones. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) technology will provide a rapid and accurate cartridge-to-firearm identification process, enabling law enforcement both national and international to quickly pursue international arms dealers and other illicit firearm markets. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The IFM tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the intentional firearm microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need

  16. The Council of Europe Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (the Pompidou Group).

    PubMed

    Nagler, N A

    1987-01-01

    The Pompidou Group was set up in 1971 to provide a forum for exchanging views and concerting action in Western Europe in response to the growing drugs problem. Until 1979 it had no formal status, but in 1980 the Group became part of the Council of Europe with member States being free to choose whether to join or not. Its initial membership of six countries has expanded to 16 members. Every two to three years, ministers from member countries meet to review the work of the Group and to set a new programme of activities. Government officials (Permanent Correspondents) then meet to further the programme by arranging meetings, working groups, seminars, symposia and related activities of experts in particular fields. The Group has considered a wide variety of topics of general interest, which included: European cooperation in the control of drug traffic; problems connected with drug addicts in prison; the care of hard-core addicts; problems related to the staffing of treatment and rehabilitation services; the development of administrative monitoring systems for the assessment of public health and social problems related to drug misuse; drug trafficking on the high seas; the role of the criminal justice system in responding to the needs of drug misusers; methods of reaching young people particularly at risk; problems concerning women and drugs; control services at major European airports; cannabis misuse in Europe; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among drug misusers; and consideration of elements for inclusion in a new United Nations convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. PMID:3620762

  17. PNNL Strategic Goods Testbed: A Data Library for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Jennifer B.; Erikson, Luke E.; Toomey, Christopher M.; Lewis, Valerie A.

    2014-05-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has put significant effort into nonproliferation activities as an institution, both in terms of the classical nuclear material focused approach and in the examination of other strategic goods necessary to implement a nuclear program. To assist in these efforts, several projects in the Analysis in Motion (AIM) and Signature Discovery (SDI) Initiatives at PNNL are developing machine learning methodology for human-computer interaction in real time environments to assist analysts in this domain. All of these technical projects require access to data – whether it is in terms of detector data, shipping records, financial information, company relations, or other communications. The first question that mathematical and computational researchers come up with when asked to build analyst assist or automated tools is “What does the data look like? ” They become frustrated when basic questions like this can not be easily answered and this can have the effect of pushing researchers away from the nuclear trafficking domain, especially in strategic commodity and export control areas where data sets can not easily be generated through standard experimental techniques. For small projects that are building a proof of concept for their methodology, obtaining this data can be arduous and expensive. To relieve the burden of data collection from these projects and grow a lab-wide capability, the Strategic Goods Testbed Team has taken over data collection and placed subscriptions and access to flat data files in a centralized location so that all projects can benefit from these items. We have collected shipping data in the form of PIERS records, judicial information about export control cases, NAC data on the nuclear fuel industry, and financial data from Dun and Bradstreet and our data sets are continuing to expand. With a single access agreement, researchers in data-mining and other fields can utilize all of the records that have been

  18. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  19. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  20. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  1. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  2. Environment and drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bryson, L O

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drug trafficking is a very complex matter, not only because it causes serious and pernicious problems in the socio-economic sphere, but because drug-taking can lead to personal degradation. To this situation, lamentable enough in itself, must be added the immense ecological and environmental damage, which presents grave and serious dangers for the planet. PMID:1302599

  3. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  4. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... TRAFFICKING (English) Listen < Back to Search FACT SHEET: HUMAN TRAFFICKING (English) Published: August 2, 2012 Topics: Public Awareness , ... organizations that protect and serve trafficking victims. National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.373.7888 Last ...

  5. Law enforcement approaches and measures used in countering illicit drug problems in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yodmani, C

    1992-01-01

    The Government of Thailand, which has long recognized the serious threat posed by illicit drugs, has implemented stringent law enforcement measures aimed at suppressing illicit drug trafficking by dismantling clandestine laboratories, intercepting essential chemicals, effecting significant seizures and eradicating illicit crops. In addition, the Government has taken steps to initiate the enactment of legislation providing for the confiscation of proceeds derived from illicit drug trafficking activity. Furthermore, it has maintained and strengthened its already close bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the field of drug abuse control. PMID:1477702

  6. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers. PMID:23862261

  7. Can Nuclear Terrorists be Deterred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Charles

    2005-04-01

    Conventional thinking since September 11, 2001, posits that nuclear-armed terrorists cannot be deterred. However, not all terrorist groups are alike. For instance, those that are strongly affiliated with a national territory or a constituency that can be held hostage are more likely to be self-deterred against using or even acquiring nuclear weapons. In contrast, international terrorist organizations, such as al Qaeda, or apocalyptic groups, such as Aum Shinrikyo, may welcome retaliatory nuclear strikes because they embrace martyrdom. Such groups may be immune to traditional deterrence, which threatens direct punishment against the group in question or against territory or people the terrorists' value. Although deterring these groups may appear hopeless, nuclear forensic techniques could provide the means to establish deterrence through other means. In particular, as long as the source of the nuclear weapon or fissile material could be identified, the United States could threaten a retaliatory response against a nation that did not provide adequate security for its nuclear weapons or weapons-usable fissile material. This type of deterrent threat could be used to compel the nation with lax security to improve its security to meet rigorous standards.

  8. Illicit traffic and abuse of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Keele, S A

    1984-01-01

    There has been an increasing availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada in recent years. Cocaine abuse has spread from the affluent adult sectors of society to middle-income groups and the young, involving large sections of the population. The increase in illicit demand for, and the social acceptability of, cocaine has led to an increase in illicit cocaine supply. The availability of cocaine on the illicit market has been sustained by a vast over-production of the raw materials needed to produce cocaine in coca-growing areas of South America and the activities of sophisticated trafficking organizations with large operations and profits. As a result, cocaine prices at the wholesale level in South America and Canada are declining, and at the retail level in Canada have remained relatively stable or have slightly decreased. It has been estimated that more than one half of the amount of cocaine on the illicit market in Canada was illegally produced in Colombia, but the main quantities of the raw materials used for such production originated in Bolivia and Peru. Cocaine is smuggled into Canada primarily by commercial air transport, arriving at the three principal ports of entry, namely Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, from whence it is distributed to other parts of the country. As drug law enforcement efforts increase in one area, traffickers shift their illicit operations to other areas in an attempt to escape detection. Current evidence suggests that both the availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada are likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:6569821

  9. Examining the Risk of Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya; Severe, William R; Schoeneck, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The need to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials around the world is undeniable and urgent. This issue is particularly evident due to the highly dangerous consequences of the risks involved, the known interest of terrorist groups in acquiring such materials and the vulnerability of theft and diversion of such materials. Yet the phenomenon of nuclear trafficking remains a subject where the unknown dominates what is known on the subject. The trafficking panel at the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Workshop on Reducing the Risk of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials that took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 10-11, 2009, dealt with some of the issues associated with nuclear trafficking. Different points of view on how to better address trafficking and thwart perpetrator efforts were discussed. This paper presents some of these views and addresses practical measures that should be considered to improve the situation.

  10. Rapid determination of the isomeric truxillines in illicit cocaine via capillary gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and their use and implication in the determination of cocaine origin and trafficking routes.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F

    2014-10-17

    The isomeric truxillines are a group of minor alkaloids present in all illicit cocaine samples. The relative amount of truxillines in cocaine is indicative of the variety of coca used for cocaine processing, and thus, is useful in source determination. Previously, the determination of isomeric truxillines in cocaine was performed with a gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. However, due to the tedious sample preparation as well as the expense and maintenance required of electron capture detectors, the protocol was converted to a gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection method. Ten truxilline isomers (alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon-, gamma-, omega, zeta-, peri-, neo-, and epi-) were quantified relative to a structurally related internal standard, 4',4″-dimethyl-α-truxillic acid dimethyl ester. The method was shown to have a linear response from 0.001 to 1.00 mg/mL and a lower detection limit of 0.001 mg/mL. In this method, the truxillines are directly reduced with lithium aluminum hydride and then acylated with heptafluorobutyric anhydride prior to analysis. The analysis of more than 100 cocaine hydrochloride samples is presented and compared to data obtained by the previous methodology. Authentic cocaine samples obtained from the source countries of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru were also analyzed, and comparative data on more than 23,000 samples analyzed over the past 10 years with the previous methodology is presented. PMID:25219521

  11. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  12. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  13. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to debt bondage or peonage in which traffickers demand labor as a means repayment for a real ... human smuggling are two separate crimes under federal law. There are several important differences between them. Human ...

  14. Geolocation and route attribution in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, I; Niemeyer, S

    1999-04-01

    We present a matrix of 60 possible forensic tools. If the specifics of the types of materials and analytical techniques are included, the number becomes vastly greater. Accordingly, the prioritization and discretion is addressed that should be utilized to select the most useful tools.

  15. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive materials at choke points, searching for nuclear materials, and developing instruments for response personnel.

  16. Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2011-11-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  17. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268

  18. Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

    2009-03-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

  19. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  20. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. PMID:23770638

  1. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  2. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  3. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  4. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  5. Raman spectroscopy of illicit substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Robert J.; Faulds, Karen; Smith, W. Ewen

    2007-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a very effective method of identifying an illicit substance in situ without separation or contact other than with a laser beam. The equipment required is steadily improving and is now reliable and simple to operate. Costs are also coming down and hand held portable spectrometers are proving very effective. The main limitations on the use of the technique are that it is insensitive in terms of the number of incident photons converted into Raman scattered photons and fluorescence produced in the sample by the incident radiation interferes. Newer methods, still largely in the development phase, will increase the potential for selected applications. The use of picosecond pulsed lasers can discriminate between fluorescence and Raman scattering and this has been used in the laboratory to examine street samples of illicit drugs. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering, in which the analyte requires to be adsorbed onto a roughened metal surface, creates a sensitivity to compete with fluorescence and quenches fluorescence for molecules on a surface. This provides the ability to detect trace amounts of substances in some cases. The improving optics, detection capability and the reliability of the new methods indicate that the potential for the use of Raman spectroscopy for security purposes will increase with time.

  6. Illicit drug use by women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ford, J A

    1998-08-01

    As in the general female population, women with disabilities face a number of situations that encourage illicit drug use, such as low self-esteem, peer pressure, and family history of substance abuse. In addition, women with disabilities more frequently encounter problems of personal adjustment, unusual developmental experiences, easy access to prescription drugs, unemployment, and medical or health-related difficulties. Using a random sample of 900 women with disabilities, we conducted a study of the patterns of illicit drug use and risk factors relating to illicit drug use among women with various disabilities. Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, illicit drug use by a best friend, being a victim of substance-abuse-related violence, and attitudes toward substance use by people with disabilities were significantly related to illicit drug use by the study population. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9741943

  7. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  8. 50 CFR 18.34 - Guidelines for use in safely deterring polar bears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... their employee, or their agent, can use to deter a polar bear from damaging private property; or that any person can use to deter a polar bear from endangering personal safety; or that a government employee can use to deter a polar bear from damaging public property, and not cause the serious injury...

  9. 50 CFR 18.34 - Guidelines for use in safely deterring polar bears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... their employee, or their agent, can use to deter a polar bear from damaging private property; or that any person can use to deter a polar bear from endangering personal safety; or that a government employee can use to deter a polar bear from damaging public property, and not cause the serious injury...

  10. Teratogenic risks from exposure to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F

    2014-06-01

    Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487

  11. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  12. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 210 / Monday, November 1, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-16 of September 15, 2010 Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug...

  13. Use of electrical barriers to deter movement of round goby

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Jude, David J.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    An electrical barrier was chosen as a possible means to deter movement of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Feasibility studies in a 2.1-m donut-shaped tank determined the electrical parameters necessary to inhibit round goby from crossing the 1-m stretch of the benthic, electrical barrier. Increasing electrical pulse duration and voltage increased effectiveness of the barrier in deterring round goby movement through the barrier. Differences in activity of round goby during daytime and nocturnal tests did not change the effectiveness of the barrier. In field verification studies, an electrical barrier was placed between two blocking nets in the Shiawassee River, Michigan. The barrier consisted of a 6-m wide canvas on which were laid four cables carrying the electrical current. Seven experiments were conducted, wherein 25 latex paint-marked round goby were introduced upstream of the electrical barrier and recovered 24 h later upstream, on, and downstream of the barrier. During control studies, round goby moved across the barrier within 20 min from release upstream. With the barrier on and using the prescribed electrical settings shown to inhibit passage in the laboratory, the only marked round goby found below the barrier were dead. At reduced pulse durations, a few round goby (mean one/test) were found alive, but debilitated, below the barrier. The electrical barrier could be incorporated as part of a program in reducing movement of adult round goby through artificial connections between the watersheds.

  14. Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: A nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, Paul; Gartner, Coral; Thai, Phong; Carter, Steve; Lloyd, Belinda; Burns, Lucy; Mueller, Jochen

    2016-10-15

    Obtaining representative information on illicit drug use and patterns across a country remains difficult using surveys because of low response rates and response biases. A range of studies have used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a complementary approach to monitor community-wide illicit drug use. In Australia, no large-scale WBE studies have been conducted to date to reveal illicit drug use profiles in a national context. In this study, we performed the first Australia-wide WBE monitoring to examine spatial patterns in the use of three illicit stimulants (cocaine, as its human metabolite benzoylecgonine; methamphetamine; and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)). A total of 112 daily composite wastewater samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment plants across four states and two territories. These covered approximately 40% of the Australian population. We identified and quantified illicit drug residues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There were distinctive spatial patterns of illicit stimulant use in Australia. Multivariate analyses showed that consumption of cocaine and MDMA was higher in the large cities than in rural areas. Also, cocaine consumption differed significantly between different jurisdictions. Methamphetamine consumption was more similar between urban and rural locations. Only a few cities had elevated levels of use. Extrapolation of the WBE estimates suggested that the annual consumption was 3tonnes for cocaine and 9tonnes combined for methamphetamine and MDMA, which outweighed the annual seizure amount by 25 times and 45 times, respectively. These ratios imply the difficulty of detecting the trafficking of these stimulants in Australia, possibly more so for methamphetamine than cocaine. The obtained spatial pattern of use was compared with that in the most recent national household survey. Together both WBE and survey methods provide a more comprehensive evaluation of drug use that can assist

  15. First evaluation of illicit and licit drug consumption based on wastewater analysis in Fort de France urban area (Martinique, Caribbean), a transit area for drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi

    2014-08-15

    Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking. PMID:24914526

  16. Deterring Online Advertising Fraud through Optimal Payment in Arrears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, Benjamin

    Online advertisers face substantial difficulty in selecting and supervising small advertising partners: Fraud can be well-hidden, and limited reputation systems reduce accountability. But partners are not paid until after their work is complete, and advertisers can extend this delay both to improve detection of improper partner practices and to punish partners who turn out to be rule-breakers. I capture these relationships in a screening model with delayed payments and probabilistic delayed observation of agents’ types. I derive conditions in which an advertising principal can set its payment delay to deter rogue agents and to attract solely or primarily good-type agents. Through the savings from excluding rogue agents, the principal can increase its profits while offering increased payments to good-type agents. I estimate that a leading affiliate network could have invoked an optimal payment delay to eliminate 71% of fraud without decreasing profit.

  17. Ciliopathies: The Trafficking Connection

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Kayalvizhi; Aguilar, R. Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium (PC) is a very dynamic hair-like membrane structure that assembles/disassembles in a cell-cycle dependent manner and is present in almost every cell type. Despite being continuous with the plasma membrane, a diffusion barrier located at the ciliary base confers the PC properties of a separate organelle with very specific characteristics and membrane composition. Therefore, vesicle trafficking is the major process by which components are acquired for cilium formation and maintenance. In fact, a system of specific sorting signals controls the right of cargo admission into the cilia. Disruption to the ciliary structure or its function leads to multi-organ diseases known as ciliopathies. These illnesses arise from a spectrum of mutations in any of the more than 50 loci linked to these conditions. Therefore, it is not surprising that symptom variability (specific manifestations and severity) among and within ciliopathies seems to be an emerging characteristic. Nevertheless, one can speculate that mutations occurring in genes whose products contribute to the overall vesicle trafficking to the PC (i.e., affecting cilia assembly) will lead to more severe symptoms, while those involved in the transport of specific cargoes will result in milder phenotypes. In this review, we summarize the trafficking mechanisms to the cilia and also provide a description of the trafficking defects observed in some ciliopathies which can be correlated to the severity of the pathology. PMID:25040720

  18. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge. PMID:17132580

  19. Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenstein, Albert E.

    1995-03-01

    This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national

  20. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANTS AND INTRODUCING BROKERS IN COMMODITIES Special Information Sharing Procedures... deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  1. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  2. Antisocial pool rewarding does not deter public cooperation.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-10-01

    Rewarding cooperation is in many ways expected behaviour from social players. However, strategies that promote antisocial behaviour are also surprisingly common, not just in human societies, but also among eusocial insects and bacteria. Examples include sanctioning of individuals who behave prosocially, or rewarding of free-riders who do not contribute to collective enterprises. We therefore study the public goods game with antisocial and prosocial pool rewarding in order to determine the potential negative consequences on the effectiveness of positive incentives to promote cooperation. Contrary to a naive expectation, we show that the ability of defectors to distribute rewards to their like does not deter public cooperation as long as cooperators are able to do the same. Even in the presence of antisocial rewarding, the spatial selection for cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas is enhanced. Since the administration of rewards to either strategy requires a considerable degree of aggregation, cooperators can enjoy the benefits of their prosocial contributions as well as the corresponding rewards. Defectors when aggregated, on the other hand, can enjoy antisocial rewards, but due to their lack of contributions to the public good they ultimately succumb to their inherent inability to secure a sustainable future. Strategies that facilitate the aggregation of akin players, even if they seek to promote antisocial behaviour, thus always enhance the long-term benefits of cooperation. PMID:26400746

  3. Deterring watermark collusion attacks using signal processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Aweke N.; van der Veen, Michiel

    2007-02-01

    Collusion attack is a malicious watermark removal attack in which the hacker has access to multiple copies of the same content with different watermarks and tries to remove the watermark using averaging. In the literature, several solutions to collusion attacks have been reported. The main stream solutions aim at designing watermark codes that are inherently resistant to collusion attacks. The other approaches propose signal processing based solutions that aim at modifying the watermarked signals in such a way that averaging multiple copies of the content leads to a significant degradation of the content quality. In this paper, we present signal processing based technique that may be deployed for deterring collusion attacks. We formulate the problem in the context of electronic music distribution where the content is generally available in the compressed domain. Thus, we first extend the collusion resistance principles to bit stream signals and secondly present experimental based analysis to estimate a bound on the maximum number of modified versions of a content that satisfy good perceptibility requirement on one hand and destructive averaging property on the other hand.

