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1

Nitric oxide metabolite determinations reveal continuous inflammation in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is formed as a consequence of induction of the iNOS enzyme during inflammatory disorders. To investigate NO production in multiple sclerosis (MS), we determined the concentrations of its oxidation products (NOx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 61 MS patients. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their clinical disease activity.

Alexandre I. Danilov; Magnus Andersson; Nasrin Bavand; N. Peter Wiklund; Tomas Olsson; Lou Brundin

2003-01-01

2

Cortical Actin Nanodynamics Determines Nitric Oxide Release in Vascular Endothelium  

PubMed Central

The release of the main vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a hallmark of endothelial function. We aim at elucidating the underlying mechanism how eNOS activity depends on cortical stiffness (?cortex) of living endothelial cells. It is hypothesized that cortical actin dynamics determines ?cortex and directly influences eNOS activity. By combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence imaging we generated mechanical and optical sections of single living cells. This approach allows the discrimination between ?cortex and bulk cell stiffness (?bulk) and, additionally, the simultaneous analysis of submembranous actin web dynamics. We show that ?cortex softens when cortical F-actin depolymerizes and that this shift from a gel-like stiff cortex to a soft G-actin rich layer, triggers the stiffness-sensitive eNOS activity. The results implicate that stiffness changes in the ?100 nm phase of the submembranous actin web, without affecting ?bulk, regulate NO release and thus determines endothelial function.

Fels, Johannes; Jeggle, Pia; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Oberleithner, Hans

2012-01-01

3

Nitric oxide therapies  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for delivering nitric oxide therapy to a subject can include administering a composition including a nitric-oxide releasing agent and silica to the subject and releasing a therapeutic amount of nitric oxide from the composition.

2013-12-24

4

The ESR method to determine nitric oxide in plants.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role not only in animal system but also in plant system. We developed a method to detect NO free radical in plant system using electron spin resonance (ERS) spin trapping technique. The adduct (DETC)2-Fe2+-NO in plant can be extracted by organic solvent and then measured on an ESR spectrometer at room temperature (indirect method) or can be measured in live plant on an ESR spectrometer, but the water in the plant has to be partially dehydrated (direct method). PMID:16291224

Xu, Yangcang; Cao, Yuanlin; Tao, Yi; Zhao, Baolu

2005-01-01

5

Detection of nitric oxide pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of absorption spectra enhancement of certain atomic and molecular species inserter in dye-laser cavities have indicated that nitric oxide can be determined at low concentrations. Absorption coefficient of small amounts of nitric oxide in intra-laser-cavity absorption cell containing helium is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude.

Chackerian, C., Jr.; Weisbach, M. F.

1973-01-01

6

A novel fiber optic biosensor for nitric oxide determination based on vicinal diaminobenzozcridine fluorescent probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fiber optic biosensor for the determination of nitric oxide based on vicinal diaminobenzozcridine (VDABA) fluorescent probe was designed and fabricated. The reaction conditions between VDABA and NO, which include concentration of VDABA, temperature and pH, were studied in-depth. The sensitivity of VDABA for NO detection under the optimum conditions and its optical properties were also investigated. The fluorescence

Liyun Ding; Lanfen Huang; Jun Huang; Yunming Zhong; Dian Fan

2010-01-01

7

Oxidative stress and compartment of gene expression determine proatherosclerotic effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) decreases atherosclerosis development. Potential proatherogenic effects of iNOS include iNOS mediated oxidative stress and iNOS expression in different cellular compartments. Lesional iNOS can potentially produce nitric oxide radicals (NO), superoxide radicals (O2(-)), or both; these radicals may then react to form peroxynitrite. Alternatively, O2(-) radicals from oxidases co-expressed with iNOS could react with NO to produce peroxynitrite. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that modulate the redox system in different iNOS-expressing cell compartments may determine the role of iNOS in atherosclerosis. We used apoE (apoE(-/-)) and apoE/iNOS double knockout (apoE(-/-)/ iNOS(-/-)) mice to assess vascular NO, O2(-), and peroxynitrite formation by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and 3-nitrotyrosine staining. The relevance of the iNOS expressing cell compartment was tested by bone marrow transplantation. We show that iNOS significantly contributes to vascular NO production and itself produces O2(-), leading to peroxynitrite formation in atherosclerotic lesions. Our bone marrow transplantation experiments show that bone marrow derived cells exclusively mediate the proatherosclerotic effects of iNOS in males, while both parenchymal and bone marrow derived iNOS equally contribute to atherosclerosis in females. Moreover, iNOS expression affects vascular remodeling. These findings establish for the first time that the proatherosclerotic effects of iNOS vary with sex in addition to the compartment of its expression. PMID:19465644

Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Ostermeier, Eva; Schröttle, Angelika; Chen, Jiqiu; Huang, Paul L; Ertl, Georg; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kuhlencordt, Peter J

2009-06-01

8

Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of a number of lung and heart diseases that is characterized by peripheral vascular structural remodeling and loss of vascular tone. Nitric oxide can modulate vascular injury and interrupt elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance selectively; however, it can also produce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and exert cytotoxic and antiplatelet effects. The balance between the protective and adverse effects of nitric oxide is determined by the relative amount of nitric oxide and reactive radicals. Nitric oxide has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of congenital heart disease, mitrial valvular disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and in orthotropic cardiac transplantation patients. Additionally, new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, natriuretic peptides and aqueous nitric oxide are also effective for treatment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.

2010-01-01

9

Determinants of platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide in patients with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with oxidative stress. Platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO) donors, are impaired in patients with angina pectoris, possibly by increasing oxidative stress. We investigated the occurrence of platelet resistance to NO in patients, with ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy compared with normal subjects. Anti-aggregatory effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), oxidative stress and whole blood superoxide anion content were determined, with correlates of responsiveness to SNP. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by SNP was 65.4+/-3.55% in controls and 59.3+/-4.1% in CHF (P=ns) despite increased oxidative stress and post-aggregation O2- in CHF patients. However, subsets of CHF patients have NO-resistant platelets: this is associated with increasing age and/or increased oxidative stress (both p<0.05). PMID:15012918

Anderson, R A; Ellis, G R; Chirkov, Y Y; Holmes, A S; Payne, N; Blackman, D J; Jackson, S K; Lewis, M J; Horowitz, J D; Frenneaux, M P

2004-01-01

10

Nitric oxide as an antioxidant  

SciTech Connect

Benzoate monohydroxy compounds, and in particular salicylate, were produced during interaction of ferrous complexes with hydrogen peroxide (Fenton reaction) in a N2 environment. These reactions were inhibited when Fe complexes were flushed, prior to the addition in the model system, by nitric oxide. Methionine oxidation to ethylene by Fenton reagents was also inhibited by nitric oxide. Myoglobin in several forms such as metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and nitric oxide-myoglobin were interacted with an equimolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Spectra changes in the visible region and the changes in membrane (microsomes) lipid peroxidation by the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were determined. The results showed that metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin were activated by H2O2 to ferryl myoglobin, which initiates membrane lipid peroxidation; but not nitric oxide-myoglobin, which, during interaction with H2O2, did not form ferryl but metmyoglobin which only poorly affected lipid peroxidation. It is assumed that nitric oxide, liganded to ferrous complexes, acts to prevent the prooxidative reaction of these complexes with H2O2.

Kanner, J.; Harel, S.; Granit, R. (Department of Food Science, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel))

1991-08-15

11

Electrochemical and spectrophotometric study of the behavior of electropolymerized nickel porphyrin films in the determination of nitric oxide in solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper an electrochemical and spectrophotometric study of the behavior of an electropolymerized nickel porphyrin film as a sensor for the determination of nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solution. Our results show that the anodic oxidation of NO at the modified electrode may not be the result of a catalytic effect induced by the porphyrinic complex. However,

Stéphane Trevin; Fethi Bedioui; Jacques Devynck

1996-01-01

12

Nitric oxide diffusion coefficients in solutions, proteins and membranes determined by phosphorescence.  

PubMed

The reactivity of nitric oxide under a given condition is a complex function of its diffusivity and the concentration of reacting partners. Quenching by NO of luminescence from Ru and Pd chelates of mesoporphyrin IX, two molecules which exhibit phosphorescence at room temperature, was utilized to evaluate the gas concentration and apparent diffusion coefficients. The properties of Ru-mesoporphyrin, a dye not previously employed as a probe for O2 or NO, were determined and the assay was verified and used to quantify NO produced by decomposition of nitrosocysteine. The pseudo-second order quenching constants were obtained from Stern-Volmer plots measured under various conditions and used to calculate diffusion coefficients for nitric oxide in solutions, proteins and membranes. The diffusion coefficients were greater at 37 than at 25 degrees C and, at a given temperature, smaller in proteins and membranes than in water. The conclusion is that NO and O2 closely resemble each other in diffusivity but that NO is slightly less lipophilic, resulting in somewhat faster apparent diffusion in protein and slower diffusivity in lipid, relative to O2. Taking a mean diffusion coefficient for NO of 10(-7) cm2s-1, then within 10 s the mean path is 10(-3) cm, or less than the diameter of a single cell. However, at low NO and O2 concentrations, the halflife of NO will be considerably longer than 10 s, and consequently the path of NO diffusion much greater. PMID:8075157

Vanderkooi, J M; Wright, W W; Erecinska, M

1994-08-17

13

Mammalian nitric oxide synthases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitric oxide (NO) synthase family of enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, which acts as a biologic effector molecule in a broad number of settings. This report summarizes some of the current information regarding NO synthase structure-function, reaction mechanism, control of catalysis, and protein interactions.

Dennis J Stuehr

1999-01-01

14

A novel fiber optic biosensor for nitric oxide determination based on vicinal diaminobenzozcridine fluorescent probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fiber optic biosensor for the determination of nitric oxide based on vicinal diaminobenzozcridine (VDABA) fluorescent probe was designed and fabricated. The reaction conditions between VDABA and NO, which include concentration of VDABA, temperature and pH, were studied in-depth. The sensitivity of VDABA for NO detection under the optimum conditions and its optical properties were also investigated. The fluorescence responses were concentration-dependent and a good linear relationship (R2=0.9863) was observed over the range 1.8×10-6 to 9×10-6 mol/L NO, the regression equation was F = 3.8889[NO] (mol/L)+217.2. Besides, a complex sensitive film embedding VDABA in cellulose acetate (CA) was prepared, and a fiber optic NO biosensor was fabricated using this film. Then the change of fluorescence phase shift of this biosensor was studied preliminarily by means of the lock-in technology.

Ding, Liyun; Huang, Lanfen; Huang, Jun; Zhong, Yunming; Fan, Dian

2010-04-01

15

Determination of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in umbilical blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Little is known about the potential physiological roles of ADMA in a perinatal setting. This study measures concentrations of ADMA in umbilical blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and those of NO as nitrite\\/nitrate (NOx?) using the Griess assay. Their relationship to

Hirokazu Tsukahara; Naoko Ohta; Shuko Tokuriki; Koji Nishijima; Fumikazu Kotsuji; Hisako Kawakami; Norihito Ohta; Kyouichi Sekine; Hironori Nagasaka; Mitsufumi Mayumi

2008-01-01

16

Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells: Differential Nitric Oxide Synthesis Determines Their Ability to Aggregate Platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence and role of an L-arginine:nitric oxide (NO) pathway in two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, SW-480 and SW-620, were investigated. Both cell lines, which derive from the same patient, SW-480 from the primary tumor and SW-620 from its metastatic lesion, were shown to have a cytosolic, Ca2+-independent, NADPH-dependent NO synthase, the activity of which was lower in the

Marek W. Radomski; David C. Jenkins; Lesley Holmes; Salvador Moneada

1991-01-01

17

Student Nitric Oxide Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) is a small scientific spacecraft designed to launch on a PegasusTM XL vehicle for the Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative. Its scientific goals are to measure nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere and to analyze the solar and magnetospheric influences that create it and cause its abundance to vary dramatically. The SNOE ('snowy') spacecraft and instrumentation is being designed and built at the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) by a team of scientists, engineers, and students. The spacecraft is a compact hexagonal structure, 37' by 39', weighing approximately 280 lbs. It will be launched into a circular orbit, 550 km altitude, 97.5 degrees inclination for sun-synchronous precession at 10:30 AM ascending node. It is designed to spin at 5 rpm with the spin axis normal to the orbit plane. It carries three instruments: an ultraviolet spectrometer to measure nitric oxide altitude profiles on the limb, a two-channel ultraviolet photometer to measure auroral emissions in the nadir, and a five-channel solar soft x-ray photometer. An experimental GPS receiver is also included. The spacecraft structure is aluminum, with a center platform section for the instruments and subsystems. Static solar arrays are supported by a truss system. A spacecraft microprocessor handles all subsystem, instrument, and communications functions in an integrated fashion, including command decoding, attitude control, instrument commanding, data storage, and telemetry. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch in early 1997 and will be operated by students at LASP. For more information on the SNOE project, please visit http://lasp.colorado.edu/snoe/.

Solomon, Stanley C.; Barth, Charles A.; Axelrad, Penina; Bailey, Scott M.; Brown, Ronald; Davis, Randal L.; Holden, Timothy E.; Kohnert, Richard A.; Lacy, Frederick W.; McGrath, Michael T.; O'Connor, Darren C.; Perich, Jeffrey P.; Reed, Heather L.; Salada, Mark A.; Simpson, John; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Stafford, George A.; Steg, Stephen R.; Tate, Gail A.; Westfall, James C.; White, Neil R.; Withnell, Peter R.; Woods, Thomas N.

1996-10-01

18

Tropospheric nitric oxide measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in tropospheric photo-chemistry. The photochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons, for example, can serve as either a source or a sink for ozone, depending on the local abundance of NO. Nitric oxide also helps govern atmospheric concentrations of the hydroxyl (OH) radical. The OH radical is the single most important player in photochemical transformations because it controls the atmospheric lifetimes of so many chemical species. Although NO serves as a very effective catalyst in many important chemical processes, its concentration is low enough to normally be expressed in units of parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Consequently, commercially available detectors for NO (with detection limits of about one part per billion) have proven to be unsuitable for use anywhere except in urban areas and near other local pollution sources. Under the sponsorship of NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE), Wallops has developed an extremely sensitive detector with a detection limit of a few pptv. The system was specifically designed for aircraft use, with the objective of applying it in global aircraft studies of tropospheric chemistry. Studies with the detector are examined.

Torres, A. L.

1988-01-01

19

An effective method of scavenging nitric oxide.  

PubMed

We report an effective method of scavenging nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. We have compared three agents, a commercially available filter, soda lime and activated charcoal, for their effectiveness and duration of action. Complete absorption of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide for a period of 170 h was obtained using the commercial filter. However, soda lime and charcoal were unable to successfully scavenge either gas. The resistance characteristics of this filter when dry or humidified were determined. PMID:8949828

Squire, S; Kightley, R; Petros, A J

1996-09-01

20

Novel agents targeting nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas continuously synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine in endothelial cells by the constitutive calcium-calmodulin-dependent enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as a major mechanism involved in all the stages of atherogenesis. Evaluation of endothelial function seems to have a predictive role in humans, and therapeutic interventions improving nitric oxide bioavailability in the vasculature, may improve the long-term outcome in healthy individuals, high-risk subjects or patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Several therapeutic strategies (including statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptors blockers, insulin sensitizers, antioxidant compounds) are now available, targeting both the synthesis and oxidative inactivation of NO in human vasculature, reversing in that way endothelial dysfunction which is enhanced by the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. PMID:22112348

Kampoli, Anna-Maria; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Tentolouris, Costas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2012-01-01

21

Study of Atmospheric Nitric Oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the contribution of energetic nitrogen atoms to the production of nitric oxide in the thermosphere and their influence on the infrared emission spectrum. The nitric oxide molecules are important contributors to the cooling of the atmosphere. We first pointed out that in determining the energy distribution of the nitrogen atoms, it is important to take into account the thermal motion of the atmospheric gases. It had been ignored in all earlier studies. The source spectra are broadened considerably by the center of mass motion of the reactants. We worked out the consequences for the production of nitric oxide at night, using as sources of energetic N atoms, NO(+) + e yield N + O, N(D-2) + O yield N + O. The high energy tail is enhanced by orders of magnitude. We had earlier suggested (Sharma et al. 1993) that the reaction of energetic nitrogen atoms with O2 was responsible for the rotationally enhanced NO identified in the infrared spectrum. Our calculations provided quantitative confirmation of the suggestion. We proceeded to explore the validity of another approximation used in earlier analyses, the hard sphere approximation for the energy loss in elastic collisions. We carried out precise quantum mechanical calculations of the elastic 2 differential scattering of nitrogen atoms in collisions with oxygen atoms and showed that although the hard sphere approximation was nowhere of high precision, reasonable results could be obtained with an effective cross section of 6 x 10(exp 15)sq cm. We also initiated a program to include inelastic energy loss processes in the determination of the energy distribution function. We began a calculation of the rotation and vibrational excitation cross sections of molecular nitrogen and nitrogen atoms and developed a method for including inelastic energy loss as a function of scattering angle in the Boltzmann equation. A procedure for obtaining the solution of the Boltzman equation was worked out.

Dalgarno, A.

1998-01-01

22

Biotransformation of nitric oxide.  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations into the health effects of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have mostly been conducted with special reference to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and its direct effects on the respiratory system, while the study of nitric oxide (NO) has been disregarded. We carried out a study on NO by exposing rats and mice to 15NO or administering 15N-nitrite and 15N-nitrate to these animals by IP injection in order to elucidate the metabolic fate of NO. The results of our study and previous findings led us to assume that the major metabolic path of inhaled NO is as follows: inhaled NO reacts with hemoglobin, forming nitrosyl-hemoglobin (NOHb), and from NOHb, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) are generated. Major quantities of NO3- are discharged into the urine and a certain amount is discharged into the oral cavity through the salivary glands and transformed to NO2-. Part of this NO2- is converted to N2 gas in the stomach. Nitrate in the intestine is partly reduced to ammonia (NH3) through NO2-, reabsorbed into the body, and converted to urea. Most of the metabolites of inhaled NO are excreted rapidly from the body within 48 hr.

Yoshida, K; Kasama, K

1987-01-01

23

Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The five WebWare Molecules for December derive from the article Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications by Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer.

24

The Capacity of Red Blood Cells to Reduce Nitrite Determines Nitric Oxide Generation under Hypoxic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of vascular tone. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for NO generation under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia however, eNOS is inactive and red blood cells (RBC) provide an alternative NO generation pathway from nitrite to regulate hypoxic vasodilation. While nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin is well acknowledged, little is known about generation of NO by intact RBC with physiological hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to develop and apply a new approach to provide insights in the ability of RBC to convert nitrite into NO under hypoxic conditions. We established a novel experimental setup to evaluate nitrite uptake and the release of NO from RBC into the gas-phase under different conditions. NO measurements were similar to well-established clinical measurements of exhaled NO. Nitrite uptake was rapid, and after an initial lag phase NO release from RBC was constant in time under hypoxic conditions. The presence of oxygen greatly reduced NO release, whereas inhibition of eNOS and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) did not affect NO release. A decreased pH increased NO release under hypoxic conditions. Hypothermia lowered NO release, while hyperthermia increased NO release. Whereas fetal hemoglobin did not alter NO release compared to adult hemoglobin, sickle RBC showed an increased ability to release NO. Under all conditions nitrite uptake by RBC was similar. This study shows that nitrite uptake into RBC is rapid and release of NO into the gas-phase continues for prolonged periods of time under hypoxic conditions. Changes in the RBC environment such as pH, temperature or hemoglobin type, affect NO release.

Fens, Marcel H.; Larkin, Sandra K.; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Morris, Claudia R.; Kuypers, Frans A.

2014-01-01

25

Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-03-01

26

Determination of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in umbilical blood.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Little is known about the potential physiological roles of ADMA in a perinatal setting. This study measures concentrations of ADMA in umbilical blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and those of NO as nitrite/nitrate (NOx(-)) using the Griess assay. Their relationship to the degree of prematurity and maternal clinical condition is examined. Results show that ADMA concentrations in umbilical blood from control newborns were about twice as high as those of lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Umbilical blood NOx(-) concentrations from control newborns were about half of those of lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Consequently, the levels of ADMA relative to NOx(-) were about 4-fold higher in umbilical blood from control newborns than in blood from lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Furthermore, the umbilical blood ADMA concentrations and the ratios of ADMA to NOx(-) in newborns were higher according to their birth prematurity and lower birth weight. The umbilical ADMA concentrations were independent of the delivery mode and maternal preeclampsia. We infer that the high ADMA levels play physiological roles in maintaining vascular tone and blood redistribution to vital organs during birth, thereby favoring the circulatory transition from fetal to neonatal life. PMID:18191051

Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Ohta, Naoko; Tokuriki, Shuko; Nishijima, Koji; Kotsuji, Fumikazu; Kawakami, Hisako; Ohta, Norihito; Sekine, Kyouichi; Nagasaka, Hironori; Mayumi, Mitsufumi

2008-02-01

27

Nitric oxide deficiency determines global chromatin changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The present study provides evidence that abnormal patterns of global histone modification are present in the skeletal muscle nuclei of mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. A combination of specific histone H3 modifications, including Ser-10 phosphorylation, acetylation of Lys 9 and 14, and Lys 79 methylation, were found enriched in muscle biopsies from human patients affected by DMD and in late-term fetuses, early postnatal pups, or adult mdx mice. In this context, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed an enrichment of these modifications at the loci of genes involved in proliferation or inflammation, suggesting a regulatory effect on gene expression. Remarkably, the reexpression of dystrophin induced by gentamicin treatment or the administration of nitric oxide (NO) donors reversed the abnormal pattern of H3 histone modifications. These findings suggest an unanticipated link between the dystrophin-activated NO signaling and the remodeling of chromatin. In this context, the regulation of class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4 and 5 was found altered as a consequence of the reduced NO-dependent protein phosphatase 2A activity, indicating that both NO and class IIa HDACs are important for satellite cell differentiation and gene expression in mdx mice. In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a role for NO as an epigenetic regulator in DMD. PMID:19264835

Colussi, Claudia; Gurtner, Aymone; Rosati, Jessica; Illi, Barbara; Ragone, Gianluca; Piaggio, Giulia; Moggio, Maurizio; Lamperti, Costanza; D'Angelo, Grazia; Clementi, Emilio; Minetti, Giulia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Antonini, Annalisa; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

2009-07-01

28

Satellite measurements of the backscattered ultraviolet to determine ozone trends, volcanic SO2, and nitric oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the atmospheric backscattered UV albedo have been used from satellites for more than 20 years to measure ozone. The longest continuous record has been from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) and TOMS on the Nimbus 7 satellite, which have been in operation since November of 1978. Because of degradation in space of the diffuser plate used to measure extraterrestrial solar flux, it has been necessary to develop new techniques to maintain the calibration of these instruments. Calibration is maintained by requiring that ozone measured by different wavelength pairs be consistent, and by requiring that ozone measured at different solar zenith angles be consistent. This technique of using a geophysical quantity, ozone, as a transfer standard for wavelength calibration is very powerful. The recalibrated data have been used to measure total ozone trends to an accuracy of +/- 1.3 percent 2(sigma) error over ten years. No significant trends are found near the equator, but significant trends larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry are found at middle to high latitudes in both hemispheres. In addition, UV albedo data have been used to measure SO2 using band structure in the 300-310 nm range, and to measure nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere using the (10) and (02) NO gamma band fluorescence features.

Mcpeters, Richard

1993-01-01

29

Electrochemical and spectrophotometric study of the behavior of electropolymerized nickel porphyrin films in the determination of nitric oxide in solution.  

PubMed

We describe in this paper an electrochemical and spectrophotometric study of the behavior of an electropolymerized nickel porphyrin film as a sensor for the determination of nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solution. Our results show that the anodic oxidation of NO at the modified electrode may not be the result of a catalytic effect induced by the porphyrinic complex. However, the current (measured by differential pulse amperometry) and calculated NO concentration showed a linear relationship in the range 15 nM-6 muM in aerobic phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). These results provide a fruitful example of calibration of such electrochemical sensors for the selective detection of NO with a calculated detection limit, at a signal-to-noise ratio of three, equal to 1.5 nM. PMID:18966491

Trevin, S; Bedioui, F; Devynck, J

1996-03-01

30

Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

31

49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

2009-10-01

32

49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

2010-10-01

33

49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

2013-10-01

34

A SIMPLE SILICON BASED NITRIC OXIDE SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to mediate many beneficial physiology processes, motivating its detection in vivo as well as in vitro. Electrochemical detection provides the required cellular level determination of NO among several other techniques. In this work, electrochemical micro-sensors for both types of detection, in vivo and in vitro, were developed, exploring the silicon planar technology, which presents high

Rogerio Furlan; Koiti Arakai; Jorge J. Santiago-Aviles

35

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of

W. Zetterquist; C. Pedroletti; J. O. n. Lundberg; K. Alving

1999-01-01

36

Nitric oxide bioavailability in malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational development of adjunct or anti-disease therapy for severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requires cel- lular and molecular definition of malarial pathogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential target for such therapy but its role during malaria is controversial. It has been proposed that NO is produced at high levels to kill Plasmodium parasites, although the unfortunate con- sequence of elevated

Peter Sobolewski; Irene Gramaglia; John Frangos; Marcos Intaglietta; Henri C. van der Heyde

2005-01-01

37

Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release from invertebrate microglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphine stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in human endothelial cells. To determine whether this mechanism also occurs in invertebrates, the musselMytilus edulis was studied. Exposure of excised ganglia to morphine for 24 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in rnicroglial egress that was naloxone sensitive. In coincubating the excised ganglia with morphine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N

Yu Liu; David Shenouda; Thomas V. Bilfinger; Michelle L. Stefano; Harold I. Magazine; George B. Stefano

1996-01-01

38

Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants [1,2], bringing about unwanted biological effects [3]. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO) from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

Lam, EWN; Kelley, EE; Martin, SM; Buettner, GR

2003-01-01

39

Nitric Oxide Activates Cyclooxygenase Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) on the activity of the constitutive and induced forms of cyclooxygenase (COX; COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). Induction of NO synthase (NOS) and COX (COX-2) in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (1 mu g\\/ml, 18 h) caused an increase in the release of nitrite (NO^-_2) and prostaglandin

Daniela Salvemini; Thomas P. Misko; Jaime L. Masferrer; Karen Seibert; Mark G. Currie; Philip Needleman

1993-01-01

40

Nitric oxide and the gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a modulator of blood flow, motility, electrolyte and water transport, and the function\\u000a of endothelial cells, platelets, mast cells, and macrophages within the digestive system. In addition, a number of reports\\u000a have demonstrated that NO possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties, whereas results from an equally impressive number\\u000a of studies suggest that NO may promote

David Jourd’heuil; Matthew B. Grisham; D. Neil Granger

1999-01-01

41

Nitric Oxide Regulates Wound Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis occurs during wound healing, but its role has not been defined. To study the effect of NO on wound repair,S-methyl isothiouronium (MITU, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase) was administered at a dose of 10, 50, and 100 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day, using intraperitoneally implanted miniosmotic pumps. Groups of 10 male Balb\\/C mice underwent a dorsal skin

Michael R. Schäffer; Udaya Tantry; Steven S. Gross; Hannah L. Wasserkrug; Adrian Barbul

1996-01-01

42

Nitric oxide function in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process in the intima of conduit arteries, which disturbs the endothelium-dependent regulation of the vascular tone by the labile liposoluble radical nitric oxide (NO) formed by the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This defect predisposes to coronary vasospasm and cardiac ischaemia, with anginal pain as the typical clinical manifestation. It is now appreciated that endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis and that it may also involve the microcirculation, in which atherosclerotic lesions do not develop. On the other hand, the inflammatory environment in atherosclerotic plaques may result in the expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isozyme. Whether the dysfunction in endothelial NO production is causal to, or the result of, atherosclerotic lesion formation is still highly debated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that constitutive endothelial NO release protects against atherogenesis e.g. by preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Nitric oxide generated by the inducible isozyme may be beneficial by replacing the failing endothelial production but excessive release may damage the vascular wall cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates.

Matthys, K. E.

1997-01-01

43

Nitric oxide is required for determining root architecture and lignin composition in sunflower. Supporting evidence from microarray analyses.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule involved in several physiological processes in plants, including root development. Despite the importance of NO as a root growth regulator, the knowledge about the genes and metabolic pathways modulated by NO in this process is still limited. A constraint to unravel these pathways has been the use of exogenous applications of NO donors that may produce toxic effects. We have analyzed the role of NO in root architecture through the depletion of endogenous NO using the scavenger cPTIO. Sunflower seedlings growing in liquid medium supplemented with cPTIO showed unaltered primary root length while the number of lateral roots was deeply reduced; indicating that endogenous NO participates in determining root branching in sunflower. The transcriptional changes induced by NO depletion have been analyzed using a large-scale approach. A microarray analysis showed 330 genes regulated in the roots (p?0.001) upon endogenous NO depletion. A general cPTIO-induced up-regulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway was observed. Even if no detectable changes in total lignin content could be detected, cell walls analyses revealed that the ratio G/S lignin increased in roots treated with cPTIO. This means that endogenous NO may control lignin composition in planta. Our results suggest that a fine tuning regulation of NO levels could be used by plants to regulate root architecture and lignin composition. The functional implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24747108

Corti Monzón, Georgina; Pinedo, Marcela; Di Rienzo, Julio; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Pomar, Federico; Lamattina, Lorenzo; de la Canal, Laura

2014-05-30

44

Novel effects of nitric oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

2001-01-01

45

Nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption I: cellular physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Mitochondrial biochemistry is complex, expanding from oxygen consumption, oxidative phosphorylation, lipid catabolism, heme biosynthesis, to apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and production of reactive oxygen species, including nitric oxide (NO). The latter molecule ,is produced ,by a ,mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS). The rates of consumption,and production determine the steady-state concentration of NO at subcellular levels, leading to regulation of mitochondrial events.

Cecilia Giulivi; Kazunobu Kato; Christopher Eric Cooper

2006-01-01

46

21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

2009-04-01

48

The Moraxella catarrhalis nitric oxide reductase is essential for nitric oxide detoxification.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative obligate aerobe that is an important cause of human respiratory tract infections. The M. catarrhalis genome encodes a predicted truncated denitrification pathway that reduces nitrate to nitrous oxide. We have previously shown that expression of both the M. catarrhalis aniA (encoding a nitrite reductase) and norB (encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase) genes is repressed by the transcriptional regulator NsrR under aerobic conditions and that M. catarrhalis O35E nsrR mutants are unable to grow in the presence of low concentrations of nitrite (W. Wang, et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:7762-7772, 2008). In this study, we constructed an M. catarrhalis norB mutant and showed that planktonic growth of this mutant is inhibited by low levels of nitrite, whether or not an nsrR mutation is present. To determine the importance of NorB in this truncated denitrification pathway, we analyzed the metabolism of nitrogen oxides by norB, aniA norB, and nsrR norB mutants. We found that norB mutants are unable to reduce nitric oxide and produce little or no nitrous oxide from nitrite. Furthermore, nitric oxide produced from nitrite by the AniA protein is bactericidal for a Moraxella catarrhalis O35E norB mutant but not for wild-type O35E bacteria under aerobic growth conditions in vitro, suggesting that nitric oxide catabolism in M. catarrhalis is accomplished primarily by the norB gene product. Measurement of bacterial protein S-nitrosylation directly implicates nitrosative stress resulting from AniA-dependent nitric oxide formation as a cause of the growth inhibition of norB and nsrR mutants by nitrite. PMID:21441505

Wang, Wei; Kinkel, Traci; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A; Fang, Ferric C; Hansen, Eric J

2011-06-01

49

Determination of nitric oxide in hydrophytes using poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that has recently emerged as a cellular messenger in numerous physiological processes in plants. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith microextraction (PMME) is developed for sensitive determination of NO in hydrophytes. NO is derivatized using a fluorescent probe, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(3?,4?-diaminophenyl)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (DAMBO), and then the derivatives

Ke-Jing Huang; Min Zhang; Wan-Zhen Xie; Hua-Shan Zhang; Yu-Qi Feng; Hong Wang

2007-01-01

50

Sampling and determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide following removal of ozone by gas-phase reaction with nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the ambient atmosphere is described, using impinger or diffusion scrubber collection of hydrogen peroxide with aqueous-phase analysis by an enzyme-catalyzed fluorescence technique. Interference from ozone at ambient levels is removed by gas-phase titration with excess nitric oxide. The impinger and diffusion scrubber collection techniques are shown to give equivalent results for atmospheric

Roger L. Tanner; George Y. Markovits; Eugene M. Ferreri; Thomas J. Kelly

1986-01-01

51

Delivery and monitoring of inhaled nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhaled nitric oxide is rapidly gaining popularity as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in patients with acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension. The development of nitric oxide as a drug has bypassed the usual regulatory and commercial processes, and as a result clinicians have devised a wide range of delivery and monitoring systems. This review describes these systems, and discusses their

J. D. Young; O. J. Dyar

1996-01-01

52

Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.  

DOEpatents

A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

2005-10-04

53

Inhibition of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase causes ileitis and leukocytosis in guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As nitric oxide reduces gut epithelial permeability, we designed a study to determine if chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition predisposes the gut to inflammation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors were administered in the drinking waterad libitum, for seven days: aminoguanidine (10 µg\\/ml), a selective inhibitor of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase; andNG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 1, 10, and

Mark J. S. Miller; Upender K. Munshi; Halina Sadowska-Krowicka; Jane L. Kakkis; Xiao-Jing Zhang; Sandra Eloby-Childress; David A. Clark

1994-01-01

54

Triple point determinations of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, 2.2 percent by weight nitric oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests was performed to ascertain the triple points of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. A laboratory method indicated a triple point for monomethylhydrazine, but tests in a large vacuum chamber indicated that a triple point does not occur in spacelike conditions because the mono-methylhydrazine tends to supercool. Instead, an effective freezing point (with agitation) was obtained. New experimental values for liquid monomethylhydrazine vapor pressure were determined for temperatures from 275.2 to 207.6 K. The values were used to derive vapor pressure equations. Tentative values were obtained for the effective freezing point of nitrogen tetroxide spacelike conditions.