  4. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  5. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  6. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  7. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  8. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  9. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  10. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  11. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  12. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  13. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  14. 31 CFR 1025.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. 1025.520 Section 1025.520... Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1025.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for insurance companies. (a) Refer to § 1010.520...

  15. 31 CFR 1024.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. 1024.520 Section 1024.520 Money... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1024.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for mutual funds. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this...

  16. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  17. 31 CFR 1023.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers in securities. 1023.520... Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1023.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for brokers or dealers...

  18. 31 CFR 1026.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing... To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1026.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for futures commission merchants and introducing...

  19. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  20. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  1. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  2. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  3. Do warnings deter rather than produce more sophisticated malingering?

    PubMed

    Schenk, Kathryn; Sullivan, Karen A

    2010-08-01

    Following Youngjohn, Lees-Haley, and Binder's (1999) comment on Johnson and Lesniak-Karpiak's (1997) study that warnings lead to more subtle malingering, researchers have sought to better understand warning effects. However, such studies have been largely atheoretical and may have confounded warning and coaching. This study examined the effect on malingering of a warning that was based on criminological-sociological concepts derived from the rational choice model of deterrence theory. A total of 78 participants were randomly assigned to a control group, an unwarned simulator group, or one of two warned simulator groups. The warning groups comprised low- and high-level conditions depending on warning intensity. Simulator participants received no coaching about how to fake tests. Outcome variables were scores derived from the Test of Memory Malingering and Wechsler Memory Scale-III. When the rate of malingering was compared across the four groups, a high-level warning effect was found such that warned participants were significantly less likely to exaggerate than unwarned simulators. In an exploratory follow-up analysis, the warned groups were divided into those who reported malingering and those who did not report malingering, and the performance of these groups was compared to that of unwarned simulators and controls. Using this approach, results showed that participants who were deterred from malingering by warning performed no worse than controls. However, on a small number of tests, self-reported malingerers in the low-level warning group appeared less impaired than unwarned simulators. This pattern was not observed in the high-level warning condition. Although cautious interpretation of findings is necessitated by the exploratory nature of some analyses, overall results suggest that using a carefully designed warning may be useful for reducing the rate of malingering. The combination of some noteworthy effect sizes, despite low power and the small size of some

  4. Synopsis of the international workshop on illicit trafficking of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a synopsis is presented of the second ITWG (Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group) meeting that was held in Obninsk, Russia, on December 2-4, 1996, at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.

  5. Illicit substance use in pregnancy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Katherine; Lust, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Illicit substance use is not uncommon in women of childbearing age. The direct effects of illicit substance use on the mother, pregnancy and the fetus are not well understood, in contrast to the indirect effects of social disadvantage and intercurrent medical and psychiatric illness, which are well documented. We have undertaken a review of the current literature regarding the effects of illicit substance use in pregnancy and include a suggested approach to identification and management of at-risk women.

  6. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  7. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  8. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  9. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  10. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  11. Resolution No. 43/121. Use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors, 8 December 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on the use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors. In this Resolution, the General Assembly recalls previous resolutions adopted to fight illicit drugs, expresses alarm at the fact that drug dealers are using children to further their illicit activities and at the increasing number of drug-addicted children, and refers to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the upcoming Convention on the Rights of the Child. Based on this, the UN condemns all forms of drug trafficking, especially those which involve children; urges states to establish programs to protect children from drugs; invites member states with the most urgent problems to adopt additional measures; calls for suitably severe punishment of drug-trafficking crimes that involve children; urges all organizations to place high priority on the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in children; asks international agencies and the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control to give financial support to such programs; and asks the UN Department of Pubic Information of the Secretariat to publish information designed to prevent drug use in children. PMID:12289144

  12. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  13. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  14. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  15. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  16. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  17. Urological complications of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-03-01

    Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

  18. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  19. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions. PMID:16846602

  20. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

  1. Predictors of Illicit Drug Use Among Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L.; Sampong, Stephen A.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States of America currently has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and approximately 80% of incarcerated individuals have a history of illicit drug use. Despite institutional prohibitions, drug use continues in prison, and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between prison drug use, duration of incarceration, and a range of covariates. Results Most participants self-reported a history of illicit drug use (77.5%). Seven percent reportedly used drugs during the previous six months of incarceration (n = 100). Participants who had been incarcerated for more than a year were less likely than those incarcerated for longer than a year to report using drugs (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.98). Participants aged 37–89 were less likely than younger prisoners to use drugs (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.80). Heroin users were twice as likely as nonheroin users to use drugs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.04–5.03); crack cocaine users were also twice as likely as participants with no history of crack cocaine usage to report drug use (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.13–5.69). Conclusions Correctional institutions should be used as a resource to offer evidence-based services to curb drug usage. Drug treatment programs for younger prisoners, heroin and crack cocaine users, and at the beginning of a prisoner's sentence should be considered for this population. PMID:26789438

  2. [Use of illicit substances in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace. PMID:22341004

  3. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Houssain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care. PMID:19721944

  4. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  5. Parents' Expectations about Childrearing after Divorce: Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children's economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher economic costs than fathers, whereas fathers expect…

  6. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R.

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  7. Does Three Strikes Really Deter? A Statistical Analysis of Its Impact on Crime Rates in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John; Datta, Anusua

    2009-01-01

    This study uses California crime statistics for the years 1984-2004, to determine what effect, if any, the increased sentencing standards under the three-strikes legislation in California have had in deterring crime. This study follows a new approach in differentiating between the incapacitation effect and the deterrent effect of the law.…

  8. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520...) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR OPERATORS OF CREDIT CARD SYSTEMS... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  9. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520...) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR OPERATORS OF CREDIT CARD SYSTEMS... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  10. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520...) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR OPERATORS OF CREDIT CARD SYSTEMS... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  11. 31 CFR 1028.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit card systems. 1028.520...) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR OPERATORS OF CREDIT CARD SYSTEMS... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for operators of credit...

  12. 31 CFR 1020.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. 1020.520 Section 1020.520 Money and... Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1020.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this chapter. (b)...

  13. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  14. 31 CFR 1020.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. 1020.520 Section 1020.520 Money and... Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1020.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this chapter. (b)...

  15. 31 CFR 1020.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. 1020.520 Section 1020.520 Money and... Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1020.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this chapter. (b)...

  16. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  17. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  18. 31 CFR 1027.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for dealers in precious metals, precious stones, or... Terrorist Activity § 1027.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and...

  19. 31 CFR 1020.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. 1020.520 Section 1020.520 Money and... Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1020.520 Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for banks. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this chapter. (b)...

  20. 31 CFR 1030.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for housing government sponsored enterprises. 1030... ENTERPRISES Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 1030.520... government sponsored enterprises. (a) Refer to § 1010.520 of this chapter. (b)...

  1. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  2. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  3. Illicit Drugs and their Impact on Cardiovascular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bădilă, Elisabeta; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Weiss, Emma; Bartoş, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The use of illicit drugs has dramatically increased during the past years. Consequently, the number of presentations at the emergency departments due to the adverse effects of the illicit drugs has also increased. This review discusses the cardiovascular effects of cocaine, opiates and opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methamphetamines and hallucinogens as we consider that it is essential for a clinician to be aware of them and understand their mechanisms in order to optimize the therapeutic management. PMID:26710497

  4. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use among women.

    PubMed

    McGann, K P; Spangler, J G

    1997-03-01

    Although the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among women is lower than that among men, women suffer unique adverse health effects from these substances. Furthermore, the use of these substances during pregnancy poses special risks to mother and fetus, including placental accidents, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital anomalies, and premature birth. Primary care clinicians should ask all women about their patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and should offer targeted interventions to those using these products. PMID:9082466

  5. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. PMID:21284727

  6. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  7. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  8. Illicit drugs or medicines taken by parachuting.

    PubMed

    Daveluy, Amélie; Géniaux, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Boucher, Alexandra; Chenaf, Chouki; Deheul, Sylvie; Spadari, Michel; Gérardin, Marie; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Parachuting (also called bombing) is a method of drug delivery where illicit drugs or medicines are ingested after wrapping the substance. There are little data describing parachuting in the literature. To provide a description of this practice, all cases of parachuting reported to the national addictovigilance network up to 31 December 2014 were identified from spontaneous reports and specific surveillance programs. Cases were described according to the type of substance used, patient age and gender, type of complications, context of use and year of the event. Forty-five cases of parachute use were identified and most (n = 43) occurred after 2011. Patients were mostly men (60%), and mean age was 28.9 years. The context of use, known in 19 cases, was mostly recreational. Complications were present in 24 cases, of which eight were serious. The substance was supposed to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the majority of cases (64.4%); research chemicals were more involved in the most recent years. The physical form was mainly granular (51.6%). The wrappers were a cigarette paper (nine cases) and in one case plastic package; in the other cases, the term of parachute was used without further details. The reason for use was not explained in the majority of cases; two patients indicated using a parachute for faster effect than with a methadone capsule. Clinicians should be aware of this delivery form as the results suggest that it is common and can involve a great variability of drugs. PMID:26609911

  9. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  10. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  11. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs. PMID:18414161

  12. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

  13. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions. PMID:26903898

  14. Trafficking of the Follitropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Dias, James A.; Bousfield, George; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Reiter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The follitropin or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is mainly expressed in specific cells in the gonads. As any other GPCR, the newly synthesized FSHR has to be correctly folded and processed in order to traffic to the cell surface plasma membrane and interact with its cognate ligand. In this chapter, we describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to study outward trafficking of the FSHR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also describe some methods to analyze phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, internalization, and recycling of this particular receptor, which have proved useful in our hands for dissecting its downward trafficking and fate following agonist stimulation. PMID:23351732

  15. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    PubMed

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it. PMID:20645471

  16. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  17. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  18. Pedagogical patronizing of the pharmacodynamic promises of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, P A

    1992-01-01

    A review of popular drug education textbooks and curricula indicated most juxtapose the physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs. This misrepresentation ignores the literature, which is undivided, in reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes such as: sodium acetate, sodium cyclamate, dolomite, acetaminophen, gypsum, mannitol, inositol, lidocaine, amydricaine, benzocaine, caffeine, ephedrine, intercaine, phenylpropanolamine, piperocaine, procainamide, azopyridine, bromodiphenhydramine, ibuprofen, methaqualone, phenobarital trazodone, acetylcodine, codeine, quinine, quinidine, thallium, arsenic and strychnine. The temptation to extrapolate the results of licitly pure drug lots administered at precisely measured doses to represent the pharmacodynamics of illegally prepared drug lots administered at indiscernible doses must be avoided in drug educational resources. There is a pressing need to correct the factual base, both implied and suggestive, of drug education resources regarding the purity and toxicity of illicitly manufactured and purchased drugs. PMID:1593391

  19. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. PMID:19275609

  20. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  1. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. PMID:20550943

  2. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  3. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  4. Analysis of GPCR Localization and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, James N.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Localization and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is increasingly recognized to play a fundamental role in receptor-mediated signaling and its regulation. Individual receptors, including closely homologous subtypes with otherwise similar functional properties, can differ considerably in their membrane trafficking properties. In this chapter, we describe several approaches for experimentally assessing the subcellular localization and trafficking of selected GPCRs. Firstly, we describe a flexible method for receptor localization using fluorescence microscopy. We then describe two complementary approaches, using fluorescence flow cytometry and surface biotinylation, for examining receptor internalization and trafficking in the endocytic pathway. PMID:21607873

  5. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  6. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  7. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  8. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  9. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

  10. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  11. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  12. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Spiltoir, Jessica I; Strickland, Devin; Glotzer, Michael; Tucker, Chandra L

    2016-07-15

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  13. Factors in life science textbooks that may deter girls' interest in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Ellen F.; Rosser, Sue V.

    In order to examine factors that may deter girls' interest in science, five seventh-grade life science textbooks were analyzed for sexism in language, images, and curricular content, and for features of activities that have been found to be useful for motivating girls. Although overt sexism was not apparent, subtle forms of sexism in the selection of language, images, and curricular content were found. Activities had some features useful to girls, but other features were seldom included. Teachers may wish to use differences that were found among texts as one basis for text selection.

  14. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors. PMID:26834147

  15. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  16. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products. PMID:26020137

  17. National policy for deterring the use of weapons of mass destruction. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, D.A.; Brannum, R.K.; Turmelle, D.R.; Boyette, G.T.; Napolitano, W.M.

    1996-04-01

    Since the advent of the nuclear arms race, the US has developed and maintained a policy and associated capabilities to deter offensive use of these weapons against US forces, citizens and allies. With the end of the Cold War and the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction has changed dramatically. The viability of traditional deterrence strategy is now questionable with respect to these new WMD threats and actors. However, the military will continue to play a key role in any deterrent strategy because of the inherent nature of its capabilities. This paper examines those capabilities and presents recommendations to modify and strengthen US WMD deterrent strategy. Chapter 1 describes the post-Cold War international context in which deterrence must be achieved, limits the scope of the study to the use of military forces in deterrent roles, and describes the threat currently posed by WMD. Chapter 2 presents key terms, describes key concepts of deterrence theory and describes the methodology used to complete the study. Chapter 3 addresses the spectrum of deterrent capabilities provided by military forces, ranging from the extreme of a massive nuclear strike to less lethal options such as Special Operations Forces employment and defensive systems. Chapter 4 discusses US deterrent policy, including nonproliferation and the use of military options. Chapter 5 concludes with recommendations regarding the use of military forces and policies to deter WMD use.

  18. Low-quality sediments deter grazing by the parrotfish Scarus rivulatus on inner-shelf reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Sophie E.; Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.

    2016-03-01

    Elevated sediment loads in the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) deter grazing by herbivorous fishes and may compromise their critical roles on coral reefs. However, the properties of sediments that drive herbivore deterrence are unknown. Binary choice trials in aquaria were used to examine the effects of three sediment attributes—sediment source, grain size and organic load—on grazing by the abundant inner-shelf parrotfish, Scarus rivulatus. Fish were presented with a choice between EAM-covered rocks treated with (a) terrigenous or reefal sediments, (b) fine or coarse sediments or (c) sediments with high or low organic loads. Scarus rivulatus did not show a preference for sediments from different sources (terrigenous vs. reefal); however, a clear preference was evident for fine-grained sediments over coarse (109 % more bites) and sediments with high organic loads over low (147 % more bites). The avoidance of coarse sediments is likely to be a key factor driving the inhibition of grazing on mid-shelf reefs, which are dominated by coarse sediments. In contrast, on inner-shelf reefs, grazing by parrotfishes may be deterred primarily by high sediment loads, which reduce the proportional organic content in EAM sediments. Our study highlights the potential impact of sediments on critical ecological processes and the threats posed by changing sediment loads on inner-shelf reefs.

  19. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China. PMID:26942687

  20. SIGNATURES OF ILLICIT NUCLEAR PROCUREMENT NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW OF PRELIMINARY APPROACHES AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Jennifer B.; Erikson, Luke E.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Best, Daniel M.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2014-05-12

    The illicit trafficking of strategic nuclear commodities (defined here as the goods needed for a covert nuclear program excluding special nuclear materials) poses a significant challenge to the international nuclear nonproliferation community. Export control regulations, both domestically and internationally, seek to inhibit the spread of strategic nuclear commodities by restricting their sale to parties that may use them for nefarious purposes. However, export controls alone are not sufficient for preventing the illicit transfer of strategic nuclear goods. There are two major pitfalls to relying solely on export control regulations for the deterrence of proliferation of strategic goods. First, export control enforcement today relies heavily on the honesty and willingness of participants to adhere to the legal framework already in place. Secondly, current practices focus on the evaluation of single records which allow for the necessary goods to be purchased separately and hidden within the thousands of legitimate commerce transactions that occur each day, disregarding strategic information regarding several purchases. Our research presents two preliminary data-centric approaches for investigating procurement networks of strategic nuclear commodities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been putting significant effort into nonproliferation activities as an institution, both in terms of the classical nuclear material focused approach and in the examination of other strategic goods necessary to implement a nuclear program. In particular, the PNNL Signature Discovery Initiative (SDI) has codified several scientific methodologies for the detection, characterization, and prediction of signatures that are indicative of a phenomenon of interest. The methodologies and tools developed under SDI have already been applied successfully to problems in bio-forensics, cyber security and power grid balancing efforts and they have now made the nonproliferation of

  1. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  2. Dr Pugh and the myth of the illicit still.

    PubMed

    Paull, J D

    2014-07-01

    In her valuable history of the arrival of the news of etherisation in Australia and its implementation by many doctors and dentists, titled One Grand Chain, the late Dr Gwen Wilson asserted that the dentist and the doctor who pioneered etherisation in Australia, "Belisario and Pugh, …were charged by the authorities with possession of an illicit still." This paper examines the evidence for the truth or otherwise of this assertion, in relation to Dr Pugh. PMID:25196958

  3. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

  4. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Neel, Nicole F; Schutyser, Evemie; Sai, Jiqing; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2005-12-01

    The internalization and intracellular trafficking of chemokine receptors have important implications for the cellular responses elicited by chemokine receptors. The major pathway by which chemokine receptors internalize is the clathrin-mediated pathway, but some receptors may utilize lipid rafts/caveolae-dependent internalization routes. This review discusses the current knowledge and controversies regarding these two different routes of endocytosis. The functional consequences of internalization and the regulation of chemokine receptor recycling will also be addressed. Modifications of chemokine receptors, such as palmitoylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, and sulfation, may also impact trafficking, chemotaxis and signaling. Finally, this review will cover the internalization and trafficking of viral and decoy chemokine receptors. PMID:15998596

  5. Adulterants causing false negatives in illicit drug testing.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, S L; Ash, K O

    1988-11-01

    Illicit-drug users may attempt to falsify results by in vitro adulteration of specimens. We investigated eight additives (NaCl, Visine, handsoap, Drano, bleach, vinegar, golden-seal tea, and lemon juice) claimed by drug users to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays. We also analyzed adulterated urine specimens to determine if they could be identified, adding adulterants at several concentrations to 222 EIA-positive specimens confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to contain illicit drugs. To identify adulterated urines, we monitored pH, relative density, and urine color and turbidity at adulterant concentrations that falsified EIA results. Specimens contaminated with NaCl had relative densities greater than 1.035. Liquid Drano, bleach, and vinegar shifted urine pH outside the physiological range. Golden-seal tea caused a dark appearance, and specimens containing liquid soap were unusually cloudy. Lemon juice had no effect on the assays. Visine was the only adulterant not detected. The adulterants interfered somewhat differently with each of the drug assays. EIA assays for illicit drugs can be invalidated by specimen adulteration producing false-negative results. Therefore, if urine drug testing is to be conducted, pH, relative density, and appearance should be assessed and suspect specimens should be rejected. Not all adulterants can be detected, so observed collection is strongly recommended. PMID:3052928

  6. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  7. The effect of relatedness on the response of Adalia bipunctata L. to oviposition deterring cues.