Smith, Irwin D.; Dhooge, Patrick M.

1977-01-01

55

UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

56

Exhaled nitric oxide in sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by the lower respiratory tract is viewed as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma and bronchiectasis. NO is a potentially important immune modulator, inhibiting the release of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. As sarcoidosis is characterised by granulomatous airway inflammation, we hypothesised that exhaled NO levels might be raised in sarcoidosis and correlate with the morphological extent and functional severity of disease. Methods: Fifty two patients with sarcoidosis (29 men) of mean age 42 years underwent thin section computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and measurement of exhaled NO. Results: Exhaled NO levels (median 6.8 ppb, range 2.4–21.8) did not differ significantly from values in 44 control subjects, and were not related to the extent of individual CT abnormalities or the level of pulmonary function impairment. Conclusion: Exhaled NO levels are not increased in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Wilsher, M; Fergusson, W; Milne, D; Wells, A

2005-01-01

57

Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology.

Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2011-01-01

58

Nitric Oxide-Dependent Apoptosis in Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In a recent study, we found different profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in the ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3, HOC-7, and 2774 following stimulation by proinflammatory cytokines. The present study was performed to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) synthesis correlates with programmed cell death in these cells.Methods. NO-Dependent apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation analysis

Josef Rieder; Rolf Jahnke; Michaela Schloesser; Maja Seibel; Monika Czechowski; Christian Marth; Georg Hoffmann

2001-01-01

59

Nitric oxide stimulates NCX1 and NCX2 but inhibits NCX3 isoform by three distinct molecular determinants.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of the activity of NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 exchangers was investigated in baby hamster kidney cells singly transfected with each of these isoforms by single-cell Fura-2-microfluorometry and patch clamp. Furthermore, the molecular determinants of NO on each isoform were identified by deletion, site-directed mutagenesis, and chimera strategies. Our data revealed four main findings. First, the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 10 nM) and the NO-precursor L-arginine (10 mM) were both able to increase NCX1 activity in a cGMP-independent way. Moreover, within the amino acid sequence 723 to 734 of the f-loop, Cys730 resulted as the target of NO on NCX1. Second, SNAP and L-arginine were able to increase NCX2 activity, but this effect was prevented by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In addition, the membrane-permeable 8-bromoguanosine-cGMP alone was able to mimic the stimulatory effect of the gaseous mediator, suggesting the involvement of a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Within the amino acid sequence 699 to 744 of the f-loop, Ser713 was the NO molecular determinant on the NCX2 protein; Third, NCX3 activity was instead down-regulated by NO in a cGMP-independent manner. This NO-inhibitory action was exerted at the level of Cys156 in the ?1-region outside the f-loop. Finally, the activity of the two NCX3 chimeras-obtained by the replacement of the NO-insensitive NCX3 region with the homologous NO-sensitive segments of NCX1 or NCX2-was potentiated by SNAP. Together, the present data demonstrate that NO differently regulates the activity of the three gene products NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 by modulating specific molecular determinants. PMID:21159997

Secondo, Agnese; Molinaro, Pasquale; Pannaccione, Anna; Esposito, Alba; Cantile, Maria; Lippiello, Pellegrino; Sirabella, Rossana; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

2011-03-01

60

Calculated Effects of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination on Scramjet Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. The study was conducted for standard facility conditions corresponding to Mach 6, 7, and 8 flight simulations. The analytically determined levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility are compared with experimentally measured levels. Results of the analysis indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, which corroborates the measured levels. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate how nitric oxide affects scramjet performance in terms of combustor pressure rise, heat release, and thrust performance. Results indicate minimal effects on engine performance for the test conditions of this investigation.

Fischer, Karen E.; Rock, Kenneth E.

1995-01-01

61

Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice  

PubMed Central

The nitric oxide pathway plays a pivotal, yet diverse, role in human physiology, including modulation of vascular tone, neural transmission and inflammation. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that has emerged rapidly as an important therapeutic agent. It finds its best applications in paediatrics; the use of iNO in term neonates with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, in the assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity and in the treatment of postoperative pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease is well recognised and accepted. This review details the delivery and monitoring aspects of inhaled nitric oxide, its potential toxic and side effects and its applications in several cardiopulmonary disorders in paediatrics.

Bernasconi, A; Beghetti, M

2002-01-01

62

Cogeneration of electric energy and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A solid electrolyte fuel cell operating on ammonia fuel has been constructed and tested. The yield of nitric oxide can exceed 60 percent with simultaneous electric energy production. Two dimensionless numbers have been identified which govern the product selectivity and power output of this fuel cell. The cell appears to be a promising candidate for nitric acid and electric energy cogeneration. PMID:17732844

Vayenas, C G; Farr, R D

1980-05-01

63

Cogeneration of electric energy and nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid electrolyte fuel cell operating on ammonia fuel has been constructed and tested. The yield of nitric oxide can exceed 60 percent with simultaneous electric energy production. Two dimensionless numbers have been identified which govern the product selectivity and power output of this fuel cell. The cell appears to be a promising candidate for nitric acid and electric energy

C. G. Vayenas; R. D. Farr

1980-01-01

64

Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Asthma Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease is typically characterized by bronchoconstriction and airway hyper-reactivity. A wealth of studies applying chemistry, molecular and cell biology to animal model systems and human asthma over the last decade have revealed that asthma is associated with increased synthesis of the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO). The high NO levels in the oxidative environment of the asthmatic airway lead to greater formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and subsequent oxidation and nitration of proteins, which adversely affect protein functions that are biologically relevant to chronic inflammation. In contrast to the high levels of NO and nitrated products, there are lower levels of beneficial S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), which mediate bronchodilation, due to greater enzymatic catabolism of RSNO in the asthmatic airways. This review discusses the rapidly accruing data linking metabolic products of NO as critical determinants in the chronic inflammation and airway reactivity of asthma.

Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpil C.

2011-01-01

65

Reversibility of heme-nitric oxide reactions for use in an inhaled nitric oxide sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric Oxide is a simple gaseous compound which serves as a regulatory molecule in a number of physiological processes. Due to its biological role as a potent local vasodilator,there has been widespread interest in the therapeutic use of gaseous nitric oxide a selective pulmonary vasodilator. Our goal is the development of a sensor for the direct and continuous measurement of inhaled nitric oxide concentrations. This study evaluated the reversibility of potential sensing compounds upon reaction with nitric oxide. Previously, absorption spectroscopy was used to study the sensitivity of the Fe II, Fe III and oxygenated forms of three biologically active hemes known to rapidly react with NO: hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c. This study focused on the photo-reversibility of the hem's reaction with nitric oxide. Hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochrome-c in the Fe III state reversibly reacted with nitric oxide. Hemoglobin and myoglobin in the Fe II state non-reversibly reacted with nitric oxide to form an unstable product. Cytochrome-c (FeII) does not react with nitric oxide. The oxy forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin react with nitric oxide to form their respective met forms, unreversible via photolysis. For all reversible reactions, photolysis was gradual and complete within five minutes.

Parikh, Bhairavi R.; Soller, Babs R.; Rencus, Tal

1997-06-01

66

Antifibrotic Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term treatment in rats with l-NAME, an isoform-non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leads to fibrosis of the heart and kidney, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in preventing tissue fibrosis. In this process, a likely target of NO is the quenching of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through peroxynitrite formation, and one possible source for this

M. G. Ferrini; D. Vernet; T. R. Magee; A. Shahed; A. Qian; J. Rajfer; N. F. Gonzalez-Cadavid

2002-01-01

67

Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibition of macrophage nitric oxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibited nitric oxide (NO.) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-? (IFN)-?). Inhibition of NO. production was noted at THC concentrations as low as 0.5 ?g\\/mL, and was nearly total at 7 ?g\\/mL. Inhibition was greatest if THC was added 1–4 hr before induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by LPS and

Ronald G. Coffey; Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Elizabeth Snella; Susan Pross

1996-01-01

68

Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of nitric oxide are thought to bethe cause of some of the complications associated withdecompensated end-stage liver disease. To assess nitricoxide metabolism in cirrhotic patients, we measured the levels of nitric oxide metabolites(nitrosohemoglobin, methemoglobin, nitrate, and nitrite)in normal subjects, in patients with decompensatedcirrhosis, in patients with renal failure (model forimpaired NO metabolites excretion), and in patients withmononitrates-treated anginal

N. Barak; R. Zemel; Z. Ben-Ari; M. Braun; R. Tur-Kaspa

1999-01-01

69

Sampling and determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide following removal of ozone by gas-phase reaction with nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

A method for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the ambient atmosphere is described, using impinger or diffusion scrubber collection of hydrogen peroxide with aqueous-phase analysis by an enzyme-catalyzed fluorescence technique. Interference from ozone at ambient levels is removed by gas-phase titration with excess nitric oxide. The impinger and diffusion scrubber collection techniques are shown to give equivalent results for atmospheric gas-phase hydrogen peroxide with limits of detection of 0.1 ppbv for approximately 60-min and 10-min sampling times, respectively.

Tanner, R.L.; Markovits, G.Y.; Ferreri, E.M.; Kelly, T.J.

1986-01-01

70

Nitric oxide delays oocyte aging.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in oocyte maturation and embryo development. However, its role in oocyte aging is unclear. To examine how NO affects oocyte aging, we retrieved young and relatively old mouse oocytes and exposed them to increasing concentrations of NO donor S-nitroso acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). Aging related phenomena of ooplasmic microtubule dynamics (OMD), cortical granule (CG) exocytosis, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening, and spindle/chromatin integrity were studied at each SNAP concentration using fluorescence immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy and compared with respective unexposed controls. Exposure of both young and old oocytes to NO resulted in a significant diminution in OMD and ZP dissolution time, whereas spontaneous CG loss decreased in old NO exposed oocytes compared to controls (P < 0.001 for all). Furthermore, NO exposure decreased the rate of spindle abnormalities in oocytes compared to unexposed controls. Interestingly, in old oocytes, the positive influence of NO was attenuated beyond 0.23 microM/min and disappeared at 0.46 microM/min NO. Overall, a significant dose-response relationship was noted between NO exposure and markers of aging with between 50 and 100 microM SNAP (0.11-0.23 microM/min NO, P < 0.0001). Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that exposure to NO delays oocyte aging and improves the integrity of the microtubular spindle apparatus in young and old oocytes. PMID:16114873

Goud, Anuradha P; Goud, Pravin T; Diamond, Michael P; Abu-Soud, Husam M

2005-08-30

71

Nitric Oxide Synthase in Filariae: Demonstration of Nitric Oxide Production by Embryos in Brugia malayi and Acanthocheilonema viteae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pfarr, K. M., Qazi, S., and Fuhrman, J. A. 2001. Nitric oxide synthase in filariae: Demonstration of nitric oxide production by embryos in Brugia malayi and Acanthocheilonema viteae. Experimental Parasitology97, 205–214. The radical gas nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from l-arginine and molecular oxygen. Nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule in invertebrate and vertebrate

Kenneth M. Pfarr; Sanjive Qazi; Juliet A. Fuhrman

2001-01-01

72

The formation of a complex between calmodulin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase is determined by ESI-MS  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin (CaM) is an acidic ubiquitous calcium binding protein, involved in many intracellular processes, which often involve the formation of complexes with a variety of protein and peptide targets. One such system, activated by Ca2+ loaded CaM, is regulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, which in turn control the production of the signalling molecule and cytotoxin NO. A recent crystallographic study mapped the interaction of CaM with endothelial NOS (eNOS) using a 20 residue peptide comprising the binding site within eNOS. Here the interaction of CaM to the FMN domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The 46?kDa complex formed by CaM–nNOS has been retained in the gas-phase, and is shown to be exclusively selective for CaM.4Ca2+. Further characterization of this important biological system has been afforded by examining a complex of CaM with a 22 residue synthetic peptide, which represents the linker region between the reductase and oxygenase domains of nNOS. This nNOS linker peptide, which is found to be random coil in aqueous solution by both circular dichroism and molecular modelling, also exhibits great discrimination for the form of CaM loaded with 4[Ca2+]. The peptide binding loop is presumed to be configured to an ?-helix on binding to CaM as was found for the related eNOS binding peptide. Our postulate is supported by gas-phase molecular dynamics calculations performed on the isolated nNOS peptide. Collision induced dissociation was employed to probe the strength of binding of the nNOS binding peptide to CaM.4Ca2+. The methodology taken here is a new approach in understanding the CaM–nNOS binding site, which could be employed in future to inform the specificity of CaM binding to other NOS enzymes.

Shirran, Sally; Garnaud, Pierre; Daff, Simon; McMillan, Derek; Barran, Perdita

2005-01-01

73

Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

74

Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naďve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

2006-11-01

75

Nitric Oxide Formation by Meteoroids in the Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process of nitric oxide formation during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source in a uniform flow with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amount of nitric oxide produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum regime is calculated by numerical integration of chemical-rate equations. This is accomplished by assuming that flow properties are constant across the reacting region, the radius of the region being determined from considerations of shock-wave formation and molecular diffusion. The results, when summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distributions of meteoroids, provide annual global production rates of nitric oxide as a function of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at altitudes between 9 x 10(exp 4) and 10(exp 5) m, the total annual rate being about 4 x 10(exp 7) kg. The present results suggest that the large concentration of nitric oxide observed below 9.5 x 10(exp 4) m could be attributed to meteoroids instead of photodissociation of nitrogen into metastable, 2D-state atoms, as has been previously hypothesized.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1976-01-01

76

Nitric oxide biosynthesis, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase competition for L-arginine utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nitric oxide (NO) is a recently discovered mediator produced by mammalian cells. It plays a key role in neurotransmission,\\u000a control of blood pressure, and cellular defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyze the oxidation of L-arginine\\u000a to NO and L-citrulline. NOSs are unique enzymes in that they possess on the same polypeptidic chain a reductase domain and\\u000a an oxygenase

J. L. Boucher; C. Moali; J. P. Tenu

1999-01-01

77

Nitric Oxide Formation in Combustion Processes with Strong Recirculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of the combustion experiments was to obtain information on the nitric oxide formation process in a continuous flow combustion system in which the flame is stabilized by recirculation. Specifically, the factors affecting nitric oxid...

C. T. Bowman L. S. Cohen M. N. Director

1973-01-01

78

Production of nitric oxide and self-nitration of proteins during monocyte differentiation to dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) can stimulate dendritic cells to a more activated state. However, nitric oxide and peroxynitrites production\\u000a by dendritic cells has been usually associated with pathological situations such as autoimmunity or inflammatory diseases.\\u000a This study was designed to determine if dendritic cells obtained from healthy volunteers produce nitric oxide and peroxynitrites,\\u000a which results in protein nitration. The expression of

V. Fernández-Ruiz; N. López-Moratalla; A. González

2005-01-01

79

Determination of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, in Anopheles culicifacies mosquito midgut and haemolymph by anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: plausible mechanism of refractoriness  

PubMed Central

Background The diverse physiological and pathological role of nitric oxide in innate immune defenses against many intra and extracellular pathogens, have led to the development of various methods for determining nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. NO metabolites, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) are produced by the action of an inducible Anopheles culicifacies NO synthase (AcNOS) in mosquito mid-guts and may be central to anti-parasitic arsenal of these mosquitoes. Method While exploring a plausible mechanism of refractoriness based on nitric oxide synthase physiology among the sibling species of An. culicifacies, a sensitive, specific and cost effective high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed, which is not influenced by the presence of biogenic amines, for the determination of NO2- and NO3- from mosquito mid-guts and haemolymph. Results This method is based on extraction, efficiency, assay reproducibility and contaminant minimization. It entails de-proteinization by centrifugal ultra filtration through ultracel 3 K filter and analysis by high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography (Sphereclone, 5 ? SAX column) with UV detection at 214 nm. The lower detection limit of the assay procedure is 50 pmoles in all midgut and haemolymph samples. Retention times for NO2- and NO3- in standards and in mid-gut samples were 3.42 and 4.53 min. respectively. Assay linearity for standards ranged between 50 nM and 1 mM. Recoveries of NO2- and NO3- from spiked samples (1–100 ?M) and from the extracted standards (1–100 ?M) were calculated to be 100%. Intra-assay and inter assay variations and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for NO2- and NO3- in spiked and un-spiked midgut samples were 5.7% or less. Increased levels NO2- and NO3- in midguts and haemolymph of An. culicifacies sibling species B in comparison to species A reflect towards a mechanism of refractoriness based on AcNOS physiology. Conclusion HPLC is a sensitive and accurate technique for identification and quantifying pmole levels of NO metabolites in mosquito midguts and haemolymph samples that can be useful for clinical investigations of NO biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology in various biological samples.

Sharma, Arun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Adak, Tridibesh; Dash, Aditya P

2008-01-01

80

Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic GMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades, nitric oxide signaling has been one of the most rapidly growing areas in biology. This simple free radical gas can regulate an ever growing list of biological processes. In most instances nitric oxide mediates its biological effects by activating guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP synthesis. However, the identifica- tion of effects of nitric oxide

F. Murad

1999-01-01

81

The chemistry of DNA damage from nitric oxide and peroxynitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide is a key participant in many physiological pathways; however, its reactivity gives it the potential to cause considerable damage to cells and tissues in its vicinity. Nitric oxide can react with DNA via multiple pathways. Once produced, subsequent conversion of nitric oxide to nitrous anhydride and\\/or peroxynitrite can lead to the nitrosative deamination of DNA bases such as

Samar Burney; Jennifer L. Caulfield; Jacquin C. Niles; John S. Wishnok; Steven R. Tannenbaum

1999-01-01

82

The nitric oxide-producing activities of Scutellaria baicalensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) has antibacterial and antiviral activities. Nitric oxide (NO) as a potent macrophage-derived effector molecule against a variety of bacteria, viruses and tumors has received increasing attention. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SB on the production of NO. Stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with SB after the treatment of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?)

Hyung-Min Kim; Eun-Jeong Moon; En Li; Kun-Min Kim; Sang-Yun Nam; Cha-Kwon Chung

1999-01-01

83

A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

84

The nitric oxide hypothesis of aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO), generated by endothelial (e) NO synthase (NOS) and neuronal (n) NOS, plays a ubiquitous role in the body in controlling the function of almost every, if not every, organ system. Bacterial and viral products, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce inducible (i) NOS synthesis that produces massive amounts of NO toxic to the invading viruses and bacteria,

S. M McCann; J Licinio; M.-L Wong; W. H Yu; S Karanth; V Rettorri

1998-01-01

85

The nitric oxide hypothesis of brain aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurons are found in many loci throughout the central nervous system, which include the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. NO plays a very important role in control of neuronal activity in all of these areas by diffusing into neurons where it activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) leading to generation of cyclic guanosine

S. M. McCann

1997-01-01

86

Nitric oxide therapy in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent clinical and experimental data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in the pathogenesis and therapy of sickle cell disease. NO, a soluble gas continuously synthesized in endothelial cells by the NO synthase (NOS) enzyme systems, regulates basal vascular tone and endothelial function, and maintains blood oxygenation via hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and reduced shunt physiology. These vital

Mark T Gladwin; Alan N Schechter

2001-01-01

87

Nitric oxide, stomatal closure, and abiotic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various data indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signal in plants that mediates responses to several stimuli. Experimental evidence in support of such signalling roles for NO has been obtained via the application of NO, usually in the form of NO donors, via the measurement of endogenous NO, and through the manipulation of endogenous NO content by chem-

Steven Neill; Raimundo Barros; Jo Bright; Radhika Desikan; John Hancock; Judith Harrison; Peter Morris; Dimas Ribeiro; Ian Wilson

2008-01-01

88

Nitric Oxide, the Kidney, and Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitors reduces the renal capacity to excrete sodium under normal or volume expanded conditions and increases renovascular resistances in the absence of changes in systemic blood pressure (BP). This indicates a sensitivity of renal vasculature higher than that of systemic vessels to NO synthesis inhibition. Medullary ycirculation is the renovascular territory most

Vicente Lahera; Josefa Navarro-Cid; Victoria Cachofeiro; Joaquin García-Estań; Luis M. Ruilope

1997-01-01

89

Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now in- formation on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure.

Wendy K. ALDERTON; Chris E. COOPER; Richard G. KNOWLES

2001-01-01

90

Reduction of nitric oxide by denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria, Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas denitrificans, have been shown to utilize nitric oxide (NO) as a terminal electron acceptor and succinate, yeast extract, and heat\\/alkali pretreated municipal sewage sludge as carbon and energy sources. Complete removal of NO (0.50%) from a feed gas sparged into the cultures was observed. It is suggested that reduction of NO may

R. Shanmugasundram; C. M. Lee; K. L. Sublette

2009-01-01

91

Nitric Oxide Damage to Colonocytes in Colitis-by-Association: Remote Transfer of Nitric Oxide to the Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

New observations of (1) colitis-by-association, (2) the carriage of nitric oxide by haemoglobin, (3) nitric oxide inactivation of CoA, (4) the damage caused to colonocytes by a combination of nitric oxide\\/sulphide\\/hydrogen peroxide and (5) colonic extraction of nitric oxide from the circulation, has led to new views on colonocyte damage in colitis. These observations should assist to define initiating factors

W. E. W. Roediger

2002-01-01

92

Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the normal, hypertrophic, and failing heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) produced in the heart by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a highly reactive signaling molecule and an important\\u000a modulator of myocardial function. NOS catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline and NO but under particular circumstances reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be formed instead of NO (uncoupling).\\u000a In the heart, three NOS isoforms are present: neuronal NOS

Soban Umar; Arnoud van der Laarse

2010-01-01

93

Endogenous Nitric Oxide in Acute Lung Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signal transduction molecule formed from the oxidative deamination of one of the equivalent\\u000a guanidine nitrogens of the amino acid L-arginine via the activity of at least four known isoforms of NO synthase (1). Within the lung, NO is synthesized by endothelial NO synthase (NOS-3) localized in airway epithelial cells and pulmonary\\u000a vascular endothelial cells,

Neil W. Kooy

94

Biomimetic and microbial reduction of nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomimetic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O) by dithiothreitol in the presence of cyanocobalamin and cobaltcentered porphyrins has been investigated. Reactions were\\u000a monitored directly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy vapor-phase spectra. Reaction rates were twofold faster\\u000a for the corrin than for the cobalt-centered porphyrins. The stoichiometry showed the loss of two molecules of NO per

W. T. Potter; Uyen Le; Suzanne Ronda; Jeong-Guk Cho; Ramesh Shanmugasundram; Allison Chirkis; Kerry L. Sublette

1995-01-01

95

Nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide alterations in chronically stressed rats: A model for nitric oxide in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase-1 (NOS1) are involved in the stress response and in depression. We compared NOS-NO alterations in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans. In the hypothalamus of male CUS rats we determined NOS activity, and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) we determined NOS1-immunoreactive (ir) cell densities and co-localization of NOS1 with stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OXT). We measured plasma NO levels and cortisol in male medicine-naďve MDD patients and plasma NO and corticosterone (CORT) in CUS rats. In the CUS rat total NOS activity in the hypothalamus (P=0.018) and NOS1-ir cell density in the PVN were both significantly decreased (P=0.018), while NOS1 staining was mainly expressed in OXT-ir neurons in this nucleus. Interestingly, plasma NO levels were significantly increased both in male CUS rats (P=0.001) and in male MDD patients (P<0.001). Plasma CORT levels were increased in male CUS rats (P=0.001), while male MDD patients did not show a significant change in cortisol levels. In conclusion, the changes in plasma and hypothalamic NOS-NO of CUS rats and MDD were similar. The male CUS rat model may thus help us with our investigation of the mechanism underlying NOS-NO alterations in depression. PMID:25001963

Gao, Shang-Feng; Lu, Yun-Rong; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Bo; Fu, Xin-Yan; Luo, Jian-Hong; Bao, Ai-Min

2014-09-01

96

Analytical study of mechanisms for nitric oxide formation during combustion of methane in a jet-stirred combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of chemical kinetics in the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of methane was examined analytically by means of a detailed chemical mechanism for the oxidation of methane, for the reaction between hydrocarbon fragments, and for the formation of nitric oxide. By comparing predicted nitric oxide levels with values reported in the literature from jet-stirred combuster experiments, it was determined that the nitric oxide levels observed in fuel-rich flames cannot be described by a mechanism in which the rate of nitric oxide formation is controlled solely by the kinetics of oxygen atom formation. A proposed mechanism for the formation of nitric oxide in methane-rich flames reproduces the observed levels. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide appears to be an important factor in nitric oxide formation.

Jachimowski, C. J.

1975-01-01

97

Vaginal application of the nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate for preinduction cervical ripening: A randomized controlled trial to determine effects on maternal and fetal hemodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our aim was to assess the effects of vaginally administered isosorbide mononitrate (a nitric oxide donor) on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in pregnant women at term. Study Design: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Women were randomly selected to receive vaginally administered isosorbide mononitrate, 20 mg (n = 13) or 40 mg (n = 11), or to undergo a

Antony E. Nicoll; Fiona Mackenzie; Ian A. Greer; Jane E. Norman

2001-01-01

98

Joule Heating and Nitric Oxide in the Thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density of nitric oxide at 150 km may be used as an indicator of Joule heating in the thermosphere. The chemical reaction between nitrogen atoms (ground state) and molecular oxygen that produces nitric oxide at this altitude is very sensitive to temperature. During a Joule heating event the temperature of the thermosphere increases by 50 to 100 K leading to an increase in the nitric oxide density by a factor of two. The density distribution of nitric oxide has been studied for a Joule heating event that occurred on September 25, 1998. The global distribution of nitric oxide density was measured from a limb-scanning instrument on the SNOE polar orbiting satellite. On September 22, electrons began to precipitate into the thermosphere causing an increase in the nitric oxide density at 110 km at auroral latitudes. On September 24, as the result of Joule heating the nitric oxide density at 150 km began to increase reaching a maximum on September 25. The increased nitric oxide density extended equatorward from auroral latitudes to 20 degrees latitude. The 150 km nitric oxide density decreased on September 26 and was back to normal levels by September 28. The electron precipitation reached its maximum on September 26 and continued through September 28. The comparison of the observed nitric oxide with model calculations of the altitude distribution of nitric oxide clearly showed the increased nitric oxide produced by Joule heating. The increased nitric oxide at 150 km was used as an indicator of Joule heating for a 935-day period from March 1998 to September 2000. Increased nitric oxide at 110 km was used as an indicator of electron precipitation for this same period. It was found that the seasonal behavior of Joule heating and electron precipitation differ, with electron precipitation events occurring more frequently during the winter seasons and Joule heating events occurring more frequently during the summer seasons.

Barth, C. A.; Bailey, S. M.; Lu, G.; Baker, D. N.

2005-12-01

99

Increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in retinal neurons in early diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: There are increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) in diabetic retinas. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) contributes to the increased levels of retinal NO in early diabetic retinopathy by examining the expression and activity of nNOS in retinal neurons after 5 weeks of diabetes. Methods: Changes in NO

Thomas J. Giove; Monika M. Deshpande; Christine S. Gagen; William D. Eldred

2009-01-01

100

Thymoquinone suppresses expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the immunomodulatory role of thymoquinone (TQ) regarding its effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages. Under certain conditions, macrophages and certain other cells can produce high concentrations of NO from its precursor l-arginine via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway. TQ has been established as the

A El-Mahmoudy; H Matsuyama; M. A Borgan; Y Shimizu; M. G El-Sayed; N Minamoto; T Takewaki

2002-01-01

101

Exhaled nitric oxide in interstitial lung diseases.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biomarker of nitrosative stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). This study evaluates exhaled NO levels in IIP patients and relates alveolar concentrations of NO (CalvNO) to pulmonary function test (PFT) and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) parameters. We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), CalvNO and maximum conducting airway wall flux (J'awNO) in 30 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IIP (22 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 8 idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonias). IIP patients had higher FeNO at flow rates of 50-100-150 ml/s and higher CalvNO levels than healthy controls (p<0.0001). CalvNO was significantly correlated with 6-minute walking distance (p<0.0001), recovery time (p<0.0005), TLC (p<0.001), FVC (p=0.01) and TLCO (p<0.01). IIP patients showed abnormal nitric oxide production, probably due to lung fibrosis and oxidative-mediated lung injury. CalvNO was correlated with PFT and 6MWT parameters and is proposed as a potential biomarker of lung fibrosis and exercise tolerance. PMID:24703971

Cameli, P; Bargagli, E; Refini, R M; Pieroni, M G; Bennett, D; Rottoli, P

2014-06-15

102

Is nitric oxide the retrograde messenger  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide is one of the more bizarre messenger molecules used by cells. Dissolved in the aqueous cellular fluids, it slips right through membranes that would contain other molecules and is so reactive that it disappears within moments of its production. Yet it seems to play an important role in many parts of the body, including the brain. Four years ago it was shown to trigger blood vessel relaxation, and its discovery in the brain the following year left neuroscientists speculating about a number of roles it may play there. Now, in a collection of data comes evidence for a particularly exciting role: nitric oxide may be a key chemical player in the storage of memories in the brain.

Not Available

1991-11-29

103

Nitric Oxide Signaling in Health and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nitric oxide is a key signaling molecule in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are three enzymes that produce NO from l-arginine, two are constitutive and produce low amounts of NO for short periods of time, the other inducible and can produce\\u000a high levels of NO for prolonged periods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nitric oxide reacts primarily with transition metals

Nathan S. Bryan; Jack R. Lancaster Jr

104

Nitric oxide production is enhanced in patients with heat stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in heat stroke (HS) patients. Design: A prospective analysis of nitrite and nitrate (NO\\u000a \\u000a 2\\/NO3) levels in ten HS patients was performed at the HS center in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Plasma (NO\\u000a \\u000a 2\\/NO3) levels were determined spectrophotometrically before cooling (0 time), and at 6, 12, and 24 h post-cooling.

A. H. Alzeer; A. Al-Arifi; A. S. Warsy; Z. Ansari; H. Zhang; J.-L. Vincent

1999-01-01

105

Nitric oxide signaling in colon cancer chemoprevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotrophic regulator, pivotal to numerous biological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, and macrophage-mediated immunity. The highly reactive free radicals, produced by NO synthases (NOS) have been implicated in the modulation of carcinogenesis. Over-expression of inducible NOS (iNOS), a common phenomenon during chronic inflammatory conditions, generates sustainable amounts of NO, that its reactive intermediates are mutagenic, causing

Chinthalapally V. Rao

2004-01-01

106

Functional role of nitric oxide in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review considers involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in regulation of basic physiological processes underlying growth, development,\\u000a and senescence in plants. The NO sources in plants, as well as direct and indirect NO signaling mechanisms are also reviewed.\\u000a Particular attention is paid to the role of this secondary messenger in plant responses to various abiotic stresses, such\\u000a as mechanical injury,

Yu. A. Krasylenko; A. I. Yemets; Ya. B. Blume

2010-01-01

107

The role of nitric oxide in nociception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacologic, electrophysiologic, and immunohistochemical studies have suggested a role of nitric oxide (NO) in nociception\\u000a processing. Recent studies have indicated that NO may modulate spinal and sensory neuron excitability through multiple mechanisms\\u000a that may underlie its distinctive roles in different pain states. Differential regulation of a family of NO-producing enzymes,\\u000a NO synthases, contributes mainly to the complexity underlying the role

Z. David Luo; Dasa Cizkova

2000-01-01

108

Fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate, rapid, and simple technique is described for the measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in standard reference mixtures of NO in Nâ. It is based on the fluorescence intensity emitted by NO when it absorbs 213.8 nm radiation from a Zn discharge lamp. This intensity increases linearly with NO concentration in the 0.015-7 ppM range to within 1 percent

Frederick P. Schwarz; Hideo. Okabe

1975-01-01

109

Nitric Oxide Involvement in Drosophila Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The augmented production of nitric oxide (NO) was observed during the hemocyte-mediated melanotic encapsulation responses of Drosophila melanogaster and D. teissieri. When introduced into the hemocoel of D. melanogaster larvae, NO activated the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin. These observations, together with previous studies documenting the production of superoxide anion (O•?2) and H2O2 in immune-challenged Drosophila, provide evidence that

Anthony J Nappi; Emily Vass; Francoise Frey; Yves Carton

2000-01-01

110

Nitric oxide-induced calcium release  

PubMed Central

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

2013-01-01

111

Aminoguanidine selectively inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed Central

1. Endotoxin induces nitric oxide synthase in vascular tissue, including rat main pulmonary artery. Currently available agents that cause inhibition of nitric oxide synthase are relatively non-selective between the constitutive and inducible forms of the enzyme. 2. Aminoguanidine caused a dose-dependent increase in phenylephrine-induced tension in intact and endothelium-denuded pulmonary artery rings from endotoxin-treated rats, but had no effect on sham-treated controls. 3. Contraction caused by aminoguanidine in endothelium-denuded vessels from endotoxin-treated rats was unaffected by indomethacin (10 microM), and by cimetidine and mepyramine (both 10 microM), excluding an effect of aminoguanidine mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites or histamine. 4. Contraction caused by aminoguanidine in endothelium-denuded vessels from endotoxin-treated rats was abolished by L-arginine (2 mM) and L-NG-monomethyl arginine (300 microM), but unaffected by D-arginine and D-NG-monomethyl arginine, suggesting that its action is mediated by the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Griffiths, M. J.; Messent, M.; MacAllister, R. J.; Evans, T. W.