    PubMed

    Martini, X; Dixon, A F G; Hemptinne, J-L

    2013-02-01

    Larvae of aphidophagous ladybirds leave a cue in their tracks that deters oviposition. The influence of relatedness on this behaviour is for the first time explored in this paper. Two-spot ladybird females (Adalia bipunctata L.) under different conditions (young and naive, young and experienced, and old and naive) were exposed either to (i) clean filter paper, (ii) filter paper contaminated with unrelated larval tracks or (iii) filter paper contaminated with related larval tracks from their offspring. Oviposition time was recorded during nine hours. Oviposition was inhibited by larval tracks, and was more so by related than unrelated ones. Experienced females showed the same behaviour but with lower intensity. With old females, response was not significant with any type of larval tracks. This is the first report of the effect of relatedness on a ladybird's response to larval tracks. PMID:22874823

  8. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  9. Oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica L. leaf extract against dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Ahbirami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Dieng, Hamady; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Fadzly, Nik; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2014-09-01

    Bioprospecting of plant-based insecticides for vector control has become an area of interest within the last two decades. Due to drawbacks of chemical insecticides, phytochemicals of plant origin with mosquito control potential are being utilized as alternative sources in integrated vector control. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica (L.) (Family: Convolvulaceae) crude leaf extract against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Ipomoea cairica is an indigenous plant that has demonstrated marked toxicity towards larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaves of I. cairica were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with acetone as solvent. Oviposition deterrent activity and ovicidal assay was carried out in oviposition site choice tests with three different concentrations (50, 100, 450 ppm). Acetone extract of I. cairica leaf strongly inhibited oviposition with 100% repellence to Ae. aegypti at lower concentration of 100 ppm, while for Ae. albopictus was at 450 ppm. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values which ranged from -0.69 to -1.00 revealed that I. cairica demonstrated deterrent effect. In ovicidal assay, similar trend was observed whereby zero hatchability was recorded for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus eggs at 100 and 450 ppm, respectively. It is noteworthy that I. cairica leaf extract had significantly elicited dual properties as oviposition deterrent and oviciding agent in both Aedes species. Reduction in egg number through oviposition deterring activity, reduction in hatching percentage and survival rates, suggested an additional hallmark of this plant to be integrated in Aedes mosquito control. Ipomoea cairica deserved to be considered as one of the potential alternative sources for the new development of novel plant based insecticides in future. PMID:25382472

  10. Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  11. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. PMID:21860320

  12. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    PubMed

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. PMID:27244785

  13. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development. PMID:21948250

  14. Sex trafficking of women and girls.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  15. The Intracellular Trafficking Pathway of Transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Mayle, Kristine M.; Le, Alexander M.; Kamei, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transferrin (Tf) is an iron-binding protein that facilitates iron-uptake in cells. Iron-loaded Tf first binds to the Tf receptor (TfR) and enters the cell through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, Tf is trafficked to early endosomes, delivers iron, and then is subsequently directed to recycling endosomes to be taken back to the cell surface. Scope of Review We aim to review the various methods and techniques that researchers have employed for elucidating the Tf trafficking pathway and the cell-machinery components involved. These experimental methods can be categorized as microscopy, radioactivity, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Major Conclusions Qualitative experiments, such as total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF), electron, laser-scanning confocal, and spinning-disk confocal microscopy, have been utilized to determine the roles of key components in the Tf trafficking pathway. These techniques allow temporal resolution and are useful for imaging Tf endocytosis and recycling, which occur on the order of seconds to minutes. Additionally, radiolabeling and SPR methods, when combined with mathematical modeling, have enabled researchers to estimate quantitative kinetic parameters and equilibrium constants associated with Tf binding and trafficking. General Significance Both qualitative and quantitative data can be used to analyze the Tf trafficking pathway. The valuable information that is obtained about the Tf trafficking pathway can then be combined with mathematical models to identify design criteria to improve the ability of Tf to deliver anticancer drugs. PMID:21968002

  16. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host-parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  17. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  18. Does the Perceived Risk of Punishment Deter Criminally Prone Individuals? Rational Choice, Self-Control, and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bradley R. E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Paternoster, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Society's efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence messages they receive, therefore, may fall on deaf ears. This article examines this issue by…

  19. What Deters Students from Studying Abroad? Evidence from Four European Countries and Its Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netz, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    This study examines factors that deter students in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands from studying abroad. Using an adaptation of the Rubicon model of action phases, the path to gaining study abroad experience is conceptualised as a process involving two thresholds: the decision threshold and the realisation threshold. Theoretical…

  20. Outcomes of a Technology-Based Social Norms Intervention to Deter Alcohol Use in Freshman Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Olds, R. Scott; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Casseday, Sarah; Glavin, Kevin; Berkowitz, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors tested a prototype intervention designed to deter alcohol use in residence halls. Participants: Approximately 384 freshmen participated in the study over a 2-year period. Methods: The authors devised a feedback method that assessed residents' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at night and allowed the readings to be retrieved…

  1. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. (a... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special information sharing...

  2. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. (a... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special information sharing...

  3. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. 1021.520 Section 1021.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 31 CFR 1021.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Special Information Sharing... information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for casinos and card clubs. (a... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special information sharing...

  5. 31 CFR 1029.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. 1029.520 Section 1029.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  6. 31 CFR 1029.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. 1029.520 Section 1029.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  7. 31 CFR 1029.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for loan or finance companies. 1029.520 Section 1029.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  8. 31 CFR 1022.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money services businesses. 1022.520 Section 1022.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  9. 31 CFR 1022.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money services businesses. 1022.520 Section 1022.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  10. 31 CFR 1022.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money services businesses. 1022.520 Section 1022.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  11. 31 CFR 1022.520 - Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special information sharing procedures to deter money laundering and terrorist activity for money services businesses. 1022.520 Section 1022.520 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL...

  12. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  13. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking. PMID:12348692

  14. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. PMID:24218718

  15. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov. PMID:23977773

  16. Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

    2010-06-01

    Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (≥0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

  17. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  18. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A: chemical analysis and drug use estimates.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Barron, Leon; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, community-wide estimation of drug and pharmaceuticals consumption in England using wastewater analysis and a large number of compounds. Among groups of compounds studied were: stimulants, hallucinogens and their metabolites, opioids, morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and others. Obtained results showed the usefulness of wastewater analysis in order to provide estimates of local community drug consumption. It is noticeable that where target compounds could be compared to NHS prescription statistics, good comparisons were apparent between the two sets of data. These compounds include oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, methadone, tramadol, temazepam and diazepam. Whereas, discrepancies were observed for propoxyphene, codeine, dosulepin and venlafaxine (over-estimations in each case except codeine). Potential reasons for discrepancies include: sales of drugs sold without prescription and not included within NHS data, abuse of a drug with the compound trafficked through illegal sources, different consumption patterns in different areas, direct disposal leading to over estimations when using parent compound as the drug target residue and excretion factors not being representative of the local community. It is noticeable that using a metabolite (and not a parent drug) as a biomarker leads to higher certainty of obtained estimates. With regard to illicit drugs, consistent and logical results were reported. Monitoring of these compounds over a one week period highlighted the expected recreational use of many of these drugs (e.g. cocaine and MDMA) and the more consistent use of others (e.g. methadone). PMID:24377678

  19. Sterol dynamics during endocytic trafficking in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stanislas, Thomas; Grebe, Markus; Boutté, Yohann

    2014-01-01

    Sterols are lipids found in membranes of eukaryotic cells. Functions of sterols have been demonstrated for various cellular processes including endocytic trafficking in animal, fungal, and plant cells. The ability to visualize sterols at the subcellular level is crucial to understand sterol distribution and function during endocytic trafficking. In plant cells, the polyene antibiotic filipin is the most extensively used tool for the specific detection of fluorescently labeled 3-β-hydroxysterols in situ. Filipin can to some extent be used to track sterol internalization in live cells, but this application is limited, due to the inhibitory effects filipin exerts on sterol-dependent endocytosis. Nevertheless, filipin-sterol labeling can be performed on aldehyde-fixed cells which allows for sterol detection in endocytic compartments. This approach can combine studies correlating sterol distribution with experimental manipulations of endocytic trafficking pathways. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols and troubleshooting for procedures on live and fixed cells to visualize sterols during endocytic trafficking. We also provide a detailed discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods. Moreover, we illustrate the use of the endocytic recycling inhibitor brefeldin A and a genetically modified version of one of its target molecules for studying endocytic sterol trafficking. PMID:25117272

  20. Does Illicit Drug Use Influence Inpatient Adverse Events, Death, Length of Stay, and Discharge After Orthopaedic Trauma?

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Victor D; Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use among adults is increasing, but its associated risk following orthopaedic trauma remains largely unexplored. This study assessed the relationship of illicit drug use with inpatient adverse events, in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay, and nonroutine discharge. With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 7,118,720 orthopaedic trauma inpatients from 2002 to 2011 were identified and separated into illicit drug users (1.5%) and non-illicit drug users (98.5%). Multivariable regression modeling was used to determine the association between illicit drug use and each outcome variable. Illicit drug use was associated with higher odds of inpatient adverse events, but not greater likelihood of inpatient death. Illicit drug users were also more likely to experience prolonged hospital stay and nonroutine discharge. Prompt recognition and effective treatment interventions for orthopaedic trauma patients with a history of illicit drug use may improve inpatient outcomes. PMID:27082887

  1. Cognitive changes in patients with acute phase psychosis--effects of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-12-30

    Illicit drug use may influence cognition in non-affective psychosis. Previous studies have shown better cognition in psychosis with illicit drug use as compared to psychosis only. Possibly, illicit drug using patients have more transient drug-related cognitive deficits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine cognitive change the first weeks after admission to a psychiatric emergency ward, expecting more cognitive improvement at follow-up in the illicit drug group as compared to psychosis only. Patients with acute non-affective psychosis with (26%) and without illicit drug use were examined at baseline (n=123) and follow-up (n=67), with alternative forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Latent Growth Curve models, controlling for cognition at baseline and age differences between the groups, were used to analyze cognitive change. The illicit drug using patients showed the largest improvement in cognition, especially among the youngest patients. Younger patients with non-affective psychosis and illicit drug use showed more cognitive improvement the first weeks after acute psychosis as compared to psychosis only. This suggests that the illicit drug users constitute a sub-group with less stable cognitive deficits and less cognitive vulnerability. PMID:25240944

  2. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  3. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  4. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  5. Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

  6. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  7. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  8. Illicit Use of Androgens and Other Hormones: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Recent findings Androgens and other appearance- and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Summary Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public-health concern. PMID:22450858

  9. The benefit of being a social butterfly: communal roosting deters predation

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Susan D.; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Reed, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Aposematic passion-vine butterflies from the genus Heliconius form communal roosts on a nightly basis. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be beneficial in terms of information sharing and/or anti-predator defence. To better understand the adaptive value of communal roosting, we tested these two hypotheses in field studies. The information-sharing hypothesis was addressed by examining following behaviour of butterflies departing from natural roosts. We found no evidence of roost mates following one another to resources, thus providing no support for this hypothesis. The anti-predator defence hypothesis was tested using avian-indiscriminable Heliconius erato models placed singly and in aggregations at field sites. A significantly higher number of predation attempts were observed on solitary models versus aggregations of models. This relationship between aggregation size and attack rate suggests that communally roosting butterflies enjoy the benefits of both overall decreased attack frequency as well as a prey dilution effect. Communal roosts probably deter predators through collective aposematism in which aggregations of conspicuous, unpalatable prey communicate a more effective repel signal to predators. On the basis of our results, we propose that predation by birds is a key selective pressure maintaining Heliconius communal roosting behaviour. PMID:22438492

  10. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael R. Donaldson; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  11. Vesicle trafficking and cell surface membrane patchiness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Edidin, M

    2001-07-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to lateral mobility. The simulation predicts that the steady-state patches of proteins and lipids seen on the cell surface will decay if vesicle trafficking is inhibited. To test this prediction, we compared the apparent sizes and intensities of patches of class I HLA molecules, integral membrane proteins, before and after inhibiting endocytic vesicle traffic from the cell surface, either by incubation in hypertonic medium or by expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin. As predicted by the simulation, the apparent sizes of HLA patches increased, whereas their intensities decreased after endocytosis and vesicle trafficking were inhibited. PMID:11423406

  12. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  13. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking in Plants.

    PubMed

    Paez Valencia, Julio; Goodman, Kaija; Otegui, Marisa S

    2016-04-29

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex. Proteins that are targeted for degradation through ubiquitination are sorted into endosomal vesicles by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery for degradation in the vacuole. Endocytic and endosomal trafficking regulates many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes, including cellular polarization, hormone transport, metal ion homeostasis, cytokinesis, pathogen responses, and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that mediate the recognition and sorting of endocytic and endosomal cargos, the vesiculation processes that mediate their trafficking, and their connection to cellular and physiological responses in plants. PMID:27128466

  14. Purinergic Signaling During Immune Cell Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Davide; McNamee, Eóin N; Idzko, Marco; Gambari, Roberto; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2016-06-01

    Migration and positioning of immune cells is fundamental for their differentiation and recruitment at sites of infection. Besides the fundamental role played by chemokines and their receptors, recent studies demonstrate that a complex network of purinergic signaling events plays a key role in these trafficking events. This process includes the release of nucleotides (such as ATP and ADP) and subsequent autocrine and paracrine signaling events through nucleotide receptors. At the same time, surface-expressed ectoapyrases and nucleotidases convert extracellular nucleotides to adenosine, and adenosine signaling events play additional functional roles in leucocyte trafficking. In this review we revisit classical paradigms of inflammatory cell trafficking in the context of recent studies implicating purinergic signaling events in this process. PMID:27142306

  15. Regulation of GPCR Trafficking by Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Justine E.; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-promoted signaling mediates cellular responses to a variety of stimuli involved in diverse physiological processes. In addition, GPCRs are also the largest class of target for many drugs used to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the role of GPCR signaling in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms governing GPCR signaling remain poorly understanding. Classically, GPCR signaling is tightly regulated by GPCR kinases and β-arrestins, which act in a concerted fashion to govern GPCR desensitization and also GPCR trafficking. Ubiquitination has now emerged as an important posttranslational modification that has multiple roles, either directly or indirectly, in governing GPCR trafficking. Recent studies have revealed a mechanistic link between GPCR phosphorylation, β-arrestins, and ubiquitination. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how ubiquitin regulates GPCR trafficking within the endocytic pathway. PMID:26055053

  16. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  17. Organ trading, tourism, and trafficking within Europe.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2008-03-01

    This article argues for a regulatory and institutional response towards organ trading, tourism and trafficking that differs from extant approaches. European countries have hitherto adopted blanket prohibitions on organ trading (i.e. the buying or selling of human organs). This article advances the view that policy makers have thereby overreacted to legitimate public health concerns and the evils of organ trafficking (i.e. organ trading and tourism involving coercion or deception). It argues for a trial of a very tightly regulated system of organ trading that could eventually lead to a limited system of organ tourism (i.e. organ trading involving more than one jurisdiction). PMID:18592891

  18. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  19. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  20. 78 FR 70571 - Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting AGENCY: Fish... Service (Service), announce a public meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council... announce that the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) will hold a meeting to...

  1. 78 FR 59950 - Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... public meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council). DATES: The meeting will be held... announce that the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) will hold a meeting to...

  2. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims. PMID:26612382

  3. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills

    PubMed Central

    Thiériot, Ericka; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; Molina, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary We evaluated the long-term effect of an intensive integrated program based on falconry to deter gulls, mostly ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), from a landfill. Gulls were counted at different periods each day, and the annual sum of the maximum count at any observation period each day declined from over 1.1 million to only 20,300 during the 20 years of the study. This could not be explained by a decline in the local breeding population that remained relatively large throughout this period as determined in a concomitant study. The effectiveness of the falconry program was also confirmed by tracking individual birds fitted with GPS data loggers. The tagged gulls stopped less often and spent less time at the landfill with falconry than at another one where a selective culling program was conducted. We conclude that the use of an integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than culling, can be effective in deterring gulls from landfills. Abstract Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring

  4. D-cycloserine Deters Reacquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration by Augmenting Extinction Learning

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Á; Szalay, Jonathan J; Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Platt, Donna M; Otto, Michael W; Spealman, Roger D; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    Augmentation of cue exposure (extinction) therapy with cognitive-enhancing pharmacotherapy may offer an effective strategy to combat cocaine relapse. To investigate this possibility at the preclinical level, rats and squirrel monkeys were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with a brief visual cue. Lever pressing was subsequently extinguished by withholding cocaine injections while maintaining response-contingent presentations of the cue. The glycine partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS; 15 and 30 mg/kg in rats, 3 and 10 mg/kg in monkeys) was evaluated for its effects on the rate of extinction and subsequent reacquisition of cocaine self-administration. Compared with vehicle, pretreatment with 30 mg/kg DCS 0.5 h before extinction training reduced the number of responses and latency to reach the extinction criterion in rats, but neither dose of DCS altered these measures in monkeys. In both species, pretreatment with the higher dose of DCS before extinction training significantly attenuated reacquisition of cocaine self-administration compared with either extinction training in the absence of DCS or DCS in the absence of explicit extinction. Furthermore, treatment with 30 mg/kg DCS accompanied by brief handling (a stress induction) immediately after but not 6 h after extinction training attenuated reacquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats. No adverse effects of 10 mg/kg DCS were evident in quantitative observational studies in monkeys. The results suggest that DCS augmented consolidation of extinction learning to deter reacquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats and monkeys. The results suggest that DCS combined with exposure therapy may constitute a rational strategy for the clinical management of cocaine relapse. PMID:19741593

  5. Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

  6. Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

  7. Analysis of illicit drugs by direct ablation of solid samples.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods. PMID:26764307

  8. Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sadava, S W

    1975-02-01

    Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

  9. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  10. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

  11. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use.