1993-01-01

112

Tear nitric oxide levels in Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tear nitric oxide (NO) level in patients with Behçet's disease and to compare it with that in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: the active disease, inactive disease, and control groups. NO concentrations were determined by a nitrate/nitrite colorimetric assay kit and measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. RESULTS. The tear nitrate/nitrite levels were 0.06 nmol/?L (SD, 0.05) in the active disease group, 0.05 nmol/?L (SD, 0.05) in the inactive disease group, and 0.02 nmol/?L (SD, 0.01) in the control group. The tear nitrate/nitrite levels of both active and inactive groups were higher than those of the control group (P=0.001 and P=0.047, respectively), but there was no significant difference between the active and inactive groups. CONCLUSION. Our results demonstrated that the tear NO levels were elevated in the patients with Behçet's disease. We imply that a better understanding of NO function in the pathogenesis of Behçet uveitis is necessary to develop new therapies based on the inhibitors of NO synthases. PMID:23455889

??can, Yalç?n; Yi?it, Ulviye; Tu?cu, Betül Çakmak; Erdo?an, Mehmet; Erdo?an, Derya Ars; Öner, Veysi; Ta?, Mehmet; Özyazgan, Y?lmaz

2012-01-01

113

Vascular nitric oxide: formation and function  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a structurally simple, highly versatile molecule that was originally discovered over 30 years ago as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. In addition to its vasorelaxing effects, NO is now recognized as a key determinant of vascular health, exerting antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties within the vasculature. This short-lived molecule exerts its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets largely through cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms, resulting in a multitude of molecular effects by which platelet activation and aggregation are prevented. The biosynthesis of NO occurs via the catalytic activity of NO synthase, an oxidoreductase found in many cell types. NO insufficiency can be attributed to limited substrate/cofactor availability as well as interactions with reactive oxygen species. Impaired NO bioavailability represents the central feature of endothelial dysfunction, a common abnormality found in many vascular diseases. In this review, we present an overview of NO synthesis and biochemistry, discuss the mechanisms of action of NO in regulating platelet and endothelial function, and review the effects of vascular disease states on NO bioavailability.

Jin, Richard C; Loscalzo, Joseph

2010-01-01

114

Modulation of nitric oxide bioavailability by erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylyl cyclase in smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation in the vasculature. However, as hemoglobin (Hb) is an effective scavenger of NO and is present in high concentrations inside the red blood cell (RBC), the bioavailability of NO would be too low to elicit soluble guanylyl cyclase activation in the presence of blood. Therefore, NO bioactivity must be preserved. Here we present evidence suggesting that the RBC participates in the preservation of NO bioactivity by reducing NO influx. The NO uptake by RBCs was increased and decreased by altering the degree of band 3 binding to the cytoskeleton. Methemoglobin and denatured hemoglobin binding to the RBC membrane or cytoskeleton also were shown to contribute to reducing the NO uptake rate of the RBC. These alterations in NO uptake by the RBC, hence the NO bioavailability, were determined to correlate with the vasodilation of isolated blood vessels. Our observations suggest that RBC membrane and cytoskeleton associated NO-inert proteins provide a barrier for NO diffusion and thus account for the reduction in the NO uptake rate of RBCs.

Huang, Kuang-Tse; Han, Tae H.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Vaughn, Mark W.; van Herle, Helga; Hein, Travis W.; Zhang, Cuihua; Kuo, Lih; Liao, James C.

2001-09-01

115

Prediction of nitric oxide concentrations in melanomas.  

PubMed

The presence of iNOS and nitrotyrosine in cutaneous melanomas has been correlated with poor survival rates of patients, suggesting that NO plays a role in the tumor pathophysiology. However, the concentrations of NO that melanoma cells are exposed to in vivo have been unknown. To provide cell kinetic data for use in predicting those concentrations, synthesis and consumption of NO was examined in A375 melanoma cells. Nitric oxide synthesis was undetectable. The rate of intracellular NO consumption was determined by continuous monitoring of NO concentrations following injection of NO solutions in a closed chamber. After correcting for autoxidation and consumption from media-generated O(2)(-), the rate constant obtained for cellular consumption was 7.1±1.1 s(-1). This information was combined with previous data on macrophage NO kinetics to develop a mathematical model to predict NO levels in cutaneous melanomas. Synthesis of NO by macrophages in the stroma was found to give a maximum concentration at the tumor periphery of 0.2 ?M. Because of the high rates of cellular consumption, the elevation in NO concentration is predicted to be very localized, approximately 90% of the concentration decay occurring within 30 ?m of the tumor edge. High NO concentrations at the periphery of a melanoma may contribute to metastasis by stimulating cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, or acting as a lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:20854923

Chin, Melanie P; Deen, William M

2010-12-15

116

Nitric oxide releasing material adsorbs more fibrinogen.  

PubMed

One mechanism of the failure of blood-contacting devices is clotting. Nitric oxide (NO) releasing materials are seen as a viable solution to the mediation of surface clotting by preventing platelet activation; however, NO's involvement in preventing clot formation extends beyond controlling platelet function. In this study, we evaluate NO's effect on factor XII (fibrinogen) adsorption and activation, which causes the initiation of the intrinsic arm of the coagulation cascade. This is done by utilizing a model plasticized poly(vinyl) chloride (PVC), N-diazeniumdiolate system and looking at the adsorption of fibrinogen, an important clotting protein, to these surfaces. The materials have been prepared in such a way to eliminate changes in surface properties between the control (plasticized PVC) and composite (NO-releasing) materials. This allows us to isolate NO release and determine the effect on the adsorption of fibrinogen, to the material surface. Surprisingly, it was found that an NO releasing material with a surface flux of 17.4 ± 0.5 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) showed a significant increase in the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed to the material surface compared to one with a flux of 13.0 ± 1.6 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) and the control (2334 ± 496, 226 ± 99, and 103 ±31% fibrinogen adsorbed of control, respectively). This study suggests that NO's role in controlling clotting is extended beyond platelet activation. PMID:23554300

Lantvit, Sarah M; Barrett, Brittany J; Reynolds, Melissa M

2013-11-01

117

Modulation of nitric oxide bioavailability by erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylyl cyclase in smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation in the vasculature. However, as hemoglobin (Hb) is an effective scavenger of NO and is present in high concentrations inside the red blood cell (RBC), the bioavailability of NO would be too low to elicit soluble guanylyl cyclase activation in the presence of blood. Therefore, NO bioactivity must be preserved. Here we present evidence suggesting that the RBC participates in the preservation of NO bioactivity by reducing NO influx. The NO uptake by RBCs was increased and decreased by altering the degree of band 3 binding to the cytoskeleton. Methemoglobin and denatured hemoglobin binding to the RBC membrane or cytoskeleton also were shown to contribute to reducing the NO uptake rate of the RBC. These alterations in NO uptake by the RBC, hence the NO bioavailability, were determined to correlate with the vasodilation of isolated blood vessels. Our observations suggest that RBC membrane and cytoskeleton associated NO-inert proteins provide a barrier for NO diffusion and thus account for the reduction in the NO uptake rate of RBCs.

Huang, Kuang-Tse; Han, Tae H.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Vaughn, Mark W.; Van Herle, Helga; Hein, Travis W.; Zhang, Cuihua; Kuo, Lih; Liao, James C.

2001-01-01

118

Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-02-01

119

Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism. PMID:1899557

Stadler, J; Curran, R D; Ochoa, J B; Harbrecht, B G; Hoffman, R A; Simmons, R L; Billiar, T R

1991-02-01

120

Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

2010-01-01

121

Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the macula densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the macula densa.BackgroundThere is evidence that macula densa nitric oxide (NO) inhibits tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). However, TGF response is not altered in mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) (?\\/?). Furthermore, nNOS expression in the macula densa is inversely related to salt intake, yet micropuncture studies have shown that NOS inhibition potentiates

Yilin Ren; Jeffrey L. Garvin; Sadayoshi Ito; Oscar A. Carretero

2001-01-01

122

Nitric Oxide: An Endogenous Modulator of Leukocyte Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) inhibits leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. This was accomplished by superfusing a cat mesenteric preparation with inhibitors of NO production, N^G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and observing single (30-mu m diameter) venules by intravital video microscopy. Thirty minutes into the superfusion period the number of

P. Kubes; M. Suzuki; D. N. Granger

1991-01-01

123

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Dystrophin-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers is primarily particulate in contrast to its greater solubility in brain. Immunohistochemistry shows nNOS localized to the sarcolemma, with enrichment at force transmitting sites, the myotendinous junctions, and costameres. Because this distribution is similar to dystrophin, we determined if nNOS expression was affected by the loss of dystrophin. Significant nNOS

Wen-Jinn Chang; Susan T. Iannaccone; Kim S. Lau; Bettie Sue S. Masters; Timothy J. McCabe; Kirk McMillan; Roanna C. Padre; Melissa J. Spencer; James G. Tidball; James T. Stull

1996-01-01

124

Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease  

SciTech Connect

During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

1993-01-30

125

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anterior Segment Physiology in Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the effect of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), on IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pupil diameter (PD), refraction (Rfx), aqueous humor formation (AHF), and outflow facility (OF) in monkeys. Methods. Monkeys were treated with single or multiple topical treatments of 500 ?g SNP or L-NAME to one eye. IOP was determined by Goldmann applanation tonometry, PD with vernier calipers in room light, Rfx by Hartinger coincidence refractometry, AHF by fluorophotometry, and MAP with a blood pressure monitor. OF was determined by two-level constant pressure perfusion following anterior chamber exchange. Results. Following four topical treatments with 500 ?g SNP, 30 minutes apart, IOP was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 hours compared with the contralateral control with the maximum IOP reduction of 20% at 3 hours (P < 0.001). PD, Rfx, and AHF were unchanged. Effects on MAP were variable. OF after SNP exchange was significantly increased by 77% (P < 0.05) at 10?3 M. Topical L-NAME had no effect on IOP, PD, Rfx, or MAP. Conclusions. Enhancement of nitric oxide concentration at targeted tissues in the anterior segment may be a useful approach for IOP reduction for glaucoma therapy. Additional studies are warranted before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of NOS inhibition on ocular physiology in nonhuman primates.

Heyne, Galen W.; Kiland, Julie A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.

2013-01-01

126

Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

Pilegaard, Kim

2013-07-01

127

Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission.

Pilegaard, Kim

2013-01-01

128

Biological oxidation of nitric oxide in a humisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of nitric oxide (NO) in a humisol was studied at 0.1–2 ppmv NO, a range representative of NO concentrations in\\u000a ammonium-fertilized soil. Denitrification was not a major sink for NO. The principal NO-consuming reaction was a biological\\u000a oxidation, leading ultimately to nitrate (NO3\\u000a –). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrite (NO2\\u000a –) may have been intermediates in this pathway. An

P. F. Dunfield; Roger Knowles

1997-01-01

129

Biogenic nitric oxide emissions from cropland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined during late spring and summer 1995 and the spring of 1996 from four agricultural soils on which four different crops were grown. These agricultural soils were located at four different sites throughout North Carolina. Emission rates were calculated using a dynamic flow-through chamber system coupled to a mobile laboratory for in-situ analysis. Average NO fluxes during late spring 1995 were: 50.9±47.7 ng N m -2 s -1 from soil planted with corn in the lower coastal plain. Average NO fluxes during summer 1995 were: 6.4±4.6 and 20.2±19.0 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, from soils planted with corn and soybean in the coastal region; 4.2±1.7 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with tobacco in the piedmont region; and 8.5±4.9 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with corn in the upper piedmont region. Average NO fluxes for spring 1996 were: 66.7±60.7 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with wheat in the lower coastal plain; 9.5±2.9 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with wheat in the coastal plain; 2.7±3.4 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with wheat in the piedmont region; and 56.1±53.7 ng N m -2 s -1 from soils planted with corn in the upper piedmont region. An apparent increase in NO flux with soil temperature was present at all of the locations. The composite data from all the research sites revealed a general positive trend of increasing NO flux with soil water content. In general, increases in total extractable nitrogen (TEN) appeared to be related to increased NO emissions within each site, however a consistent trend was not evident across all sites.

Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.; Gay, B.; Geron, C.; Pierce, T.

130

Role of nitric oxide in parasitic infections.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide is produced by a number of different cell types in response to cytokine stimulation and thus has been found to play a role in immunologically mediated protection against a growing list of protozoan and helminth parasites in vitro and in animal models. The biochemical basis of its effects on the parasite targets appears to involve primarily inactivation of enzymes crucial to energy metabolism and growth, although it has other biologic activities as well. NO is produced not only by macrophages and macrophage-like cells commonly associated with the effector arm of cell-mediated immune reactivity but also by cells commonly considered to lie outside the immunologic network, such as hepatocytes and endothelial cells, which are intimately involved in the life cycle of a number of parasites. NO production is stimulated by gamma interferon in combination with tumor necrosis factor alpha or other secondary activation signals and is regulated by a number of cytokines (especially interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor beta) and other mediators, as well as through its own inherent inhibitory activity. The potential for design of prevention and/or intervention approaches against parasitic infection (e.g., vaccination or combination chemo- and immunotherapy strategies) on the basis of induction of cell-mediated immunity and NO production appears to be great, but the possible pathogenic consequences of overproduction of NO must be taken into account. Moreover, more research on the role and regulation of NO in human parasitic infection is needed before its possible clinical relevance can be determined.

James, S L

1995-01-01

131

Exhaled nitric oxide as a marker for serum nitric oxide concentration in acute endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess the correlation between exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and serum NO concentrations during the course of endotoxemia. We also assessed whether or not the inducible isoform of NO synthase is responsible for the increase in NO production in endotoxemia animals.Materials and Methods: Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs were injected with either

Sabah N. A. Hussain; Mohammed N. Abdul-Hussain; Qassim El-Dwairi

1996-01-01

132

Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Nitric Oxide and Nitrotyrosine in Neonates With Mild Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the role of cerebral nitric oxide and its powerful oxidant peroxynitrite following mild birth asphyxia. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine as a marker for peroxynitrite are measured in neonates with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Based on the classification of Sarnat and Sarnat, term neonates with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and

Kivicim Gücüyener; Ebru Ergenekon; Tuncay Demiryürek; Deniz Erbas; Güler Öztürk; Esin Koç; Yildiz Atalay

2002-01-01

133

Nitric Oxide is a Potential Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common in women. This cancer varies widely in incidence throughout the world, with rising incidence in Egypt. HCC is considered the second most frequent cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men in Egypt. This study aimed to estimate the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione reductase in order to evaluate their role as oxidative status markers in HCC development and progression. For this purpose, serum levels of these parameters were assessed in 50 HCC patients, and 30 cirrhotic patients in addition to 15 healthy subjects as a control group. In the present study, glutathione reductase activity showed a significant increase in HCC as compared to the control group (P= 0.019). On the other hand, no significant difference was observed between the cirrhotic and HCC patients (P= 0.492). Serum NO was significantly higher in patients with HCC than in cirrhotic patients (P= 0.001) or the control group (P= 0.001), with a sensitivity of (74%) and specificity of (88.89%) at a cut-off level of 614.1 ?mol/l. While AFP, alpha-fetoprotein, at a cutoff level of 200 ng/ml had a sensitivity of (52%), the specificity was (100%). Indeed, nitric oxide was high in 62.5% of AFP-negative HCC patients. In conclusion, glutathione reductase has no role in HCC diagnosis. However, nitric oxide is a potential diagnostic marker for HCC. The simultaneous determination of serum nitric oxide and AFP gave significant improvement in the detection of HCC patients compared to that of AFP alone.

Eissa, Laila A.; Eisa, Nada H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed A.; Ragab, Maha; El-Gayar, Amal M.

2013-01-01

134

Detection of human red blood cell-bound nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Major disparities in reported levels of basal human nitric oxide metabolites have resulted in a recent literature focusing almost exclusively on methods. We chose to analyze triiodide chemiluminescence, drawn by the prospect of identifying why the most commonly employed assay in nitric oxide biology typically yielded lower metabolite values, compared with several other techniques. We found that the sensitivity of triiodide was greatly affected by the auto-capture of nitric oxide by deoxygenated cell-free heme in the reaction chamber. Potential contaminants and signal losses were also associated with standard sample purification procedures and the chemistry involved in nitrite removal. To inhibit heme nitric oxide auto-capture, we added potassium ferricyanide to the triiodide reagent, reasoning this would provide a more complete detection of any liberated nitric oxide. From human venous blood samples, we established nitric oxide levels ranging from 0.000178 to 0.00024 mol nitric oxide/mol hemoglobin. We went on to find significantly elevated nitric oxide levels in venous blood taken from diabetic patients in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.0001). We concluded that the lack of signals reported of late by several groups using triiodide chemiluminescence for the detection of hemoglobin-bound nitric oxide may not represent levels on the border of assay sensitivity but rather underestimated values because of methodological limitations. We therefore stress the need for assay systems to be developed that differentiate between individual nitric oxide metabolite species and overcome the limitations we outline, allowing accurate conclusions to be drawn regarding physiological nitric oxide metabolite levels. PMID:15879596

Rogers, Stephen C; Khalatbari, Afshin; Gapper, Peter W; Frenneaux, Michael P; James, Philip E

2005-07-22

135

75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants Notice...Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants...development, and brain function. Nitric oxide is a chemical compound in gas...

2010-07-26

136

Formation of Nitric (Nitrogen) Oxides in Firebox Processes during Gas Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions of nitric oxide formation in the combustion of fuel in boiler fireboxes were examined and equations were obtained for the evaluational determination of the NO output in the combustion zone. It was demonstrated, that under the conditions cha...

A. V. Markovskii I. Y. Sigal N. A. Gurevich S. S. Nizhnik

1974-01-01

137

Determination of the effects of eNOS gene polymorphisms (T-786C and Glu298Asp) on nitric oxide levels in a methylmercury-exposed population.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator with multiple protective effects involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as mercury (Hg) exposure, may influence NO levels and increase the risk of cardiovascular damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the T-786C and Glu298Asp polymorphisms of the eNOS gene on nitrite concentrations following Hg exposure in humans. It was postulated that Hg exposure might decrease circulating nitrite concentrations and that variants in the eNOS gene might enhance the adverse effects of Hg resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were collected from 202 volunteers exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) following fish consumption. Blood Hg concentrations (BHg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and nitrite plasma concentration by a chemiluminescent method. The mean Hg concentration was 50.5 ± 35.4 ?g/L and mean nitrite concentration was 251.4 ± 106.3 nM. There were no significant differences in age, arterial blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate, and concentrations of Hg and nitrite concentrations between the genotype groups . When data were grouped together (TC + CC and TT group), there were still no marked differences. A multiple regression model indicated that decreased NO production was predominantly due to Hg, age, and gender. Polymorphisms did not seem to influence this effect. Our findings suggest that eNOS gene polymorphisms (T-786C and Glu298Asp) are not associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases in MeHg-exposed subjects. PMID:21899406

de Marco, Kátia Cristina; Braga, Gilberto U; Barbosa, Fernando

2011-01-01

138

Nitric oxide, oxidants, and protein tyrosine nitration  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of protein tyrosine nitration under disease conditions is now firmly established and represents a shift from the signal transducing physiological actions of •NO to oxidative and potentially pathogenic pathways. Tyrosine nitration is mediated by reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite anion (ONOO–) and nitrogen dioxide (•NO2), formed as secondary products of •NO metabolism in the presence of oxidants including superoxide radicals (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{{\\bullet}-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and transition metal centers. The precise interplay between •NO and oxidants and the identification of the proximal intermediate(s) responsible for nitration in vivo have been under controversy. Despite the capacity of peroxynitrite to mediate tyrosine nitration in vitro, its role on nitration in vivo has been questioned, and alternative pathways, including the nitrite/H2O2/hemeperoxidase and transition metal-dependent mechanisms, have been proposed. A balanced analysis of existing evidence indicates that (i) different nitration pathways can contribute to tyrosine nitration in vivo, and (ii) most, if not all, nitration pathways involve free radical biochemistry with carbonate radicals (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{CO}}_{3}^{{\\bullet}-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) and/or oxo–metal complexes oxidizing tyrosine to tyrosyl radical followed by the diffusion-controlled reaction with •NO2 to yield 3-nitrotyrosine. Although protein tyrosine nitration is a low-yield process in vivo, 3-nitrotyrosine has been revealed as a relevant biomarker of •NO-dependent oxidative stress; additionally, site-specific nitration focused on particular protein tyrosines may result in modification of function and promote a biological effect. Tissue distribution and quantitation of protein 3-nitrotyrosine, recognition of the predominant nitration pathways and individual identification of nitrated proteins in disease states open new avenues for the understanding and treatment of human pathologies.

Radi, Rafael

2004-01-01

139

Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease in humans, is likely to be exposed to nitrosative stress during natural colonization and disease. The genome of N. meningitidis includes the genes aniA and norB, predicted to encode nitrite reductase and nitric oxide (NO) reductase, respectively. These gene products should allow the bacterium to denitrify nitrite to nitrous oxide. We show that N. meningitidis can support growth microaerobically by the denitrification of nitrite via NO and that norB is required for anaerobic growth with nitrite. NorB and, to a lesser extent, the cycP gene product cytochrome c? are able to counteract toxicity due to exogenously added NO. Expression of these genes by N. meningitidis during colonization and disease may confer protection against exogenous or endogenous nitrosative stress.

Anjum, Muna F.; Stevanin, Tania M.; Read, Robert C.; Moir, James W. B.

2002-01-01

140

Nitric oxide in the central nervous system: neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 1980s, it was clearly demonstrated that cells produce nitric oxide and that this gaseous molecule is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, rather than simply being a toxic pollutant. In the CNS, nitric oxide has an array of functions, such as the regulation of synaptic plasticity, the sleep–wake cycle and

Cesare Mancuso; Menotti Calvani; Enrico Rizzarelli; D. Allan Butterfield; Anna Maria Giuffrida Stella; Vittorio Calabrese

2007-01-01

141

Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked…

Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

1995-01-01

142

Macula densa nitric oxide synthase: Expression, regulation, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macula densa nitric oxide synthase: Expression, regulation, and function. The type 1 brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) isoform occurs in macula densa (MD) cells where it functions to vasodilate the afferent arteriole and blunt expression of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Dietary salt restriction enhances bNOS expression, yet microperfusion studies with NOS inhibitors imply that it is functionally inactive. We thus assessed

Christopher S. Wilcox; William J. Welch

1998-01-01

143

Nitric oxide depolarizes Type II paraventricular nucleus neurons in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide is a labile gas which has been implicated in neuronal signalling. The enzyme responsible for the production of this molecule is present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, yet a specific role for nitric oxide in neurotransmission within this nucleus remains unclear. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from paraventricular nucleus neurons in a coronal hypothalamic slice, we have

J. S. Bains; A. V. Ferguson

1997-01-01

144

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Variants in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants in the genes encoding for the nitric oxide synthases may reflect both differences in formation of NO and retention of act as disease modifier loci in cystic fibrosis, affecting both an indi- NO in CF airway fluids. Of potential clinical relevance, frac- vidual's nitric oxide level and pulmonary function. In this study, the tion of exhaled NO (FENO) in

Hartmut Grasemann; Rainer Buscher; Nicola Knauer; Eric S. Silverman; Lyle J. Palmer; Jeffrey M. Drazen; Felix Ratjen

145

Use of nitric oxide inhalation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDInhalation of nitric oxide with oxygen could be a promising treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension. However, the current methods of delivery of NO are cumbersome and unsuitable for long term use. The present study was undertaken to investigate the safety and efficacy of a mixture of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen administered via

Kumar Ashutosh; Kishor Phadke; Jody Fragale Jackson; David Steele

2000-01-01

146

Inhaled nitric oxide reduces human lung allograft dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Early severe graft dysfunction, as manifested by hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension, occurs in 10% to 20% of lung transplant recipients. We retrospectively investigated whether inhaled nitric oxide would reduce human lung allograft dysfunction by comparing postoperative hemodynamic data, gas exchange, and outcome in lung transplant recipients with early graft dysfunction treated with or without nitric oxide. Method: Among 243

Hiroshi Date; Anastosios N. Triantafillou; Elbert P. Trulock; Mary S. Pohl; Joel D. Cooper; G. Alexander Patterson

1996-01-01

147

N-methyl- d-aspartate receptors on neurons that synthesize nitric oxide in rat nucleus tractus solitarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors are co-localized in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii. Such co-localization would support the hypothesis that nitric oxide participates in nucleus tractus solitarii-mediated functions, such as cardiovascular regulation, by a link to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. We used double fluorescent immunohistochemistry using antibodies against neuronal nitric oxide

L.-H Lin; W. T Talman

2000-01-01

148

Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study  

PubMed Central

This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP?LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi?10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ?50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P?0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT.

Rodriguez-Perez, A.S.; Lopez-Rodriguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z.; Saavedra-Alanis, V.M.; Llamazares-Azuara, L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, M.

2013-01-01

149

Highly sensitive determination of nitric oxide in biologic samples by a near-infrared BODIPY-based fluorescent probe coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important regulator and mediator in numerous processes of biological systems. In this work, the analytical potential of a novel near-infrared (NIR, >600 nm) BODIPY-based fluorescent probe for NO, 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-di(1,2-dihydro) naphtho[b, g]s-indacene (DANPBO-H) has been evaluated in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In 25 mM pH 6.50 borate buffer, DANPBO-H reacted with NO to give the corresponding triazole, DANPBO-H-T, at 35 °C for 20 min. DANPBO-H-T was eluted using a mobile phase of methanol/tetrahydrofuran/50mM pH 7.00 H3Cit-NaOH buffer (81:7:12, v/v/v) in 4 min on a C8 column and detected with fluorescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 621 and 631 nm, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) (signal-to-noise=3) reached to 5.50×10(-10) M. Excellent selectivity was observed against other reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Various representative biological matrixes including the whole blood and organs of mice, the pangen and radical of rice, human vascular endothelial (ECV-304) cells and mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells were used to verify the feasibility and resistance to interfering effects from complex biological sample matrixes of the developed DANPBO-H-based HPLC method. Compared to the existing derivatization-based HPLC methods for NO, the proposed method eliminates interfering effects from complex biological sample matrixes efficiently owing to the fluorescence detection in the NIR region, and is more advantageous and robust for the sensitive and selective determination of NO in complex biological samples. PMID:24148412

Zhang, Hui-Xian; Chen, Jian-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

2013-11-15

150

The latitudinal gradient of nitric oxide in the thermosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical calculations of nitric oxide altitude profiles are made at five different latitudes by using neutral temperatures and composition primarily from the MSIS (mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter) model. The nitric oxide calculated for an altitude of 105 km remains nearly constant with increasing latitude. Observations made by the ultraviolet nitric oxide instrument on the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite show that at low magnetic activity (Ap value of approximately 4), the NO density at 105 km agrees with the theory; however, at moderate levels of activity it increases with latitude. This discrepancy between the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients of nitric oxide suggests the transport of NO from a high latitude source to lower latitudes. At 200 km the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients are in reasonable agreement, an indication that the knowledge of the local composition and temperature is sufficient to model nitric oxide at this altitude.

Cravens, T. E.; Gerard, J.-C.; Stewart, A. I.; Rusch, D. W.

1979-01-01

151

Therapeutic approaches using nitric oxide in infants and children  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality associated with many pediatric pulmonary and cardiac diseases. Nitric oxide, a gas molecule, is a unique pharmaceutical agent that can be inhaled and thus delivered directly to the lung. Inhaled nitric oxide was approved by the FDA in 1999 as a therapy for infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Since then, the use of inhaled nitric oxide has expanded to other neonatal and pediatric conditions, and our knowledge of its properties and mechanisms of action has increased tremendously. This review will discuss the physiology of nitric oxide signaling, the most common indications for its clinical use, and promising new investigations that may enhance endogenous production of nitric oxide and/or improve vascular response to it.

Steinhorn, Robin H.

2011-01-01

152

Nitric oxide protects endothelium from cadmium mediated leakiness.  

PubMed

Cadmium targets the vascular endothelium causing endothelial dysfunction and leakiness of endothelial barrier. Nitric oxide plays a major role in mediating endothelial functions including angiogenesis, migration and permeability. The present study investigates the nitric oxide effects on cadmium induced endothelial leakiness. Results of ex vivo and in vitro permeability assays showed that even a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride (1?µM) was sufficient to induce leakiness of endothelial cells. Cadmium drastically altered the actin polymerisation pattern and membrane tension of these cells compared to controls. Addition of nitric oxide donor Spermine NONOate (SP) significantly blunted cadmium-mediated effects and recover endothelial cells integrity. Cadmium-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements and membrane leakiness are associated with the low nitric oxide availability and high reactive oxygen species generation. In brief, we show the protective role of nitric oxide against cadmium-mediated endothelial leakiness. PMID:23404577

Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Priya, M Krishna; Swaminathan, Akila; Siamwala, Jamila H; Sinha, Swaraj; Veeriah, Vimal; Sonar, Punam; Jadhav, Vivek; Jaffar Ali, B M; Chatterjee, Suvro

2013-05-01

153

Nitric Oxide Modulators: An Emerging Class of Medicinal Agents  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide, a unique messenger in biological system, is ubiquitously present virtually in all tissues revealing its versatile nature of being involved in diverse physiological functions such as vascular tone, inhibition of platelet aggregation, cell adhesion, neurotransmission and enzyme and immune regulation. The tremendous advancements made in the past few decades in this area suggests that the nitric oxide modulation either by its exogenous release through nitric oxide donors or inhibition of its synthesis by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in physiological milieu may provide newer clinical strategies for the treatment of some diseases. In this review, an attempt is made to document and understand the biological chemistry of different classes of nitric oxide modulators that would prove to be a fruitful area in the years to come.

Deshpande, S. R.; Satyanarayana, K.; Rao, M. N. A.; Pai, K. V.

2012-01-01

154

Natural-Gas Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide Tail Gases from Nitric Acid Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted on natural-gas catalytic reduction of tail-gas nitric oxides from nitric acid production; they took place at atmospheric pressure in a combined installation. In operation over 710 hrs the nickel-chromium foil showed sufficient thermal...

A. D. Tikhonenko M. N. Nabiev

1968-01-01

155

Interleukin 1-induced production of nitric oxide inhibits benzenetriol-mediated oxidative injury in rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Nitric oxide modifies free radical-mediated cell processes in multiple in vivo and in vitro systems. The aim of this study was to determine the role of hepatocyte production of NO in oxidative injury. Methods: Rat hepatocytes in primary culture were incubated with 1,2,3-benzenetriol, a source of superoxide. Interleukin (IL) 1 was added to induce NO synthesis. Injury

Paul C. Kuo; Keith Y. Abe

1995-01-01

156

Nitric oxide, nitrotyrosine, and nitric oxide modulators in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free-radical gas, elicits a diverse range of physiologic and pathophysiologic effects, and plays\\u000a an important role in pulmonary diseases. Nitrosative stress and nitration of proteins in airway epithelium may be responsible\\u000a for steroid resistance in asthma and their ineffectiveness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), supporting the\\u000a potential role of future therapeutic strategies aimed at

Sergei A. Kharitonov; Peter J. Barnes

2003-01-01

157

Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Microcirculation  

PubMed Central

Several apparent paradoxes are evident when one compares mathematical predictions from models of nitric oxide (NO) diffusion and convection in vasculature structures with experimental measurements of NO (or related metabolites) in animal and human studies. Values for NO predicted from mathematical models are generally much lower than in vivo NO values reported in the literature for experiments, specifically with NO microelectrodes positioned at perivascular locations next to different sizes of blood vessels in the microcirculation and NO electrodes inserted into a wide range of tissues supplied by the microcirculation of each specific organ system under investigation. There continues to be uncertainty about the roles of NO scavenging by hemoglobin versus a storage function that may conserve NO, and other signaling targets for NO need to be considered. This review describes model predictions and relevant experimental data with respect to several signaling pathways in the microcirculation that involve NO.

Buerk, Donald G.; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Jaron, Dov

2013-01-01

158

Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors as Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested to play major roles in the pathophysiology of mood and stress-related disorders. However, a few clinical and several pre-clinical studies, strongly suggest involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in these disorders. Moreover, several of the conventional neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate and GABA, are intimately regulated by NO, and distinct classes of antidepressants have been found to modulate the hippocampal NO level in vivo. The NO system is therefore a potential target for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug action in acute therapy as well as in prophylaxis. This paper reviews the effect of drugs modulating NO synthesis in anxiety and depression.

Wegener, Gregers; Volke, Vallo

2010-01-01

159

Disproportionation of nitric oxide at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

A facile pressure-induced disproportionation of nitric oxide occurs at 176 K and 1.5 GPa. The reaction products are N/sub 2/O/sub 4/, N/sub 2/O, and a small, variable amount of N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as identified by infrared, Raman, and visible absorption spectroscopies. No free NO, N/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or NO/sub 2/ is observed after warming the sample to room temperature. The N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ product subsequently photolyzes to form N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2//sup +/NO/sub 3//sup -/, and evidence for the nitrite form of N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is reported. The N/sub 2/PO product is stable, once formed, to 14.0 GPa. 27 references, 7 figures.

Agnew, S.F.; Swanson, B.I.; Jones, L.H.; Mills, R.L.

1985-04-25

160

Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs  

PubMed Central

During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent.

Miller, M R; Megson, I L

2007-01-01

161

Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere. PMID:24797527

Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

2014-08-01

162

Nitric Oxide and Respiratory Helminthic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts. In this paper we review four issues related to interaction of NO and lung helminthic diseases. Firstly, we evaluated data available on the NO synthesis and release by helminths and their biological role. Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources). Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths. Lastly, the deleterious consequences of increased production of NO during helminthic human infection are detailed.