    PubMed

    Lehrmann, Elin; Afanador, Zoan R; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Gallegos, Gloria; Darwin, William D; Lowe, Ross H; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Cadet, Jean L; Herman, Mary M; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Freed, William J

    2008-03-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and nine opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identified almost twice as many cocaine and cannabis cases as Medical Examiner (ME) case histories, and were crucial in establishing a detailed lifetime substance use history. Toxicology identified 91% cocaine, 68% cannabis, 80% phencyclidine and 100% opioid cases, with hair testing increasing detection for all drug classes. A cocaine or cannabis use history was corroborated by general toxicology with 50% and 32% sensitivity, respectively, and with 82% and 64% sensitivity by hair testing. Hair testing corroborated a positive general toxicology for cocaine and cannabis with 91% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Case history corroborated hair toxicology with 38% sensitivity for cocaine and 79% sensitivity for cannabis, suggesting that both case history and general toxicology underestimated cocaine use. Identifying ante-mortem substance use in human postmortem cases are key considerations in case diagnosis and for characterization of disorder-specific changes in neurobiology. The sensitivity and specificity of substance use assessments increased when ME case history was supplemented with structured next-of-kin interviews to establish a detailed lifetime substance use history, while comprehensive toxicology, and hair testing in particular, increased detection of recent illicit substance use. PMID:18201295

  12. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. Objectives (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. Methods For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Results Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000–2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Conclusions Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. PMID:24431121

  13. Dysregulation of protein trafficking in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking plays an important role in neuronal function and survival. Protein misfolding is a common theme found in many neurodegenerative diseases, and intracellular trafficking machinery contributes to the pathological accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins. Although neurodegenerative diseases exhibit distinct pathological features, abnormal endocytic trafficking is apparent in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Down syndrome (DS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this review, we will focus on protein sorting defects in three major neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, DS and PD. An important pathological feature of AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that over-production/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and attenuation of Aβ generation has become a topic of extreme interest in AD research. Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and the γ-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by α-secretase within the Aβ domain to release soluble APPα which precludes Aβ generation. DS patients display a strikingly similar pathology to AD patients, including the generation of neuronal amyloid plaques. Moreover, all DS patients develop an AD-like neuropathology by their 40 s. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP and how these underlying mechanisms may be pathologically compromised is crucial for future AD and DS therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated thus far reveals that synaptic vesicle regulation, endocytic trafficking, and lysosome-mediated autophagy are involved in increased susceptibility to PD. Here we review current knowledge of endosomal trafficking regulation in AD, DS and PD. PMID:25152012

  14. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. PMID:25497135

  15. An Increasing Trend of Illicit Drug use among Romanian University Students from 1999 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people.

  16. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  17. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  18. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  19. The neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction: acute and chronic effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sara B; Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

    2013-01-01

    Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugs. PMID:24648786

  20. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  1. Prescribing Some Criminological Theory: An Examination of the Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Maahs, Jeffrey R; Weidner, Robert R; Smith, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin is common across college campuses and in professions (e.g., trucking) where staying awake and focused is valued. Existing research has established use patterns and explored respondents' reasons for using these stimulants. Less is known, however, about whether or how well mainstream criminological theory explains this type of illegal activity. This article reports results from a survey (N = 484) of college students from a Midwestern university, examining whether measures of strain, self-control, and social learning predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants. Measures from social learning and social control theories were significant predictors of illicit use of prescription stimulants, whereas the measure of academic strain was not; the strongest predictor of illicit use of prescription stimulants was general deviance. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25156423

  2. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  3. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The study revealed that 71.4% of women were young; 78.9% non white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence. PMID:25014304

  4. Small GTPase regulation of GPCR anterograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guansong; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-01-01

    The physiological functions of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are dictated by their intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to the functional destinations. Over the past decades, most studies on the trafficking of GPCRs have focused on the events involved in endocytosis and recycling. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying anterograde transport of newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface have just begun to be revealed. In this review, we will discuss current advances in understanding the role of Ras-like GTPases, specifically the Rab and Sar1/ARF subfamilies, in regulating cell-surface transport of GPCRs en route from the ER and the Golgi. PMID:22015208

  5. Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services.

    PubMed

    Orme, Julie; Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal

    2015-10-01

    Sex trafficking (ST), a contemporary form of female slavery, is a human rights issue of critical concern to social work. The global response to ST has been substantial, and 166 countries have adopted anti-ST legislation. Despite considerable efforts to combat ST, the magnitude is increasing. To date, the majority of anti-ST efforts have focused on criminalization policies that target traffickers or purchasers of sexual services, who are predominantly male; prevention programming and services for predominantly female victims have received less support. Therapeutic services to assist pornography addicts and purchasers of sexual services are also necessary. In this article, authors examine current anti-ST policies, programs, and services, both domestically and globally, and present an innovative paradigm that addresses social inequities and emphasizes prevention programming. They conclude with a discussion of the paradigm's implications for social work policies, practices, and services. PMID:26489349

  6. Endocytic membrane trafficking and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Andrea M A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are amongst the most devastating of human disorders. New technologies have led to a rapid increase in the identification of disease-related genes with an enhanced appreciation of the key roles played by genetics in the etiology of these disorders. Importantly, pinpointing the normal function of disease gene proteins leads to new understanding of the cellular machineries and pathways that are altered in the disease process. One such emerging pathway is membrane trafficking in the endosomal system. This key cellular process controls the localization and levels of a myriad of proteins and is thus critical for normal cell function. In this review we will focus on three neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and hereditary spastic paraplegias, for which a large number of newly discovered disease genes encode proteins that function in endosomal membrane trafficking. We will describe how alterations in these proteins affect endosomal function and speculate on the contributions of these disruptions to disease pathophysiology. PMID:26721251

  7. Incunabular immunological events in prion trafficking.

    PubMed

    Michel, Brady; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Johnson, Theodore; Ferguson, Adam; Wyckoff, Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Bender, Heather; Avery, Anne; Telling, Glenn; Dow, Steven; Zabel, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    While prions probably interact with the innate immune system immediately following infection, little is known about this initial confrontation. Here we investigated incunabular events in lymphotropic and intranodal prion trafficking by following highly enriched, fluorescent prions from infection sites to draining lymph nodes. We detected biphasic lymphotropic transport of prions from the initial entry site upon peripheral prion inoculation. Prions arrived in draining lymph nodes cell autonomously within two hours of intraperitoneal administration. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) required Complement for optimal prion delivery to lymph nodes hours later in a second wave of prion trafficking. B cells constituted the majority of prion-bearing cells in the mediastinal lymph node by six hours, indicating intranodal prion reception from resident DCs or subcapsulary sinus macrophages or directly from follicular conduits. These data reveal novel, cell autonomous prion lymphotropism, and a prominent role for B cells in intranodal prion movement. PMID:22679554

  8. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunn, Benjamin H.M.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Spillantini, Maria-Grazia; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an insidious and incurable neurodegenerative disease, and represents a significant cost to individuals, carers, and ageing societies. It is defined at post-mortem by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra together with the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We examine here the role of α-synuclein and other cellular transport proteins implicated in PD and how their aberrant activity may be compounded by the unique anatomy of the dopaminergic neuron. This review uses multiple lines of evidence from genetic studies, human tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and refined animal models to argue that prodromal PD can be defined as a disease of impaired intracellular trafficking. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic synapse heralds trafficking impairment. PMID:25639775

  9. Clathrin-Independent Trafficking of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is critical for neuronal function and plasticity. Although rapid forms of AMPAR internalization during long-term depression (LTD) require clathrin and dynamin, the mechanisms governing constitutive AMPAR turnover and internalization of AMPARs during slow homeostatic forms of synaptic plasticity remain unexplored. Here, we show that, in contrast to LTD, constitutive AMPAR internalization and homeostatic AMPAR downscaling in rat neurons do not require dynamin or clathrin function. Instead, constitutive AMPAR trafficking is blocked by a Rac1 inhibitor and is regulated by a dynamic nonstructural pool of F-actin. Our findings reveal a novel role for neuronal clathrin-independent endocytosis controlled by actin dynamics and suggest that the interplay between different modes of receptor endocytosis provides for segregation between distinct modes of neuronal plasticity. PMID:25810514

  10. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  11. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  12. Trafficking of ThermoTRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Wolf, Christoph Jakob; Devesa, Isabel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    ThermoTRP channels (thermoTRPs) define a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are activated by changes in the environmental temperature, from noxious cold to injurious heat. Acting as integrators of several stimuli and signalling pathways, dysfunction of these channels contributes to several pathological states. The surface expression of thermoTRPs is controlled by both, the constitutive and regulated vesicular trafficking. Modulation of receptor surface density during pathological processes is nowadays considered as an interesting therapeutic approach for management of diseases, such as chronic pain, in which an increased trafficking is associated with the pathological state. This review will focus on the recent advances trafficking of the thermoTRP channels, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM3, TRPM8 and TRPA1, into/from the plasma membrane. Particularly, regulated membrane insertion of thermoTRPs channels contributes to a fine tuning of final channel activity, and indeed, it has resulted in the development of novel therapeutic approaches with successful clinical results such as disruption of SNARE-dependent exocytosis by botulinum toxin or botulinomimetic peptides. PMID:25257900

  13. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553

  14. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use. PMID:18957116

  15. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties. PMID:26266521

  16. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, B; Curtis, M

    2014-12-01

    This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes: Illicit financial flows (IFF) from the country, Tax incentives. We find that there are significant financing gaps in the health sector; for example, government expenditure is United States Dollars (USD) 177 million for 2013/2014 while projected donor contribution in 2013/2014 is USD 207 million and the total cost for the minimal health package is USD 535 million. Thus the funding gap between the government budget for health and the required spending to provide the minimal package for 2013/2014 is USD 358 million. On the other hand we estimate that almost USD 400 million is lost through IFF and corporate utilization of tax incentives each year. The revenues foregone plus the current government health spending would be sufficient to cover the minimal public health package for all Malawians and would help tackle Malawi's disease burden. Every effort must be made, including improving transparency and revising laws, to curtail IFF and moderate tax incentives. PMID:26167264

  17. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  18. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  19. ALTERATIONS IN MATERNAL-FETAL CELLULAR TRAFFICKING AFTER FETAL SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Saadai, Payam; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Bautista, Geoanna; Gonzales, Kelly D.; Nijagal, Amar; Busch, Michael P.; Kim, CJ; Romero, Roberto; Lee, Hanmin; Hirose, Shinjiro; Rand, Larry; Miniati, Douglas; Farmer, Diana L.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose Bi-directional trafficking of cells between the mother and the fetus is routine in pregnancy and a component of maternal-fetal tolerance. Changes in fetal-to-maternal cellular trafficking have been reported in prenatal complications, but maternal-to-fetal trafficking has never been studied in the context of fetal intervention. We hypothesized that patients undergoing open fetal surgery would have altered maternal-fetal cellular trafficking. Methods Cellular trafficking was analyzed in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) who underwent open fetal surgical repair (n=5), MMC patients who had routine postnatal repair (n=6), and normal term patients (n=9). As a control for the fetal operation, trafficking was also analyzed in patients who were delivered by an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure (n=6). Microchimerism in maternal and cord blood was determined using quantitative real-time PCR for non-shared alleles. Results Maternal-to-fetal trafficking was significantly increased in patients who underwent open fetal surgery for MMC compared to normal controls, postnatal MMC repair, and EXIT patients. There were no differences in fetal-to-maternal cell trafficking between groups. Conclusion Patients undergoing open fetal surgery for MMC have elevated levels of maternal microchimerism. These results suggest altered trafficking and/or increased proliferation of maternal cells in fetal blood and may have important implications for preterm labor. PMID:22703775

  20. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  6. The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, Richard

    2006-04-01

    In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

  7. Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-15

    Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

  8. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  9. Gonadotropins in doping: pharmacological basis and detection of illicit use

    PubMed Central

    Stenman, U-H; Hotakainen, K; Alfthan, H

    2008-01-01

    Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength. However, they are more expensive and less efficient than testosterone and anabolic steroids. Therefore their main use is probably to stimulate gonadal testosterone production during and after self-administration of testosterone or anabolic steroids. A positive effect of hCG on muscle strength has not been demonstrated in women and elevated concentrations of hCG in females are often caused by pregnancy. The use of gonadotropins is therefore prohibited only in males but not in females. HCG occurs at low but measurable concentrations in plasma and urine of healthy males and can be measured by sensitive methods. However, the characteristics of the method to be used for doping control have not been defined. Virtually all commercially available hCG assays have been designed for determination of hCG in serum rather than urine, which is used for doping control. Methods based on mass spectrometric detection of fragments derived from hCG extracted from urine by immunoadsorption have been developed but their suitability for doping control remains to be determined. The concentrations of LH in serum and urine are variable and more then 10-fold higher than those hCG. It is therefore difficult to detect illicit use of LH. The characteristics and reference values for hCG and LH assays used in doping control and the cutoff values need to be defined. PMID:18414398

  10. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  11. Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Jillian; Umanah, George K.E.; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Lagerlöf, Olof; Motari, Mary G.; Cole, Robert N.; Huganir, Richard L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans. PMID:25253868

  12. Plant vacuole morphology and vacuolar trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential organelles for plant growth and development, and have multiple functions. Vacuoles are highly dynamic and pleiomorphic, and their size varies depending on the cell type and growth conditions. Vacuoles compartmentalize different cellular components such as proteins, sugars, ions and other secondary metabolites and play critical roles in plants response to different biotic/abiotic signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize the patterns of changes in vacuole morphology in certain cell types, our understanding of the mechanisms of plant vacuole biogenesis, and the role of SNAREs and Rab GTPases in vacuolar trafficking. PMID:25309565

  13. Ras trafficking, localization and compartmentalized signalling

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Ian A.; Hancock, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Ras proteins are proto-oncogenes that are frequently mutated in human cancers. Three closely related isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are expressed in all cells and have overlapping but distinctive functions. Recent work has revealed how differences between the Ras isoforms in their trafficking, localization and protein-membrane orientation enable signalling specificity to be determined. We review the various strategies used to characterize compartmentalized Ras localization and signalling. Localization is an important contextual modifier of signalling networks and insights from the Ras system are of widespread relevance for researchers interested in signalling initiated from membranes. PMID:21924373

  14. Autophagy and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Celina; Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-11-14

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that, as a basic mechanism it delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes in order to maintain adequate energy levels and cellular homeostasis. This complex cellular process is activated by low cellular nutrient levels and other stress situations such as low ATP levels, the accumulation of damaged proteins or organelles, or pathogen invasion. Autophagy as a multistep process involves vesicular transport events leading to tethering and fusion of autophagic vesicles with several intracellular compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of the autophagic pathway with emphasis in the trafficking machinery (i.e. Rabs GTPases and SNAP receptors (SNAREs)) involved in specific steps of the pathway. PMID:26450776

  15. Insulin Granule Biogenesis, Trafficking and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, June Chunqiu; Min, Le; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that beta cell dysfunction resulting in abnormal insulin secretion is the essential element in the progression of patients from a state of impaired glucose tolerance to frank type 2 diabetes (Del Prato, 2003; Del Prato and Tiengo, 2001). Although extensive studies have examined the molecular, cellular and physiologic mechanisms of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, and exocytosis the precise mechanisms controlling these processes and their dysregulation in the developed of diabetes remains an area of important investigation. We now know that insulin biogenesis initiates with the synthesis of preproinsulin in rough endoplastic reticulum and conversion of preproinsulin to proinsulin. Proinsulin begins to be packaged in the Trans-Golgi Network and is sorting into immature secretory granules. These immature granules become acidic via ATP-dependent proton pump and proinsulin undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting the formation of insulin and C-peptide. During the granule maturation process, insulin is crystallized with zinc and calcium in the form of dense-core granules and unwanted cargo and membrane proteins undergo selective retrograde trafficking to either the constitutive trafficking pathway for secretion or to degradative pathways. The newly formed mature dense-core insulin granules populate two different intracellular pools, the readily releasable pools (RRP) and the reserved pool. These two distinct populations are thought to be responsible for the biphasic nature of insulin release in which the RRP granules are associated with the plasma membrane and undergo an acute calcium-dependent release accounting for first phase insulin secretion. In contrast, second phase insulin secretion requires the trafficking of the reserved granule pool to the plasma membrane. The initial trigger for insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane is a rise in intracellular calcium and in the case of glucose stimulation results from

  16. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... illegally shipped chemicals. West Africa Although no West African country is currently listed as a major... drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime organizations based in Latin... estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale...

  17. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among

  18. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681

  19. A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

    2009-07-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

  20. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  1. Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’ lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran?

    PubMed Central

    Ameneh-Forouzan, Setareh-; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Assari, Shervin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use. Material and methods This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately. Results Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls. Conclusions Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents. PMID:22371778

  2. Wastewater testing compared to random urinalyses for the surveillance of illicit drug use in prisons

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Ort, Christoph; Robel, Alix E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Illicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUAs). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without. Design and Methods We collected daily 24-hour composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for one month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for three days in order to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion. Results Methamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted. Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect. PMID:25100044

  3. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  4. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  5. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  6. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  7. Teaching about Trafficking: Opportunities and Challenges for Critical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragiewicz, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The author came to know about trafficking by accident, when she was hired as a research assistant at The Protection Project (TPP) in 1999. As a feminist teacher, the author was very aware of the divisions among feminists on the subject of trafficking, and was interested in communicating these differences to students who were not well versed in the…

  8. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  9. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  10. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  14. 78 FR 59317 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Ending Trafficking in Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... (77 FR 60029, October 2, 2012), and Title XVII, entitled ``Ending Trafficking in Government... and maintaining compliance plans. (Notice--MVC-2013-01 was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR... Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts'', dated September 25, 2012, (77 FR 60029, October 2, 2012),...

  15. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  16. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  17. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  18. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  19. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  20. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  3. Falling through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Farrah

    2008-01-01

    An overview of child trafficking in the UK explores the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to these particularly vulnerable children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's…

  4. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis. PMID:11001491

  5. Secretory protein trafficking in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Adrian B; Marti, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Early diverged extant organisms, which may serve as convenient laboratory models to look for and study evolutionary ancient features of eukaryotic cell biology, are rare. The diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, a protozoan parasite known to cause diarrhoeal disease, has become an increasingly popular object of basic research in cell biology, not least because of a genome sequencing project nearing completion. Commensurate with its phylogenetic status, the Giardia trophozoite has a very basic secretory system and even lacks hallmark structures such as a morphologically identifiable Golgi apparatus. The cell's capacity for protein sorting is nevertheless unimpeded, exemplified by its ability to cope with massive amounts of newly synthesized cyst wall proteins and glycans, which are sorted to dedicated Golgi-like compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) generated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport intermediates. This soluble bulk cargo is kept strictly separate from constitutively transported variant surface proteins during export, a function that is dependent on the stage-specific recognition of trafficking signals. Encysting Giardia therefore provide a unique system for the study of unconventional, Golgi-independent protein trafficking mechanisms in the broader context of eukaryotic endomembrane organization and evolution. PMID:15225300

  6. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme

  7. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list. PMID:21270581

  8. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    PubMed Central

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  9. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. PMID:25371382

  10. New Insights into How Trafficking Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jieqiong; Rossy, Jérémie; Deng, Qiji; Pageon, Sophie V.; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG) secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been well-studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions. PMID:27508206

  11. Entrapment and Enmeshment Schemes Used by Sex Traffickers.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-09-01

    Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention. PMID:25079777

  12. Health impacts and research ethics in female trafficking.

    PubMed

    Dhital, S R; Aro, R A; Sapkota, K

    2011-04-01

    Female trafficking is a social and public health problem, associated with physical and sexual abuse, psychological trauma, injuries from violence, sexually transmitted infections, adverse reproductive outcomes and substance misuse. It faces several challenges ranging from the hidden nature of the problem to ethical and human rights issues. The objectives of this paper are to analyze health impact of trafficking; ethical and research issues and anti-trafficking strategies in the Nepalese context. We collected published and unpublished data assessing the public health, ethical burden and research needs from different sources. Trafficked female involved in sex-industry that face grave situation as depicted and it might a reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases. Ethical issues related to survey of assessing the burden are difficult to carry out. The best ways to prevent and control these problems are to enhance anti- trafficking laws and raise awareness, empower and mobilize females and establish organizational capacity. PMID:22929723

  13. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    PubMed

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  14. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  15. Non-destructive inspections of illicit drugs in envelope using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin

    2006-09-01

    The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.

  16. [Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users].

    PubMed

    Sakoman, Slavko

    2009-12-01

    Drug use is a complex behavior with multidimensional determinants, including social, psychological, cultural, economic, and biological factors. Blood borne viral infections including hepatitis C virus are transmitted when an uninfected intravenous drug user (IVDU) uses injection equipment, especially syringes, that have previously been used by an infected person. The transmission can also result from sharing other injection equipment such as 'cookers' and 'cottons'. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence and incidence of drug abuse have declined substantially since the introduction of needle exchange. Infection with hepatitis C may spontaneously resolve during the acute stage and never progress to chronic infection, or the infection may become chronic without medical complications, or the infection may become chronic with progressive medical complications. Regular testing for infection is an important strategy for secondary prevention of chronic hepatitis C infection. Care for hepatitis C is a vital component of a comprehensive health program for persons using illicit drugs. Such care includes screening for transmission risk behavior, prevention counseling and education, testing for HCV antibody and RNA. IDUs found to have chronic HCV infection should be assessed for the presence and degree of liver disease and evaluated for treatment for HCV Hepatitis C care also requires providing access to treatment for substance use and abuse. Therapy with opioid agonists, including methadone maintenance treatment, has been shown to diminish and often eliminate opioid use and reduce transmission of infection. Approval of buprenorphine makes office-based pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction possible. When considering treatment for hepatitis C, particular attention must be paid to mental health conditions. As a group, IDUs exhibit higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders than the general population. IFN-based regimens for hepatitis C are often complicated by

  17. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3

  18. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  19. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

  20. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  1. Why State Sanctions Fail to Deter Home Education: An Analysis of Home Education in Germany and Its Implications for Home Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Home education in Germany is a contravention to the school law, and severe sanctions are applied against it. Despite this, a small home education movement has developed within the last 25 years. This article, after a short overview of home education in Germany, examines the reasons why a policy with sanctions fails to deter homeschooling. Then I…

  2. Chinese narcotics trafficking: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaicheng; Liu, Jianhong; Zhao, Ruohui; Zhao, Guoling; Friday, Paul C

    2012-02-01

    Questions of existence of the "China Route" for drug smuggling and trafficking have been important in the literature. The profile of the offenders, particularly whether they are primarily members of traditional criminal organization, is a hotly debated issue. Much qualitative evidence has been collected and it provides important insights into these questions. However, little quantitative data has ever been collected and analyzed to provide a broader picture of these issues. The present study involves the systematical collection of data from court sentencing files from seven high courts whose jurisdictions cover the China Route. The findings provide valuable information that sheds light on the debated questions. Some evidence consistent with the China Route arguments is found. No evidence supports the idea that traditional organized criminal syndicates are behind most offenses. Logistic regression results reveal interesting associations between offender characteristics and types of offenses. PMID:21127040

  3. [Molecular mechanisms for AMPA receptor trafficking].

    PubMed

    Fukata, Masaki; Fukata, Yuko

    2008-06-01

    Finely tuned synaptic transmission in the brain provides the molecular basis for learning and memory. The misregulation of synaptic transmission is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders like epilepsy. AMPA-typed glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the most prominent form of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Dynamic regulation of AMPARs is thought to be a primary mechanism for controlling synaptic strength. We have analyzed the molecular mechanism for AMPAR-trafficking and function by focusing on PSD-95, a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Here, we review the novel regulatory mechanisms of AMPARs by 1) the PSD-95 palmitoylating enzyme, which determines the position of PSD-95 at postsynapses, and 2) the epilepsy related ligand/receptor, LGI1/ADAM22, identified as the PSD-95-interacting protein. PMID:18646599

  4. Intramembrane proteolysis in regulated protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-09-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which membrane-anchored bioactive molecules are released from cellular membranes. In eukaryotic cells, intramembrane proteases are found in different cellular organelles ranging from the endosomal system to mitochondria and chloroplasts. These proteases function in diverse processes such as transcription control, regulated growth factor secretion and recently even a role in the control of mitophagy has been suggested. Genomic annotation has predicted 13 different intramembrane proteases in humans. Apart from few studied examples, very little is known about their function. This review describes emerging principles of how intramembrane proteases contribute to the regulation of cellular protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells and raises the important question of how their activity is controlled. PMID:21585636

  5. Glycobiology of leukocyte trafficking in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachael D; Cooper, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    To fulfill their potential, leukocytes must be able to exit the vasculature and reach the site of inflammation within the tissue. This process of leukocyte extravasation is a tightly regulated sequence of events that is governed by a host of cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Of major importance to this process and the function of many of the proteins and lipids involved is the posttranslational modification of these moieties by glycosylation. The glycosylation process is coordinated by multiple enzymes that add and remove saccharides to/from glycan structures on proteins and lipids, resulting in a unique molecular signature that affords specificity to the molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment. This review will discuss how glycosylation impacts the function of these key molecules involved in the recruitment of leukocytes during inflammation and the function of specific lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that have a role in leukocyte trafficking. PMID:25258391

  6. Dendritic Ion Channel Trafficking and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mala M.; Hammond, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Dax

    2010-01-01

    Dendrites, the elaborate processes emerging from neuronal cell bodies, receive most excitatory synaptic inputs. Voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels are abundant in dendrites and modify the shape, propagation and integration of synaptic signals. These ion channels also determine intrinsic dendritic excitability and are therfore important for the induction and manifestation of Hebbian and non-Hebbian plasticity. Revealingly, dendritic channels have distinct expression patterns and biophysical properties from those present in other neuronal compartments. Recent evidence suggests that dendritic ion channels are locally regulated, perhaps contributing to different forms of plasticity. In this review, we will discuss the implications of regulating dendritic ion channel function and trafficking in the context of plasticity and information processing. PMID:20363038

  7. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications. PMID:25443729

  8. Superresolution imaging of viral protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Salka, Kyle; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Yang, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is closely apposed to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), which facilitates communication between these organelles. These contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), facilitate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, as well as antiviral and stress responses. How cellular proteins traffic to the MAM, are distributed therein, and interact with ER and mitochondrial proteins are subject of great interest. The human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 protein or viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) is crucial for viral growth. Upon synthesis at the ER, vMIA traffics to the MAM and OMM, where it reprograms the organization and function of these compartments. vMIA significantly changes the abundance of cellular proteins at the MAM and OMM, including proteins that regulate calcium homeostasis and cell death. Through the use of superresolution imaging, we have shown that vMIA is distributed at the OMM in nanometer scale clusters. This is similar to the clusters reported for the mitochondrial calcium channel, VDAC, as well as electron transport chain, translocase of the OMM complex, and mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system components. Thus, aside from addressing how vMIA targets the MAM and regulates survival of infected cells, biochemical studies and superresolution imaging of vMIA offer insights into the formation, organization, and functioning of MAM. Here, we discuss these insights into trafficking, function, and organization of vMIA at the MAM and OMM and discuss how the use of superresolution imaging is contributing to the study of the formation and trafficking of viruses. PMID:25724304

  9. Imaging of Leukocyte Trafficking in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Constantin, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a progressive decline of cognitive functions. The neuropathological features of AD include amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles derived from the cytoskeletal hyperphosphorylated tau protein, amyloid angiopathy, the loss of synapses, and neuronal degeneration. In the last decade, inflammation has emerged as a key feature of AD, but most studies have focused on the role of microglia-driven neuroinflammation mechanisms. A dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, and several studies have demonstrated that the vascular deposition of Aβ induces the expression of adhesion molecules and alters the expression of tight junction proteins, potentially facilitating the transmigration of circulating leukocytes. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become an indispensable tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms controlling leukocyte trafficking in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent TPLSM studies have shown that vascular deposition of Aβ in the CNS promotes intraluminal neutrophil adhesion and crawling on the brain endothelium and also that neutrophils extravasate in the parenchyma preferentially in areas with Aβ deposits. These studies have also highlighted a role for LFA-1 integrin in neutrophil accumulation in the CNS of AD-like disease models, revealing that LFA-1 inhibition reduces the corresponding cognitive deficit and AD neuropathology. In this article, we consider how current imaging techniques can help to unravel new inflammation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of AD and identify novel therapeutic strategies to treat the disease by interfering with leukocyte trafficking mechanisms. PMID:26913031

  10. Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose. PMID:20587459

  11. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a serious federal crime with penalties of up to imprisonment for life. Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons." In short, human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Those who recruit minors into commercial sexual exploitation (or prostitution) violate federal anti-trafficking laws, even if there is no…

  12. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  13. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Anggono, Victor; Huganir, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Dynamic changes in neuronal synaptic efficacy, termed synaptic plasticity, are thought to underlie information coding and storage in learning and memory. One major mechanism that regulates synaptic strength involves the tightly regulated trafficking of AMPARs into and out of synapses. The life cycle of AMPARs from their biosynthesis, membrane trafficking and synaptic targeting to their degradation are controlled by a series of orchestrated interactions with numerous intracellular regulatory proteins. Here we review recent progress made towards the understanding the regulation of AMPAR trafficking, focusing on the roles of several key intracellular AMPAR interacting proteins. PMID:22217700

  14. Retromer-Mediated Protein Sorting and Vesicular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Jia

    2016-04-20

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex that mediates intracellular transport of various vesicular cargoes and functions in a wide variety of cellular processes including polarized trafficking, developmental signaling and lysosome biogenesis. Through its interaction with the Rab GTPases and their effectors, membrane lipids, molecular motors, the endocytic machinery and actin nucleation promoting factors, retromer regulates sorting and trafficking of transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. In this review, I highlight recent progress in the understanding of retromer-mediated protein sorting and vesicle trafficking and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27157806

  15. Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-14

    The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479

  16. Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Hoes, O A C; Schilperoort, R P S; Luxemburg, W M J; Clemens, F H L R; van de Giesen, N C

    2009-12-01

    A newly developed technique using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been developed to find illicit household sewage connections to storm water systems in the Netherlands. DTS allows for the accurate measurement of temperature along a fiber-optic cable, with high spatial (2m) and temporal (30s) resolution. We inserted a fiber-optic cable of 1300m in two storm water drains. At certain locations, significant temperature differences with an intermittent character were measured, indicating inflow of water that was not storm water. In all cases, we found that foul water from households or companies entered the storm water system through an illicit sewage connection. The method of using temperature differences for illicit connection detection in storm water networks is discussed. The technique of using fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing is explained in detail. The DTS method is a reliable, inexpensive and practically feasible method to detect illicit connections to storm water systems, which does not require access to private property. PMID:19735929

  17. College Students' Use of Compliance-Gaining Strategies to Obtain Prescription Stimulant Medications for Illicit Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checton, Maria G.; Greene, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine college students' illicit use of prescription stimulant medications and compliance-gaining strategies that they would use to obtain a stimulant medication. Design: A questionnaire-based study. Setting: Seven hundred and twenty undergraduate college students at a large, northeastern university in the United States were…

  18. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  19. Recognizing illicit drug use by pregnant women: reports from Oregon birth attendants.

    PubMed Central

    Slutsker, L; Smith, R; Higginson, G; Fleming, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of recognized prenatal illicit substance abuse and the characteristics of women being identified as illicit drug users in a statewide population-based cohort. METHODS. During a 1-month period, birth attendants of all singleton births in Oregon (n = 3200) were surveyed regarding their knowledge of prenatal illicit drug use by women who gave birth. Birth certificates were linked to surveys after removal of personal identifiers. RESULTS. Illicit drug use was recognized in 5.2% of delivering women. Nearly half had used cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin. Recognized users were significantly more likely than nonusers to be unwed and to have used tobacco or alcohol, have received inadequate prenatal care, and have public assistance as a source of payment. Drug use was recognized twice as frequently by practitioners who routinely questioned their patients about it compared with those who relied on clinical judgment or the occurrence of complications during pregnancy. Birth certificate reporting identified only 41% of recognized users. CONCLUSIONS. Oregon practitioners are identifying seven times as many drug-using women as can be accommodated by available treatment programs for this population. Increased efforts are needed to ensure the adequacy of resources necessary to cope with the problem as already recognized. PMID:8417609

  20. Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Rhodes, Tim; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users, focusing on exposures exogenous to individuals that likely shape access and adherence to HIV treatment. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed English-language studies among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users with at least one of these endpoint of interest: a diagnosis of AIDS; death; changes/differences in CD4 cell counts; or changes/differences in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods Articles were included if they reported factors associated with an outcome of interest among a group of illicit drug users. Studies were identified, screened and selected using systematic methods. Results Of 2,668 studies matching the search criteria, 58 (2%) met the inclusion criteria, all but one from North America or Western Europe. Overall, 41 (71%) studies contained significant individual-level clinical characteristics or behaviours (e.g., illicit drug use) associated with disease progression. Fifteen studies (26%) identified significant social, physical, economic or policy-level exposures, including incarceration, housing status or lack of legal income. Conclusion While past studies demonstrate important environmental exposures that appear to shape access to care and subsequent disease progression, the limited literature to examine these factors demonstrates the need for future research to consider risk environment characteristics and the role they may play in shaping health outcomes from HIV infection among drug users through determining access and adherence to evidence-based care. (198 words) PMID:22333747

  1. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  2. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  3. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

  4. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  5. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  6. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern. PMID:20464801

  7. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  8. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  9. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  10. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  11. Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

  12. Monitoring of Internet Forums to Evaluate Reactions to the Introduction of Reformulated OxyContin to Deter Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    Background Reformulating opioid analgesics to deter abuse is one approach toward improving their benefit-risk balance. To assess sentiment and attempts to defeat these products among difficult-to-reach populations of prescription drug abusers, evaluation of posts on Internet forums regarding reformulated products may be useful. A reformulated version of OxyContin (extended-release oxycodone) with physicochemical properties to deter abuse presented an opportunity to evaluate posts about the reformulation in online discussions. Objective The objective of this study was to use messages on Internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin and to identify methods aimed to defeat the abuse-deterrent properties of the product. Methods Posts collected from 7 forums between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 were evaluated before and after the introduction of reformulated OxyContin on August 9, 2010. A quantitative evaluation of discussion levels across the study period and a qualitative coding of post content for OxyContin and 2 comparators for the 26 month period before and after OxyContin reformulation were conducted. Product endorsement was estimated for each product before and after reformulation as the ratio of endorsing-to-discouraging posts (ERo). Post-to-preintroduction period changes in ERos (ie, ratio of ERos) for each product were also calculated. Additionally, post content related to recipes for defeating reformulated OxyContin were evaluated from August 9, 2010 through September 2013. Results Over the study period, 45,936 posts related to OxyContin, 18,685 to Vicodin (hydrocodone), and 23,863 to Dilaudid (hydromorphone) were identified. The proportion of OxyContin-related posts fluctuated between 6.35 and 8.25 posts per 1000 posts before the reformulation, increased to 10.76 in Q3 2010 when reformulated OxyContin was introduced, and decreased from 9.14 in Q4 2010 to 3.46 in Q3 2013 in the period following the reformulation

  13. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  14. What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Andreas G.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE. PMID:22768218

  15. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cofrancesco, Joseph; Scherzer, Rebecca; Tien, Phyllis C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Southwell, Heather; Sidney, Stephen; Dobs, Adrian; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment. Design Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Methods An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users. Results Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:18195562

  16. Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ≥4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted β −2.74; 95% CI −4.23, −1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted β −3.51 95% CI −4.99, −2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808

  17. Hand function is altered in individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use.

    PubMed

    Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C; Wilcox, Robert A; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. PMID:25545892

  18. Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking of Human Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Borrego, Francisco; Coligan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the defense against viral infections and tumor development. NK cell function is primarily regulated by the sum of signals from a broad array of activation and inhibitory receptors. Key to generating the input level of either activating or inhibitory signals is the maintenance of receptor expression levels on the cell surface. Although the mechanisms of endocytosis and trafficking for some cell surface receptors, such as transferrin receptor, and certain immune receptors, are very well known, that is not the situation for receptors expressed by NK cells. Recent studies have uncovered that endocytosis and trafficking routes characteristic for specific activation and inhibitory receptors can regulate the functional responses of NK cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of receptor endocytosis and trafficking, and integrate this with our current understanding of NK cell receptor trafficking. PMID:19719476