Muro, Antonio; Perez-Arellano, Jose-Luis

2010-01-01

163

The effect of low-dose inhalation of nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low-dose inhalation of nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. M. Yoshida, O. Taguchi, E.C. Gabazza, H. Yasui, T. Kobayashi, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, Y. Adachi. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether low-dose inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) improves pulmonary haemodynamics and gas exchange in patients with stable idiopathic

M. Yoshida; O. Taguchi; E. C. Gabazza; H. Yasui; T. Kobayashi; H. Kobayashi; K. Maruyama; Y. Adachi

1997-01-01

164

Total nitric oxide production is low in patients with chronic renal disease1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total nitric oxide production is low in patients with chronic renal disease.BackgroundA deficiency of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a potential cause of hypertension in chronic renal disease (CRD) patients. This study was conducted to determine whether 24-hour NOX (NO2 and NO3) excretion (a qualitative index of total NO production) is reduced in patients with

Rebecca J Schmidt; Chris Baylis

2000-01-01

165

Adrenal Control of Erectile Function and Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Penis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penile erection is a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated process that has been shown to be androgen dependent in rats. Castration reduces the activity of the penile enzyme involved in NO synthesis, nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To determine whether adrenal androgens and\\/or corticosteroids contribute to this control, the following groups of Fischer 344 adult male rats (n 5 5-7) were studied: 1)

DAVID F. PENSON; CHRIS NG; JACOB RAJFER; NESTOR F. GONZALEZ-CADAVID

1997-01-01

166

Fast Ferrous Heme-NO Oxidation in Nitric Oxide Synthases  

PubMed Central

During catalysis, the heme in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) binds NO before releasing it to the environment. Oxidation of the NOS ferrous heme-NO complex by O2 is key for catalytic cycling, but the mechanism is unclear. We utilized stopped-flow methods to study reaction of O2 with ferrous heme-NO complexes of the inducible and neuronal NOS enzymes. We found that the reaction does not involve heme-NO dissociation, but instead proceeds by a rapid, direct reaction of O2 with the ferrous heme-NO complex. This behavior is novel and may distinguish heme-thiolate enzymes like NOS from related heme proteins.

Tejero, Jesus; Santolini, Jerome; Stuehr, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

167

Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1. PMID:23247505

Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

2013-01-01

168

Nitric oxide system and diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

About 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop clinically overt nephropathy. Hyperglycemia is necessary, but not sufficient, to cause the renal damage that leads to kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial disorder that results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors. In the present article we will review the role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous lipophilic molecule produced in almost all tissues, and it has three distinct genes that encode three NOS isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS). The correct function of the endothelium depends on NO, participating in hemostasis control, vascular tone regulation, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and blood pressure homeostasis, among other features. In the kidney, NO plays many different roles, including control of renal and glomerular hemodynamics. The net effect of NO in the kidney is to promote natriuresis and diuresis, along with renal adaptation to dietary salt intake. The eNOS gene has been considered a potential candidate gene for DN susceptibility. Three polymorphisms have been extensively researched: G894T missense mutation (rs1799983), a 27-bp repeat in intron 4, and the T786C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (rs2070744). However, the potential link between eNOS gene variants and the induction and progression of DN yielded contradictory results in the literature. In conclusion, NOS seems to be involve in the development and progression of DN. Despite the discrepant results of many studies, the eNOS gene is also a good candidate gene for DN.

2014-01-01

169

Nitric oxide and nitrovasodilators: similarities, differences, and interactions.  

PubMed

The endothelium functions as a semipermeable membrane separating the blood from the body and allowing the transport of macromolecules from the blood to the interstitial space. The endothelium secretes a number of diffusible substances. These include endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and prostacyclin, in addition to vasoconstrictors including endothelin, angiotensin, and endothelium-derived contracting factor. EDRF is now known to be nitric oxide, or a closely related molecule, which affects signaling by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase, causing increased intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), in turn leading to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle as well as a variety of additional effects that include altered function of platelets and cardiac myocytes. Nitric oxide can be made available to cellular elements in two ways: by endogenous synthesis via one or more of the three nitric oxide synthases now known to exist in mammalian species; or by exogenous administration of pharmacologic sources of nitric oxide, usually as organic nitrate vasodilators that can be metabolically converted to biologically activated nitric oxide. This process appears to require free sulfydryl groups. The metabolic machinery necessary to convert organic nitrates to a biologically active form exists mainly in the vasculature and not in the myocardium. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the presence of coronary artery disease is associated with interruption of the endogenous production of nitric oxide. Under these circumstances, exogenous nitrates still produce coronary vasodilation as well as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in the periphery. Other articles in this supplement will focus on the vascular effects of nitric oxide and nitrovasodilators; this article will conclude with a brief discussion of the role of the nitric oxide pathway in the control of cardiac autonomic responsiveness and the potential role of cytokines and the nitric oxide pathway to impair the ability of the myocardium to respond to catecholamines or other stimuli with a normal increase in contractile function. PMID:8638522

Kelly, R A; Smith, T W

1996-05-30

170

Association of homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and nitric oxide with preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Endothelial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, but its mechanism has not yet been completely understood.\\u000a In this study we have aimed to measure homocysteine (Hcy), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and nitric oxide (NO) levels\\u000a as endothelial dysfunction markers in preeclamptic women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Control–case study with 62 preeclamptic patients and 30 controls without pregnancy complications was conducted. Plasma total\\u000a Hcy, determined by

Dongwei Mao; Jianhua Che; Keshen Li; Shiyu Han; Qi Yue; Li Zhu; Wei Zhang; Lin Li

2010-01-01

171

Nitric Oxide Synthase in Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Stevens–Johnson Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens–Johnson syndrome are severe cutaneous drug reactions of unknown mechanism. Nitric oxide can cause apoptosis and necrosis. The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase generates large amounts of nitric oxide and has been described in human skin. We propose that a large burst of nitric oxide in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens–Johnson syndrome may cause the

Lisa H. Lerner; Abrar A. Qureshi; Bhaskar V. Reddy; Ethan A. Lerner

2000-01-01

172

Nitric oxide and energy metabolism in mammals.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthase in animals. Increasing evidence shows that NO regulates the mammalian metabolism of energy substrates and that these effects of NO critically depend on its concentrations at the reaction site and the period of exposure. High concentrations of NO (in the micromolar range) irreversibly inhibit complexes I, II, III, IV, and V in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, whereas physiological levels of NO (in the nanomolar range) reversibly reduce cytochomrome oxidase. Thus, NO reduces oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria to various extents. In intact cells, through cGMP and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, physiological levels of NO acutely stimulate uptake and oxidation of glucose and fatty acids by skeletal muscle, heart, liver, and adipose tissue, while inhibiting the synthesis of glucose, glycogen and fat in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and enhancing lipolysis in white adipocytes. Chronic effects of physiological levels of NO in vivo include stimulation of angiogenesis, blood flow, mitochondrial biogenesis, and brown adipocyte development. Modulation of NO-mediated pathways through dietary supplementation with L-arginine or its precursor L-citrulline may provide an effective, practical strategy to prevent and treat metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in mammals, including humans. PMID:23553707

Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Zhenlong; Yang, Ying; Wang, Junjun; Satterfield, M Carey; Meininger, Cynthia J; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

2013-01-01

173

Additive effect of nitric oxide and prostaglandin-E 2 synthesis inhibitors in endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was investigated in a model of intraocular inflammation induced by intravitreal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, 10 ng) in rabbits. The severity of uveitis, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in iris-ciliary body, and the protein concentration in aqueous humor were determined. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities were assessed

J. L. Bellot; M. Palmero; C. García-Cabanes; R. Espí; C. Hariton; A. Orst

1996-01-01

174

Effect of Long-term Passive Smoking on Erectile Function and Penile Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeGiven that smoking is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction, this study aimed to determine, in a rat model, whether long-term exposure to cigarette smoke impairs nitric oxide (NO)-dependent erectile function and reduces penile nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and if these changes are accompanied with effects on the systemic blood pressure.

Yining Xie; Hermes Garban; Chris Ng; Jacob Rajfer; Nestor F. Gonzalez-Cadavid

1997-01-01

175

Mechanistic Study of the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide with Methane over Yttrium Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline Group IIIB metal oxides for the reduction of nitric oxide with methane was shown to be comparable to that of Co-ZSM-5. The mechanism of selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with methane in excess oxygen was examined over nanocrystalline yttrium oxide. A series of heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction steps was proposed to account for the

Mark D. Fokema; Jackie Y. Ying

2000-01-01

176

Antioxidant Functions of Nitric Oxide Synthase in a Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide and its derivative peroxynitrites are generated by host defense system to control bacterial infection. However certain Gram positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus possess a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (SaNOS) in their chromosome. In this study it was determined that under normal growth conditions, expression of SaNOS was highest during early exponential phase of the bacterial growth. In oxidative stress studies, deletion of SaNOS led to increased susceptibility of the mutant cells compared to wild-type S. aureus. While inhibition of SaNOS activity by the addition of L-NAME increased sensitivity of the wild-type S. aureus to oxidative stress, the addition of a nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, restored oxidative stress tolerance of the SaNOS mutant. The SaNOS mutant also showed reduced survival after phagocytosis by PMN cells with respect to wild-type S. aureus.

Vaish, Manisha; Singh, Vineet K.

2013-01-01

177

Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known, is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). They all utilize l-arginine and molecular oxygen as substrates and require the cofactors reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)). All NOS bind calmodulin and contain haem. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, NOS I) is constitutively expressed in central and peripheral neurons and some other cell types. Its functions include synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS), central regulation of blood pressure, smooth muscle relaxation, and vasodilatation via peripheral nitrergic nerves. Nitrergic nerves are of particular importance in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum and penile erection. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) require at least a residual nNOS activity for their action. Inducible NOS (NOS II) can be expressed in many cell types in response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, or other agents. Inducible NOS generates large amounts of NO that have cytostatic effects on parasitic target cells. Inducible NOS contributes to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and septic shock. Endothelial NOS (eNOS, NOS III) is mostly expressed in endothelial cells. It keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other vasoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Many cardiovascular risk factors lead to oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature. Pharmacologically, vascular oxidative stress can be reduced and eNOS functionality restored with renin- and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, with angiotensin receptor blockers, and with statins. PMID:21890489

Förstermann, Ulrich; Sessa, William C

2012-04-01

178

Lack of Central Nitric Oxide Triggers Erectile Dysfuntion in Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article "Lack of central nitric oxide triggers erectile dysfuntion in diabetes", by Kaushik P. Patel, Keshore R. Bidasee, William G. Mayhan, and Zeng Hong, found in the APS journal of Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

PhD Kaushik P. Patel (University of Nebraska Cellular and Integrative Physiology); Keshore R. Bidasee (University of Nebraska Pharmacology); Hong Zeng (University of Nebraska Cellular and Integrative Physiology); PhD William G. Mayhan (University of Nebraska Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

2007-03-01

179

Racial Differences in Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasorelaxation  

PubMed Central

Along with the growing heterogeneity of the American population, ethnic/racial disparity is becoming a clear health issue in the United States. The awareness of ethnic/racial disparities has been growing because of considerable data gathered from recent clinical and epidemiological studies. These studies have highlighted the importance of addressing these differences in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases potentially according to race. It is becoming particularly clear that there is a 2- to 3-fold racial difference in certain cardiovascular diseases (eg, preeclampsia) associated with dysfunctional nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation. In this review, the authors summarize the current literature on racial disparities in nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation in relation to cardiovascular health with an emphasis on vascular nitric oxide bioavailability as a balance between production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and degradation through reactive oxygen species. The major hypotheses postulated on the biological basis of these differences are also highlighted.

Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Chen, Dong-Bao

2008-01-01

180

The Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid  

SciTech Connect

Hydrazine nitrate-nitric acid solutions are used in the ion exchange process for separating Pu-238 and Np-237 and have been found to dissolve plutonium metal in a manner advantageous to SRP metal recovery operations. Laboratory tests on the stability of hydrazine in nitric acid solutions were performed to obtain accurate data, and the results of these tests are reported here. These tests provide sufficient information to specify temperature control for hydrazine-nitric acid solutions in plant processes.

Karraker, D.G.

2001-07-02

181

Role of nitric oxide in cerebrovascular reactivity to NMDA and hypercapnia during prenatal development in sheep  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasodilatory responses evoked by activation of NMDA receptors and by hypercapnia are important factors in the integrated vascular response to perinatal cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasodilation to NMDA is mediated by nitric oxide in adult and newborn animals, whereas vasodilation to hypercapnia is thought to become modulated by nitric oxide, at least in swine, after the newborn period. The developmental role of nitric oxide in the cerebral blood flow response to NMDA and hypercapnia was investigated at mid- and late gestation in fetal sheep. Superfusion of 300 ?M NMDA over the cerebral cortex through a closed cranial window on the exteriorized head of an anesthetized fetus increased laser-Doppler flow by 41 ± 7% (± S.E.) at 0.65 gestation. The increase was reduced by superfusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (18 ± 8%). At 0.9 gestation, the response to NMDA was augmented (85 ± 24%) compared to that at 0.65 gestation and was reduced by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (32 ± 6%). In unanesthetized fetal sheep, hypercapnic reactivity of microsphere-determined cerebral blood flow was not significantly attenuated by nitric oxide synthase inhibition at 0.65 gestation (4.6 ± 0.7 to 3.7 ± 1.0% change/mmHg pCO2) or at 0.9 gestation (4.0 ± 0.7 to 3.5 ± 0.9% change/mmHg pCO2). Therefore, nitric oxide-dependent cerebrovascular dilation to NMDA-receptor activation is present as early as 0.65 gestation in fetal sheep and increases further during the last trimester, whereas vasodilation to hypercapnia remains unchanged and independent of nitric oxide during the last trimester. Hence, cerebrovascular reactivities to different stimuli do not mature concurrently.

Harris, Andrew P.; Ohata, Hiroto; Koehler, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

182

Traumatic injury of the spinal cord and nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current report, we summarize our findings related to the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathology of spinal cord trauma. We initially studied the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunolabeled and\\/or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd; which is highly colocalized with NOS)-stained somata and fibers in the spinal cord of the rabbit. Segmental and laminar distribution

Jozef Maršala; Judita Orendá?ová; Nadežda Luká?ová; Ivo Vanický

2007-01-01

183

Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used in a number of ways to study nitric oxide chemistry and biology. As an intrinsically stable and relatively unreactive diatomic free radical, the challenges for detecting this species by EPR are somewhat different than those for transient radical species. This review gives a basic introduction to EPR spectroscopy and discusses its uses to assess and quantify nitric oxide formation in biological systems.

Hogg, Neil

2010-01-01

184

Nitric oxide: Chemistry and bioactivity in animal and plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical involved in diverse physiological functions. NO and its redox-related forms NO+ and NO? react with di(oxygen) and its derivatives, with metalloproteins and thiol-containing proteins. NO-mediated nitrosation of proteins represents an important cellular regulatory mechanism. Biosynthesis of NOis catalysed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three isoenzymes representing distinct gene products have

David Wendehenne; Aure Dussably; Ean-Francois Jeannin; Alain Pugin

2002-01-01

185

Chronic diabetic nephropathy: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional mediator that has been implicated in the short-term hemodynamic alterations that occur\\u000a in acute streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We investigated the role of NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)\\u000a in chronic STZ diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in C57BL\\/6 and iNOS knockout (KO) mice with two intraperitoneal\\u000a injections of STZ, 100 mg\\/kg.

Howard Trachtman; Stephen Futterweit; Elyse Pine; Jared Mann; Elsa Valderrama

2002-01-01

186

Ontogenesis of Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Ventilatory Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as an endogenous mediator in mature skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in skeletal-muscle development (rat diaphragm). Muscle NOS activity, nNOS and eNOS protein, and mRNA expressions were markedly increased during the late gestational and early postnatal periods. Expression of

Q. El Dwairi; Y. Guo; A. Comtois; E. Zhu; M. T. Greenwood; D. S. Bredt; S. N. A. Hussain

1998-01-01

187

Ganoderma lucidum inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a principal mediator in many physiological and pathological processes. Overproduction of NO via the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has cytotoxic effect through the formation of peroxynitrite with superoxide anion. The iNOS is mainly expressed in macrophages and is able to produce large amount of NO. The expression of iNOS is mainly regulated at the transcriptional

Connie W. H. Woo; Ricky Y. K. Man; Yaw L. Siow; Patrick C. Choy; Eric W. Y. Wan; Chak S. Lau; Karmin O

2005-01-01

188

Measurements of nitric oxide after a nuclear burst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of ozone and nitric oxide in a nuclear cloud 7 days after the explosion are reported. No measurable increase above ambient density of either ozone or nitric oxide was found. Results from a chemistry model of the cloud do not agree with the measurement unless 'nonstandard' assumptions are made with regard to the operating chemical processes. A number of possible explanations of the results are discussed.

Mcghan, M.; Shaw, A.; Megill, L. R.; Sedlacek, W.; Guthals, P. R.; Fowler, M. M.

1981-01-01

189

iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production and its regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. NO is an imporant biological mediator in the living organism that is synthesized from L-arginine using NADPH and molecular oxygen. However, the overproduction of NO which is catalyzed by iNOS, a soluble enzyme and active in

Fugen Aktan

2004-01-01

190

Inhibition of suicidal erythrocyte death by nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to counteract apoptosis by S-nitrosylation of protein thiol groups. NO is generated and stored in erythrocytes, which may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells. Eryptosis is triggered by increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity and/or ceramide and characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. The present study explored whether nitric oxide could interfere with the machinery underlying eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin V-binding) and cell volume (forward scatter) were determined by flow cytometry. The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (0.1 microM) increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity, triggered annexin binding, and decreased forward scatter. The annexin binding and decrease of forward scatter but not the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity were reversed by the NO-donor nitroprusside (1 microM) and papanonoate (100 microM). Higher concentrations of nitroprusside (0.1 and 1 mM) stimulated eryptosis. Glucose depletion, exposure to C6-ceramide (3 microM), hypertonic (addition of 550 mM sucrose), and isotonic (replacement of Cl- with gluconate) cell shrinkage all triggered annexin V binding, effects all reversed by nitroprusside (1 microM). Dibutyryl-cGMP (1 mM) blunted the ionomycin- but not the ceramide-induced annexin V binding. Ionomycin decreased protein nitrosylation and thioredoxin activity, effects reversed by the NO-donor papanonoate. Clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood was significantly faster in eNOS knockout mice than in their wild-type littermates. In conclusion, nitric oxide participates in the regulation of erythrocyte survival, an effect partially mimicked by cGMP and paralleled by alterations of protein nitrosylation and thioredoxin activity. PMID:18058124

Nicolay, Jan P; Liebig, Gerd; Niemoeller, Olivier M; Koka, Saisudha; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Wieder, Thomas; Haendeler, Judith; Busse, Rudi; Lang, Florian

2008-05-01

191

FoxO1 and SIRT1 Regulate ?-Cell Responses to Nitric Oxide*  

PubMed Central

For many cell types, including pancreatic ?-cells, nitric oxide is a mediator of cell death; paradoxically, nitric oxide can also activate pathways that promote the repair of cellular damage. In this report, a role for FoxO1-dependent transcriptional activation and its regulation by SIRT1 in determining the cellular response to nitric oxide is provided. In response to nitric oxide, FoxO1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and stimulates the expression of the DNA repair gene GADD45?, resulting in FoxO1-dependent DNA repair. FoxO1-dependent gene expression appears to be regulated by the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. In response to SIRT1 inhibitors, the FoxO1-dependent protective actions of nitric oxide (GADD45? expression and DNA repair) are attenuated, and FoxO1 activates a proapoptotic program that includes PUMA (p53-up-regulated mediator of apoptosis) mRNA accumulation and caspase-3 cleavage. These findings support primary roles for FoxO1 and SIRT1 in regulating the cellular responses of ?-cells to nitric oxide.

Hughes, Katherine J.; Meares, Gordon P.; Hansen, Polly A.; Corbett, John A.

2011-01-01

192

The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy.

2013-01-01

193

Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase  

PubMed Central

Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry.

Gardner, Paul R.

2012-01-01

194

Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.  

PubMed

In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology. PMID:23136136

Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

2013-01-14

195

Nitric oxide and cancer: a review  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO), is a ubiquitous, water soluble, free radical gas, which plays key role in various physiological as well as pathological processes. Over past decades, NO has emerged as a molecule of interest in carcinogenesis and tumor growth progression. However, there is considerable controversy and confusion in understanding its role in cancer biology. It is said to have both tumoricidal as well as tumor promoting effects which depend on its timing, location, and concentration. NO has been suggested to modulate different cancer-related events including angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, and metastasis. On the other hand, it is also emerging as a potential anti-oncogenic agent. Strategies for manipulating in vivo production and exogenous delivery of this molecule for therapeutic gain are being investigated. However, further validation and experimental/clinical trials are required for development of novel strategies based on NO for cancer treatment and prevention. This review discusses the range of actions of NO in cancer by performing an online MEDLINE search using relevant search terms and a review of the literature. Various mechanisms by which NO acts in different cancers such as breast, cervical, gastric,colorectal, and head and neck cancers are addressed. It also offers an insight into the dichotomous nature of NO and discusses its novel therapeutic applications for cancer prevention and treatment.

2013-01-01

196

Nitric oxide transport in an axisymmetric stenosis  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that disturbed flow can impede the transport of nitric oxide (NO) in the artery and hence induce atherogenesis, we used a lumen–wall model of an idealized arterial stenosis with NO produced at the blood vessel–wall interface to study the transport of NO in the stenosis. Blood flows in the lumen and through the arterial wall were simulated by Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy's Law, respectively. Meanwhile, the transport of NO in the lumen and the transport of NO within the arterial wall were modelled by advection–diffusion reaction equations. Coupling of fluid dynamics at the endothelium was achieved by the Kedem–Katchalsky equations. The results showed that both the hydraulic conductivity of the endothelium and the non-Newtonian viscous behaviour of blood had little effect on the distribution of NO. However, the blood flow rate, stenosis severity, red blood cells (RBCs), RBC-free layer and NO production rate at the blood vessel–wall interface could significantly affect the transport of NO. The theoretical study revealed that the transport of NO was significantly hindered in the disturbed flow region distal to the stenosis. The reduced NO concentration in the disturbed flow region might play an important role in the localized genesis and development of atherosclerosis.

Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Xu, X. Yun; Deng, Xiaoyan

2012-01-01

197

Micelles for delivery of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

We designed block copolymer pro-amphiphiles and amphiphiles for providing very long-term release of nitric oxide (NO). A block copolymer of N-acryloylmorpholine (AM, as a hydrophile) and N-acryloyl-2,5-dimethylpiperazine (AZd, as a hydrophilic precursor) was synthesized. The poly(N-acryloyl-2,5-dimethylpiperazine) (PAZd) is water-soluble, but chemical reaction of the secondary amines with NO to form a N-diazeniumdiolate (NONOate) converts the hydrophilic PAZd into a hydrophobic poly(sodium-1-(N-acryloyl-2,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) (PAZd.NONOate), driving aggregation. The PAM block guides this process toward micellization, rather than precipitation, yielding ca. 50 nm spherical micelles. The hydrophobic core of the micelle shielded the NONOate from the presence of water, and thus protons, which are required for NO liberation, delaying release to a remarkable 7 d half-life. Release of the NO returned the original soluble polymer. The very small NO-loaded micelles were able to penetrate complex tissue structures, such as the arterial media, opening up a number of tissue targets to NO-based therapy. PMID:19764751

Jo, Yun Suk; van der Vlies, André J; Gantz, Jay; Thacher, Tyler N; Antonijevic, Sasa; Cavadini, Simone; Demurtas, Davide; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

2009-10-14

198

Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude.  

PubMed

This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24-48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors' and the Tibetans' high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic stress. PMID:22300645

Beall, Cynthia M; Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C

2012-04-01

199

Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes published information on levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24–48 hours with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma and/or red blood cells fell within three hours, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 hours, and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell associated nitrogen oxides were more than two hundred times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree showed by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors’ and the Tibetans’ high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic stress.

Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C.

2012-01-01

200

Vasomodulation by Skeletal Muscle-Derived Nitric Oxide Requires -Syntrophin-Mediated Sarcolemmal Localization of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle where it associates with the dystrophin complex at the sarcolemma by binding to the PDZ domain of-syntrophin. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by skeletal muscle nNOS is proposed to regulate blood flow in exercising muscle by diffusing from the skeletal muscle fibers to the nearby microvessels where it attenuates -adrenergic

Gail D. Thomas; Philip W. Shaul; Ivan S. Yuhanna; Stanley C. Froehner; Marvin E. Adams

201

Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase-Derived Nitric Oxide in Silica-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation of crystalline silica can produce lung inflammation and fibrosis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) is believed to be involved in silica-induced lung disease. To investigate the role of iNOS-derived NO in this disease, the responses of iNOS knockout (KO) versus C57Bl\\/6J wild-type (WT) mice to silica were compared. Male mice (8–10 wk old, mean body weight

Patti C. Zeidler; Ann Hubbs; Lori Battelli; Vincent Castranova

2004-01-01

202

Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary artery pressure accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). The current treatment for pulmonary hypertension is limited and only provides symptomatic relief due to unknown etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Both vasoconstriction and structural remodeling (enhanced proliferation of VSMC) of the pulmonary arteries contribute to the progressive course of PAH, irrespective of different underlying causes. The exact molecular mechanism of PAH, however, is not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to provide recent advances in the mechanistic investigation of PAH. Specifically, this review focuses on nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress and inflammation and how these factors contribute to the development and progression of PAH. This review also discusses recent and potential therapeutic advancements for the treatment of PAH.

Crosswhite, Patrick; Sun, Zhongjie

2010-01-01

203

Use of a solid mixture containing diethylenetriamine\\/nitric oxide (DETANO) to liberate nitric oxide gas in the presence of horticultural produce to extend postharvest life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest treatment of fruit and vegetables with a low concentration of nitric oxide gas can extend postharvest life but application of nitric oxide by release from a gas cylinder is not feasible for many horticultural situations. This paper reports on development of a solid mixture to generate nitric oxide gas in the presence of horticultural produce. The solid NO-donor compound,

R. B. H. Wills; L. Soegiarto; M. C. Bowyer

2007-01-01

204

Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Oxidant Lung Injury Due to Paraquat  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low concentrations, nitric oxide is a physiological transmitter, but in excessive concentrations it may cause cell and tissue injury. We report that in acute oxidant injury induced by the herbicide paraquat in isolated guinea pig lungs, nitric oxide synthesis was markedly stimulated, as evidenced by increased levels of cyclic GMP in lung perfusate and of nitrite and L-citrulline production

Hasan I. Berisha; Hedayatollah Pakbaz; Afaf Absood; Sami I. Said

1994-01-01

205

SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

206

Reduced iron induced nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emission.  

PubMed

Formation of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide in water treatment systems is predominantly studied as a biological phenomenon. There are indications that also chemical processes contribute to these emissions. Here we studied the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) due to chemical nitrite reduction by ferrous iron (Fe(II)). Reduction of nitrite and NO coupled to Fe(II) oxidation was studied in laboratory-scale chemical experiments at different pH, nitrite and iron concentrations. The continuous measurement of both NO and N(2)O emission showed that nitrite reduction and NO reduction have different kinetics. Nitrite reduction shows a linear dependency on the nitrite concentration, implying first order kinetics in nitrite. The nitrite reduction seems to be an equilibrium based reaction, leading to a constant NO concentration in the liquid. The NO reduction rate is suggested to be most dependent on reactive surface availability and the sorption of Fe(II) to the reactive surface. The importance of emission of NO and N(2)O coupled to iron oxidation is exemplified by iron reduction experiments and several examples of environments where this pathway can play a role. PMID:21940030

Kampschreur, Marlies J; Kleerebezem, Robbert; de Vet, Weren W J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2011-11-15

207

Development of anion- and nitric oxide-selective chemical sensors and biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological roles of chloride, nitrite, and nitric oxide create the need for techniques which can provide fast, sensitive, and selective detection of these analytes. Small sensor size is advantageous in biological applications, and the coupling of fluorescence transduction with optical fiber technology has allowed the preparation of micrometer and submicromter sized chemical sensors and biosensors with good selectivity, fast response times, and excellent signal to noise ratios, which are utilized for in vitro and cellular applications. Micrometer and submicrometer size fiber optic nitrite and chloride sensors have been prepared, based on immobilized metalloporphyrins, using the ion correlation principle, and characterized with respect to selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. The chloride sensors were applied in vitro to rat conceptuses. The hemoprotein cytochrome c' and the heme domain of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) have been labeled with a fluorescent dye and utilized for intensity and fluorescence lifetime-based nitric oxide sensing. Ratiometric fiber optic sensors have been prepared by attaching the dye-labeled cytochrome c' or heme domain of sGC to the fiber along with reference dye spheres. In addition, the fluorescence lifetime of the dye-labeled cytochrome c' in solution has been monitored. A second class of nitric oxide sensors has also been developed. These are dye-based chemical sensors with a response based on the interaction of nitric oxide with a fluorophore adsorbed on a gold surface. Such chemical sensors have the advantage of commercially available components and long-term stability. The nitric oxide bio- and chemical sensors have excellent signal to noise ratios and linear responses down to low micromolar nitric oxide. The various sensors show minimal interference from numerous other chemicals that are commonly found in the cellular environment. In addition, the sensors have low micromolar limits of detection, subsecond response times and complete reversibility, making these sensors applicable to dynamic measurements of cellular nitric oxide. Extra- and intracellular nitric oxide were measured in unactivated and activated macrophages. The macrophages were activated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), known stimulants of macrophage nitric oxide production. Both protein and dye-based fiber optic ratiometric sensors have been used to determine the macrophage produced extracellular nitric oxide concentration. For intracellular measurements, the dye- cytochrome c' complex was scrape- loaded into the cytoplasm of the macrophages.

Barker, Susan Lynn Ritenour

1999-11-01

208

Nitric oxide determines mesodermic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating class IIa histone deacetylases: potential therapeutic implications in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.  

PubMed

In human endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO) results in class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) activation and marked histone deacetylation. It is unknown whether similar epigenetic events occur in embryonic stem cells (ESC) exposed to NO and how this treatment could influence ESC therapeutic potential during tissue regeneration.This study reports that the NO-dependent class IIa HDACs subcellular localization and activity decreases the global acetylation level of H3 histones in ESC and that this phenomenon is associated with the inhibition of Oct4, Nanog, and KLF4 expression. Further, a NO-induced formation of macromolecular complexes including HDAC3, 4, 7, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) have been detected. These processes correlated with the expression of the mesodermal-specific protein brachyury (Bry) and the appearance of several vascular and skeletal muscle differentiation markers. These events were abolished by the class IIa-specific inhibitor MC1568 and by HDAC4 or HDAC7 short interfering RNA (siRNA). The ability of NO to induce mesodermic/cardiovascular gene expression prompted us to evaluate the regenerative potential of these cells in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. We found that NO-treated ESCs injected into the cardiac left ventricle selectively localized in the ischemic hindlimb and contributed to the regeneration of muscular and vascular structures. These findings establish a key role for NO and class IIa HDACs modulation in ESC mesodermal commitment and enhanced regenerative potential in vivo. PMID:20073046

Spallotta, Francesco; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Nanni, Simona; Grasselli, Annalisa; Ambrosino, Valeria; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Farsetti, Antonella; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Gaetano, Carlo; Illi, Barbara

2010-03-31

209

Detection of nitric oxide in plants by electron spin resonance.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Three methods to detect nitric oxide (NO()) are reported here. The first method was determining NO() in extracted plant tissue. NO() was trapped by spin trapping reagent containing diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and FeSO(4), extracted by ethyl acetate, and determined with an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. The second method was indirectly determining NO() in live wheat leaves. Seedlings were cultured in a medium containing FeSO(4), and the leaves were brushed by DETC. Then, the leaves were ground and the complex of (DETC)(2)-Fe(2+)-NO was extracted and determined with an ESR spectrometer. The third method was directly determining NO* in live wheat leaves. After treating plant materials as in the second method, part of the water in leaves was transpired, and the leaf disks were inserted directly into quartz tubes to determine NO() with an ESR spectrometer. The NO() scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline- 1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) decreased NO() signal detected either by an indirect or a direct method. This result indicates that both methods could detect NO() in the live plant. Using the first methods, we detected NO() change in wheat infected by Puccinia striiformis race CY22-2 pathogen (incompatible interaction) at different inoculation times, and it was found that the NO() content dramatically increased at 24 h postinoculation, quickly decreased at 48 h, and increased again at 96 h. PMID:18944117

Xu, Yang Cang; Cao, Yuan Lin; Guo, Ping; Tao, Yi; Zhao, Bao Lu

2004-04-01

210

Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits shedding of ADAM17 substrates.  

PubMed

Both ADAM17, the secretase responsible for the shedding of ectodomains of numerous membrane proteins including TNF and its receptors, as well as nitric oxide synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase play regulatory roles in inflammation and tumor progression. We analyzed the effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on the expression and activity of ADAM17 in murine endothelial cells and a monocyte/macrophage cell line. We found that endogenous nitric oxide influenced neither ADAM17 mRNA level nor the shedding of two ADAM17 substrates, TNF and TNFR1. Exogenous NO significantly diminished the release of TNF and TNFR1 without affecting the ADAM17 transcript level. Our data seem contrary to a previous report that showed the activation of ADAM17 by nitric oxide (Zhang et al., 2000, J Biol Chem 275: 15839-15844). We discuss potential mechanisms of NO-mediated inhibition of ectodomain shedding and possible reasons of discrepancy between our results and the previous report. PMID:19543557

Bzowska, Monika; Stali?ska, Krystyna; Mezyk-Kope?, Renata; Wawro, Karolina; Duda, Katarzyna; Das, Sudipta; Bereta, Joanna

2009-01-01

211

Observations of polar mesospheric clouds by the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) were observed by a limb-scanning ultraviolet spectrometer on the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE). Radiance profiles at 215 and 237 nm are analyzed to determine the presence of clouds. Once detected, the altitude and brightness of a cloud relative to the background atmosphere is determined. SNOE observations provide the frequency of occurrence of PMC as a

Scott M. Bailey; Aimee W. Merkel; Gary E. Thomas; Justin N. Carstens

2005-01-01

212

Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, we studied LC neurons using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. We found that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca(2+) concentration that were attributable to the opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide increased the spike rate but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress was also increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity-dependent Ca(2+) entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

Sanchez-Padilla, Javier; Guzman, Jaime N; Ilijic, Ema; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Galtieri, Daniel J; Yang, Ben; Schieber, Simon; Oertel, Wolfgang; Wokosin, David; Schumacker, Paul T; Surmeier, D James

2014-06-01

213

Synthesis, nitric oxide release, and ?-glucosidase inhibition of nitric oxide donating apigenin and chrysin derivatives.  

PubMed

?-Glucosidase (AG) play crucial roles in the digestion of carbohydrates. Inhibitors of ?-glucosidase (AGIs) are promising candidates for the development of anti-diabetic drugs. Here, five series of apigenin and chrysin nitric oxide (NO)-donating derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AG inhibitory activity and NO releasing capacity in vitro. Except for 9a-c, twelve compounds showed remarkable inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase, with potency being better than that of acarbose and 1-deoxynojirimycin. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure activity relationship studies indicated that 5-OH, hydrophobic coupling chain, and carbonyl groups of the coupling chain could enhance the inhibitory activity. Apigenin and chrysin derivatives therefore represents a new class of promising compounds that can inhibit ?-glucosidase activity and supply moderate NO for preventing the development of diabetic complications. PMID:24508143

Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Yi, Wen-Bing; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

2014-03-01

214

Evaluation of DNA damage in jewellery workers occupationally exposed to nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide is a metastable radical, reacts with oxygen to produce toxic nitrogen oxides (N2O3, ONOO?) which damage DNA. Occupational exposure to nitric oxide leads to increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in humans. In the present study the DNA damage among the jewellery workers occupationally exposed to nitric oxide was analyzed using buccal cell comet assay. The result of this

Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar; Keshavrao Sasikala

2008-01-01

215

The Comparative Toxicity of Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite to Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity and toxicity of nitric oxide is modest in comparison to oxidants derived from nitric oxide. Exposure of Escherichia coli to 1 mM nitric oxide under aerobic or anaerobic conditions did not decrease viability of the bacteria. Peroxynitrite (1 mM), the reaction product of superoxide and nitric oxide, was completely bactericidal after 5 s, The nitrovasodilator, 3-morpholinosydnonimine-N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1), slowly

L. Brunelli; J. P. Crow; J. S. Beckman

1995-01-01

216

Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling  

SciTech Connect

Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca{sup 2+} elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca{sup 2+} elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca{sup 2+} wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca{sup 2+}, possibly through store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca{sup 2+} change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca{sup 2+} using fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca{sup 2+} elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca{sup 2+} wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting that NO modulates glutamate release from astrocytes or glutamate receptor sensitivity of neurons.

Nianzhen Li

2002-06-27

217

Environmental Exposures, Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes, and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Asthmatic Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a measure of airway inflammation, is being explored as a tool to guide asthma management in children. Investigators have identified associations of genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS1 and NOS3) with FeNO levels; however, none have explored whether these polymorphisms modify the relationship of environmental exposures with FeNO. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association of NOS polymorphisms and environmental exposures with FeNO levels among children with asthma. We conducted a 12 month, prospective cohort study of 225 tobacco-smoke exposed children (6 to 12 years) with doctor-diagnosed asthma. We assessed environmental exposures (tobacco, indoor allergens, & airborne particulates), polymorphisms in NOS1 (an intronic AAT tandem repeat) and NOS3 (G894T), and FeNO levels. There was no association of NOS1 or NOS3 polymorphisms with FeNO levels. There were no significant interactions of environmental exposures and the NOS1 polymorphism with FeNO levels. In contrast, there was an interaction of the NOS3 polymorphism and airborne nicotine concentration with FeNO levels (p=0.01). Among GG genotype individuals, nicotine exposure did not affect FeNO levels; however, among individuals with at least one T allele, higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels (approximately 5ppb decrease from the lowest to the highest quartile). We conclude that genetic differences may explain some of the conflicting results in studies of the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on FeNO levels and may make FeNO interpretation difficult for a subset of children with asthma.

Spanier, Adam J.; Kahn, Robert S.; Hornung, Richard W.; Wang, Ning; Sun, Guangyun; Lierl, Michelle B.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2010-01-01

218

Detecting and Understanding the Roles of Nitric Oxide in Biology  

PubMed Central

We are pursuing a dual strategy for investigating the chemistry of nitric oxide as a biological signaling agent. In one approach, metal-based fluorescent sensors for the detection of NO in living cells are evaluated, and a sensor based on a copper fluorescein complex has proved to be a valuable lead compound. Sensors of this class permit identification of NO from both inducible and constitutive forms of nitric oxide synthase and facilitate investigation of different NO functions in response to external stimuli. In the other approach, we employ synthetic model complexes of iron-sulfur clusters to probe their reactivity toward nitric oxide as biomimics of the active sites of iron-sulfur proteins. Our studies reveal that NO disassembles the Fe-S clusters to form dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs).

Tonzetich, Zachary J.; McQuade, Lindsey E.

2010-01-01

219

Pain Modulation by Nitric Oxide in the Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a versatile messenger molecule first associated with endothelial relaxing effects. In the central nervous system (CNS), NO synthesis is primarily triggered by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has a Janus face, with both beneficial and harmful properties. There are three isoforms of the NO synthesizing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), each one involved with specific events in the brain. In the CNS, nNOS is involved with modulation of synaptic transmission through long-term potentiation in several regions, including nociceptive circuits in the spinal cord. Here, we review the role played by NO on central pain sensitization.

Freire, Marco Aurelio M.; Guimaraes, Joanilson S.; Leal, Walace Gomes; Pereira, Antonio

2009-01-01

220

Concentration of nitric oxide metabolites in middle ear effusion.  

PubMed

Free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO) seem to be important in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). NO can be quantitated by measuring its metabolites, nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)). The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of NO in human middle ear effusion (MEE). Samples of human MEE were collected at the time of myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertions. The type of MEE was classified as serous (SOM), mucoid (MOM) or purulent (POM) at the time of surgery. Samples of MEE were assayed for NO metabolites (nitrate and nitrite) with colorimetric assay (Griess method). Concentrations of NO metabolites were highest in MOM followed by SOM and POM. This study suggests that NO is present in human MEE and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OME. PMID:11434954

John, E O; Russell, P T; Nam, B H; Jinn, T H; Jung, T T

2001-07-30

221

Structural and biological studies on bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by bacterial NOS functions as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The screening of several NOS-selective inhibitors uncovered two inhibitors with potential antimicrobial properties. These two compounds impede the growth of B. subtilis under oxidative stress, and crystal structures show that each compound exhibits a unique binding mode. Both compounds serve as excellent leads for the future development of antimicrobials against bacterial NOS-containing bacteria.

Holden, Jeffrey K.; Li, Huiying; Jing, Qing; Kang, Soosung; Richo, Jerry; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

222

Use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule with multiple regulatory effects throughout the body, is an important tool for the treatment of full-term and late-preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated its role in the management of preterm infants ? 34 weeks' gestational age with varying results. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the existing evidence for the use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants and provide guidance regarding its use in this population. PMID:24379225

Kumar, Praveen

2014-01-01

223

Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the se...

I. A. Reid

1994-01-01

224

Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

1997-01-01

225

Satellite ultraviolet measurements of nitric oxide fluorescence with a diffusive transport model.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twilight measurements of fluorescence in the (1, 0) gamma band of nitric oxide were made from June 1967 to January 1969 by an ultraviolet scanning spectrometer on board the polar orbiting satellite Ogo 4. Nitric oxide vertical column emission rates were measured between solar zenith angles of 93 and 98 deg. Seasonal and latitudinal variations were found to be less than a factor of 1.3, the scatter and uncertainty in the data prohibiting more precise determinations from being made. Time independent chemical diffusion models for the vertical distribution of nitric oxide agree well with profiles measured from sounding rockets. The column emission rates calculated from the theoretical models are larger than the satellite measurements by a factor of 3.

Rusch, D. W.

1973-01-01

226

Involvement of nitric oxide synthetic pathway in inhibitory junction potentials in canine proximal colon.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to determine the involvement of nitric oxide synthase in the generation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in the canine proximal colon. Smooth muscle cells were impaled near the myenteric border between the circular and longitudinal layers. Cells exhibited rhythmic myenteric potential oscillations. IJPs were evoked with electrical field stimulation in the presence of drugs to block adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmission. N omega-nitro-L-arginine, methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, progressively reduced the amplitude of IJPs. The effect of L-NAME was reversed by L-Arg but not by the stereoisomer D-Arg. IJPs disrupt the regular pattern of myenteric potential oscillations. This effect was also blocked by L-NAME and reversed by L-Arg. These experiments suggest that a product of the nitric oxide synthetic pathway is involved in NANC neurotransmission in the canine proximal colon. PMID:2035647

Dalziel, H H; Thornbury, K D; Ward, S M; Sanders, K M

1991-05-01

227

Anmindenols A and B, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 ?M, respectively. PMID:24878306

Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

2014-06-27

228

Dual electroretinogram/nitric oxide carbon fiber microelectrode for direct measurement of nitric oxide in the in vivo retina.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important physiological role in normal and pathological retinas. Intraretinal NO concentrations have not been directly measured due to lack of NO electrodes capable of determining their location in the retina. The microelectrodes described here allow recording of the intraretinal electroretinogram (ERG) and NO concentration from the same location, with ERGs used to determine retinal depth. Double-barreled electrodes were constructed with one barrel serving as a reference/voltage recording barrel and the other containing a Nafion-coated carbon fiber used to detect NO amperometrically. Nafion coating imparted a high selectivity for NO versus ascorbic acid (2000:1). In vivo rodent experiments demonstrated that the electrodes could record intraretinal ERGs and NO current with minimal retinal thickness deformation (9%), allowing for retinal NO depth profile measurements. Comparison of NO depth profiles under control conditions and under nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition by 5 mM L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) verified that the recorded current was attributable to NO. NO concentrations from control profiles ( n = 4) were 2.37 ± 0.34 ?M at the choroid and 1.12 ± 0.14 ?M at the retinal surface. NO concentrations from L-NAME profiles ( n = 4) were significantly lower at 0.83 ± 0.15 ?M at the choroid ( p = 0.006) and 0.27 ± 0.04 ?M at the retinal surface ( p = 0.001). Localized regions of increased NO (100-400 nM) were seen in the inner retina under control conditions but not after L-NAME. The dual ERG-NO electrode may be a valuable tool in evaluating the role of NO in normal and diseased retinas. PMID:24043366

Guthrie, Micah J; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J

2014-03-01

229

Proabsorptive and prosecretory roles for nitric oxide in cholera toxin induced secretion  

PubMed Central

Background—Cholera toxin causes small intestinal hypersecretion by inducing a coordinated response from enterocytes, enterochromaffin cells, enteric neurones, and the vascular supply. Nitric oxide has been implicated in the function of these separate components. ?Aims—To explore the role of nitric oxide in the totality of cholera toxin induced secretion in vivo. ?Methods—One group of adult male Wistar rats was treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; subcutaneously or intraluminally), NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), or 7-nitroindazole. A second group of rats was treated with L-arginine (intraperitoneally or intraluminally) or D-arginine. The small intestine was isolated between two cannulae and instilled with 75 µg cholera toxin or saline for two hours. Small intestinal perfusion of a plasma electrolyte solution containing [14C]-PEG was undertaken to determine net water and electrolyte movement. After the experiment macroscopic and microscopic intestinal appearances were noted and jejunal 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations were determined. ?Results—Both L-arginine and L-NAME induced secretion in the basal state, but only when administered intraluminally. Systemically applied L-NAME caused a dose dependent reduction in cholera toxin induced secretion. This was paralleled by L-NMA but not by 7-nitroindazole or by intraluminally applied L-NAME. Systemically applied L-NAME caused notable cyanosis of the intestine, consistent with mesenteric ischaemia, but no microscopic abnormalities. Systemically applied L-arginine but not D-arginine also reduced cholera toxin induced secretion and inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine release. ?Conclusion—Nitric oxide has a duality of roles in cholera toxin induced secretion, acting both as an absorbagogue and a secretagogue. Its mechanisms of action include the maintenance of mucosal perfusion and enterochromaffin cell stabilisation. ?? Keywords: cholera toxin; nitric oxide; small intestinal transport; 5-hydroxytryptamine; L-arginine; nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

Turvill, J; Mourad, F; Farthing, M

1999-01-01

230

Electrochemical sensing of nitric oxide with functionalized graphene electrodes.  

PubMed

The intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in nitric oxide (NO) sensing are determined by cyclic voltammetry with FGS monolayer electrodes. The degrees of reduction and defectiveness of the FGSs are varied by employing different heat treatments during their fabrication. FGSs with intermediate degrees of reduction and high Raman ID to IG peak ratios exhibit an NO oxidation peak potential of 794 mV (vs 1 M Ag/AgCl), closely matching values obtained with a platinized Pt control (791 mV) as well as recent results from the literature on porous or biofunctionalized electrodes. We show that the peak potential obtained with FGS electrodes can be further reduced to 764 mV by incorporation of electrode porosity using a drop-casting approach, indicating a stronger apparent electrocatalytic effect on porous FGS electrodes as compared to platinized Pt. Taking into consideration effects of electrode morphology, we thereby demonstrate that FGSs are intrinsically as catalytic toward NO oxidation as platinum. The lowered peak potential of porous FGS electrodes is accompanied by a significant increase in peak current, which we attribute either to pore depletion effects or an amplification effect due to subsequent electrooxidation reactions. Our results suggest that the development of sensor electrodes with higher sensitivity and lower detection limits should be feasible with FGSs. PMID:24206401

Liu, Yifei M; Punckt, Christian; Pope, Michael A; Gelperin, Alan; Aksay, Ilhan A

2013-12-11

231

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Mediates Cerebral Vasodilatation during Acute Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia provide nitroxidergic innervation to forebrain cerebral blood vessels. Disruption of that innervation attenuates cerebral vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension as does systemic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Although such studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) released from parasympathetic nerves participates in vasodilatation of cerebral vessels during hypertension that hypothesis has not been tested with selective local inhibition of neuronal NOS (nNOS). We tested that hypothesis through these studies performed in anesthetized rats instrumented for continuous measurement of blood pressure, heart rate and pial arterial diameter through a cranial window. We sought to determine if the nNOS inhibitor propyl-L-arginine delivered directly to the outer surface of a pial artery would 1) attenuate changes in pial arterial diameter during acute hypertension and 2) block nNOS mediated dilator effects of N-methyl-D- Aspartate (NMDA) delivered into the window but 3) not block vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) and mediated by endothelial NOS dilator. Without the nNOS inhibitor arterial diameter abruptly increased 70 ± 15% when mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached 183 ± 3 mmHg while with nNOS inhibition diameter increased only 13 ± 10% (p<0.05) even when MAP reached 191 ± 4 (p>0.05). The nNOS inhibitor significantly attenuated vasodilatation induced by NMDA but not ACh delivered into the window. Thus, local nNOS inhibition attenuates breakthrough from autoregulation during hypertension as does complete interruption of the parasympathetic innervation of cerebral vessels. These findings further support the hypothesis that NO released from parasympathetic fibers contributes to cerebral vasodilatation during acute hypertension. Section: Regulatory Systems

Talman, William T.; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke

2007-01-01

232

Neuronal nitric oxide mediates cerebral vasodilatation during acute hypertension.  

PubMed

Parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia provide nitroxidergic innervation to forebrain cerebral blood vessels. Disruption of that innervation attenuates cerebral vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension as does systemic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Although such studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) released from parasympathetic nerves participates in vasodilatation of cerebral vessels during hypertension, that hypothesis has not been tested with selective local inhibition of neuronal NOS (nNOS). We tested that hypothesis through these studies performed in anesthetized rats instrumented for continuous measurement of blood pressure, heart rate and pial arterial diameter through a cranial window. We sought to determine if the nNOS inhibitor propyl-L-arginine delivered directly to the outer surface of a pial artery would (1) attenuate changes in pial arterial diameter during acute hypertension and (2) block nNOS-mediated dilator effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) delivered into the window but (3) not block vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) and mediated by endothelial NOS dilator. Without the nNOS inhibitor arterial diameter abruptly increased 70+/-15% when mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached 183+/-3 mm Hg while with nNOS inhibition diameter increased only 13+/-10% (p<0.05) even when MAP reached 191+/-4 mm Hg (p>0.05). The nNOS inhibitor significantly attenuated vasodilatation induced by NMDA but not ACh delivered into the window. Thus, local nNOS inhibition attenuates breakthrough from autoregulation during hypertension as does complete interruption of the parasympathetic innervation of cerebral vessels. These findings further support the hypothesis that NO released from parasympathetic fibers contributes to cerebral vasodilatation during acute hypertension. PMID:17291465

Talman, William T; Nitschke Dragon, Deidre

2007-03-30

233

Existence of a nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide system in fish testis and its role in modulation of androgenesis.  

PubMed

Fish testis is equipped with different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOSs) and is capable of producing nitric oxide (NO). Cellular sources of NO in the catfish testis are germ cells, Leydig cells, and macrophages. Production of testicular NO is under endocrine inhibitory control. Expression of NOSs exhibits seasonality and that depends on the reproductive status of fish. Leydig cells are highly sensitive to chemical as well as biological NO. NO inhibits testosterone production by the testis in vivo as well as by the isolated Leydig cells in vitro. PMID:22565666

Lal, B; Dubey, N

2013-02-01

234

Oscillations of nitric oxide concentration in the perturbed denitrification pathway of Paracoccus denitrificans.  

PubMed

The metabolism of nitric oxide in Paracoccus denitrificans has been studied using a Clark-type electrode. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and the SH reagent N-ethylmaleimide, both of which released nitric oxide from cells respiring nitrite, were found to be efficient inhibitors of nitric oxide reductase activity. Control experiments with another uncoupler, pentachlorophenol, showed that the inhibitory effect of CCCP was not the result of a decrease in membrane potential. The denitrification pathway in cells with partly inhibited nitric oxide reductase, or in a reconstituted system containing purified nitric reductase and membrane vesicles, exhibited marked sustained oscillations of nitric oxide concentration. The occurrence of the oscillations was strictly dependent on the initial concentration of nitrite. The observed oscillatory kinetics is considered to reflect two regulatory signals destabilizing the denitrification pathway, namely the inhibition of nitric oxide reductase by nitric oxide and/or by nitrite. PMID:1325776

Kucera, I

1992-08-15

235

The Nitric Oxide Synthase1 and Nitric Oxide Synthase3\\/nitric Oxide Signalling Systems in the Heart of Wild Type Mice and Mouse Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have shown that nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS-1) and thus its product NO are present in the sarcolemma region\\u000a of a subpopulation of atrial cardiomyocytes in the rat heart. In order to find out whether this newly discovered sarcolemma-associated\\u000a NOS\\/NO system represents a general signalling mechanism in the murine rodent heart and whether its properties are comparable\\u000a to those

Gerit Planitzer; Heidrun Richter; Reinhart Gossrau

2002-01-01

236

Discovery of Some of the Biological Effects of Nitric Oxide and its Role in Cell Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nitric oxide in cellular signaling in the past 22 years has become one of the most rapidly growing areas in biology with more than 20,000 publications to date. Nitric oxide is a gas and free radical with an unshared electron that can regulate an ever-growing list of biological processes. In many instances nitric oxide mediates its biological

Ferid Murad

1999-01-01

237

The calcium-dependent nitric oxide production of human vascular endothelial cells in preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is an important vasodilator, and in this study we studied whether the calcium-dependent nitric oxide production capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was affected by preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were isolated from 11 preeclamptic and 10 normotensive pregnancies. The maximal calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production capacity was measured as accumulation of

Arto K. Orpana; Kristiina Avela; Varpu Ranta; Lasse Viinikka; Olavi Ylikorkala

1996-01-01

238

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Inhibit Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased nitric oxide production is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the therapeutic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be attributed at least in part to inhibition of excess nitric oxide production. We report here that sodium salicylate, aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin markedly inhibited the appearance of the inducible inflammatory nitric oxide synthase

E. E. Aeberhard; S. A. Henderson; N. S. Arabolos; J. M. Griscavage; F. E. Castro; C. T. Barrett; L. J. Ignarro

1995-01-01

239

Macula densa derived nitric oxide in regulation of glomerular capillary pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macula densa derived nitric oxide in regulation of glomerular capillary pressure. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). At least three different isoforms of NOS have been identified in the kidney. This study examines the effects of selective inhibition of the inducible isoform (iNOS) and the neuronal isoform (bNOS) on the glomerular capillary pressure (PGC),

Christian Thorup; A Erik G Persson

1996-01-01

240

Expression, activity and functional significance of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the failing human heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The study was designed to evaluate the functional impact of nitric oxide (NO) generation within the myocardium on cardiac contraction in the failing human heart.Background. Heart failure is associated with activation of cytokines and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II), which generates NO from L-arginine. Nitric oxide has been shown to modulate myocardial performance, raising the possibility

Helmut Drexler; Stephanie Kästner; Armin Strobel; Roland Studer; Otto E Brodde; Gerd Hasenfuß

1998-01-01

241

Nitric Oxide as a Modulator of Intestinal Water and Electrolyte Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nitric oxide in intestinal fluid andelectrolyte secretion depends upon whether theconditions under study are physiological orpathophysiological. In physiological conditions,endogenous nitric oxide seems to be a proabsorptive molecule,based on the findings that nitric oxide synthaseinhibitors reverse net fluid absorption to net secretionin mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and dogs. This proabsorptive mode involves the enteric nervoussystem, the suppression

Angelo A. Izzo; Nicola Mascolo; Francesco Capasso

1998-01-01

242

Elevation of an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis in experimental congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

GG . Objective: N , N -dimethylarginine asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA is an important endogenous substance with potent . inhibitory actions on nitric oxide NO synthesis. The present study was designed to determine circulating ADMA levels and . endothelium-dependent, NO mediated vasodilation in a rat model of congestive heart failure CHF . Methods: CHF was induced in rats by coronary artery

Qingping Feng; Xiangru Lu; Amanda J. Fortin; Anders Pettersson; Thomas Hedner; Robert L. Kline; J. Malcolm

243

Nitrogen isotopic signature of soil-released nitric oxide (NO) after fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen isotopic signatures are very useful for identifying sources of atmospheric NOx or NO3?. Although soil is a major source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), yet nitrogen isotopic composition of soil-released NO has not been directly measured. Since a large portion of soil NO emission is induced by fertilizer application in food production, in the present study we determined N

Dejun Li; Xinming Wang

2008-01-01

244

Possible role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in broilers: a synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by vascular endothelial cells is an important determinant of the basal tone of small arteries and arterioles. Impaired endothelial NO production has been implicated in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in humans. Available data suggest that reduction of endothelial NO synthesis, with evidence of reduced endothelial NO synthase expression in pulmonary arterioles, is associated with increased

Xun Tan; Song-Hua Hu; Xiao-Long Wang

2007-01-01

245

Effects of estrogen on nitric oxide synthase and histological composition in the rabbit clitoris and vagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the functional and histological changes after oophorectomy in the rabbit clitoris and vagina to determine the mechanism responsible for the development of arousal disorder in postmenopausal women. Twenty mature female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control; oophorectomy; and estrogen replacement after oophorectomy. We compared the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and the degree

HN Yoon; WS Chung; YY Park; BS Shim; WS Han; SW Kwon

2001-01-01

246

Nitric Oxide Destruction in the Fuel-Bed Burning Regime of Spreader Stokers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article gives results of an experimental study of nitric oxide (NO) destruction in the fuel-bed of a coal-fired spreader stoker. NO was injected into the coal bed and freeboard flame zone under varying local stoichiometries to determine the fate of NO...

G. P. Starley D. R. Brodbeck D. W. Pershing G. B. Martin

1987-01-01

247

Nitric oxide destruction in the fuel-bed burning regime of spreader stokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives results of an experimental study of nitric oxide (NO) destruction in the fuel bed of a coal-fired spreader stoker. NO was injected into the coal bed and freeboard flame zone under varying local stoichiometries to determine the fate of NO in the primary combustion zone. In general, a high capacity for NO reduction was observed, with bed-phase

Gregory P. Starley; D. Robert Brodbeck; David W. Pershing; G. Blair Martin

1987-01-01

248

Loss of nitric oxide and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor–mediated responses in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of nitric oxide and endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated responses in aging.BackgroundAging has considerable structural and functional effects on the vascular system of the kidney. One such effect is an alteration in vascular tone which potentially will initiate renal damage. Vascular tone is determined by the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. Therefore, we hypothesized that aging attenuates vasodilatory responses

DAVID A LONG; MOHAMMAD A NEWAZ; SHARMA S PRABHAKAR; KAREN L PRICE; LUAN D TRUONG; LILI FENG; WEI MU; ADEBAYO O OYEKAN; RICHARD J JOHNSON

2005-01-01

249

Amlodipine promotes kinin-mediated nitric oxide production in coronary microvessels of failing human hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we found that amlodipine can release nitric oxide (NO) from canine coronary microvessels, which raises the question of whether amlodipine can also promote coronary NO production in failing human hearts. The goal of this study was to define the effect of amlodipine on NO production in failing human hearts and to determine the role of kinins in the control

Xiaoping Zhang; Maryanne R Kichuk; Seema Mital; Mehmet Oz; Robert Michler; Alberto Nasjletti; Gabor Kaley; Thomas H Hintze

1999-01-01

250

Direct electrochemical characterization of superoxide anion production and its reactivity toward nitric oxide in solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report in this study, and for the first time the direct and simultaneous electrochemical measurements of both nitric oxide and superoxide anion evolution and reactivity in solution. For this purpose, we have combined the use of two electrodes: a previously developed NO-sensor for the amperometric determination of NO and a carbon microelectrode for the amperometric detection of superoxide anion.

Christelle Privat; Stéphane Trevin; Fethi Bedioui; Jacques Devynck

1997-01-01

251

Temperature measurement by laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide in combustion flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

2D rotational temperature measurement was performed in a stable combustion flame of premixed butane and oxygen using multiline laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide (NO) molecules. The rotational lines of the $gama bands of NO were excited by laser light around 226 nm, and the LIF signal was observed by an image-intensified digital camera. Temperature was determined through least

Masafumi Yorozu; Yasuhiro Okada; Akira Endo

1997-01-01

252

Characterisation of neurons with nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity that project to prevertebral ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde dye tracing was combined with immunohistochemistry to determine the distributions of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactive nerve cells that project to prevertebral ganglia from the gastrointestinal tract and spinal cord of the guinea pig. An antiserum was raised against the neuronal form of NOS by selecting an amino-acid sequence specific to this form as immunogen. The antiserum recognised a

C. R. Anderson; J. B. Furness; H. L. Woodman; S. L. Edwards; P. J. Crack; A. I. Smith

1995-01-01

253

Time course and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthases expression during cardiac allograft rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We have demonstrated that inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) ameliorated acute cardiac allograft rejection. This study determined the time course and cellular localization of inducible NOS expression during the histologic progression of unmodified acute rat cardiac allograft rejection.Methods. Tissue from syngeneic (ACI to ACI) and allogeneic (Lewis to ACI) transplants were harvested on postoperative days 3 through

Neil K Worrall; Thomas P Misko; Mitchell D Botney; Patrick M Sullivan; Jia-J Hui; Gloria M Suau; Pamela T Manning; T. Bruce Ferguson

1999-01-01

254

Fertilizer-induced nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize and evaluate 23 studies of the effect of fertilizer use on nitric oxide (NO) emission from agricultural soils. To quantify this effect we selected only field-scale studies with duration of at least one complete growing season and excluded studies with a legume as the principle crop. Only 6 studies met the established criteria, resulting in a total of

Edzo Veldkamp; Michael Keller

1997-01-01

255

Nitric oxide production does not directly increase macrophage candidacidal activity.  

PubMed Central

Some activated murine macrophages produced nitrite but were unable to kill Candida albicans. Furthermore, a nitric oxide (NO) generator inhibited C. albicans growth but was not candidacidal. Our results suggest that NO is candidastatic and that No is not directly involved but is associated with or induces other macrophage candidacidal mechanisms.

Vazquez-Torres, A; Jones-Carson, J; Balish, E

1995-01-01

256

Nitric oxide enhances de novo formation of endothelial gap junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Gap junctions (formed by connexins, Cx) are important for functional coordination of cells in the vascular wall. However, little is known about their physiological regulation in this tissue. We examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator of vasomotion, wound healing and angiogenesis, on the formation of gap junctions in endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells,

Anke Hoffmann; Torsten Gloe; Ulrich Pohl; Stefan Zahler

2003-01-01

257

Nitric oxide production during exercise in chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chronic heart failure (CHF), the ventilatory response is increased compared with normal. This response is, in part, caused by reduced perfusion to ventilated lung. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator and may have an important role in pulmonary vasodilatation during exercise. NO is present in exhaled air. The amount of NO in exhaled air, when breathing NO-free compressed

Hitoshi Adachi; Paul H. Nguyen; Romualdo Belardinelli; Dodie Hunter; Tyler Jung; Karlman Wasserman

1997-01-01

258

Exhaled nitric oxide in severe obesity: Effect of weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a recognized biomarker in the lower respiratory tract. The effect of large variation in body mass on exhaled NO in the same individuals is not well known. The aim of the study was to evaluate both the effect of severe obesity and the influence of weight reduction on exhaled NO.A consecutive series of 24 uncomplicated

Mauro Maniscalco; Guglielmo de Laurentiis; Anna Zedda; Stanislao Faraone; Cristiano Giardiello; Stefano Cristiano; Matteo Sofia

2007-01-01

259

Nitric oxide metabolites in naturally occurring canine babesiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babesiosis, caused by the virulent haemoprotozoan parasite Babesia canis rossi, is an important disease of dogs in South Africa. The nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate and nitrite (collectively termed reactive nitrogen intermediates or RNIs) were measured in admission sera from dogs in a babesiosis-endemic area. Five groups were prospectively studied: mild uncomplicated (n=9), severe uncomplicated (severe anaemia) (n=10) and complicated babesiosis

Linda S. Jacobson; Remo G. Lobetti; Pieter Becker; Fred Reyers; Tarquin Vaughan-Scott

2002-01-01

260

Nitric oxide metabolites in cystic fibrosis lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthases are increased in lung tissue of patients with cystic fibrosis, the concentrations of nasal and exhaled NO have recently been found to be decreased in cystic fibrosis. This could either be due to reduced NO formation or metabolism of NO within airway fluids. In this study, the stable NO metabolites, nitrate and

H Grasemann; I Ioannidis; R P Tomkiewicz; H de Groot; B K Rubin; F Ratjen

1998-01-01

261

Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate in human skin in viva the role of nitric oxide in maintaining resting vascular tone, in the vasodilatation caused by local warming and by ultraviolet B light exposure and in the response to exogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed by planimetry of the visible erythema or pallor and

Portia C. Goldsmith; Tabi A. Leslie; Nicholas A. Hayes; Nicholas J. Levell; Pauline M. Dowd; John C. Foreman

1996-01-01

262

Biochemistry of Nitric Oxide and Its Redox-Activated Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO^bullet), a potentially toxic molecule, has been implicated in a wide range of biological functions. Details of its biochemistry, however, remain poorly understood. The broader chemistry of nitrogen monoxide (NO) involves a redox array of species with distinctive properties and reactivities: NO^+ (nitrosonium), NO^., and NO^- (nitroxyl anion). The integration of this chemistry with current perspectives of NO

Jonathan S. Stamler; David J. Singel; Joseph Loscalzo

1992-01-01

263

A polarographic method for measuring dissolved nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polarographic method for measuring the concentration of authentic nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solutions is described. When solutions of NO were injected into aqueous solutions containing dissolved oxygen, NO reacted with oxygen to give nitrite. The amount of nitrite formed in this reaction (analyzed by capillary electrophoresis) was compared with the amount of oxygen consumed (measured by polarography). We

B. O Jensen; J Skeidsvoll; H Holmsen

1997-01-01

264

Restenosis is associated with decreased coronary artery nitric oxide synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that restenosis is associated with decreased constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity. Male miniswine with moderately elevated serum cholesterol levels underwent cardiac catheterization and oversized balloon injury to the right and left circumflex coronary arteries, followed 2 weeks later by repeat injury on the same coronary segments. After 4 weeks,

Paul R. Myers; Richard Webel; Venkata Thondapu; Xiao-Ping Xu; John Amann; Miles A. Tanner; J. Stephen Jenkins; Jennifer S. Pollock; M. Harold Laughlin

1996-01-01

265

Nitric oxide and protein nitration in the cystic fibrosis airway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic fibrosis (CF), characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation, ultimately leads to respiratory failure. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), elevated in most inflammatory airway diseases, is decreased in CF, suggesting either decreased production or accelerated metabolism of NO. The present studies performed on two groups of CF patients provide further support for a disordered NO airway metabolism in CF respiratory

Brian M Morrissey; Kevin Schilling; John V Weil; Philip E Silkoff; David M Rodman

2002-01-01

266

Exogenous Nitric Oxide and Bubble Formation in Divers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT DUJIC ´ ,Z ? ., I. PALADA, Z. VALIC, D. DUPLAN)IC ´ , A. OBAD, U. WISLKFF, and A. O. BRUBAKK. Exogenous Nitric Oxide and Bubble Formation in Divers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 1432Y 1435, 2006. Purpose: Prevention of bubble formation is a central goal in standard decompression,procedures. Previously we have shown,that exercise 20Y

IVAN PALADA; ZORAN VALIC; ANTE OBAD; ALF O. BRUBAKK

2006-01-01

267

Emission Spectrum of Nitric Oxide in the Near Infrared.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nitric oxide emission spectrum of the vibrationrotation bands of the electronic ground state has been observed in the 1.83-195 micron and 2.63-2.81 micron regions. A high tension discharge through NO at reduced pressure was utilized as the source. The...