  19. Prosaposin facilitates sortilin-independent lysosomal trafficking of progranulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaolai; Sun, Lirong; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco; Qi, Xiaoyang; Brown, William J.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene have been linked to two distinct neurodegenerative diseases, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Accumulating evidence suggests a critical role of PGRN in lysosomes. However, how PGRN is trafficked to lysosomes is still not clear. Here we report a novel pathway for lysosomal delivery of PGRN. We found that prosaposin (PSAP) interacts with PGRN and facilitates its lysosomal targeting in both biosynthetic and endocytic pathways via the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. PSAP deficiency in mice leads to severe PGRN trafficking defects and a drastic increase in serum PGRN levels. We further showed that this PSAP pathway is independent of, but complementary to, the previously identified PGRN lysosomal trafficking mediated by sortilin. Collectively, our results provide new understanding on PGRN trafficking and shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind FTLD and NCL caused by PGRN mutations. PMID:26370502

  20. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom. PMID:25651385

  1. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices. PMID:25151302

  2. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000–2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations. PMID:26348041

  3. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    PubMed

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations. PMID:26348041

  4. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  5. Infrequent Illicit Methadone Use Among Stimulant-Using Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of past-month illicit methadone use and history of regular illicit use among stimulant-using methadone maintenance treatment patients. We obtained self-reported information on illicit methadone use from 383 participants recruited from six community-based methadone maintenance programs. Overall, 1.6% of participants reported illicit use in the past month, and 4.7% reported a history of regular use. Younger age and history of outpatient psychological treatment were associated with increased odds of past-month illicit use. Illicit methadone use among patients in maintenance programs is infrequent; however, a number of factors may increase risk of illicit use. PMID:18612886

  6. Health Behaviors, Disparities and Deterring Factors for Breast Cancer Screening of Immigrant Women - A Challenge to Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Bejerano, Ivy Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background This literature review was made to provide comprehensive to provide comprehensive understanding of health disparities as well as factors and barriers to cancer screening of immigrant women in multicultural societies. Methods: Published articles from 1990–2013 were searched using databases such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Science Direct showing evidence of contributing factors and barriers to breast cancer screening practices of immigrant women in developed and developing countries. Based on the inclusion criteria, a total of 45 qualified articles were included in the review process. Results: Articles included were quantitative and qualitative, written in English for publication, and subjects were middle-aged, married immigrant women. The identified influential factors and barriers that prevent immigrant women from cancer screening were categorized as individual, socio-cultural and behavioral factors. Socioeconomic status, education level and knowledge, availability of health insurance and acculturation were among the individual factors. Presence of social support and recommendation from health care professionals were strongly associated with compliance with cancer screening. Cultural beliefs and practices as well as behavioral factors were among the barriers that deter women from participating in cancer screening. Conclusion: To alleviate the negative factors and barriers that affect the participation of high-risk immigrant women, a client-centered assessment and intervention approach with specific regard to cultural beliefs and practices should be considered by health care professionals. Joint effort of individuals, community, health care professionals and government institutions are recommended to further address the continuous rise of breast cancer mortality worldwide. PMID:26064855

  7. Strategic plan for the Persian Gulf region: Options for deterring and/or defeating an emerging threat. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.W.

    1992-12-17

    The Persian Gulf region is, in all likelihood, going to remain crucial to American interests through the next several decades. The world depends on the petroleum reserves of the Gulf region to fuel its economic engine. The recent history of the region has been rife with conflict, and the U.S. has had to intervene militarily on several occasions to ensure its vital interests were protected. This thesis examines the strategic circumstances in the Gulf region and ways in which American political, diplomatic, and military policy can help shape the environment to conform to its interests. Several scenarios are developed which attempt to forecast the results of different environments on regional stability. The thesis reaches the conclusion that the United States must take a proactive role if its short- and long-term interests are to be protected. The short-term goal of U.S. policy must be to maintain a balance of power and regional correlation of forces which serves to deter any would-be aggressor nations. In the long run, the United States must seek a comprehensive regional peace. Various methods of achieving these goals are examined....Persian Gulf, Arms Proliferation, Strategic Planning, Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC, Regional Deterrence, Middle East, Arms Control, Scenario Development, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Regional Security Strategy.

  8. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  9. Intracellular trafficking of heat shock factor 2.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Pascale; Le Dréan, Yves; Le Péron, Christine; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine; Ainouche, Abdelkadder; Michel, Denis

    2004-04-01

    HSF2 is an enigmatic member of the heat shock factor family, identified in the homeotherm classes of birds and mammals. We report the characterization of HSF2 from an evolutionary ancient vertebrate, the fish rainbow trout (rtHSF2). rtHSF2 appears closely related to its mammalian counterparts at structural and functional levels. The conservation of the distinctive features of HSF2 from fish to human suggests that it should ensure important biological functions, not redundant with those of HSF1. Proteasome inhibition, reported as a potent stimulator of HSF2, leads to the stabilization and to a striking nuclear trafficking of rtHSF2-GFP fusion protein. Upon treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, rtHSF2-GFP accumulates into PML nuclear bodies (NBs) independently of its sumoylation and, if expressed at moderate level, moves to nucleoli. The translocation of rtHSF2-GFP from NBs to nucleoli is greatly favored by overexpression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. The mammalian counterpart mouse HSF2 (mHSF2) also exhibited changes in intracellular distribution upon MG132 treatment. mHSF2 partitioned between a juxtanuclear area that we characterized as an aggresome and the nucleoli. These relocalizations are likely to reflect common structural changes of mouse and trout HSF2 upon activation. PMID:15023536

  10. Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    Human trafficking is an international crime renowned for extreme forms of violence against women, men and children. Although trafficking-related violence has been well-documented, the health of trafficked persons has been a largely neglected topic. For people who are trafficked, health risks and consequences may begin before they are recruited into the trafficking process, continue throughout the period of exploitation and persist even after individuals are released. Policy-making, service provision and research often focus narrowly on criminal violations that occur during the period of exploitation, regularly overlooking the health implications of trafficking. Similarly, the public health sector has not yet incorporated human trafficking as a health concern. We present a conceptual model that highlights the migratory and exploitative nature of a multi-staged trafficking process, which includes: 'recruitment', travel-transit', 'exploitation' and 'integration' or 'reintegration', and for some trafficked persons, 'detention' and 're-trafficking' stages. Trafficked persons may suffer from physical, sexual and psychological harm, occupational hazards, legal restrictions and difficulties associated with being marginalised or stigmatised. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from a theoretical approach that conceptualizes trafficking and health as a multi-staged process of cumulative harm. To address a health risk such as trafficking, which spans geographical boundaries and involves multiple sectors, including immigration and law enforcement, labour, social and health services, interventions must be coordinated between nations and across sectors to promote the protection and recovery of people who are trafficked. PMID:21723653

  11. Rab11 Supports Amphetamine-Stimulated Norepinephrine Transporter Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Saunders, Christine; Matthies, Dawn Signor; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Goldenring, James R.; Blakely, Randy D.; Galli, Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein that mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine (NE). NET is also a major target for medications used for the treatment of depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity. NET is regulated by numerous mechanisms, including catalytic activation and membrane trafficking. Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant and NET substrate, has also been shown to induce NET trafficking. However, neither the molecular basis nor the nature of the relevant membrane compartments of AMPH-modulated NET trafficking has been defined. Indeed, direct visualization of drug-modulated NET trafficking in neurons has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we utilized a recently developed NET antibody and the presence of large presynaptic boutons in sympathetic neurons to examine basal and AMPH-modulated NET trafficking. Specifically, we establish a role for Rab11 in AMPH-induced NET trafficking. First, we found that in cortical slices, AMPH induces a reduction in surface NET. Next, we observed AMPH-induced accumulation and colocalization of NET with Rab11a and Rab4 in presynaptic boutons of cultured neurons. Using tagged proteins, we demonstrated that NET and a truncated Rab11 effector (FIP2ΔC2) do not redistribute in synchrony whereas NET and wild type Rab11a do. Analysis of various Rab11a/b mutants further demonstrates that Rab11 regulates NET trafficking. Expression of the truncated Rab11a effector (FIP2ΔC2) attenuates endogenous Rab11 function and prevented AMPH-induced NET internalization as does GDP-locked Rab4 S22N. Our data demonstrate that AMPH leads to an increase of NET in endosomes of single boutons and varicosities in a Rab11-dependent manner. PMID:20534835

  12. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  13. Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Aimee M.; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Det. Jeremy; Dotzler, Det. Jennifer; Vanek, Lt John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. Methods The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre–post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). Findings There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the

  14. Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica.

    PubMed Central

    Soyibo, K.; Lee, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. PMID:10212517

  15. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

  16. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. PMID:22789049

  17. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  18. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

  19. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  20. Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644

  1. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  2. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  3. Antiretroviral therapy adherence: testing a social context model among Black men who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J Craig

    2011-01-01

    Individuals living with HIV who receive treatment and optimal care live longer and healthier lives. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to understand the effects of social context factors (individual, interpersonal, and social capital) that influence antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a sample of HIV-infected Black men who use illicit drugs (N = 160). Ecosocial theory and social epidemiology provided the theoretical framework for this study. Multiple regression techniques and path analysis were used to test the model for these subjects. Homelessness among the subjects significantly affected adherence to ART. Tolerability of ART was observed to have a greater indirect effect on ART adherence than a direct effect. A positive state of mind and current illicit drug use indirectly affected ART adherence; however, significance was not achieved. Implications for the use of this theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is articulated. PMID:21123085

  4. Can price get the monkey off our back? A meta-analysis of illicit drug demand.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity. PMID:23303721

  5. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Methods Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Results Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2–15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133–337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. Conclusions The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. PMID:25566812

  6. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  7. Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order

    PubMed Central

    Galemba, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in “the gaps” or “shadows” of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs’ efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others. PMID:24223472

  8. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Choo, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]). Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02–1.22]), for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15–1.40]), and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17–1.43]). This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes. PMID:27330662

  9. Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Zuccato, Ettore; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50 ng L(-1)), benzoylecgonine (300 ng L(-1)), amphetamine (300 ng L(-1)), morphine (100 ng L(-1)) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50 ng L(-1)). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species. PMID:25676616

  10. Internet use and attitudes towards illicit internet use behavior in a sample of Russian college students.

    PubMed

    Palesh, Oxana; Saltzman, Kasey; Koopman, Cheryl

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed Internet use and attitudes toward illicit use of the Internet in a sample of Russian college students. A sample comprised of 198 students was recruited from a university in Moscow. Each participant completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, Internet use, and attitudes towards engaging in illicit behaviors over the Internet. About half of the students reported that they used the Internet at least several times a year, with 8% reporting daily use of the Internet. Among Internet users, most reported having Internet access either at home or at a friends' home, and 16 % reported having Internet access from work, school, or a computer center. Among Internet users, the main purpose was for school-related activities (60%), followed by e-mail (55%), entertainment (50%), chatting (24%), and searching for pornography (6%). Although most students thought it was inappropriate to read someone else's e-mail, use someone else's password or credit card information without their permission, or break into someone's computer, many students did endorse those illicit behaviors. Over a fifth of the students reported that they knew hackers. Forty three percent of students agreed that people make too much fuss about watching videos, movies or downloading music on the Internet without paying. Males were more likely than females to report using the Internet for entertainment purposes (p = 0.006) and were more likely to agree that it was okay to break into someone's computer (p = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that these Russian college students predominately use the Internet to help with their schoolwork, to communicate with others, and for entertainment. These results also suggest that interventions may be useful to change attitudes endorsing illicit uses of the Internet. PMID:15667050

  11. Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order.

    PubMed

    Galemba, Rebecca B

    2008-01-01

    A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in "the gaps" or "shadows" of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs' efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others. PMID:24223472

  12. Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any

  13. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  14. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659

  15. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  16. Sphingosine kinases and their metabolites modulate endolysosomal trafficking in photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yonamine, Ikuko; Bamba, Takeshi; Nirala, Niraj K.; Jesmin, Nahid; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Nagashima, Kunio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Internalized membrane proteins are either transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation or recycled to the plasma membrane. Although proteins involved in trafficking and sorting have been well studied, far less is known about the lipid molecules that regulate the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins. We studied the function of sphingosine kinases and their metabolites in endosomal trafficking using Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors as a model system. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses show that sphingosine kinases affect trafficking of the G protein–coupled receptor Rhodopsin and the light-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel by modulating the levels of dihydrosphingosine 1 phosphate (DHS1P) and sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P). An increase in DHS1P levels relative to S1P leads to the enhanced lysosomal degradation of Rhodopsin and TRP and retinal degeneration in wild-type photoreceptors. Our results suggest that sphingosine kinases and their metabolites modulate photoreceptor homeostasis by influencing endolysosomal trafficking of Rhodopsin and TRP. PMID:21321100

  17. 3 CFR 8471 - Proclamation 8471 of January 4, 2010. National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010 8471 Proclamation 8471 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8471 of January 4, 2010 Proc. 8471 National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention... the United States. During National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, we acknowledge...

  18. Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the role of neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use. Using a prospective cohort design study, court documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (n = 833) were first interviewed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) from 1989 to 1995 and again in middle adulthood from 2000 to 2002 (mean age = 40 years) and 2003 to 2005 (mean age = 41 years). In middle adulthood, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to live in neighborhoods with more disorder and disadvantage and less social cohesion and advantage compared to controls and to engage in illicit drug use during the past year. Path analyses showed an indirect effect on illicit drug use via neighborhood disorder among maltreated children, even after accounting for drug abuse symptoms in young adulthood, although this was sex specific and race specific, affecting women and Whites. Overall, child abuse and neglect places children on a negative trajectory that dynamically influences negative outcomes at multiple levels into middle adulthood. PMID:22781851

  19. Illicit psychotropic substances in the air: The state-of-art.

    PubMed

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Perilli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of psychotropic substances (PSs) in the air is known since long time. Recently, attention was paid to illicit PS, with most investigations undertaken in Italy and Spain. In general, collection of illicit substances was performed through aspirating airborne particulates onto filters; afterwards, gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were applied for the PS evaluation. Over twenty substances could be characterized simultaneously. Cocaine concentrations up to 17ngm(-3) were observed in Latin America, while this substance was absent (<0.003ngm(-3)) in Algiers (Algeria) and Pančevo (Serbia). Cannabinoids (comprising the psycho-active principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) were high in the winter and very low in the summer (up to 6ngm(-3) and <0.1ngm(-3), respectively). Many other substances (e.g., heroin, ephedrine and drug by-products) occurred less frequently and at lesser extents (<20pgm(-3)). In Rome (Italy), investigations were carried out in interiors of dwellings, schools, an office and a coffee bar, all sites resulting affected by drugs. Besides, solid phase microextraction methods were applied to detect ketamine and methamphetamine in interiors. The PS concentrations depended on substance, physical-chemical contour, and internal or external type of locations. Air monitoring allows detecting the drug consumption or preparation, because illicit substances prevail in sites frequented by abusers. PMID:26360454

  20. Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

    2010-01-01

    Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

  1. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  2. [Prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy in the BRISA cohort].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Priscila Coimbra; Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de; Chagas, Deysianne Costa das; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Raimundo Antonio da

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study of participants in the BRISA prenatal care cohort. Frequencies and hierarchical logistic regression were used. Estimated prevalence rates were 1.45% for illicit drug use, 22.32% for alcohol consumption, and 4.22% for smoking. The study population was mostly young (81% in the 20-34-year bracket), with 9 to 11 years of schooling (75.55%), with more than half of the women outside the workforce (52.18%), and in economic class "C" (67.61%). Pregnant women showed a high level of stress (24.46%), moderate to intense anxiety (40.84%), and severe depressive symptoms (28.8%). Approximately half (49.72%) of the pregnant women reported some type of violence, and they had wide networks (72.77%) and low social support (65.21%). Use of legal drugs, high stress levels, and single parenthood were independently associated with illicit drug use in pregnancy. PMID:26886368

  3. Anhydrous ammonia thefts and releases associated with illicit methamphetamine production--16 states, January 2000-June 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-04-15

    Anhydrous ammonia, a colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating fumes, is used primarily as an agricultural fertilizer and industrial refrigerant. Anhydrous ammonia is also a key ingredient for illicit methamphetamine (meth) production in makeshift laboratories. Exposure to anhydrous ammonia can be immediately dangerous to life or health. Anhydrous ammonia generally is not available for sale to the public; states require a license for purchase. Because of this, many illicit meth producers (i.e., "cookers") resort to stealing anhydrous ammonia. If released into the environment, anhydrous ammonia can cause acute injuries to emergency responders, the public, and the cookers themselves. In addition, when handled improperly, anhydrous ammonia can be explosive and deadly. This report describes examples of anhydrous ammonia thefts associated with illicit meth production, summarizes ammonia theft events reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and suggests injury prevention recommendations, such as installing valve locks or fencing on unattended tanks and donning appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when responding to releases. PMID:15829866

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Illicit Drug Use and Health Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models. PMID:21143479

  5. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hogendorf, Anna M.; Fendler, Wojciech; Sieroslawski, Janusz; Bobeff, Katarzyna; Wegrewicz, Krzysztof; Malewska, Kamila I.; Przudzik, Maciej W.; Szmigiero-Kawko, Malgorzata; Sztangierska, Beata; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28%) versus 5524 (46%), p = 10−5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3%) versus 3976 (33.1%), p = 10−5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%), p < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1. PMID:26858959

  6. Is nonmedical prescription opiate use a unique form of illicit drug use?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Richard F; White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2011-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other legal and illicit drugs. Based on a stage model of substance use, this study tested whether NMPO use represents a unique form of illicit drug use among emerging adults and whether there are unique consequences of early NMPO use. We used longitudinal data from 912 emerging adults from the Raising Healthy Children study who were interviewed at least annually from the first or second grade through age 21. The findings indicated that almost all NMPO users have also used marijuana and a large majority has also used other drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy. In addition, more frequent users of NMPOs are also more frequent users of other drugs. Except for violent behavior, NMPO use explained little unique variance in negative outcomes of use (e.g., drug use disorder, mood disorder, nonproductive behavior, poor health, and property crime) beyond that explained by other illicit drug use. Future studies examining the predictors or consequences of NMPO use and nonmedical use of other prescription drugs need to consider use within the context of other drug use. PMID:20864261

  7. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171

  8. Deter Cyber Theft Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Levin, Carl [D-MI

    2013-05-07

    05/07/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3166-3167) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. HIV-1 Nef: Taking Control of Protein Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Estela A; daSilva, Luis L P