E. F. Horn

1964-01-01

268

Peroxynitrite: A two-faced metabolite of nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) reacts with Superoxide (O2?) forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?) (1) and the proof that this reaction occurs in vivo (2,3) holds enormous implications for the understanding of free radicals in biological systems. Not only in mammalian defense mechanisms against microorganisms, but also in pathophysiology during overexposure of tissues to radicals or other highly reactive species. Peroxynitrite

Richard B. R. Muijsers; Gert Folkerts; Paul A. J. Henricks; Gudarz Sadeghi-Hashjin; Frans P. Nijkamp

1997-01-01

269

Online electrochemical monitoring of nitric oxide during photodynamic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as a novel treatment modality, is based on the use of a photosensitizing agent with an excitation light source for the treatment of various malignancies. Its effect is mediated through reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO), which are shown to be present in apoptosis. Individual differences among patients and even in different areas of the same

Tayfun Dalbasti; Sedat Cagli; Emrah Kilinc; Nezih Oktar; Mehmet Ozsoz

2002-01-01

270

Increased intrathecal nitric oxide formation in multiple sclerosis; cerebrospinal fluid nitrite as activity marker.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide is formed from L-arginine by a family of enzymes: nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The inducible nitric oxide synthase is activated by cytokines and it has been suggested that activation of the enzyme gives rise to neurotoxic levels of reactive nitrogen oxides. This enzyme has been shown to be localized in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions but the role of nitric oxide formation in the pathogenesis of MS is still unclear. Using capillary electrophoresis, we have analysed nitrite and nitrate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and demonstrate increased levels of reactive nitrogen products in 17 patients with MS. The total levels of oxidized nitrogen products were significantly elevated in MS patients when compared with controls. In patients with active MS, nitrite levels were significantly increased when compared with controls and patients in remission. This is supportive of NOS induction in MS. We suggest that capillary electrophoresis analysis of nitrite and nitrate in CSF could provide a clinically useful way to determine disease activity in MS. PMID:10457392

Brundin, L; Morcos, E; Olsson, T; Wiklund, N P; Andersson, M

1999-09-01

271

Activated neutrophils oxidize extracellular proteins of endothelial cells in culture: effect of nitric oxide donors.  

PubMed Central

Protein oxidation of human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture was examined under various conditions of oxidative stress. Extracellular protein (ECP) oxidation was assessed by determining dityrosine bond formation, which is indicated by the covalent coupling of the membrane-impermeable tyramine-fluorescein conjugate (TyrFluo) to HUVEC proteins. The acetylated membrane-permeable form of TyrFluo (acetylTyrFluo) was used for the determination of intracellular protein (ICP) oxidation. Oxidative stress was induced by exposing the HUVEC to PMA-activated human neutrophils, to a horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H(2)O(2)) system or to H(2)O(2) alone. Coupling of the probes was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and by Western blotting using anti-fluorescein antibody. Diethylamine nitric oxide (DEANO) was used to determine the effect of NO on the tyrosyl radical formation in proteins. The oxidative burst generated by activated neutrophils for 15 min, resulted in inducing dityrosine formation in ECP of HUVEC. Similar results were obtained with HRP/H(2)O(2), but H(2)O(2) alone did not have any effect on ECP. In the presence of DEANO (0.1 mM or higher), ECP oxidation was almost completely inhibited. This indicates that NO may protect endothelial cells against protein oxidation by activated neutrophils under pro-inflammatory conditions. Activated neutrophils did not oxidize ICP of HUVEC, which strongly suggests that the effect of the oxidative burst was restricted to the proteins exposed to the medium.

Czapski, Grzegorz A; Avram, Diana; Sakharov, Dmitri V; Wirtz, Karel W A; Strosznajder, Joanna B; Pap, Everard H W

2002-01-01

272

Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?  

SciTech Connect

Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation.

Liu Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)]. E-mail: jing.pope@okstate.edu; Gupta, Ramesh C. [Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY 42241 (United States); Goad, John T. [Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY 42241 (United States); Karanth, Subramanya [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Pope, Carey [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

2007-03-15

273

Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug. PMID:24472030

Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

2014-04-01

274

Nitric oxide binding to oxygenated hemoglobin under physiological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have added nitric oxide (NO) to hemoglobin in 0.1 M and 0.01 M phosphate buffers as well as to whole blood, all as a function of hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We found that in all these conditions, the amount of nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO) formed follows a model where the rates of HbNO formation and methemoglobin (metHb) formation (via hemoglobin oxidation)

Zhi Huang; Joseph G. Louderback; Mansi Goyal; Fouad Azizi; S. Bruce King; Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro

2001-01-01

275

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in patients with endometriosis and adenomyosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in endometriosis and adenomyosis.Design: Immunohistochemical identification of endothelial nitric oxide in endometrial tissues using the monoclonal antibody.Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital.Patient(s): The subjects were divided into three groups: 35 patients with endometriosis, 33 patients with adenomyosis proven histologically,

Hirotaka Ota; Shinichi Igarashi; Junichi Hatazawa; Toshinobu Tanaka

1998-01-01

276

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Associated with Airway Obstruction in BALB\\/c Mice Exposed to Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The functional role of nitric oxide (NO) and the various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in asthma is controversial. Objective: To investigate the role of NO in mice exposed to ozone, three known isoforms of NOS [inducible NOS (iNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS)] were studied. Methods: The expression of iNOS, nNOS, and eNOS was determined in

An-Soo Jang; Inseon-S. Choi; Jong-Un Lee

2003-01-01

277

Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

1999-11-03

278

Nitric acid method for fabrication of gate oxides in TFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed low temperature formation methods of SiO 2 layers which are applicable to gate oxide layers in thin film transistors (TFT) by use of nitric acid (HNO 3). Thick (>10 nm) SiO 2 layers with good thickness uniformity (i.e., ±4%) can be formed on 32 cm × 40 cm substrates by the two-step nitric acid oxidation method in which initial and subsequent oxidation is performed using 40 and 68 wt% (azeotropic mixture) HNO 3 aqueous solutions, respectively. The nitric acid oxidation of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin films greatly decreases the height of ridge structure present on the poly-Si surfaces. When poly-Si thin films on 32 cm × 40 cm glass substrates are oxidized at azeotropic point (i.e., 68 wt% HNO 3 aqueous solutions at 121 °C), ultrathin (i.e., 1.1 nm) SiO 2 layers with a good thickness uniformity (±0.05 nm) are formed on the poly-Si surfaces. When SiO 2/Si structure fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is immersed in 68 wt% HNO 3, oxide fixed charge density is greatly decreased, and interface states are eliminated. The fixed charge density is further decreased by heat treatments at 200 °C, and consequently, capacitance-voltage characteristics which are as good as those of thermal SiO 2/Si structure are achieved.

Mizushima, Shigeaki; Imai, Shigeki; Asuha; Tanaka, Masato; Kobayashi, Hikaru

2008-04-01

279

Nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase, spermatogenesis, and tight junction dynamics.  

PubMed

During spermatogenesis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes, residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry to the adluminal compartment for further development at late stage VIII and early stage IX of the epithelial cycle. As such, the timely opening and closing of the BTB is crucial to spermatogenesis. A compromise in this process can lead to infertility. Moreover, the BTB is unique in its relative localization in the seminiferous epithelium compared to the tight junctions (TJs) found in other epithelia. Sertoli cell TJs are situated near the basal lamina in the testis, closest to the basement membrane (a modified form of extracellular matrix [ECM]), unlike TJs found in other epithelia, which are found nearest the apical portion of an epithelium, farthest away from ECM. Needless to say, BTB function in the testis is maintained by intricate regulatory mechanisms. In addition to hormones and cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) was recently shown to be a putative TJ regulator in the testis. Perhaps equally important, TJ dynamics in the testis were shown to be regulated, at least in part, by occludin, a TJ-integral membrane protein, via the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the field regarding the role of NO in testicular function, with special emphasis regarding its role in TJ dynamics and the likely implications of these studies for male contraceptive development. PMID:14522829

Lee, Nikki P Y; Cheng, C Yan

2004-02-01

280

Increased Nitric Oxide Production and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is postulated that an enhanced production ofnitric oxide by inflamed intestine plays a role in thepathophysiology of active inflammatory bowel disease. Inthis study, systemic NOx concentrations and colonic nitric oxide synthase activity weredetermined in patients with ulcerative colitis orCrohn's disease. The relationship between these twoparameters and disease activity, as well as differences in nitric oxide synthase activity betweenulcerative colitis

Hiroyuki Kimura; Soichiro Miura; Takeharu Shigematsu; Nobuyuki Ohkubo; Yoshikazu Tsuzuki; Iwao Kurose; Hajime Higuchi; Yasutada Akiba; Ryota Hokari; Masahiko Hirokawa; Hiroshi Serizawa; Hiromasa Ishii

1997-01-01

281

Nitric oxide, antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase plasma levels in a cohort of burn patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule in many types of cells and tissues. Efficiently balanced NO production was noted to play an important role in the healing of burns. However, the exact pathophysiological role of NO in burns and its potent relation with clinical and laboratory parameters has not been elucidated.

Dimitrios Filippou; Vassilios P. Papadopoulos; Argyro Triga; Georgios Filippou; Spiros Rizos; Panayiotis Skandalakis; Evangelos Manolis

2007-01-01

282

Evidence for a detrimental role of nitric oxide synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase after peripheral nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical injury to a nerve is the most common cause of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Identification of molecules involved in degenerative and regenerative processes is a key step toward development of therapeutic tools in order to accelerate motor, sensory and\\/or autonomic function recovery. We have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) using as a model the severe crushing of a

C. R. Sunico; F. Portillo; D. González-Forero; S. Kasparov; B. Moreno-López

2008-01-01

283

Static high pressure study of nitric oxide chemistry: proposed mechanism for nitric oxide detonation. [Shock initiated detonation  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of nitric oxide under static high pressure conditions has been studied using diamond anvil cells and spectroscopic methods. Pressurized samples warmed rapidly to room temperature undergo facile disproportionation to form N/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/O/sub 3/, N/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NO/sup +/NO/sub 3//sup -/. Nitric oxide maintained at 80 K is observed to react at ca. 2.5 GPa to form, dominantly, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and NO/sup +/NO/sub 3//sup -/. The complex chemistry of nitric oxide is best explained in terms of two competing primary reaction mechanisms involving the direct formation of N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, and disproportionation to form N/sub 2/O and NO/sup +/NO/sub 3//sup -/. The disproportionation reaction, which is favored under higher temperature conditions, releases two-thirds of the total energy content, and is believed to be important in the early chemistry accompanying shock-initiation of nitric oxide. Laboratory scale detonation studies, where the gaseous products are analyzed spectroscopically, show evidence for, dominantly, disproportionation and a small amount of N/sub 2//O/sub 2/ production. This study points to the importance of condensed phase concerted reactions as well as ions and ionic reaction mechanisms in the shock initiated detonation of HE's. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Swanson, B.I.; Agnew, S.F.; Greiner, N.R.

1985-01-01

284

HBOC Vasoactivity: Interplay Between Nitric Oxide Scavenging and Capacity to Generate Bioactive Nitric Oxide Species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. Recent Advances: HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Critical Issues: Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Future Directions: Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2284–2297.

Friedman, Joel M.

2013-01-01

285

Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Oxidant Lung Injury Due to Paraquat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low concentrations, nitric oxide is a physiological transmitter, but in excessive concentrations it may cause cell and tissue injury. We report that in acute oxidant injury induced by the herbicide paraquat in isolated guinea pig lungs, nitric oxide synthesis was markedly stimulated, as evidenced by increased levels of cyclic GMP in lung perfusate and of nitrite and L-citrulline production in lung tissue. All signs of injury, including increased airway and perfusion pressures, pulmonary edema, and protein leakage into the airspaces, were dose-dependently attenuated or totally prevented by either N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N^?-nitro-L-arginine, selective and competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Protection was reversed by excess L-arginine but not by its enantiomer D-arginine. When blood was added to the lung perfusate, the paraquat injury was moderated or delayed as it was when paraquat was given to anesthetized guinea pigs. The rapid onset of injury and its failure to occur in the absence of Ca2+ suggest that constitutive rather than inducible nitric oxide synthase was responsible for the stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. The findings indicate that nitric oxide plays a critical role in the production of lung tissue injury due to paraquat, and it may be a pathogenetic factor in other forms of oxidant tissue injury.

Berisha, Hasan I.; Pakbaz, Hedayatollah; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

1994-08-01

286

Nitrosomonas europaea expresses a nitric oxide reductase during nitrification.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the identification of a norCBQD gene cluster that encodes a functional nitric oxide reductase (Nor) in Nitrosomonas europaea. Disruption of the norB gene resulted in a strongly diminished nitric oxide (NO) consumption by cells and membrane protein fractions, which was restored by the introduction of an intact norCBQD gene cluster in trans. NorB-deficient cells produced amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O) equal to that of wild-type cells. NorCB-dependent activity was present during aerobic growth and was not affected by the inactivation of the putative fnr gene. The findings demonstrate the presence of an alternative site of N2O production in N. europaea. PMID:15205449

Beaumont, Hubertus J E; van Schooten, Bas; Lens, Sylvia I; Westerhoff, Hans V; van Spanning, Rob J M

2004-07-01

287

In vitro inactivation of mammalian methionine synthase by nitric oxide.  

PubMed

The research described here provides one mechanism of uniting current effects of nitric oxide (NO) with the elevated levels of homocysteine detected in patients with cardiovascular and other disease. Time- and dose-dependent studies of the inhibition of purified mammalian methionine synthase by NO were performed. The in vitro study gave an effective IC50 value of 3 mu mol L-1. Methionine synthase converts cellular homocysteine to methionine and is a major enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways for folates, S-adenosylmethionine and biological methylations, sulphur amino acids and polyamines. Nitric oxide-induced inactivation of methionine synthase alters the levels of these metabolites and could therefore provide a connection between the cardiovascular effects of NO, the plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular diseases that is complementary to the more traditional NO-induced stimulation of guanylate cyclase and the convertion of homocysteine to oxidized sulphur amino acids. PMID:8904527

Nicolaou, A; Kenyon, S H; Gibbons, J M; Ast, T; Gibbons, W A

1996-02-01

288

Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In the denitrification pathway, N2O is produced from nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme nitric oxide reductase (NOR). The ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea also possesses a functional nitric oxide reductase, which was shown recently to serve a unique function. In this study, sequences homologous to the large subunit of nitric oxide reductase (norB) were obtained from eight additional strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both beta- and gamma-Proteobacterial ammonia oxidizers), showing widespread occurrence of a norB homologue in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. However, despite efforts to detect norB homologues from Nitrosospira strains, sequences have not yet been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis placed nitrifier norB homologues in a subcluster, distinct from denitrifier sequences. The similarities and differences of these sequences highlight the need to understand the variety of metabolisms represented within a "functional group" defined by the presence of a single homologous gene. These results expand the database of norB homologue sequences in nitrifying bacteria. PMID:16329906

Casciotti, Karen L; Ward, Bess B

2005-04-01

289

Studies on the Oxidation of Hexamethylbenzene 1: Oxidation of Hexamethylbenzene with Nitric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxidative reaction of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) with nitric acid was studied, and the hitherto unknown polymethylbenzenepolycarboxylic acids were isolated: tetramethylphthalic anhydride, tetramethylisophthalic acid, 1,3,5-, 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trimethylben...

K. Chiba S. Tomura T. Mizuno

1986-01-01

290

Detailed methods for the quantification of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions using either an oxygen monitor or EPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in nitric oxide has grown with the discovery that it has many biological functions. This has heightened the need for methods to quantify nitric oxide. Here we report two separate methods for the quantification of aqueous stock solutions of nitric oxide. The first is a new method based on the reaction of nitric oxide with oxygen in liquid

Sujatha Venkataraman; Sean M. Martin; Freya Q. Schafer; Garry R. Buettner

2000-01-01

291

Expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine toxicity.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7-30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals administered saline or neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine at postnatal days 60 and/or 90, resulting in four treatment groups: Saline:Saline, METH:Saline, Saline:METH, and METH:METH. Acute administration of methamphetamine on postnatal day 90 (Saline:METH and METH:METH) increased nitric oxide production, as evidenced by increased protein nitration. Methamphetamine did not, however, change the expression of endothelial or inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nor did it change the number of cells positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression or the amount of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA per cell. However, nitric oxide synthase activity in striatal interneurons was increased in the Saline:METH and METH:METH animals. These data suggest that increased nitric oxide production after a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine results from increased nitric oxide synthase activity, rather than an induction of mRNA, and that constitutively expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase is the most likely source of nitric oxide after methamphetamine administration. Of interest, animals rendered resistant to further methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions still show equivalent degrees of methamphetamine-induced nitric oxide production, suggesting that nitric oxide production alone in response to methamphetamine is not sufficient to induce acute neurotoxic injury. PMID:23230214

Friend, Danielle M; Son, Jong H; Keefe, Kristen A; Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N

2013-02-01

292

Application of the nitric oxide donor SNAP to cardiomyocytes in culture provides protection against oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple data indicates that nitric oxide (NO) donors retain immediate protective effects against different disturbances in cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate delayed effects of nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-l,l-penicillamine (SNAP) application in cardiac H9c2 cell line. Cardiomyocytes were treated with SNAP for 2h followed by 24h wash with fresh growth medium. The concentration curve was

Ekaterina Monastyrskaya; Najeem Folarin; Igor Malyshev; Colin Green; Larisa Andreeva

2002-01-01

293

Hyperinsulinaemia in migraineurs is associated with nitric oxide stress.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that alterations in the insulin and glucose metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Nitric oxide (NO) stress has been associated with migraine. However, the role of NO on the insulin and glucose metabolism in migraineurs has remained elusive to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the insulin and glucose metabolism in migraineurs and to determine possible interactions with the NO pathway. One hundred and twenty non-obese probands participated in this study, including 48 migraineurs and 72 healthy volunteers. Various parameters of the NO pathway, glucose metabolism as well as body measurement parameters were determined. We found a highly significantly increased insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA)-index in migraine patients, whereas fasting glucose was decreased. Logistic regression revealed an odds ratio of 5.67 for migraine, when comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of HOMA. Multivariate analysis showed that HOMA, waist-to-length ratio and nitrite as parameters of NO stress were highly significantly correlated. We show here that hyperinsulinaemia is associated with migraine and, furthermore, is correlated with increased NO stress. These findings represent a new pathophysiological mechanism that may be of clinical relevance. PMID:19740122

Gruber, H-J; Bernecker, C; Pailer, S; Fauler, G; Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Lechner, A; Fazekas, F; Truschnig-Wilders, M

2010-05-01

294

Nitric Oxide Administration Using an Oxygen Hood: A Pilot Trial  

PubMed Central

Background We have shown earlier that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) administered by oxygen hood reduces pulmonary hypertension in an animal model (J Perinatol 2002; 22:50-6). Our objective in this study was to determine feasibility of iNO by oxygen hood in neonates with elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradients (A-aDO2). Methods/Principal Findings Masked randomized controlled pilot trial. Inclusion criteria were: gestation?34 weeks, age<7 days, with post-ductal arterial line, and A-aDO2 400–600. Infants were randomized to study gas (iNO 20 ppm or equivalent O2 flow) for 1 hr which was then weaned over the next 4 hours. Primary outcome was PaO2 one hour post-randomization. Four infants each were randomized to iNO or O2 (controls). Two of the four infants given iNO had an increase in PaO2 of >100 torr, while oxygenation was unchanged in the controls. Methemoglobinemia and other adverse effects were not noted in any infant. Environmental levels of NO and NO2 were minimal (<1 ppm) at >0.3 m from the hood. Conclusions Administration of iNO by oxygen hood is feasible. Larger randomized controlled trials are required to measure the efficacy and determine an appropriate target population for this technique. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00041548

Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; El-Ferzli, George T.; Roane, Claire; Johnson, Robert; Carlo, Waldemar A.

2009-01-01

295

The nitric oxide redox sibling nitroxyl partially circumvents impairment of platelet nitric oxide responsiveness.  

PubMed

Impaired platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO resistance) is a common characteristic of many cardiovascular disease states and represents an independent risk factor for cardiac events and mortality. NO resistance reflects both scavenging of NO by superoxide (O2(-)), and impairment of the NO receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). There is thus an urgent need for circumvention of NO resistance in order to improve clinical outcomes. Nitroxyl (HNO), like NO, produces vasodilator and anti-aggregatory effects, largely via sGC activation, but is not inactivated by O2(-). We tested the hypothesis that HNO circumvents NO resistance in human platelets. In 57 subjects with or without ischemic heart disease, platelet responses to the HNO donor isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were compared. While SNP (10?M) induced 29±3% (p<0.001) inhibition of platelet aggregation, IPA/NO (10?M) caused 75±4% inhibition (p<0.001). In NO-resistant subjects (n=28), the IPA/NO:SNP response ratio was markedly increased (p<0.01), consistent with partial circumvention of NO resistance. Similarly, cGMP accumulation in platelets was greater (p<0.001) with IPA/NO than with SNP stimulation. The NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (CPTIO, 200?M) inhibited SNP and IPA/NO responses by 92±7% and 17±4% respectively (p<0.001 for differential inhibition), suggesting that effects of IPA/NO are only partially NO-mediated. ODQ (10?M) inhibited IPA/NO responses by 36±8% (p<0.001), consistent with a contribution of sGC/haem to IPA/NO inhibition of aggregation. There was no significant relationship between whole blood ROS content and IPA/NO responses. Thus the HNO donor IPA/NO substantially circumvents platelet NO resistance while acting, at least partially, as a haem-mediated sGC activator. PMID:24012721

Dautov, R F; Ngo, D T M; Licari, G; Liu, S; Sverdlov, A L; Ritchie, R H; Kemp-Harper, B K; Horowitz, J D; Chirkov, Y Y

2013-11-30

296

Antenatal insults modify newborn olfactory function by nitric oxide produced from neuronal nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction. PMID:22836143

Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B; Tan, Sidhartha

2012-10-01

297

Antenatal Insults Modify Newborn Olfactory Function By Nitric Oxide Produced From Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction.

Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B.; Tan, Sidhartha

2012-01-01

298

Nasal nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase expression in primary ciliary dyskinesia.  

PubMed

No study has evaluated the correlation between different expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in nasal epithelial cells and nasal NO (nNO) level in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Gene expression of endothelial (NOS3) and inducible NOS (NOS2) and their correlation with nNO level, ciliary function and morphology were studied in patients with PCD or secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD). NOS3 gene polymorphisms were studied in blood leukocytes. A total of 212 subjects were studied (48 with PCD, 161 with SCD and three normal subjects). nNO level correlated with mean ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.044; r = 0.174). The lower the nNO level the higher was the percentage of immotile cilia (p<0.001; r = -0.375). A significant positive correlation between NOS2 gene expression and nNO levels was demonstrated in all children (p = 0.001; r = 0.428), and this correlation was confirmed in patients with PCD (p = 0.019; r = 0.484). NOS2 gene expression was lower in PCD than in SCD (p = 0.04). The NOS3 isoform correlated with missing central microtubules (p = 0.048; r = 0.447). nNO levels were higher in PCD subjects with the NOS3 thymidine 894 mutation, and this was associated with a higher ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.045). These results demonstrate a relationship between nNO level, NOS mRNA expression and ciliary beat frequency. PMID:21273388

Pifferi, M; Bush, A; Maggi, F; Michelucci, A; Ricci, V; Conidi, M E; Cangiotti, A M; Bodini, A; Simi, P; Macchia, P; Boner, A L

2011-03-01

299

Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

2014-04-01

300

Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

2014-07-01

301

Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

302

Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression by oxidized linoleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypercholesterolemia is associated with impair- ments in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxations. Para- doxically, endothelial production of nitrogen oxides is in- creased in early stages of hypercholesterolemia. Prior work has shown that oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) has both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS) and has focused on lyso- phosphatidyl choline (LPC) as a component of

Santhini Ramasamy; Sampath Parthasarathy; David G. Harrison

303

Leukaemia inhibitory factor stimulates proliferation of olfactory neuronal progenitors via inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Neurogenesis continues in the adult brain and in the adult olfactory epithelium. The cytokine, leukaemia inhibitory factor and nitric oxide are both known to stimulate neuronal progenitor cell proliferation in the olfactory epithelium after injury. Our aim here was to determine whether these observations are independent, specifically, whether leukaemia inhibitory factor triggers neural precursor proliferation via the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. We evaluated the effects of leukaemia inhibitory factor on inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and cell proliferation in olfactory epithelial cell cultures and olfactory neurosphere-derived cells. Leukaemia inhibitory factor induced expression of iNOS and increased cell proliferation. An iNOS inhibitor and an anti-leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor blocking antibody inhibited leukaemia inhibitory factor-induced cell proliferation, an effect that was reversed by a NO donor. Altogether, the results strongly suggest that leukaemia inhibitory factor induces iNOS expression, increasing nitric oxide levels, to stimulate proliferation of olfactory neural precursor cells. This finding sheds light on neuronal regeneration occurring after injury of the olfactory epithelium. PMID:23024784

Lopez-Arenas, Estefania; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Bacigalupo, Juan; Sulz, Lorena

2012-01-01

304

Transmission of arterial baroreflex signals depends on neuronal nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Because inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the nucleus tractus solitarii blocks cardiovascular responses to activation of local glutamate receptors, and because glutamate is a neurotransmitter of baroreceptor afferent nerves, we sought to test the hypothesis that neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition would block baroreflex transmission and cause hypertension. We determined reflex heart rate responses to intravenous phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside in 5 anesthetized rats before and after bilateral microinjection (100 nL) of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor AR-R 17477 (7.5 nmol) into the nucleus tractus solitarii. The inhibitor significantly increased mean arterial pressure without affecting heart rate, and it significantly reduced the gain of the baroreflex. After administration of the inhibitor, reflex responses of heart rate to changes in mean arterial pressure were always less than those responses to the same, or less, change in mean arterial pressure in the same animal without administration of the inhibitor. Microinjection of saline (100 nL) bilaterally into the nucleus tractus solitarii did not lead to hypertension or change baroreflex responses. These data support the hypothesis and suggest that neuronal nitric oxide synthase is critical to transmission of baroreflex signals through the nucleus tractus solitarii. PMID:14981065

Talman, William T; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke

2004-04-01

305

USAF Propellant Handbooks. Nitric Acid/Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizers. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nitric Acid/Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer Handbook is a compilation of engineering information on the physical and chemical properties, storage and handling, production, transportation, safety, and material compatibility of the nitric acid/nitrogen tetr...

A. C. Wright

1977-01-01

306

Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: implications for anesthesiology and intensive care.  

PubMed

The gaseous radical nitric oxide is involved in numerous physiologic and pathophysiological events important in anesthesiology and intensive care. Nitric oxide is endogenously generated from the amino acid l-arginine and molecular oxygen in reactions catalyzed by complex nitric oxide synthases. Recently, an alternative pathway for nitric oxide generation was discovered, wherein the inorganic anions nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2), most often considered inert end products from nitric oxide generation, can be reduced back to nitric oxide and other bioactive nitrogen oxide species. This nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is regulated differently than the classic l-arginine-nitric oxide synthase nitric oxide pathway, and it is greatly enhanced during hypoxia and acidosis. Several lines of research now indicate that the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is involved in regulation of blood flow, cell metabolism, and signaling, as well as in tissue protection during hypoxia. The fact that nitrate is abundant in our diet gives rise to interesting nutritional aspects in health and disease. In this article, we present an overview of this field of research with emphasis on relevance in anesthesiology and intensive care. PMID:21045638

Weitzberg, Eddie; Hezel, Michael; Lundberg, Jon O

2010-12-01

307

The role of nitric oxide in prostaglandin biology; update  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin share many similarities. Two major forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) have been identified: constitutive vs inducible. In general, the constitutive form functions in housekeeping and physiologic roles whereas the inducible form is up-regulated by mitogenic or inflammatory stimuli and is responsible for pathophysiological responses. The cross talk between the COX and NOS pathways was initially reported 1993 and since then, numerous studies have been undertaken to delineate the functional consequences of this interaction as well as the potential mechanism by which each pathway interacts. This review will focus in particular on recent advances in this field that extend our understanding of these two pathways under various systems.

Kim, Sangwon F.

2011-01-01

308

Measurement of arginine metabolites: regulators of nitric oxide metabolism.  

PubMed

Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and arginine availability regulates the production of nitric oxide. Through the activity of methyltransferases, arginine can be methylated to form monomethylarginine (NMMA), asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA). NMMA and ADMA directly inhibit NOS, whereas SDMA inhibits the cellular import of arginine through the cationic amino acid transporter. Increased levels of methylarginine compounds have been associated with many diseases including atherosclerosis, renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, and preeclampsia. Previous HPLC methods to measure these molecules rely on derivatization with ortho-phthalaldehyde, which is unstable and requires immediate pre- or post-column reactions. We have identified a new fluorometric agent that is stable for at least 1 week and provides chromatographic properties that facilitate separation of these chemically similar compounds by reverse phase chromatography. PMID:24510541

Augustine, Molly S; Rogers, Lynette K

2013-01-01

309

Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Hemoglobin in Health, Disease, and Therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is made in endothelial cells lining blood vessels and diffuses to smooth muscle cells where it leads to muscle relaxation, vessel dilatation, and increased blood flow and also plays a large role in controlling platelet aggregation and inflammation. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen carrying molecule in the blood, reacts at nearly diffusion limited rates with nitric oxide to (in some reactions) form nitrate ands thereby destroy NO activity. The presence of such large amounts of such a potent NO scavenger in the blood challenges the idea that NO is indeed the EDRF. Encapsulation in red blood cells in healthy individuals limits NO scavenging by Hb. Biophysical experiments will be described exploring and evaluating these mechanisms. Other studies will be described discussing how red cells break open (lyse) in pathological situations and the cell-free Hb reduces NO bioavailability. Finally, methods to restore NO bioavailability through therapeutics will be discussed.

Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

2007-11-01

310

Existence of nitric oxide synthase in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a key retrograde messenger during long-term potentiation at hippocampal synapses, linking induction of long-term potentiation in postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal cells to expression of long-term potentiation in presynaptic nerve terminals. However, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the proposed NO-generating enzyme, has not yet been detected in the appropriate postsynaptic cells. We here demonstrate specific NOS immunoreactivity in the CA1 region of hippocampal sections by using an antibody specific for NOS type I and relatively gentle methods of fixation. NOS immunoreactivity was found in dendrites and cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells also displayed specific immunostaining. Control experiments showed no staining with preimmune serum or immune serum that was blocked with purified NOS. These results demonstrate that CA1 pyramidal cells contain NOS, as required were NO involved in retrograde signaling during hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Images

Wendland, B; Schweizer, F E; Ryan, T A; Nakane, M; Murad, F; Scheller, R H; Tsien, R W

1994-01-01

311

Regenerative arrest of inflamed peripheral nerves: role of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Inflammation can both support and hinder regeneration. In this work, we asked whether regeneration of peripheral nerve axons is facilitated or interrupted when it proceeds through a zone of local but nondirected inflammation. Regeneration was examined in new nerve bridges forming through conduits connecting transected rat sciatic nerves. The conduits, infused with lipopolysaccharide to generate a sterile and nondirected inflammatory response, had substantial rises in inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) mRNA synthesis. iNOS was expressed within macrophages just beyond the zone of axon regrowth. Under these conditions, there was complete interruption of regenerative bridge formation in all instances without axon regrowth across the transection. In a separate cohort, infusion of a broad-spectrum NOS inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester) into the conduit salvaged bridge formation in a proportion (3/8) of rats. Our findings indicate that local inflammatory conditions inhibit regenerative events and that nitric oxide may contribute to these events. PMID:17921859

McDonald, David S; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A; Zochodne, Douglas W

2007-10-29

312

Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm neonates.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the recognition of nitric oxide (NO) as an endothelial-derived vasodilator has led to remarkable advances in vascular biology awareness. The signaling molecule NO, produced by NO synthase, is a molecule that is widespread in the body and important in multiple organ systems. Soon after its discovery, investigators found NO to be a potent pulmonary vasodilator in term neonates. Nitric oxide has come to perform a key function in neonatal therapy and management since its identification, especially in those with respiratory failure. It is conventionally used in the neonatal population for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension, resulting in hypoxic respiratory failure of the term or near-term newborn. Inhaled NO has been successful in acutely improving oxygenation and in reducing the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. In recent years, the efficacy of inhaled NO for the prevention of pulmonary disability as well as its neuroprotective capabilities in preterm infants has been explored. PMID:22301538

Love, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Wanda T

2012-02-01

313

ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous lipophilic free radical generated by three distinct isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), type 1 or neuronal (nNOS), type 2 or inducible (iNOS) and type 3 or endothelial NOS (eNOS). Expression of eNOS is altered in many types of cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. The ubiquitous chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) associates with NOS and is important for its proper folding and function. Current studies point toward a therapeutic potential by modulating hsp90-NOS association in various vascular diseases. Here we review the transcriptional regulation of endothelial NOS and factors affecting eNOS activity and function, as well as the important vascular pathologies associated with altered NOS function, focusing on the regulatory role of hsp90 and other factors in NO-associated pathogenesis of these diseases.

Chatterjee, A.; Catravas, J.D.

2008-01-01

314

Nitric oxide dioxygenase: An enzymic function for flavohemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO•) is a toxin, and various life forms appear to have evolved strategies for its detoxification. NO•-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated that rapidly consumed NO•. An NO•-converting activity was reconstituted in extracts that required NADPH, FAD, and O2, was cyanide-sensitive, and produced NO3?. This nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) contained 19 of 20 N-terminal amino acids identical to those of the E. coli flavohemoglobin. Furthermore, NOD activity was produced by the flavohemoglobin gene and was inducible by NO•. Flavohemoglobin/NOD-deficient mutants were also sensitive to growth inhibition by gaseous NO•. The results identify a function for the evolutionarily conserved flavohemoglobins and, moreover, suggest that NO• detoxification may be a more ancient function for the widely distributed hemoglobins, and associated methemoglobin reductases, than dioxygen transport and storage.

Gardner, Paul R.; Gardner, Anne M.; Martin, Lori A.; Salzman, Andrew L.

1998-01-01

315

Tutorial Review: Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors for Physiological Measurements  

PubMed Central

Summary The important biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) have prompted the development of analytical techniques capable of sensitive and selective detection of NO. Electrochemical sensing, more than any other NO-detection method, embodies the parameters necessary for quantifying NO in challenging physiological environments such as blood and the brain. Herein, we provide a broad overview of the field of electrochemical NO sensors, including design, fabrication, and analytical performance characteristics. Both electrochemical sensors and biological applications are detailed.

Privett, Benjamin J.; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

2013-01-01

316

Nitric Oxide in Exhaled Air: Relevance in Inflammatory Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by many cells within the respiratory tract and endogenous NO may play an important signalling\\u000a role in the physiological control of airway function and in the pathophysiology of airway diseases [1–3]. All three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) exist within the respiratory tract [4–6]. The endothelial constitutive isoform (eNOS) is localised to bronchial endothelial cells

Peter J. Barnes; Sergei A. Kharitonov

317

Superequilibrium and thermal nitric oxide formation in turbulent diffusion flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements and modeling of the formation of superequilibrium radicals and nitric oxide in atmospheric pressure turbulent jet diffusion flames are presented which quantify the influence of superequilibrium on thermal NO\\/sub x\\/ formation. Variation of fuel gas compositions (CO\\/Hâ\\/Nâ, CO\\/Hâ\\/COâ, and CO\\/Hâ\\/Ar) permits partial separation of chemical and fluid mechanical effects. Superequilibrium OH radical concentrations are measured by single-pulse laser saturated

M. C. Drake; S. M. Correa; R. W. Pitz; W. Shyy; C. P. Fenimore

1987-01-01

318

Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor A Novel Marker of Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Exposure to risk factors such as hypertension or hypercholesterolemia decreases the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Recently, a circulating endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), has been detected in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ADMA and atherosclerosis in humans. Methods and Results—Subjects (n 5116; age,

Hiroshi Miyazaki; Hidehiro Matsuoka; John P. Cooke; Michiaki Usui; Seiji Ueda; Seiya Okuda; Tsutomu Imaizumi

2010-01-01

319

Nitric oxide and histone acetylation-shaping craniofacial development.  

PubMed

Previous work linked nitric oxide (NO) signaling to histone deacetelyases (HDACs) in the control of tissue homeostasis and suggested that deregulation of this signaling contributes to human diseases. In the previous issue of Chemistry & Biology, Kong and colleagues showed that coordinated NO signaling and histone acetylation are required for proper cranial neural crest development and craniofacial morphogenesis and suggested that alterations of NO/acetylation network can contribute to the pathogenesis of craniofacial malformations. PMID:24856136

Berghella, Libera; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

2014-05-22

320

Effect of nitric oxide on megakaryocyte growth induced by thrombopoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on megakaryocyte (Mk) proliferation induced by thrombopoietin (TPO). Low-density mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34+ cells from human bone marrow (BM) were cultured in liquid medium in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or (Z)-1-[2-(aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate (DETA\\/NO) and then stimulated with TPO. Mk number decreased in both NO donors,

M Schattner; R. G Pozner; I Engelberger; A Gorostizaga; N Maugeri; R Gomez; A Pasqualini; O Torres; M. A Lazzari

2001-01-01

321

Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Mediator of Penile Erection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a cytotoxic agent of macrophages, a messenger molecule of neurons, and a vasodilator produced by endothelial cells. NO synthase, the synthetic enzyme for NO, was localized to rat penile neurons innervating the corpora cavernosa and to neuronal plexuses in the adventitial layer of penile arteries. Small doses of NO synthase inhibitors abolished electrophysiologically induced penile erections. These results establish NO as a physiologic mediator of erectile function.

Burnett, Arthur L.; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Bredt, David S.; Chang, Thomas S. K.; Snyder, Solomon H.

1992-07-01

322

Calcium-dependent nitric oxide formation in glial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation in response to noradrenaline (NA) and glutamate (GLU) in astrocyte-enriched cultures from rat cerebrum. In the persent work we show heterogeneity in agonist responses in astrocyte cultures from cerebellum, hippocampus and cortex. The response to NA was higher in cells from cerebellum, intermediate in cultures from hippocampus and low

Luis Agulló; María Antonia Baltrons; Agustina García

1995-01-01

323

Nitric oxide production by carpet shell clam ( Ruditapes decussatus) hemocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) hemocytes produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to zymosan or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This NO production was partially inhibited by the NO synthase inhibitor, N-?-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME). The capability of clam hemocytes to produce NO in response to the bacterial pathogen Vibrio tapetis was also studied. Incubation with bacteria induced a significant

C Tafalla; J Gómez-León; B Novoa; A Figueras

2003-01-01

324

Novel nitric oxide signaling mechanisms regulate the erectile response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologic signal essential to penile erection, and disorders that reduce NO synthesis or release in the erectile tissue are commonly associated with erectile dysfunction. NO synthase (NOS) catalyzes production of NO from L-arginine. While both constitutively expressed neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoforms mediate penile erection, nNOS is widely perceived to predominate in

A L Burnett

2004-01-01

325

Nitric oxide in coronary artery disease: effects of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the main mechanisms leading to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and we present\\u000a the current strategies available to increase NO levels, mainly by using antioxidants in patients with coronary artery disease.\\u000a Decreased NO bioavailability in the vasculature is a key feature of all the classic risk factors for atherosclerosis, and\\u000a it can be the

Dimitris Tousoulis; Charalambos Antoniades; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

326

Endothelial Dysfunction, Nitric Oxide Bioavailability, and Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Endothelial dysfunction is common to various pathophysiological conditions and disease states. This dysfunction encompasses\\u000a alterations in various processes that are modulated by the endothelium, including thrombosis, inflammation, control of vascular\\u000a tone, and vessel growth and remodelling. Although this term has been used commonly to refer to an impairment of endothelium-dependent\\u000a vasorelaxation secondary to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, the clinical

Carmine Zoccali

327

Nitric Oxide Reversibly Inhibits Bacillus subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase  

PubMed Central

Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) has been employed to assay the catalytic activity of oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), allowing us to demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) reversibly inhibits the enzyme under dioxygen-depleted conditions. X-band EPR measurements do not provide any direct evidence for the interaction of NO with either of the Mn(II) centers in OxDC raising the possibility that there is a separate dioxygen-binding pocket in the enzyme.

Moral, Mario E. G.; Tu, Chingkuang; Imaram, Witcha; Angerhofer, Alexander; Silverman, David N.; Richards, Nigel G. J.

2011-01-01

328

Cardiac Weight in Hypertension Induced by Nitric Oxide Synthase Blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wistar rats given a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, iVc-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), for 4 weeks develop time- and dose-dependent hypertension without cardiac hypertrophy. This initial study of the relation between left ventricular weight and L-NAME-induced hypertension has now been extended by giving 50 mg\\/kg per day L-NAME to Wistar rats (n=30) for 8 weeks and comparing results with those from control

Jean-Francois Arnal; Abdel-Ilah El Amrani; Gilles Chatellier; Joel Menard; Jean-Baptiste Michel

329

Decreased Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Mitochondrial Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may occur in mitochondrial disorders (MD) and can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. It is difficult and invasive to measure systemic nitric oxide. NO is formed in the lungs and can be detected in expired air. Currently, hand-held fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement devices are available enabling a fast in-office analysis of this non-invasive test. It was postulated that FeNO levels might be reduced in MD. Methods: Sixteen subjects with definite MD by modified Walker criteria (4 to 30 years of age) and sixteen healthy control subjects of similar age, race and body mass index (BMI) underwent measurement of FeNO in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Results: Sixteen patient-control pairs were recruited. The median FeNO level was 6.5 ppm (IQR: 4-9.5) and 10.5 ppm (IQR: 8-20.5) in the MD and control groups, respectively. In 13 pairs (81%), the FeNO levels were lower in the MD cases than in the matched controls (p=0.021). Eleven (69%) cases had very low FeNO levels (?7ppm) compared to only 1 control (p=0.001). All cases with enzymatic deficiencies in complex I had FeNO ?7ppm. Conclusions: Single-breath exhaled nitric oxide recordings were decreased in patients with MD. This pilot study suggests that hand-held FeNO measurements could be an attractive non-invasive indicator of MD. In addition, measurement of FeNO could be used as a parameter to monitor therapeutic response in this population.

Mosquera, Ricardo A.; Samuels, Cheryl L.; Harris, Tomika S.; Yadav, Aravind; Hashmi, S. Shahrukh; Knight, Melissa S.; Koenig, Mary Kay

2013-01-01

330

Pleiotropic contributions of nitric oxide to aggressive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male mice with targeted deletion of the genes encoding the neuronal (NOS-1?\\/? or nNOS?\\/?) isoform of nitric oxide synthase display altered aggressive behaviors. Male nNOS-1?\\/? mice are more aggressive than wild-type (WT) mice in all testing paradigms. Testosterone is necessary, but not sufficient, for evoking the persistent aggression, and that serotonin (5-HT) metabolism is altered in male nNOS-1?\\/? mice. The

Randy J. Nelson; Brian C. Trainor; Silvana Chiavegatto; Gregory E. Demas

2006-01-01

331

Electrochemical nitric oxide microsensors: sensitivity and selectivity characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have prepared two nitric oxide (NO) microsensors using two combinations of nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (NiTSPc), o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) and Nafion® based layers to modify the surface of 8?m diameter carbon fiber electrodes. We have compared the performances of the obtained composite microsensors (carbon\\/NiTSPc\\/Nafion®, and carbon\\/Nafion®\\/o-PD, respectively) in our home made operating conditions. We have developed the sessile

Maxime Pontié; Cédric Gobin; Thierry Pauporté; Féthi Bedioui; Jacques Devynck

2000-01-01

332

The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of resting vascular tone, adaptation of blood flow to metabolic demand of tissue,\\u000a and adaptation of vessel diameter to volume of inflow, ie, flow-mediated dilation. Arterial hypertension is associated with an increased vascular tone of resistance vessels, a reduced\\u000a compliance of conduit arteries, along with a thickening of the intima-media leading to vascular

Malte Kelm

2003-01-01

333

Nitric oxide signaling in aluminum stress in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signal molecule involved in multiple plant responses to environmental stress. In the recent\\u000a years, the regulating role of NO on heavy metal toxicity in plants is realized increasingly, but knowledge of NO in alleviating\\u000a aluminum (Al) toxicity is quite limited. In this article, NO homeostasis between its biosynthesis and elimination in plants\\u000a is presented.

Huyi He; Jie Zhan; Longfei He; Minghua Gu

334

Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human cerebral infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inducible or “immunological” isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced in many cell types by inflammatory stimuli\\u000a and synthesizes toxic amounts of NO. In rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia, iNOS is expressed in neutrophils invading\\u000a the injured brain and in local blood vessels. Studies with iNOS inhibitors and iNOS null mice indicate that NO produced by\\u000a iNOS

Colleen Forster; H. Brent Clark; M. Elizabeth Ross; Constantino Iadecola

1999-01-01

335

Pharmacological Augmentation of Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system has a unique role in endothe- lial function, and beta-receptors are a key part of sympathetic nervous sys- tem function. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pharmacological augmentation of endothelium- derived nitric oxide synthesis. SUMMARY: Beta-blockers have been commercially available since the 1960s. Stimulating beta-receptors causes dilatation whereas blocking beta- receptors, as traditional beta-blockers do, cause vasoconstriction.

George L. Bakris

2007-01-01

336

Opposite Actions of Nitric Oxide on Cholinergic Synapses: Which Pathways?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) produced opposite effects on acetylcholine (ACh) release in identified neuroneuronal Aplysia synapses depending on the excitatory or the inhibitory nature of the synapse. Extracellular application of the NO donor, SIN-1, depressed the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and enhanced the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by presynaptic action potentials (1\\/60 Hz). Application of a membrane-permeant cGMP analog mimicked

Jean-Pierre Mothet; Philippe Fossier; Ladislav Tauc; Gerard Baux

1996-01-01

337

Increased nitric oxide stress is associated with migraine.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in migraine attacks, but the role of NO in migraine remains unclear. We here hypothesize that increased NO in the headache-free period is associated with migraine. One hundred and thirty probands participated in this study. Various parameters of the NO pathway, such as nitrate, nitrite, arginine, citrulline, nitrosylated proteins, asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetrical dimethylarginine, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase and two polymorphisms of eNOS were investigated. We found significant increased nitrate and decreased nitrite levels in migraineurs in the headache-free period. Nitrate and nitrite levels showed a significant inverse correlation. Logistic regression revealed an odds ratio of 3.6 for migraine. Other parameters of the NO pathway were neither altered in migraineurs nor correlated with nitrate. We show here that migraine patients suffer under sustained increased nitrosative stress in the headache-free period, which is associated with a 3.6-fold higher risk for migraine. PMID:19673897

Gruber, H-J; Bernecker, C; Lechner, A; Weiss, S; Wallner-Blazek, M; Meinitzer, A; Höbarth, G; Renner, W; Fauler, G; Horejsi, R; Fazekas, F; Truschnig-Wilders, M

2010-04-01

338

Divergent effects of nitric oxide on airway epithelial cell activation.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO*) is a gaseous mediator synthesized by nitric oxide synthases. NO* is involved in the modulation of inflammation, but its role in airway inflammation remains controversial. We investigated the role of NO* in the synthesis of the chemokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by human airway epithelial cells. normal human bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were used. interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression were measured by ELISA. mRNA was assessed by semiquantitative RTI-PCR. Interleukin-8 secretion was significantly reduced after 24h incubation with the NO* donor, sodium nitroprusside. The effect was dose-dependent. Similar results were obtained with S-nitroso-N-D,L-penicillamine and S-nitroso-L-glutathione. Inhibition of endogenous NO* with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester caused an increase in IL-8 secretion by lipopolysaccharide- and cytokine-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Sodium nitroprusside also caused a reduction in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion by both cell types. In contrast, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was upregulated by sodium nitroprusside. RTI-PCR results indicate that the modulation of protein levels was paralleled by modification in mRNA levels. NO* has divergent effects on the synthesis of different inflammatory mediators in human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:21526274

Neri, Tommaso; Conti, Ilaria; Cerri, Chiara; Tavanti, Laura; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

2010-01-01

339

Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P < 0.05) than the other 2 groups. In experiment 2, twenty 11-d-old ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P < 0.07) and plasma nitric oxide concentration (P < 0.05) 2 h postinjection in the L-NAME administered group were lower than those of the control group. In conclusion, the study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. PMID:24902706

Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

2014-08-01

340

Inhaled nitric oxide for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.  

PubMed

This review provides the readers with background information on the state of the art and science of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as therapy for prevention or amelioration of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The goal is to review and critique relevant published information. A total of six clinical trials, all placebo-controlled, four out of six blinded, four out of six multi-centered with a predetermined outcome of reduction in death or BPD, have been reported in full text. These definitive studies have included a total of > 2100 preterm, mostly very preterm, infants. Their designs were informed by results of earlier non-definitive studies which cumulatively enrolled > 350 preterm patients. This very substantial experience provides a firm framework for asserting that iNO will be useful in this population of patients. The use of iNO can reduce the occurrence of BPD and possibly the severity of the disorder. Optimal time of initiation, dosing (both initial dose, duration of treatment and possibly the route of administration) and most importantly, optimal patient subset selection, are not determined. Any clear adverse neurological finding in iNO-treated infants will of course limit or halt the use of this promising therapy. PMID:17661732

Truog, William E

2007-07-01

341

Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate) in several clinical condition.  

PubMed

We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration. PMID:24004551

Caimi, G; Hopps, E; Montana, M; Carollo, C; Calandrino, V; Incalcaterra, E; Canino, B; Lo Presti, R

2014-01-01

342

Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates.  

PubMed

Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors, and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species, and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)?NO(-)], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates. PMID:23834533

Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph

2013-08-01

343

Molecular structure and function of bacterial nitric oxide reductase.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the membrane-integrated nitric oxide reductase cNOR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. The smaller NorC subunit of cNOR is comprised of 1 trans-membrane helix and a hydrophilic domain, where the heme c is located, while the larger NorB subunit consists of 12 trans-membrane helices, which contain heme b and the catalytically active binuclear center (heme b(3) and non-heme Fe(B)). The roles of the 5 well-conserved glutamates in NOR are discussed, based on the recently solved structure. Glu211 and Glu280 appear to play an important role in the catalytic reduction of NO at the binuclear center by functioning as a terminal proton donor, while Glu215 probably contributes to the electro-negative environment of the catalytic center. Glu135, a ligand for Ca(2+) sandwiched between two heme propionates from heme b and b(3), and the nearby Glu138 appears to function as a structural factor in maintaining a protein conformation that is suitable for electron-coupled proton transfer from the periplasmic region to the active site. On the basis of these observations, the possible molecular mechanism for the reduction of NO by cNOR is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory Oxidases. PMID:22001779

Hino, Tomoya; Nagano, Shingo; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Tosha, Takehiko; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

2012-04-01

344

Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics.  

PubMed

The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled air of humans has recently been described. We wanted to assess at what level exhaled NO originates in normal airways, and to determine whether airway inflammation induces changes in the levels of exhaled NO. Exhaled NO was continuously measured by chemiluminescence technique during normal tidal breathing through the nose or mouth, with a detection limit of 1 part per billion (ppb). Twelve control subjects were compared to eight patients with mild atopic asthma and rhinitis caused by occupational allergen. In control subjects, the major part of NO in exhaled air (up to 30 ppb) seemed to originate in the nasal airways, with only minor contribution from the lower airways and the oral cavity. However, in mild asthmatics, the level of exhaled NO during oral breathing, indicating the involvement of the lower airways, was increased 2-3 fold. Since increased production of NO in the lower airways may involve activated macrophages or neutrophils, we suggest that exhaled NO may be used to instantly monitor ongoing bronchial inflammation, at least when involving inducible NO synthase. PMID:7507065

Alving, K; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J M

1993-10-01

345

Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation.

Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

1998-01-01

346

Venus nitric oxide nightglow mapping from SPICAV nadir observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide ? (190-240 nm) and ? (255-270 nm) bands have been observed on the Venus nightside with Venus Express SPICAV instrument operated in the nadir mode. These ultraviolet emissions arise from the de-excitation of NO molecules created by radiative recombination of O(3P) and N(4S) atoms. These atoms are produced on the dayside of the planet through photodissociation of CO2 and N2 molecules and are transported to the nightside by the global subsolar to antisolar circulation. We analyze a wide dataset of nadir observations obtained since 2006 to determine the statistical distribution of the NO nightglow and its variability. Individual observations show a great deal of variability and may exhibit multiple maxima along latitudinal cuts. We construct and compare a global NO map with the results obtained during the Pioneer-Venus mission and with the recently observed O2(a1?g) nightglow distribution. The NO airglow distribution shows a statistical bright region extending from 01:00 to 03:30 local time and 25°S to 10°N, very similar to the Pioneer results obtained 35 years earlier during maximum solar activity conditions. The shift from the antisolar point and the difference with the O2 airglow indicate that superrotating zonal winds are statistically weak near 97 km, but play an important role near 115 km. We compare these results with other evidence for superrotation in the thermosphere and point out possible sources of momentum transfer.

Stiepen, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Dumont, M.; Cox, C.; Bertaux, J.-L.

2013-09-01

347

L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody against L-citrulline or polyclonal anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase sera, and double immunofluorescence to detect neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-citrulline co-localization. The results demonstrate that the same CNS regions and cell types are labeled by neuronal nitric oxide synthase polyclonal antisera and L-citrulline monoclonal antibodies, using both immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Short-term pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor reduces L-citrulline immunostaining, but does not affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In the vestibular brainstem, double immunofluorescence studies show that many, but not all, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells co-express L-citrulline, and that local intracellular patches of intense L-citrulline accumulation are present in some neurons. Conversely, all L-citrulline-labeled neurons co-express neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cells expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase alone are interpreted as neurons with the potential to produce nitric oxide under other stimulus conditions, and the subcellular foci of enhanced L-citrulline staining are viewed as intracellular sites of nitric oxide production. This interpretation is supported by ultrastructural observations of subcellular foci with enhanced L-citrulline and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining that are located primarily at postsynaptic densities and portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. Copyright 2002 IBRO.

Martinelli, G. P. T.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Holstein, G. R.

2002-01-01

348

The globin superfamily: functions in nitric oxide formation and decay.  

PubMed

Globin proteins are ubiquitous in living organisms and carry out a variety of functions related to the ability of their prosthetic heme group to bind gaseous ligands, such as oxygen, nitric oxide (NO), and CO. Moreover, they catalyze important reactions with nitrogen oxide species, such as NO dioxygenation and nitrite reduction. The formation of NO from nitrite is a reaction catalyzed by globins that has received increasing attention due to its potential as a hypoxic NO signaling mechanism. In this review, we revisit the current knowledge about the role of globins in NO formation and its physiological implications. PMID:24477516

Tejero, Jesús; Gladwin, Mark T

2014-06-01

349

Nitric Oxide Synthase Generates Superoxide and Nitric Oxide in Arginine-Depleted Cells Leading to Peroxynitrite-Mediated Cellular Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides synthesizing nitric oxide (NO), purified neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) can produce superoxide (\\\\cdotO2-) at lower L-Arg concentrations. By using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques, we monitored NO and \\\\cdotO2- formation in nNOS-transfected human kidney 293 cells. In control transfected cells, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 triggered NO generation but no \\\\cdotO2- was seen. With cells in L-Arg-free medium, we observed

Yong Xia; Valina L. Dawson; Ted M. Dawson; Solomon H. Snyder; Jay L. Zweier

1996-01-01

350

Safety and efficacy of nitric oxide in chronic lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapies for neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity have had limited success. Aims: To determine whether inhaled nitric oxide (INO) administered to very low birthweight infants with developing CLD might improve oxygenation without adverse effects. Methods: Subjects were 10–30 days of age, birth weight <1250 g, with developing or established CLD, and requiring mechanical ventilation with mean airway pressure ?7 cm H2O and FIO2 ?0.40. We monitored changes in oxygenation and FIO2 requirement during treatment with INO (initial dose 20 ppm). Tracheal aspirate samples obtained before, during, and after treatment were analysed for interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-8, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (8-epi-PGF2?), laminin, and endothelin 1 (ET-1) to assess any potential effects of INO on markers of inflammation peroxidation, basement membrane injury, or vasoactivity. Results: Thirty three patients met entry criteria. Mean gestational age was 25 (SD 2) weeks; birth weight was 736 (190 g); age of study infants was 19 (6) days (range 9–29). Mean FIO2 decreased from baseline (0.75) to 0.58 at 72 hours. Duration of therapy was seven days. Tracheal aspirate concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-8, 8-epi-PGF2?, ET-1, and laminin were unchanged between baseline and 48 hours of INO, and 48 hours after discontinuation of INO. No new cases of, nor extension of, intraventricular haemorrhage occurred. Four infants died. Conclusion: INO (?20 ppm) improved oxygenation in most infants with early CLD, without inducing changes in markers of inflammatory or oxidative injury.

Clark, P; Ekekezie, I; Kaftan, H; Castor, C; Truog, W

2002-01-01

351

DETERMINATION OF URANYL NITRATE IN FREE NITRIC ACID BY MEANS OF ACIDIMETRIC TITRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the quantitative reaction of uranyl nitrate with ; hydrogen peroxide to release nitric acid is presented for the determination of ; uranyl nitrate in nitric acid solution. The hydrogen peroxide is added to the ; uranyl nitrate solution and the total nitric acid determined by visual or ; potentiometric titration with sodium hydroxide. The free nitric

J. Cepelak; Maly; V. J. f Vesely

1959-01-01

352

Determination of Sulfur Trioxide in Oleum/Nitric Acid Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of analysis is described for determination of the sulfur trioxide content of oleum/nitric acid mixtures found in the low temperature continuous TNT process. This method consists of the indirect determination of sulfur trioxide, via the water cons...

R. Manno C. Ribaudo

1974-01-01

353

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in clinical trials: an overview.  

PubMed

Designing clinical trials in asthma it is crucial to find the perfect primary endpoint for showing bioequivalence, especially when the investigational medicinal product is not a bronchodilator, but a substance, which suppresses the inflammatory process, e.g. inhalative corticosteroids (ICS). In the past, lung function parameters were used as the primary endpoint, which entails a long study duration and hundreds of patients. The measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is established as a non-invasive marker for eosinophilic inflammation, and several guidelines focus on that diagnosis. FeNO is a surrogate measure of eosinophilic inflammation and at the same time, eosinophilic airway inflammation is usually steroid responsive. Thus, FeNO should be a part of the clinical management of asthma in ambulatory settings in conjunction with other conventional methods of asthma assessment. Furthermore, FeNO should be used to determine the presence or absence of eosinophilic airway inflammation, to determine the likelihood of steroid responsiveness, to measure response to steroid therapy, and level of inflammation control. In addition, FeNO is a useful tool to monitor patient ICS treatment adherence and allergen exposure. FeNO may be used to predict steroid responsiveness and as a measure to determine the optimal treatment of airway inflammation. FeNO has all characteristics of a good marker for bioequivalence measurements in the market approval process of generic ICS products. With a reliable study design in terms of patient population, concomitant medication, equipment and other factors, which can influence the measurement, efficient clinical trials can be performed, with a relatively short treatment time of 2-4 weeks and 50-100 patients. PMID:23835984

Häussermann, Sabine; Kappeler, Dominik; Schmidt, Anje; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

2013-01-01

354

Study of the nitric oxide system in the rat cerebellum during aging  

PubMed Central

Background The cerebellum is the neural structure with the highest levels of nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter that has been proposed to play a key role in the brain aging, although knowledge concerning its contribution to cerebellar senescence is still unclear, due mainly to absence of integrative studies that jointly evaluate the main factors involved in its cell production and function. Consequently, in the present study, we investigate the expression, location, and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes; the protein nitration; and the production of nitric oxide in the cerebellum of adult and old rats. Results Our results show no variation in the expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms with aging, although, we have detected some changes in the cellular distribution pattern of the inducible isoform particularly in the cerebellar nuclei. There is also an increase in nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as greater protein-nitration levels, and maintenance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels in the senescent cerebellum. Conclusions The nitric oxide/nitric oxide syntahses system suffers from a number of changes, mainly in the inducible nitric oxide synthase distribution and in overall nitric oxide synthases activity in the senescent cerebellum, which result in an increase of the protein nitration. These changes might be related to the oxidative damage detected with aging in the cerebellum.

2010-01-01

355

Potential involvement of nitric oxide synthase but not inducible nitric oxide synthase in the development of experimental corneal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the effect of nitric oxide and its synthetase on experimental corneal neovascularization (CRNV). METHODS CRNV was induced by alkali injury in mice, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was inhibited by aminoguanidine hemisulfate salt (AG). The inhibitory effect was detected at day 2 and 4 after corneal alkali injury by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CRNV was compared between the control and the treated mice by microscopic observation and corneal whole mount CD31 immunostaining. RESULTS The inhibition of L-NAME to NOS and AG to iNOS after corneal injury was confirmed by RT-PCR (P<0.05). Compared with control mice, L-NAME treated mice exhibited significantly decreased CRNV areas (P<0.05). In contrast, AG treatment failed to attenuate alkali induced CRNV (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that NOS but not iNOS plays a critical role in alkali injury induced CRNV.

Chen, Yuan; Liu, Gao-Qin; Lu, Pei-Rong

2011-01-01

356

The first 35 amino acids and fatty acylation sites determine the molecular targeting of endothelial nitric oxide synthase into the Golgi region of cells: a green fluorescent protein study.  

PubMed

Catalytically active endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is located on the Golgi complex and in the caveolae of endothelial cells (EC). Mislocalization of eNOS caused by mutation of the N-myristoylation or cysteine palmitoylation sites impairs production of stimulated nitric oxide (NO), suggesting that intracellular targeting is critical for optimal NO production. To investigate the molecular determinants of eNOS targeting in EC, we constructed eNOS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras to study its localization in living and fixed cells. The full-length eNOS-GFP fusion colocalized with a Golgi marker, mannosidase II, and retained catalytic activity compared to wild-type (WT) eNOS, suggesting that the GFP tag does not interfere with eNOS localization or function. Experiments with different size amino-terminal fusion partners coupled to GFP demonstrated that the first 35 amino acids of eNOS are sufficient to target GFP into the Golgi region of NIH 3T3 cells. Additionally, the unique (Gly-Leu)5 repeat located between the palmitoylation sites (Cys-15 and -26) of eNOS is necessary for its palmitoylation and thus localization, but not for N-myristoylation, membrane association, and NOS activity. The palmitoylation-deficient mutants displayed a more diffuse fluorescence pattern than did WT eNOS-GFP, but still were associated with intracellular membranes. Biochemical studies also showed that the palmitoylation-deficient mutants are associated with membranes as tightly as WT eNOS. Mutation of the N-myristoylation site Gly-2 (abolishing both N-myristoylation and palmitoylation) caused the GFP fusion protein to distribute throughout the cell as GFP alone, consistent with its primarily cytosolic nature in biochemical studies. Therefore, eNOS targets into the Golgi region of NIH 3T3 cells via the first 35 amino acids, including N-myristoylation and palmitoylation sites, and its overall membrane association requires N-myristoylation but not cysteine palmitoylation. These results suggest a novel role for fatty acylation in the specific compartmentalization of eNOS and most likely, for other dually acylated proteins, to the Golgi complex. PMID:9199168

Liu, J; Hughes, T E; Sessa, W C

1997-06-30

357

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.  

PubMed

Increased nitric oxide production is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the therapeutic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be attributed at least in part to inhibition of excess nitric oxide production. We report here that sodium salicylate, aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin markedly inhibited the appearance of the inducible inflammatory nitric oxide synthase in rat alveolar macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma. We attribute the mechanism of nitric oxide synthase inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to pretranslational control of enzyme expression and not to direct inhibition of enzymatic activity. These observations indicate that the chronic anti-inflammatory action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be due not only to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis but also to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression and nitric oxide synthesis. PMID:7535524

Aeberhard, E E; Henderson, S A; Arabolos, N S; Griscavage, J M; Castro, F E; Barrett, C T; Ignarro, L J

1995-03-28

358

Increased Production of Nitric Oxide Contributes to Renal Oxidative Stress in Endotoxemic Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to oxidative stress and decreased total antioxidant capacity, which is responsible for high mortality from several diseases such as endotoxic shock. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during endotoxemia is the major cause of vascular hyporeactivity, hypotension and multiple organ failure. In this study, we investigated whether increased production

Bahar Tunçtan; Belma Korkmaz; Hatice Yildirim; Lülüfer Tamer

359

Sympathetic activation and nitric oxide function in early hypertension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if tonic restrain of blood pressure by nitric oxide (NO) is impaired early in the development of hypertension. Impaired NO function is thought to contribute to hypertension, but it is not clear if this is explained by direct effects of NO on vascular tone or indirect modulation of sympathetic activity. We determined the blood pressure effect of NO synthase inhibition with N?-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) during autonomic blockade with trimethaphan to eliminate baroreflex buffering and NO modulation of autonomic tone. In this setting, impaired NO modulation of vascular tone would be reflected as a blunted pressor response to l-NMMA. We enrolled a total of 66 subjects (39 ± 1.3 yr old, 30 females), 20 normotensives, 20 prehypertensives (blood pressure between 120/80 and 140/90 mmHg), 17 hypertensives, and 9 smokers (included as “positive” controls of impaired NO function). Trimethaphan normalized blood pressure in hypertensives, suggesting increased sympathetic tone contributing to hypertension. In contrast, l-NMMA produced similar increases in systolic blood pressure in normal, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects (31 ± 2, 32 ± 2, and 30 ± 3 mmHg, respectively), whereas the response of smokers was blunted (16 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.012). Our results suggest that sympathetic activity plays a role in hypertension. NO tonically restrains blood pressure by ?30 mmHg, but we found no evidence of impaired modulation by NO of vascular tone contributing to the early development of hypertension. If NO deficiency contributes to hypertension, it is likely to be through its modulation of the autonomic nervous system, which was excluded in this study.

Okamoto, Luis E.; Diedrich, Andre; Choi, Leena; Robertson, David; Farley, Ginnie; Paranjape, Sachin; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

360

Sympathetic activation and nitric oxide function in early hypertension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if tonic restrain of blood pressure by nitric oxide (NO) is impaired early in the development of hypertension. Impaired NO function is thought to contribute to hypertension, but it is not clear if this is explained by direct effects of NO on vascular tone or indirect modulation of sympathetic activity. We determined the blood pressure effect of NO synthase inhibition with N(?)-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) during autonomic blockade with trimethaphan to eliminate baroreflex buffering and NO modulation of autonomic tone. In this setting, impaired NO modulation of vascular tone would be reflected as a blunted pressor response to L-NMMA. We enrolled a total of 66 subjects (39 ± 1.3 yr old, 30 females), 20 normotensives, 20 prehypertensives (blood pressure between 120/80 and 140/90 mmHg), 17 hypertensives, and 9 smokers (included as "positive" controls of impaired NO function). Trimethaphan normalized blood pressure in hypertensives, suggesting increased sympathetic tone contributing to hypertension. In contrast, L-NMMA produced similar increases in systolic blood pressure in normal, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects (31 ± 2, 32 ± 2, and 30 ± 3 mmHg, respectively), whereas the response of smokers was blunted (16 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.012). Our results suggest that sympathetic activity plays a role in hypertension. NO tonically restrains blood pressure by ?30 mmHg, but we found no evidence of impaired modulation by NO of vascular tone contributing to the early development of hypertension. If NO deficiency contributes to hypertension, it is likely to be through its modulation of the autonomic nervous system, which was excluded in this study. PMID:22287587

Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E; Diedrich, André; Choi, Leena; Robertson, David; Farley, Ginnie; Paranjape, Sachin; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-04-01

361

Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) inhibits leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. This was accomplished by superfusing a cat mesenteric preparation with inhibitors of NO production, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and observing single (30-microns diameter) venules by intravital video microscopy. Thirty minutes into the superfusion period the number of adherent and emigrated leukocytes, the erythrocyte velocity, and the venular diameter were measured; venular blood flow and shear rate were calculated from the measured parameters. The contribution of the leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein CD11/CD18 was determined using the CD18-specific monoclonal antibody IB4. Both inhibitors of NO production increased leukocyte adherence more than 15-fold. Leukocyte emigration was also enhanced, whereas venular shear rate was reduced by nearly half. Antibody IB4 abolished the leukocyte adhesion induced by L-NMMA and L-NAME. Incubation of isolated cat neutrophils with L-NMMA, but not L-NAME, resulted in direct upregulation of CD11/CD18 as assessed by flow cytometry. Decrements in venular shear rate induced by partial occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery in untreated animals revealed that only a minor component of L-NAME-induced leukocyte adhesion was shear rate-dependent. The L-NAME-induced adhesion was inhibited by L-arginine but not D-arginine. These data suggest that endothelium-derived NO may be an important endogenous modulator of leukocyte adherence and that impairment of NO production results in a pattern of leukocyte adhesion and emigration that is characteristic of acute inflammation.