    2016-09-01

    The Nef protein of the human immunodeficiency virus is a crucial determinant of viral pathogenesis and disease progression. Nef is abundantly expressed early in infection and is thought to optimize the cellular environment for viral replication. Nef controls expression levels of various cell surface molecules that play important roles in immunity and virus life cycle, by directly interfering with the itinerary of these proteins within the endocytic and late secretory pathways. To exert these functions, Nef physically interacts with host proteins that regulate protein trafficking. In recent years, considerable progress was made in identifying host-cell-interacting partners for Nef, and the molecular machinery used by Nef to interfere with protein trafficking has started to be unraveled. Here, we briefly review the knowledge gained and discuss new findings regarding the mechanisms by which Nef modifies the intracellular trafficking pathways to prevent antigen presentation, facilitate viral particle release and enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. PMID:27161574

  10. Polysialylation controls dendritic cell trafficking by regulating chemokine recognition.

    PubMed

    Kiermaier, Eva; Moussion, Christine; Veldkamp, Christopher T; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; de Vries, Ingrid; Williams, Larry G; Chaffee, Gary R; Phillips, Andrew J; Freiberger, Friedrich; Imre, Richard; Taleski, Deni; Payne, Richard J; Braun, Asolina; Förster, Reinhold; Mechtler, Karl; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Volkman, Brian F; Sixt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The addition of polysialic acid to N- and/or O-linked glycans, referred to as polysialylation, is a rare posttranslational modification that is mainly known to control the developmental plasticity of the nervous system. Here we show that CCR7, the central chemokine receptor controlling immune cell trafficking to secondary lymphatic organs, carries polysialic acid. This modification is essential for the recognition of the CCR7 ligand CCL21. As a consequence, dendritic cell trafficking is abrogated in polysialyltransferase-deficient mice, manifesting as disturbed lymph node homeostasis and unresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli. Structure-function analysis of chemokine-receptor interactions reveals that CCL21 adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which is released upon interaction with polysialic acid. Thus, we describe a glycosylation-mediated immune cell trafficking disorder and its mechanistic basis. PMID:26657283

  11. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall. PMID:26539200

  12. Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Nicolas; Bärlocher, Kevin; Finsel, Ivo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication. PMID:26924068

  13. Interfering with interferon receptor sorting and trafficking: impact on signaling.

    PubMed

    Claudinon, Julie; Monier, Marie-Noëlle; Lamaze, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) and their receptors (IFN-Rs) play fundamental roles in a multitude of biological functions. Many articles and reviews emphasize that the JAK/STAT machinery is obligatory for relay of the information transmitted by IFNs after binding to their cognate receptors at the plasma membrane. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the endocytosis and the intracellular trafficking of IFN-Rs, the immediate step following IFN binding. However, recent findings have shed light on the importance of IFN-R sorting and trafficking in the control of IFN signaling. Thus, IFN-Rs can be included in the growing family of signaling receptors for which regulation of biological activity critically involves endocytosis and trafficking. PMID:17493737

  14. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners. PMID:26841906

  15. A conserved haem redox and trafficking pathway for cofactor attachment

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia L; Frawley, Elaine R; Bonner, Eric R; Zhu, Huifen; San Francisco, Brian; Kranz, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    A pathway for cytochrome c maturation (Ccm) in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (mitochondria) requires the genes encoding eight membrane proteins (CcmABCDEFGH). The CcmABCDE proteins are proposed to traffic haem to the cytochrome c synthetase (CcmF/H) for covalent attachment to cytochrome c by unknown mechanisms. For the first time, we purify pathway complexes with trapped haem to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of haem binding, trafficking and redox control. We discovered an early step in trafficking that involves oxidation of haem (to Fe3+), yet the final attachment requires reduced haem (Fe2+). Surprisingly, CcmF is a cytochrome b with a haem never before realized, and in vitro, CcmF functions as a quinol:haem oxidoreductase. Thus, this ancient pathway has conserved and orchestrated mechanisms for trafficking, storing and reducing haem, which assure its use for cytochrome c synthesis even in limiting haem (iron) environments and reducing haem in oxidizing environments. PMID:19629033

  16. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated. PMID:24966051

  17. Biodistribution and Trafficking of Hydrogel Nanoparticles in Adult Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Perry, Jillian L.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Airs, Paul M.; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Xu, Jing; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP) characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics) of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact) using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load) in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract. Conclusions/Significance Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector

  18. 78 FR 59325 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Further Implementation of Trafficking in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Government has a longstanding zero-tolerance policy against human trafficking in Federal supply chains... ensure their employees do not engage in, or become complicit to, human trafficking in their supply...

  19. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  20. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189

  1. Trafficking in persons and victim health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schloenhardt, Andreas; Klug, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    This article explores the health problems experienced by victims of trafficking in persons in Australia and analyses the domestic support schemes established to assist these victims. It focuses specifically on the health of adult, female victims who constitute the majority of identified victims, and who are the principal recipients of government support services. Domestic experiences and support schemes are reviewed in the light of international law and best practice guidelines. Recommendations are made to improve the health services available to victims of trafficking in persons in Australia. PMID:22320010

  2. Posttranslational regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and function

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Roche, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by glutamate acting on AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. The abundance of AMPA receptors at the synapse can be modulated through receptor trafficking, which dynamically regulates many fundamental brain functions, including learning and memory. Reversible posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, palmitoylation and ubiquitination of AMPA receptor subunits are important regulatory mechanisms for controlling synaptic AMPA receptor expression and function. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of AMPA receptor posttranslational modifications and discuss how these modifications regulate AMPA receptor trafficking and function at synapses. PMID:22000952

  3. Routes, destinations and delays: recent advances in AMPA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Jeremy M.; Barker, Ellen A.; Glebov, Oleg O.

    2012-01-01

    Postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory and cognition. The number, synaptic localization and subunit composition of synaptic AMPARs are tightly regulated by network activity and by the history of activity at individual synapses. Furthermore, aberrant AMPAR trafficking is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. AMPARs therefore represent a prime target for drug development and the mechanisms that control their synaptic delivery, retention and removal are the subject of extensive research. Here, we review recent findings that have provided new insights into AMPAR trafficking and that might lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21420743

  4. Systemic aminoglycosides are trafficked via endolymph into cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics rapidly enter and kill cochlear hair cells via apical mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channels in vitro. In vivo, it remains unknown whether systemically-administered aminoglycosides cross the blood-labyrinth barrier into endolymph and enter hair cells. Here we show, for the first time, that systemic aminoglycosides are trafficked across the blood-endolymph barrier and preferentially enter hair cells across their apical membranes. This trafficking route is predominant compared to uptake via hair cell basolateral membranes during perilymph infusion. PMID:22355674

  5. Sex trafficking in Nepal: a review of intervention and prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Crawford, Mary

    2011-05-01

    Trafficking of girls and women for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a problem worldwide, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on Nepal-to-India sex trafficking with an examination of current anti-trafficking intervention and prevention programs. The activities of both governmental agencies and nongovernment organizations are described and critically analyzed. Suggestions for evaluating and improving interventions, and thereby reducing the trafficking of girls and women, are discussed. PMID:21502114

  6. Protection from livestock fails to deter shrub proliferation in a desert landscape with a history of heavy grazing.

    PubMed

    Browning, Dawn M; Archer, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Desertification is often characterized by the replacement of mesophytic grasses with xerophytic shrubs. Livestock grazing is considered a key driver of shrub encroachment, although most evidence is anecdotal or confounded by other factors. Mapping of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina) shrubs in and out of exclosures in 1932, 1948, and 2006 in semiarid grasslands of southeastern Arizona, USA, afforded the opportunity to quantify livestock grazing effects on mesquite proliferation over 74 years in the absence of fire to test the widespread assumption that livestock grazing promotes shrub proliferation. In 1932, shrub cover, density, and aboveground biomass were compared on grazed (12%, 173 plants/ha, 4182 kg/ha) and newly protected areas (8%, 203 plants/ha, 3119 kg/ha). By 1948, cover on both areas increased to 18%; yet, density on the protected area increased 300% (to 620 plants/ha), nearly twice that of the grazed area (325 plants/ha). From 1932 to 1948, differences in recruitment of new plants and growth of existing plants were reflected in biomass, which was higher on the protected area (415 plants/ha, 8788 kg/ha) relative to the grazed area (155 plants/ha, 7085 kg/ha), although mortality was equally low ( 0.06%). In 2006, 42 years after an herbicide application reset mesquite cover to 10% on both areas, aboveground mesquite mass was comparable on both areas ( 4700 kg/ha), but cover and density on the protected area (22%, 960 plants/ha) exceeded that on the grazed area (15%, 433 plants/ha). Mesquite mass in 2006 was substantially below 1948 levels, so continued accrual is likely. That shrub recovery from herbicides on a biomass basis was much less than recovery on a cover basis suggests that remotely sensed biomass estimates should integrate land management history. Contrary to widely held assumptions, protection from livestock since 1932 not only failed to deter woody-plant proliferation, but actually promoted it relative to grazed areas. Results suggest (1

  7. A systematic review of qualitative findings on factors enabling and deterring uptake of HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) being the epicenter of the HIV epidemic, uptake of HIV testing is not optimal. While qualitative studies have been undertaken to investigate factors influencing uptake of HIV testing, systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. Methods Using Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnography method, we synthesised published qualitative research to understand factors enabling and deterring uptake of HIV testing in SSA. We identified 5,686 citations out of which 56 were selected for full text review and synthesised 42 papers from 13 countries using Malpass’ notion of first-, second-, and third-order constructs. Results The predominant factors enabling uptake of HIV testing are deterioration of physical health and/or death of sexual partner or child. The roll-out of various HIV testing initiatives such as ‘opt-out’ provider-initiated HIV testing and mobile HIV testing has improved uptake of HIV testing by being conveniently available and attenuating fear of HIV-related stigma and financial costs. Other enabling factors are availability of treatment and social network influence and support. Major barriers to uptake of HIV testing comprise perceived low risk of HIV infection, perceived health workers’ inability to maintain confidentiality and fear of HIV-related stigma. While the increasingly wider availability of life-saving treatment in SSA is an incentive to test, the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV inhibits uptake of HIV testing. Other barriers are direct and indirect financial costs of accessing HIV testing, and gender inequality which undermines women’s decision making autonomy about HIV testing. Despite differences across SSA, the findings suggest comparable factors influencing HIV testing. Conclusions Improving uptake of HIV testing requires addressing perception of low risk of HIV infection and perceived inability to live with HIV. There is also a need to continue

  8. Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: 1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids; 2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). METHODS Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. RESULTS Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their “junkie friends.” Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a “miracle pill.” When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from “the best high ever” to “puking for days.” Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:22036303

  9. Combating trafficking in persons: a call to action for global health professionals.

    PubMed

    CdeBaca, Luis; Sigmon, Jane Nady

    2014-08-01

    Health care professionals can help identify victims of human trafficking, who commonly come into contact with providers during captivity. Providers can also help restore the physical and mental health of trafficking survivors. Training should focus on recognizing trafficking signs, interviewing techniques, and recommended responses when a victim is identified. PMID:25276585

  10. 78 FR 41972 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act... Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to... Section 110(b)(3)(D) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (Pub. L. 106-386),...

  11. 78 FR 45555 - Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking... Presidential Task Force on Wildlife Trafficking (Task Force), is announcing the establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The Council will...

  12. 76 FR 39150 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act... Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to... Section 110(b)(3)(D) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (Pub. L. 106-386),...

  13. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the ‘North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health’ Programme

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. Methods ‘Mixed methods’ research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Results Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. Conclusions A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. PMID:23958644

  14. Global initiatives to tackle organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Alireza; Delmonico, Francis L

    2013-11-01

    The increasing gap between organ supply and demand has opened the door for illegal organ sale, trafficking of human organs, tissues and cells, as well as transplant tourism. Currently, underprivileged and vulnerable populations in resource-poor countries are a major source of organs for rich patient-tourists who can afford to purchase organs at home or abroad. This paper presents a summary of international initiatives, such as World Health Organization's Principle Guidelines, The Declaration of Istanbul, Asian Task Force Recommendations, as well as UNESCO's and the United Nation's initiatives against trafficking of human organs, tissues, cells, and transplant tourism. Beyond the summary, it calls for more practical measures to be taken to implement the existing guidelines and recommendations, in order to prevent exploitation of the poor as organ providers. The paper suggests that an international legally binding agreement in criminalizing organ trafficking would be a step forward to bring a change in the global picture of organ trafficking and transplant tourism. PMID:23749286

  15. Control of protein trafficking by reversible masking of transport signals.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Omer; Gotliv, Karnit; Parnis, Anna; Boncompain, Gaelle; Perez, Franck; Cassel, Dan

    2016-04-15

    Systems that allow the control of protein traffic between subcellular compartments have been valuable in elucidating trafficking mechanisms. Most current approaches rely on ligand or light-controlled dimerization, which results in either retardation or enhancement of the transport of a reporter. We developed an alternative approach for trafficking regulation that we term "controlled unmasking of targeting elements" (CUTE). Regulated trafficking is achieved by reversible masking of the signal that directs the reporter to its target organelle, relying on the streptavidin-biotin system. The targeting signal is generated within or immediately after a 38-amino acid streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) that is appended to the reporter. The binding of coexpressed streptavidin to SBP causes signal masking, whereas addition of biotin causes complex dissociation and triggers protein transport to the target organelle. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the control of nuclear and peroxisomal protein import and the generation of biotin-dependent trafficking through the endocytic and COPI systems. By simultaneous masking of COPI and endocytic signals, we were able to generate a synthetic pathway for efficient transport of a reporter from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26941332

  16. CLIC4 regulates cell adhesion and β1 integrin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Margadant, Coert; Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Janssen, Hans; Jalink, Kees; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2014-12-15

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4) exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms, and is implicated in diverse cellular processes, ranging from ion channel formation to intracellular membrane remodeling. CLIC4 is rapidly recruited to the plasma membrane by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and serum, suggesting a possible role for CLIC4 in exocytic-endocytic trafficking. However, the function and subcellular target(s) of CLIC4 remain elusive. Here, we show that in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells, CLIC4 knockdown decreases cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading and integrin signaling, whereas it increases cell motility. LPA stimulates the recruitment of CLIC4 to β1 integrin at the plasma membrane and in Rab35-positive endosomes. CLIC4 is required for both the internalization and the serum- or LPA-induced recycling of β1 integrin, but not for EGF receptor trafficking. Furthermore, we show that CLIC4 suppresses Rab35 activity and antagonizes Rab35-dependent regulation of β1 integrin trafficking. Our results define CLIC4 as a regulator of Rab35 activity and serum- and LPA-dependent integrin trafficking. PMID:25344254

  17. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Criminal and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.23...

  18. Regulation of intracellular heme trafficking revealed by subcellular reporters.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Rietzschel, Nicole; Kwon, Hanna; Walter Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Hanna, David A; Phillips, John D; Raven, Emma L; Reddi, Amit R; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-08-30

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that reside in virtually every subcellular compartment performing diverse biological functions. Irrespective of whether heme is synthesized in the mitochondria or imported from the environment, this hydrophobic and potentially toxic metalloporphyrin has to be trafficked across membrane barriers, a concept heretofore poorly understood. Here we show, using subcellular-targeted, genetically encoded hemoprotein peroxidase reporters, that both extracellular and endogenous heme contribute to cellular labile heme and that extracellular heme can be transported and used in toto by hemoproteins in all six subcellular compartments examined. The reporters are robust, show large signal-to-background ratio, and provide sufficient range to detect changes in intracellular labile heme. Restoration of reporter activity by heme is organelle-specific, with the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum being important sites for both exogenous and endogenous heme trafficking. Expression of peroxidase reporters in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that environmental heme influences labile heme in a tissue-dependent manner; reporter activity in the intestine shows a linear increase compared with muscle or hypodermis, with the lowest heme threshold in neurons. Our results demonstrate that the trafficking pathways for exogenous and endogenous heme are distinct, with intrinsic preference for specific subcellular compartments. We anticipate our results will serve as a heuristic paradigm for more sophisticated studies on heme trafficking in cellular and whole-animal models. PMID:27528661

  19. Child Trafficking in West Africa: Policy Responses. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Florence (Italy). Innocenti Research Centre.

    This report examines policy responses and programming trends to combat the growing specter of child trafficking, focusing on the region of west and central Africa where strenuous advocacy efforts by UNICEF and its partners have helped to bring this problem to national and international attention. The report focuses on policy trends on child…

  20. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  1. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  2. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  3. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  4. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  5. Alternative splicing results in RET isoforms with distinct trafficking properties

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Douglas S.; Rodrigues, David M.; Hyndman, Brandy D.; Crupi, Mathieu J. F.; Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Mulligan, Lois M.

    2012-01-01

    RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RET is alternatively spliced to encode multiple isoforms that differ in their C-terminal amino acids. The RET9 and RET51 isoforms display unique levels of autophosphorylation and have differential interactions with adaptor proteins. They induce distinct gene expression patterns, promote different levels of cell differentiation and transformation, and play unique roles in development. Here we present a comprehensive study of the subcellular localization and trafficking of RET isoforms. We show that immature RET9 accumulates intracellularly in the Golgi, whereas RET51 is efficiently matured and present in relatively higher amounts on the plasma membrane. RET51 is internalized faster after ligand binding and undergoes recycling back to the plasma membrane. This differential trafficking of RET isoforms produces a more rapid and longer duration of signaling through the extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RET51 relative to RET9. Together these differences in trafficking properties contribute to some of the functional differences previously observed between RET9 and RET51 and establish the important role of intracellular trafficking in modulating and maintaining RET signaling. PMID:22875993

  6. Analysis of Lipolytic Protein Trafficking and Interactions in Adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work examined the colocalization, trafficking, and interactions of key proteins involved in lipolysis during brief cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation. Double label immunofluorescence analysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes indicated that PKA activation increases the translocation of hormon...

  7. Human Trafficking: A Call for Counselor Awareness and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Edward L., Jr.; Ramey, Luellen

    2009-01-01

    The counseling profession has given little attention to human trafficking, a form of modern slavery that is one of the most damaging forms of social injustice that exists today. Focusing on victims within the United States, the authors provide advocacy suggestions, treatment recommendations, and directions for research for this population.

  8. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  9. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  10. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  11. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  12. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  13. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  14. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  15. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  16. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term...

  17. 31 CFR 598.313 - Significant foreign narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant foreign narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.313 Significant foreign narcotics trafficker. The term...

  18. Leukocyte trafficking: Can we bring the fight to the tumor?

    PubMed

    Pachynski, Russell; Nazha, Jonathon; Kohrt, Holbrook

    2016-03-01

    Control of leukocyte trafficking plays a critical role in the establishment of effective immune responses. It is now well established that the number or ratio of effector to suppressor immune cells within the tumor microenvironment can significantly impact tumor growth and clinical outcomes. Recently approved immunotherapies by the FDA, and those in development, aim to stimulate effector immune cell function. For example, many checkpoint inhibitors seek to stimulate an immune response to tumors by reversing T-cell exhaustion. However, activation of the immune response outside the tumor microenvironment can lead to sometimes fatal immune-mediated adverse events -- the result of "on-target, off-tumor" effects. Thus, control of localization of these activated effector cells remains a critical component of optimizing tumor response while minimizing immune-mediated adverse events. Chemokines and chemoattractants, along with their receptors on immune cells, govern leukocyte trafficking; thus, understanding their expression pattern in the context of the tumor microenvironment and developing approaches to favorably alter those should lead to improved efficacy of current immunotherapeutics. This review highlights the background of cancer immunotherapy, leukocyte trafficking, and some novel approaches being utilized to optimize recruitment of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Future combinatorial immunotherapy should incorporate therapeutics aimed at 1) favorably altering the tumor microenvironment, 2) activating effector immune cells, and 3) optimizing effector cell trafficking into tumors. PMID:27115171

  19. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  20. Can Brief Alcohol Interventions for Youth Also Address Concurrent Illicit Drug Use? Results from a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57% male participants and 56% White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes. PMID:25600491

  1. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  2. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Brad J; Kuhn, Michael J; Donaldson, Terrence L; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Pickett, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this

  3. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  4. A one year investigation of the occurrence of illicit drugs in wastewater from Brussels, Belgium.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Mougel, Jean-François; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Daily 24 hour composite influent wastewater samples were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of Brussels-North (Belgium) for eight months to study variations in the concentrations and mass loads of nine illicit drugs and metabolites: cocaine (COC) and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), methadone (MTD) and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and the specific metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM). Samples were analyzed using a validated analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The selected compounds could be detected and quantified in all samples. The measured concentrations were in agreement with earlier published concentrations, when available. All illicit drugs showed significant differences in mass loads between months. Daily variations were observed for MDMA, AMP and COC and metabolites, with higher mass loads observed during the weekend. This is probably related to their recreational consumption pattern and was further confirmed when holiday periods (New Year's Eve, Belgian national holiday) were in detail investigated. For METH, 6-MAM, MTD and EDDP, stable and consistent amounts were observed during the week. In all samples, the ratio of the concentration of the parent compound to its metabolite(s) was calculated to evaluate whether measured concentrations reflect human excretion of the illicit drugs. For MTD, the ratio of parent compound/metabolite was in agreement with the excretion pattern, while for COC some deviations were observed, resulting from excretion pattern uncertainties, and stability and discharge issues. PMID:21331424

  5. Illicit Stimulant Use Is Associated with Abnormal Substantia Nigra Morphology in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Gabrielle; Noyes, Carolyn; Flavel, Stanley C.; Della Vedova, Chris B.; Spyropoulos, Peter; Chatterton, Barry; Berg, Daniela; White, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed ‘hyperechogenicity’) when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs) and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs). Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm2) than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm2; P<0.001) and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm2; P<0.007) groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system. PMID:23418568

  6. Licit and illicit substance use by adolescent students in eastern India: Prevalence and associated risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsering, Dechenla; Pal, Ranabir; Dasgupta, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Use of tobacco, alcohol, and other substances is a worldwide problem and affects many adolescents. Objective: (1) To find out the magnitude of licit and illicit substance use among students; and (2) to find out the association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the students and habits of use. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted during June 2003 to May 2004. In a multistage random sampling among all the districts and schools in West Bengal, India, 416 high school students from two schools were selected. The main outcome measures were substance use, namely, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabinoids. From the schools, all the students in the classes VIII, IX, and X were taken as the study population and were administered a pretested close-ended anonymous self-administered questionnaire relating to pattern, frequency, and correlates of substance use. Results: The ultimate response rate was 87.02% and 416 students could be covered in our study. The overall prevalence rates among rural and urban students were 6.14% and 0.6% for illicit drug use, 8.60% and 11.04% for tobacco, and 7.37% and 5.23% for alcohol consumption, respectively. Both licit and illicit substance use was associated more with male students. Current and regular use were mostly restricted to tobacco, and the use of a substance by family members had a significant impact on its use by their children. “Enjoyment” and “Curiosity” were found to have the major influence in their decision to use a substance. Conclusions: Early identification of the magnitude and the factors related to substance use can improve scopes for planning and preventive approaches for this vulnerable group before the problems get serious after which interventions become difficult. PMID:21808508

  7. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle; Noyes, Carolyn; Flavel, Stanley C; Della Vedova, Chris B; Spyropoulos, Peter; Chatterton, Barry; Berg, Daniela; White, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity') when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs) and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs). Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2)) than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2); P<0.001) and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2); P<0.007) groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th) percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system. PMID:23418568

  8. Retention rate and illicit opioid use during methadone maintenance interventions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Farré, Magí; Mas, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Moreno, Victor; Camí, Jordi

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of methadone maintenance in opioid addiction was assessed in terms of programme retention rate and reduction of illicit opioid use by means of a meta-analysis of randomised, controlled and double blind clinical trials. The results were compared with interventions using buprenorphine and levo-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Trials were identified from the PubMed database from 1966 to December 1999 using the major medical subject headings 'methadone' and 'randomised controlled trial'. Data for a total of 1944 opioid-dependent patients from 13 studies were analysed. Sixty-four percent of patients received methadone, administered either as fixed or adjusted doses. Thus, 890 patients received > or = 50 mg/day (high dose group) and 392 were given < 50 mg/day (low dose group). Of 662 controls, 131 received placebo, 350 buprenorphine (265 at doses > or = 8 mg/day and 85 at doses < 8 mg/day) and 181 LAAM. High doses of methadone were more effective than low doses in the reduction of illicit opioid use (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26--2.36). High doses of methadone were significantly more effective than low doses of buprenorphine (< 8 mg/day) for retention rates and illicit opioid use, but similar to high doses of buprenorphine (> or = 8 mg/day) for both parameters. Patients treated with LAAM had more risk of failure of retention than those receiving high doses of methadone (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.32--2.78). It is proposed that in agonist-maintenance programmes, oral methadone at doses of 50 mg/day or higher is the drug of choice for opioid dependence. PMID:11841899

  9. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  10. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use. PMID:20102394

  11. Dynamic regulation of β1 subunit trafficking controls vascular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bannister, John P.; Narayanan, Damodaran; Nair, Anitha; Grubbs, Jordan E.; Gabrick, Kyle S.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels composed of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits control physiological functions in virtually all cell types. A conventional view is that channels assemble with their auxiliary subunits before anterograde plasma membrane trafficking of the protein complex. Whether the multisubunit composition of surface channels is fixed following protein synthesis or flexible and open to acute and, potentially, rapid modulation to control activity and cellular excitability is unclear. Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that are functionally significant modulators of arterial contractility. Here, we show that native BKα subunits are primarily (∼95%) plasma membrane-localized in human and rat arterial myocytes. In contrast, only a small fraction (∼10%) of total β1 subunits are located at the cell surface. Immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy demonstrated that intracellular β1 subunits are stored within Rab11A-postive recycling endosomes. Nitric oxide (NO), acting via cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cAMP-dependent pathways stimulated rapid (≤1 min) anterograde trafficking of β1 subunit-containing recycling endosomes, which increased surface β1 almost threefold. These β1 subunits associated with surface-resident BKα proteins, elevating channel Ca2+ sensitivity and activity. Our data also show that rapid β1 subunit anterograde trafficking is the primary mechanism by which NO activates myocyte BK channels and induces vasodilation. In summary, we show that rapid β1 subunit surface trafficking controls functional BK channel activity in arterial myocytes and vascular contractility. Conceivably, regulated auxiliary subunit trafficking may control ion channel activity in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:24464482

  12. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  13. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  14. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellquist, Linda; Rosen, Hanna; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Calafat, Jero; Janssen, Hans; Persson, Ann-Maj; Hansson, Markus; Olsson, Inge

    2010-11-15

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'pro{sub C}'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  15. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  16. Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-01

    The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Illicit Drug Use Compared to Biological and Self-Reported Methods

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in

  18. Migration Intentions and Illicit Substance Use among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven; Calderón-Tena, Carlos Orestes; Becerra, David; Alvarez, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This study explored intentions to emigrate and substance use among youth (ages 14–24) from a central Mexico state with high emigration rates. Questionnaires were completed in 2007 by 702 students attending a probability sample of alternative secondary schools serving remote or poor communities. Linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that stronger intentions to emigrate predicted greater access to drugs, drug offers, and use of illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, inhalants), but not alcohol or cigarettes. Results are related to the healthy migrant theory and its applicability to youth with limited educational opportunities. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:21955065

  19. The analysis of illicit methaqualone containing preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Grové, Alida A; Rohwer, Egmont R; Laurens, Johannes B; Vorster, Barend C

    2006-03-01

    A validated gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for quantitative analysis of methaqualone (MTQ) in illicit preparations is reported. The method proved to have a coefficient of variation of below 5%. Four batches of seized tablets, two pairs with similar imprints, were analyzed. It was found that the average MTQ concentration in all four batches of tablets differed significantly (p = 0.01) rendering it impossible to conclude that, on the basis of MTQ concentration alone, the batches with a similar logo originated from the same manufacturer or manufacturing batch. Conversely, it can be said that in this case, the four batches originated from either different clandestine laboratories or manufacturing batches. PMID:16566774

  20. Preventing trafficking in women and children in Asia: issues and options.

    PubMed

    Bennett, T

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the issues and options in the prevention of trafficking of women and children in Asia. Studies revealed a higher prevalence of trafficking in Asian countries such as Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand. This is due to a huge population, growing urbanization, and poverty. Several programs by the government and nongovernmental organizations have been developed to address the trafficking problem. In Nepal, the Maiti program was organized to help trafficking victims return to their home country, while occupational alternatives and awareness campaigns were organized for young women vulnerable to trafficking. In Thailand, greater penalties were imposed to customers as compared to the sellers so as to discourage the continuance and decrease the prevalence of trafficking. Other strategies have also been identified, such as prosecution of procurers, community awareness through campaigns, poverty alleviation, and gender equalization to address the trafficking problem. PMID:12322333

  1. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV Disease Management Among Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-05-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV who have a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512

  2. Genotoxic effects induced by the exposure to an environmental mixture of illicit drugs to the zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. PMID:27261879

  3. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV disease management among vulnerable populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; O’Grady, Catherine L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV with a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512

  4. Rapid screening of illicit additives in weight loss dietary supplements with desorption corona beam ionisation (DCBI) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wu, Y; Zhao, Y; Sun, W; Ding, L; Guo, B; Chen, B

    2012-08-01

    Desorption corona beam ionisation (DCBI), the relatively novel ambient mass spectrometry (MS) technique, was utilised to screen for illicit additives in weight-loss food. The five usually abused chemicals - fenfluramine, N-di-desmethyl sibutramine, N-mono-desmethyl sibutramine, sibutramine and phenolphthalein - were detected with the proposed DCBI-MS method. Fast single-sample and high-throughput analysis was demonstrated. Semi-quantification was accomplished based on peak areas in the ion chromatograms. Four illicit additives were identified and semi-quantified in commercial samples. As there was no tedious sample pre-treatment compared with conventional HPLC methods, high-throughput analysis was achieved with DCBI. The results proved that DCBI-MS is a powerful tool for the rapid screening of illicit additives in weight-loss dietary supplements. PMID:22784191

  5. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  6. Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use among College Students: Results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys--1993-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study…

  7. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy. PMID:24869455

  8. Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Entry Among Rural Illicit Stimulant Users in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Robert G.; Sexton, Rocky; Wang, Jichuan; Falck, Russel; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use in the rural United States is increasingly common, yet little is known about drug users’ treatment-seeking behaviors. This study identifies predictors of substance abuse treatment entry over 24 months among 710 illicit stimulant users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Active users of powdered cocaine, crack cocaine, and/or methamphetamine (MA) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed structured interviews at baseline and follow-up questionnaires every 6 months for 24 months. Data were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The paper is informed by the Anderson-Newman Model. Overall, 18.7% of the sample entered treatment. Ohio or Kentucky residence, perceived need for substance abuse treatment, higher ASI legal problem composite scores, prior substance abuse treatment, and tranquilizer use were positively associated with treatment entry. Non-daily crack cocaine users and marijuana users were less likely to enter treatment. The findings can help inform rural substance abuse treatment program development and outreach. PMID:20391264

  9. Overcoming barriers to prevention, care, and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Brian R; Kresina, Thomas F; Raymond, Daniel B; Carden, Michael R; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rich, Josiah D; Cheever, Laura W; Cargill, Victoria A

    2005-04-15

    Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV and human immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses; evaluation for comorbidities; coordination of substance-abuse treatment services, psychiatric care, and social support; evaluation of liver disease; and interferon-based treatment for HCV infection. Caring for patients who use illicit drugs presents challenges to the health-care team that require patience, experience, and an understanding of the dynamics of substance use and addiction. Nonetheless, programs are successfully integrating hepatitis C care for IDUs into health-care settings, including primary care, methadone treatment and other substance-abuse treatment programs, infectious disease clinics, and clinics in correctional facilities. PMID:15768335

  10. The illicit consumption of military uniforms in Britain, 1914–1918.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the British home front during the First World War, this article explores civilians’ motives for acquiring and wearing military garments and accoutrements to which they were not entitled. It suggests that uniforms could be donned either to avoid the attentions of recruiting sergeants, or to perpetrate criminal deceptions. That said, individuals did not always wear illicit uniforms in order to ‘disguise’ their civilian identity. Rather, many men claimed a sense of entitlement to such items, either on the basis of previous war service, or, more often, on the basis of their contributions to the war effort on the home front. The acquisition of military items could also reflect men's roles as consumers: for many civilians, acquiring and wearing the newly glamorous uniforms was a consumer choice that could also open the door to further leisure and consumer opportunities. Overall, illicitly wearing military items undermined the uniform's link with service and sacrifice on the battle fronts: it allowed individuals to assume the appearance of combatants or to assert their patriotic identities without actually exposing themselves to military duties or dangers. It also reflected (some) men's continued perception of themselves as consumers, keen, even in wartime, to adopt what they saw as the most desirable sartorial option. PMID:21954489

  11. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses: A Theory-Guided Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R; Ketcham, Patricia L; Smit, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess prevalence, elucidate the behavior's multietiological nature, and discuss prevention implications. Peer-reviewed studies were located through key phrase searches (prescription stimulant misuse and college, "prescription stimulant misuse" and "college," illicit use of prescription stimulants in college, and nonmedical prescription stimulant use in college students) in electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, and EBSCO Host) for the period 2000 to 2013. Studies meeting inclusion criteria had their references reviewed for additional eligible literature. Statistically significant correlates of IUPS in the 62 retrieved studies were organized using the three streams of influence and four levels of causation specified in the TTI. Results show that the prevalence of IUPS varies across campuses. Additionally, findings suggest the behavior is multifaceted, as correlates were observed within each stream of influence and level of causation specified by the TTI. We conclude that IUPS is prevalent in, but varies across, colleges and is influenced by intrapersonal and broader social and societal factors. We discuss implications for prevention and directions for future research. PMID:26032000

  12. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  13. British American Tobacco and the “insidious impact of illicit trade” in cigarettes across Africa

    PubMed Central

    LeGresley, E; Lee, K; Muggli, M E; Patel, P; Collin, J; Hurt, R D

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in the illicit trade of cigarettes across the African continent in terms of rationale, supply routes and scale. Methods: Analysis of internal BAT documents and industry publications. Results: BAT has relied on illegal channels to supply markets across Africa since the 1980s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy in order to gain leverage in negotiating with governments for tax concessions, compete with other transnational tobacco companies, circumvent local import restrictions and unstable political and economic conditions and gain a market presence. BAT worked through distributors and local agents to exploit weak government capacity to gain substantial market share in major countries. Conclusions: Documents demonstrate that the complicity of BAT in cigarette smuggling extends to Africa, which includes many of the poorest countries in the world. This is in direct conflict with offers by the company to contribute to stronger international cooperation to tackle the illicit tobacco trade. PMID:18617598

  14. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported "binge" drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  15. Drug testing for newborn exposure to illicit substances in pregnancy: pitfalls and pearls.

    PubMed

    Farst, Karen J; Valentine, Jimmie L; Hall, R Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  16. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Damon, Teyona; Shockley, Johnette; Hoagland, Kyle

    2009-03-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. PMID:19110357

  17. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results. PMID:25915085

  18. Perceptions of parental bonding in freebase cocaine users versus non-illicit drug users

    PubMed Central

    Pettenon, Márcia; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Guimarães, Luciano S. P.; Pedroso, Rosemeri Siqueira; Hauck, Simone; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Evidence has suggested that parenting styles have peculiar characteristics in families with drug-related issues. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack (smoke cocaine) users and non-users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil. Methods: A total of 198 hospitalized crack users and 104 users of any non-illicit drug were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results: Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that crack users were more likely (ORadj = 9.68; 95% CI: 2.82, 33.20) to perceive neglectful mothers, as well as more likely (ORadj = 4.71, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.22) to perceive controlling and affectionless fathers in comparison with non-illicit drug users who were more likely to perceive optimal parenting. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that the perception of neglectful mothers and affectionless controlling fathers may be associated with the tendency of the children to be less resilient when facing stressful events, leading them to a greater risk to use crack. PMID:25109717

  19. Myocardium and striated muscle damage caused by licit or illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anita Réka; Varga, Tibor

    2009-04-01

    Illicit and central nervous system active licit drug consumption related deaths are mainly the consequences of either unintentional or intentional overdose. According to the data in the relevant literature occurrences of different organ damages are also observable and this can play a role in death, as well. Organ damages may appear simultaneously with overdosing or can be extended in time, which may lead to proving the cause of death and establishing the relationships with previous medication difficult. The most frequent damage observed is rhabdomyolysis syndrome, which has been mainly described after cocaine or opium consumption. Authors present four cases from the autopsy documentation of the period between 2003 and 2008 at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary in which illicit drug consumption or neuroleptic licit drug medication resulted in development of myocardium and striated muscle damage. The dominant clinical symptoms were hyperthermia, renal and circulatory failure. The laboratory tests showed renal and liver insufficiency; in addition the CK and CK-MB level increase suggested damage in striated muscles. The focal myocardium and striated muscle damage could be assessed as the cause of death in one case, but microscopic investigation proved the presence of damage in each. PMID:19342269

  20. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974