Kubes, P; Suzuki, M; Granger, D N

1991-01-01

362

Effect of l-arginine–nitric oxide system on chemical-induced diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in vitro studies have suggested that nitric oxide may be the mediator of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction. On the other hand, in vivo studies have given conflicting results: some studies suggesting that nitric oxide synthase inhibitors do not suppress streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, while others revealed that nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can reduce the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in

I. Krishna Mohan; U. N. Das

1998-01-01

363

Nitric Oxide is an Important Mediator for Tumoricidal Activity In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cultured in vitro, peritoneal macrophages, obtained from mice previously inoculated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin, release nitric oxide, which is cytostatic and\\/or cytolytic for tumor cells. However, it is not known whether nitric oxide has antitumor effects in vivo. Here we demonstrate that nitric oxide is an important mediator of host resistance to syngeneic and xenogeneic ovarian tumor grafts in C3HeB\\/FeJ

Robin Farias-Eisner; Michael P. Sherman; Ernesto Aeberhard; Gautam Chaudhuri

1994-01-01

364

Nitric oxide for the evaluation and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed Central

The use of inhaled nitric oxide as a selective pulmonary vasodilator has expanded to include patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. The therapeutic and diagnostic roles of inhaled nitric oxide offer additional alternatives and benefits to these patients with pulmonary hypertension, particularly in the postoperative setting. This article reviews the background, mechanism of action, toxicities, and current clinical applications of inhaled nitric oxide in the child with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension.

Kovalchin, J P; Mott, A R; Rosen, K L; Feltes, T F

1997-01-01

365

On-line measurement of nitric oxide release from organic nitrates in the intact coronary circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determines the release of nitric oxide (NO) from the coronary circulation of Langendorff hearts of rabbits, subsequent to administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and SIN-1. NO was measured on-line in the coronary effluent by the oxyhaemoglobin technique. Infusion of either GTN (10–40 moles\\/l) or SIN-1 (0.1–2.3 µmoles\\/l) into the coronary inflow resulted in a concentration-dependent NO release into

Karsten Schrör; Stefan Förster; Isabelle Woditsch

1991-01-01

366

Effects of nitric oxide on steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells during different stages of follicular development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have previously demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits steroidogenesis via a cGMP-independent process, by inhibiting P450 aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells (PGCs) derived from medium-sized (3-5 mm) ovarian follicles (M-PGC). Objective: To determine whether the NO\\/NO synthase (NOS) system exerts any significant effects on steroidogenesis in PGCs derived from small follicles (,3 mm) (S-PGC) in comparison with

Mikako Masuda; Toshiro Kubota; Takeshi Aso

2001-01-01

367

Insulin enhances bradykinin -stimulated nitric oxide production in vascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potent vasodilator bradykinin (BK) is a known stimulator of nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells (VEC). Previously, our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of VEC to insulin (INS) enhances and prolongs the intracellular calcium (iCa2+) response to BK. The purpose of the current study was to determine if acute exposure to INS also augments the BK-induced

Keiko Matsumoto; Yoshitoki Takagawa; Pirooz Eslami; Michael D. Nyby; Michael L. Tuck

2002-01-01

368

Upregulation of Endothelial and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Reactive Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression remains uncertain. This study explored the effect of increased ROS activity on NOS expression in vitro in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) grown in culture and in intact animals.MethodsEndothelial NOS (eNOS) expression and nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) activation were determined in HCAECs grown in culture and

Junhui Zhen; Hua Lu; Xiu Q Wang; Nosratola D Vaziri; Xin J Zhou

2008-01-01

369

Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Smooth Muscle Cells From Rat Penile Corpora Cavernosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO), the main mediator of penile erection, isassumedto besynthesizedin thepenisbytheneuronalconstitutive nitricoxidesynthase(nNOS).However,nNOShasnotbeenidentified in the penile smooth muscle,the target of NOaction.TheotherNOS isozymes,the inducible NOS (iNOS)andtheendothelialNOS (eNOS) have not been reported in any penile tissue. The smooth muscle vascularand trabeculartissue from rat corpora cavemosais rep- resentedin vitro by cell cultures designated RPSMC. To determine whetheriNOS can be expressedin penilesmooth muscle,RPSMC were

ALIDA HUNG; DOLORES VERNET; YINING XIE; TRIPATHI RAJAVASHISTH; ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ; JACOB RAJFER; STOR F. GONZALEZ-CADAVID

370

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is responsible for the vascular smooth muscle relaxation elicited by endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). EDRF is an unstable humoral substance released from artery and vein that mediates the action of endothelium-dependent vasodilators. NO is and unstable endothelium-independent vasodilator that is released from vasodilator drugs such as nitroprusside and

L. J. Ignarro; G. M. Buga; K. S. Wood; R. E. Byrns; G. Chaudhuri

1987-01-01

371

Inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice have enhanced leukocyte-endothelium interactions in endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) from constitutive NO synthase (NOS) has been postulated to be a ho- meostatic regulator of leukocyte-endothelial cell in- teractions. By contrast, the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isoform has been invoked as a potential pathogenic enzyme in numerous inflammatory dis- eases. The objective of this study was to determine whether the iNOS isoform is also capable of func-

MICHAEL J. HICKEY; A. SHARKEY; ELAINE G. SIHOTA; PAUL H. REINHARDT; JOHN D. MACMICKING; CARL NATHAN

372

Two Dimensional Rotational Temperature Measurement by Multiline Laser Induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide in Combustion Flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional rotational temperature measurement was performed in a stable combustion flame of premixed butane and oxygen using multiline laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide molecules. Multiple rotational absorption lines of A2?+?;X2II(0,0) Q1 and Q2 lines were excited by laser light around 226 nm, and the LIF signal was observed by an image-intensified digital camera. Temperature was determined through least

Masafumi Yorozu; Yasuhiro Okada; Akira Endo

1996-01-01

373

Protective Role of Nitric Oxide in Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. NO production in spleen cell cultures was induced by heat-killed S. aureus. Expression of mRNA of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was induced in the spleens and kidneys of S. aureus-infected mice. When mice were treated with monoclonal antibodies

SANAE SASAKI; TOMISATO MIURA; SHINSUKE NISHIKAWA; KYOGO YAMADA; MAYUKO HIRASUE; AKIO NAKANE

1998-01-01

374

Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages  

PubMed Central

L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO?). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-? (IFN?). Other cytokines can modulate the induction of NO biosynthesis in macrophages. NO is a major effector molecule of the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity of rodent macrophages against certain micro-organisms and tumour cells, respectively. The NO synthesizing pathway has been demonstrated in human monocytes and other cells, but its role in host defence seems to be accessory. A delicate functional balance between microbial stimuli, host-derived cytokines and hormones in the microenvironment regulates iNOS expression. This review will focus mainly on the known and proposed mechanisms of the regulation of iNOS induction, and on agents that can modulate NO release once the active enzyme has been expressed in the macrophage.

Jorens, P. G.; Matthys, K. E.

1995-01-01

375

Differential requirement for nitric oxide in IGF-1-induced anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that insulin like-growth factor I (IGF-1) suppressed atherosclerosis in Apoe?\\/? mice and activated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. To determine whether IGF-1-induced atheroprotection depends on NO, IGF-1- or saline-infused mice were treated with l-NAME, the pan-NO synthase inhibitor or with d-NAME (control). IGF-1 reduced atherosclerosis in both the d-NAME and l-NAME groups suggesting that IGF-1’s anti-atherogenic

Sergiy Sukhanov; Yusuke Higashi; Shaw-Yung Shai; Christopher Blackstock; Sarah Galvez; Charlotte Vaughn; Jane Titterington; Patrick Delafontaine

2011-01-01

376

Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

Quick, E.E.

1980-03-01

377

Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells. This activity requires NADPH and L-arginine and is enhanced by Mg/sup 2 +/. When the subcellular fraction containing the enzyme activity was incubated with L-arginine, NADPH, and Mg/sup 2 +/, the formation of nitric oxide was observed. Nitric oxide formation was dependent on the presence of L-arginine and NADPH and was inhibited by the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis inhibitor N/sup G/-monomethyl-L-arginine. Furthermore, when incubated with L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine, the nitric oxide was /sup 15/N-labeled. The results show that nitric oxide is an intermediate in the L-arginine to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline pathway. L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitric oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

Marletta, M.A.; Yoon, P.S.; Iyengar, R.; Leaf, C.D.; Wishnok, J.S.

1988-11-29

378

Nitric oxide in the evaluation of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension: factors related to nitric oxide response.  

PubMed

Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been used in the preoperative evaluation of patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. The purpose of this study was to characterize responses in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to oxygen and increasing doses of NO during cardiac catheterization and to determine if any related factors affect the response of the pulmonary vascular bed to NO. A prospective analysis of 42 patients (median age, 3.0 years) with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension who underwent NO testing was performed. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and PVR were assessed in room air, 100% oxygen, and oxygen plus 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) NO. Changes in pulmonary artery pressure, PVR, and SVR were assessed. The response to NO was then correlated to individual patient's age, gender, type of heart defect, the presence of trisomy 21, and baseline PVR/SVR. There was a greater decrease in PVR and PVR/SVR with 20 ppm NO than with oxygen alone. There was no additional decrease at 40 or 80 ppm NO. There was no correlation between age, gender, type of congenital heart disease, and baseline PVR/SVR ratio with the degree of response to NO. Patients with trisomy 21 had less of a response to NO (p = 0.017) than patients without trisomy 21. There is no difference in determining PVR response with doses of NO beyond 20 ppm during cardiac catheterization. Age, gender, and baseline PVR/SVR ratio are not associated with responsiveness to NO. Patients with trisomy 21 may be less responsive to NO. PMID:16132310

Cannon, B C; Feltes, T F; Fraley, J Kennard; Grifka, R G; Riddle, E M; Kovalchin, J P

2005-01-01

379

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal Proton Transfer Pathways in Cytochrome C-Dependent Nitric Oxide Reductase  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide reductases (NORs) are membrane proteins that catalyze the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a critical step of the nitrate respiration process in denitrifying bacteria. Using the recently determined first crystal structure of the cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR) [Hino T, Matsumoto Y, Nagano S, Sugimoto H, Fukumori Y, et al. (2010) Structural basis of biological N2O generation by bacterial nitric oxide reductase. Science 330: 1666–70.], we performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of cNOR within an explicit membrane/solvent environment to fully characterize water distribution and dynamics as well as hydrogen-bonded networks inside the protein, yielding the atomic details of functionally important proton channels. Simulations reveal two possible proton transfer pathways leading from the periplasm to the active site, while no pathways from the cytoplasmic side were found, consistently with the experimental observations that cNOR is not a proton pump. One of the pathways, which was newly identified in the MD simulation, is blocked in the crystal structure and requires small structural rearrangements to allow for water channel formation. That pathway is equivalent to the functional periplasmic cavity postulated in cbb3 oxidase, which illustrates that the two enzymes share some elements of the proton transfer mechanisms and confirms a close evolutionary relation between NORs and C-type oxidases. Several mechanisms of the critical proton transfer steps near the catalytic center are proposed.

Pisliakov, Andrei V.; Hino, Tomoya; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sugita, Yuji

2012-01-01

380

Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

The effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on actively dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus cereus were studied. Fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees C on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of NO in air (0 to 1.9 ppm [0 to 2.0 micrograms/g of air]), NO2 in air (0 to 5.5 ppm [0 to 8.8 micrograms/g of air]), or NO and NO2 in air. Bacteria grown under air only were used as controls. After incubation, the colonies that developed on the plates were counted. None of the bacteria tested was affected by NO or NO2 at the indicated concentrations while growing on nutrient agar. Serratia marcescens, B. circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus grown on mineral salts glucose agar were not significantly affected by NO or NO2. Low concentrations (0 to 1.9 ppm) of NO were bacteriostatic to log-phase cultures of M. roseus, M. luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus grown on mineral salts glucose agar. Bacteriostatic activity over a 24-h interval was maximal at an initial NO concentration of 1 ppm. Appreciable amounts of NO2 were produced in 24 h at initial NO concentrations greater than 1 ppm. These results suggest that NO2 may reduce the bacteriostatic activity of NO. Low concentrations (0 to 5.5 ppm) of NO2 in air did not affect any of the bacteria tested. At these low concentrations, NO affected bacterial growth, although NO2, NO2-, and NO3- did not. In addition, it was determined that the bacteriostatic activity observed in this study was not due to an increase in the acidity of the medium.

Mancinelli, R L; McKay, C P

1983-01-01

381

Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.  

PubMed

The effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on actively dividing cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus cereus were studied. Fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees C on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of NO in air (0 to 1.9 ppm [0 to 2.0 micrograms/g of air]), NO2 in air (0 to 5.5 ppm [0 to 8.8 micrograms/g of air]), or NO and NO2 in air. Bacteria grown under air only were used as controls. After incubation, the colonies that developed on the plates were counted. None of the bacteria tested was affected by NO or NO2 at the indicated concentrations while growing on nutrient agar. Serratia marcescens, B. circulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus grown on mineral salts glucose agar were not significantly affected by NO or NO2. Low concentrations (0 to 1.9 ppm) of NO were bacteriostatic to log-phase cultures of M. roseus, M. luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus grown on mineral salts glucose agar. Bacteriostatic activity over a 24-h interval was maximal at an initial NO concentration of 1 ppm. Appreciable amounts of NO2 were produced in 24 h at initial NO concentrations greater than 1 ppm. These results suggest that NO2 may reduce the bacteriostatic activity of NO. Low concentrations (0 to 5.5 ppm) of NO2 in air did not affect any of the bacteria tested. At these low concentrations, NO affected bacterial growth, although NO2, NO2-, and NO3- did not. In addition, it was determined that the bacteriostatic activity observed in this study was not due to an increase in the acidity of the medium. PMID:6351744

Mancinelli, R L; McKay, C P

1983-07-01

382

Nitric oxide metabolites in cystic fibrosis lung disease  

PubMed Central

Although the activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthases are increased in lung tissue of patients with cystic fibrosis, the concentrations of nasal and exhaled NO have recently been found to be decreased in cystic fibrosis. This could either be due to reduced NO formation or metabolism of NO within airway fluids. In this study, the stable NO metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, were determined in the saliva and sputum of 18 stable cystic fibrosis patients, 21 cystic fibrosis patients during a pulmonary exacerbation, and in saliva and endotracheal secretions of normal controls. Median saliva concentrations of NO metabolites (nitrate plus nitrite) were 704 µmol/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 419 to 1477) in stable cystic fibrosis patients, 629 µmol/l (95% CI 382 to 1392) in cystic fibrosis patients presenting with pulmonary exacerbation, and 313 µmol/l (95% CI 312 to 454) in controls. Median sputum NO metabolite concentration in stable cystic fibrosis was 346 µmol/l (95% CI 311 to 504). This was not significantly different from cystic fibrosis patients presenting with pulmonary exacerbation (median 184 µmol/l, 95% CI 249 to 572), but significantly higher than in endotracheal secretions of controls (median 144 µmol/l, 95% CI 96 to 260). Sputum NO metabolite concentration in cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation significantly increased during antibiotic treatment. A positive correlation was observed between sputum NO metabolites and lung function in stable cystic fibrosis, suggesting less airway NO formation in cystic fibrosis patients with more severe lung disease. These data indicate that decreased exhaled NO concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients may be due to retention and metabolism of NO within the airway secretions. However, sputum NO metabolites are not a useful marker of airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis lung disease.??

Grasemann, H; Ioannidis, I; Tomkiewicz, R; de Groot, H; Rubin, B; Ratjen, F

1998-01-01

383

Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.  

PubMed

Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P < 0.05). No other significant differences in the alleles or genotypes distributions were found (P > 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors. PMID:22234503

de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

2012-05-01

384

Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Vasospasm: Theories, Measurement, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, a large body of research has focused on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Literature searches were therefore conducted regarding the role of NO in cerebral vasospasm, specifically focusing on NO donors, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite in manifestation of vasospasm. Based off the assessment of available evidence, two competing theories are reviewed regarding the role of NO in vasospasm. One school of thought describes a deficiency in NO due to scavenging by hemoglobin in the cisternal space, leading to an NO signaling deficit and vasospastic collapse. A second hypothesis focuses on the dysfunction of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes NO, and subsequent generation of reactive nitrogen species. Both theories have strong experimental evidence behind them and hold promise for translation into clinical practice. Furthermore, NO donors show definitive promise for preventing vasospasm at the angiographic and clinical level. However, NO augmentation may also cause systemic hypotension and worsen vasospasm due to oxidative distress. Recent evidence indicates that targeting NOS dysfunction, for example, through erythropoietin or statin administration, also shows promise at preventing vasospasm and neurotoxicity. Ultimately, the role of NO in neurovascular disease is complex. Neither of these theories is mutually exclusive, and both should be considered for future research directions and treatment strategies.

Siuta, Michael; Zuckerman, Scott L.; Mocco, J.

2013-01-01

385

Phenylpropanoid ester from Zingiber officinale and their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A new phenylpropanoid ester mixture, (E)-geranylferulic acid (1a) and (Z)-geranylferulic acid (1b), along with 13 known compounds, [6]-gingerol (2), [8]-gingerol (3), [10]-gingerdione (4), 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione (5), 1-dehydro-[8]-gingerdione (6), [6]-paradol (7), [8]-paradol (8), [6]-gingeroldiacetate (9), 6-hydroxy-[6]-shogaol (10), galanolactone (11), trans-®-sesquiphellandrol (12), trans-sesquipiperitol (13), and 4?,5?-dihydroxybisabola-2,10-diene (14) were isolated from ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale. Their structures were determined based on the spectroscopic (1D, 2D-NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All of the isolates were evaluated for their potential to inhibit LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC(50) values ranging from 5.5 to 28.5 ?M. PMID:22370785

Hong, Seong Su; Oh, Joa Sub

2012-02-01

386

Endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide and preeclampsia: a review.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator. NO is synthesized by NO synthases (NOS) and NOS are inhibited by asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA). ADMA is metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) and excreted in the kidneys. Lower ADMA levels in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls suggest that ADMA has a role in vascular dilatation and blood pressure changes. Several studies show an increase in ADMA levels in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. Elevated ADMA levels in preeclampsia are seen before clinical symptoms have developed; these findings suggest that ADMA has a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:16966108

Slaghekke, Femke; Dekker, Gus; Jeffries, Bill

2006-08-01

387

Flavanols, the Kuna, Cocoa Consumption, and Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The Kuna Indians who reside in an archipelago on the Caribbean Coast of Panama have very low blood pressure levels, live longer than other Panamanians, and have a reduced frequency of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer -- at least on their death certificates. One outstanding feature of their diet includes a very high intake of flavanol-rich cocoa. Flavonoids in cocoa activate nitric oxide synthesis in healthy humans. The possibility that the high flavanol intake protects the Kuna against high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer is sufficiently intriguing and sufficiently important that large, randomized controlled clinical trials should be pursued.

Hollenberg, Norman K.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

388

Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery and early use of NO is recalled followed by some of its chemical reactions to give useful products such as nitric acid and fertilizers. However NO produced from the internal combustion engine results in photochemical smog production and ozone depletion. A rebirth of interest in NO has occurred because of its unexpected roles in physiology and neurobiology. Its production can lead to biological responses such as vasodilation, cell adhesion, neurotransmission and immune regulation. Finally the ways denitrifying bacteria convert NO and other oxides of nitrogen to dinitrogen are discussed.

Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

1995-08-01

389

Evidence that nitric oxide modulates food intake in mice  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide (NO) may be an intracellular modulator within the central nervous system. L-arginine, which results in NO synthesis, increased food intake in mice while the inhibitor of NO synthesis, L-N{sup G}-nitro arginine (L-NO Arg) inhibited food intake in food deprived mice. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, partially reverse the inhibitory effect of L-NO Arg on food intake. These findings suggest the possibility that NO may be a physiological modulator of food intake and that the possibility of exploring the utility of L-NO arg in the treatment of obesity should be explored.

Morley, J.E.; Flood, J.F. (St. Louis Univ., MO (United States))

1991-01-01

390

Inhibition of influenza virus replication by nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of\\u000a influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mouse models. Here we show that\\u000a replication of influenza A and B viruses in Mabin Darby canine kidney\\u000a cells is severely impaired by the NO donor,\\u000a S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Reduction of productively infected cells\\u000a and virus production proved to correlate with inhibition of viral RNA\\u000a synthesis,

GUUS F. RIMMELZWAAN; MARIANNE M. J. W. BAARS; PIM DE LIJSTER; RON A. M. FOUCHIER; ALBERT D. M. E. OSTERHAUS

1999-01-01

391

The Moving Frontier in Nitric Oxide-Dependent Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New discoveries are expanding our view of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in mammalian physiology by revealing new types, amounts, and fates of molecules modified in vivo by NO and its derivatives, as well as the profound augmentation of some of NO’s actions at physiologic levels of O2. Investigators have identified a new form of endogenous reversible N-nitrosation reactions in vivo, that of proteins; a new class of endogenously nitrated bioactive molecules in vivo, nitro-fatty acids; and the ability of NO-dependent posttranslational modifications to control the half-life and destination of key regulatory proteins.

Carl Nathan (Weill Cornell Medical College;Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV)

2004-11-02

392

Low temperature thermal oxidation of nitric oxide in polluted air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of NO x (1500ppb) and high NO ? NO2 conversion rates (100ppbh -1) have been measured in Göteborg during winter-time inversion periods. The conversion takes place without being significantly affected by light and the ozone concentration is always extremely low on these occasions. The dependence of the thermal oxidation 2 NO+ O2? 2 NO2 on temperature, humidity and catalytic activity of different surfaces has been investigated in an extensive kinetic study. The reaction rate has a strong negative temperature dependence with apparent activation energies of -3.5 kj mole -1 for r.h. = 55 % and -7.3 kj mole -1for dry conditions. The reaction is surface catalysed and the experiments indicate that the thermal oxidation takes place in two steps, one rapid equilibrium reaction, forming intermediates such as N 2O 2 or NO 3, and one rate-determining step in which NO 2 is formed. The presence of an aerosol surface increased the reaction rate very slightly, while street surface material had a more significant influence. When the flow reactor walls were coated with salt-snow or road dirt mixtures to simulate the surface of a winter street, the reaction rate increased typically to 3.5 × 10 4M -2s -1 from 2.1 ×10 4M -2s -1 for a clean reactor at -2°C. These values should be compared with the generally accepted value for the reaction rate, which is 1.5 × 10 4M -2s -1 at 25°C. The experimental results allow conversion rates of ~100 NOppbh -1 at rush hours and ~ 40 NO ppb h -1 for normal or low traffic to be rationalized in terms of the thermal NO ? NO2 reaction only, at an NO concentration of ~ 1000 ppb.

Lindqvist, Oliver; Ljungström, Evert; Svensson, Roger

393

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

1998-01-01

394

Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Visceral Larva Migrans: Effects on Lung and Liver Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of nitric oxide production and oxidative process were studied in mice infected with Toxocara canis and treated with aminoguanidine which is a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Relations of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and tissue pathology were assessed by biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical methods. In experiments, Balb\\/c albino mice were inoculated with T. canis eggs

Cihan Demirci; Aysen Gargili; Handan Cetinkaya; Ilhan Uyaner; Basak Boynuegri; M. Koray Gumustas

2006-01-01

395

Sampling and Determination of Gas-Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Following Removal of Ozone by Gas-Phase Reaction with Nitric Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the ambient atmosphere is described, using impinger or diffusion scrubber collection of hydrogen peroxide with aqueous-phase analysis by an enzyme-catalyzed fluorescence technique. Interference from ozone...

R. L. Tanner G. Y. Markovits E. M. Ferreri T. J. Kelly

1986-01-01

396

Role of nitric oxide in hematosuppression and benzene-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming increasingly apparent that nitric oxide plays a multifunctional role in regulating inflammatory processes in the body. Although nitric oxide and its oxidation products are cytotoxic toward certain pathogens, they can also cause tissue injury and suppress proliferation. Cytokines and growth factors released at sites of inflammation or injury stimulate both immune and nonimmune cells to produce nitric oxide. Nowhere in the body is this more detrimental than in the bone marrow, for the continuous production of hematopoietic precursors is essential for normal blood cell maturation. Our laboratories have discovered that, in response to inflammatory mediators, bone marrow cells readily produce nitric oxide. Nitric oxide production is enhanced by hematopoietic growth factors including interleukin-3, macrophage colony stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. When bone marrow cells produce nitric oxide, hematopoiesis is impaired, an effect that is potentiated by colony-stimulating factors. Treatment of mice with benzene, which suppresses bone marrow cell development, was found to markedly enhance the ability of bone marrow cells to produce nitric oxide in response to inflammatory mediators alone and in combination with hematopoietic growth factors. Taken together, these data suggest that nitric oxide may be an important mediator of benzene-induced bone marrow suppression. 38 refs., 3 figs.

Laskin, D.L.; Heck, D.E.; Punjabi, C.J.; Laskin J.D. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

1996-12-01

397

IRE1-Dependent Activation of AMPK in Response to Nitric Oxide ?  

PubMed Central

While there can be detrimental consequences of nitric oxide production at pathological concentrations, eukaryotic cells have evolved protective mechanisms to defend themselves against this damage. The unfolded-protein response (UPR), activated by misfolded proteins and oxidative stress, is one adaptive mechanism that is employed to protect cells from stress. Nitric oxide is a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK participates in the cellular defense against nitric oxide-mediated damage in pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, the mechanism of AMPK activation by nitric oxide was explored. The known AMPK kinases LKB1, CaMKK, and TAK1 are not required for the activation of AMPK by nitric oxide. Instead, this activation is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-activated protein IRE1. Nitric oxide-induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent signaling to AMPK substrates, including Raptor, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and PGC-1?, is attenuated in IRE1?-deficient cells. The endoribonuclease activity of IRE1 appears to be required for AMPK activation in response to nitric oxide. In addition to nitric oxide, stimulation of IRE1 endoribonuclease activity with the flavonol quercetin leads to IRE1-dependent AMPK activation. These findings indicate that the RNase activity of IRE1 participates in AMPK activation and subsequent signaling through multiple AMPK-dependent pathways in response to nitrosative stress.

Meares, Gordon P.; Hughes, Katherine J.; Naatz, Aaron; Papa, Feroz R.; Urano, Fumihiko; Hansen, Polly A.; Benveniste, Etty N.; Corbett, John A.

2011-01-01

398

Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter, Particulate Pollution and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, encoded by NOS2) is the major enzyme for nitric oxide synthesis in airways. As such, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) provides an in vivo assessment of iNOS activity. Short-term exposure to air pollution, haplotypes and DNA methylation in NOS2 promoter have been associated independently with iNOS expression and/or FeNO. Objective We aimed to examine the effects of ambient air pollutants, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and NOS2 promoter methylation on FeNO level in children. Methods We selected 940 participants in the Children’s Health Study who provided buccal samples and had undergone FeNO measurement on the same day. DNA methylation was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms captured the haplotype diversity in the NOS2 promoter. Average particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5?m and ?10?m (PM2.5 and PM10), ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels 7 days before FeNO measurement were estimated based on air pollution data obtained at central monitoring sites. Results We found interrelated effects of PM2.5, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and iNOS methylation on FeNO. Elevated 7-day average PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower iNOS methylation (P=.01). NOS2 promoter haplotypes were globally associated with NOS2 promoter methylation (P=6.2 × 10?8). There was interaction among one common promoter haplotype, iNOS methylation level and PM2.5 exposure on FeNO (Pinteraction=.00007). Conclusion Promoter variants in NOS2 and short term PM2.5 exposure affect iNOS methylation. This is one of the first studies showing contributions of genetic and epigenetic variations in air pollution mediated phenotype expression.

Salam, Muhammad T.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Lurmann, Fred; Breton, Carrie V.; Wang, Xinhui; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Gilliland, Frank D.

2012-01-01

399

Evidence for a detrimental role of nitric oxide synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase after peripheral nerve injury.  

PubMed

Physical injury to a nerve is the most common cause of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Identification of molecules involved in degenerative and regenerative processes is a key step toward development of therapeutic tools in order to accelerate motor, sensory and/or autonomic function recovery. We have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) using as a model the severe crushing of a motor nerve in adult rats. This type of injury up-regulates the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the affected nerve. Chronic systemic inhibition of NOS accelerated the onset of functional muscle reinnervation evaluated by the recording of compound muscle action potential evoked by electrical stimulation of the injured nerve. Besides, it increased the number of back-labeled motoneurons by application, 2 days after injury, of a retrograde marker 10 mm distal to the crushing site. These effects were mimicked by chronic specific inhibition of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but not by specific inhibitors of the neuronal or inducible isoform. Next, we intraneurally injected a replication-deficient adenoviral vector directing the expression of a dominant negative mutant of eNOS (Ad-TeNOS). A single injection of Ad-TeNOS on the day of crushing significantly accelerated functional recovery of neuromuscular junction and increased axonal regeneration. Moreover, Ad-TeNOS did not compromise motoneuron viability or stability of reestablished neuromuscular junctions. Taken together, these results suggest that NO of endothelial origin slows down muscle reinnervation by means of detrimental actions on axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. These experiments identify eNOS as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of traumatic nerve injuries and highlight the potential of gene therapy in treating injuries of this type using viral vectors to suppress the activity of eNOS. PMID:18824216

Sunico, C R; Portillo, F; González-Forero, D; Kasparov, S; Moreno-López, B

2008-11-11

400

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) deficiency affects energy metabolism pattern in murine oxidative skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Oxidative capacity of muscles correlates with capillary density and with microcirculation, which in turn depend on various regulatory factors, including NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To determine the role of eNOS in patterns of regulation of energy metabolism in various muscles, we studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in saponin-permeabilized fibres as well as the energy metabolism enzyme profile in the cardiac, soleus (oxidative) and gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles isolated from mice lacking eNOS (eNOS(-/-)). In soleus muscle, the absence of eNOS induced a marked decrease in both basal mitochondrial respiration without ADP (-32%; P <0.05) and maximal respiration in the presence of ADP (-29%; P <0.05). Furthermore, the eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle showed a decrease in total creatine kinase (-29%; P <0.05), citrate synthase (-31%; P <0.01), adenylate kinase (-27%; P <0.05), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (-43%; P <0.01) and pyruvate kinase (-26%; P <0.05) activities. The percentage of myosin heavy chains I (slow isoform) was significantly increased from 24.3+/-1.5% in control to 30.1+/-1.1% in eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle ( P <0.05) at the expense of a slight non-significant decrease in the three other (fast) isoforms. Besides, eNOS(-/-) soleus showed a 28% loss of weight. Interestingly, we did not find differences in any parameters in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscles compared with respective controls. These results show that eNOS knockout has an important effect on muscle oxidative capacity as well on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes in oxidative (soleus) muscle. The absence of such effects in cardiac and glycolytic (gastrocnemius) muscle suggests a specific role for eNOS-produced NO in oxidative skeletal muscle.

Momken, Iman; Fortin, Dominique; Serrurier, Bernard; Bigard, Xavier; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Veksler, Vladimir

2002-01-01

401

Shear stress activation of nitric oxide synthase and increased nitric oxide levels in human red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Red blood cells (RBC) play an important role in the balance between generation and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) and hence its local bioavailability and influence on vasomotor control. Previous studies have reported increased NO levels in RBC suspensions subsequent to exposure to shear forces; the present study was designed to further investigate changes in intracellular NO concentration and possible mechanisms involved for RBC exposed to well-controlled shear forces. Attached human RBC were subjected to shear stresses up to 0.1 Pa in a parallel-plate flow channel; fluorescent methods were used to monitor changes in intracellular NO and calcium concentrations. Intracellular NO concentration, estimated by the fluorescence level of 4-amino-5-methylamino-2?,7?-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM), increased sharply within 30 s following the application of shear stress between 0.013 to 0.1 Pa. This increase was only partially prevented by the absence of L-arginine and by the presence of L-N-acetyl-methyl-arginine (L-NAME), strongly suggesting that this response was in part related to the activation of NO-synthase (NOS) enzyme. The increase in intracellular NO concentration under shear stress was also inhibited by calcium chelation in the suspending medium, indicating the role of calcium entry for NOS activation. Increases of intracellular calcium concentrations under the same shearing conditions were demonstrated by monitoring Fluo-3/AM fluorescence in RBC exposed to shear stress. Serine 1177 phosphorylated NOS protein, the activated form of the enzyme determined by immunohistochemistry, was found to be significantly increased following the exposure of RBC to 0.1 Pa shear stress for 1 min. These data confirm that RBC possess a NOS enzyme that is actively synthesizing NO and activated by effective shear forces. The data also suggest that there may be additional (e.g., non-enzymatic) NO generating mechanisms in RBC that are also enhanced under shear stress.

Ulker, Pinar; Yaras, Nazmi; Yalcin, Ozlem; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Johnson, Paul C.; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

2011-01-01

402

Nitrooleate mediates nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Nitrated lipids such as nitrooleate (OLA-NO2) can act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) ligands to exert vascular protective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding nitric oxide (NO) production and its regulation are not fully defined in the vasculature. Here, we show that OLA-NO2 increased endothelial NO release by modulating activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. Treatment with OLA-NO2 (3 ?M) increased NO release in a time-dependent manner. OLA-NO2 decreased protein expression of eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) but increased heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that OLA-NO2 replaced eNOS/Cav-1 with eNOS/Hsp90 interaction, resulting in increasing eNOS activity. OLA-NO2 also induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser633 and Ser1177 and eNOS dephosphorylation at Ser113 and Thr495. In addition, OLA-NO2 induced phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), which might contribute to eNOS activation. Collectively, these results substantiate a new functional role for nitrated fatty acid, demonstrating that OLA-NO2 exerts vascular protective effects by increasing NO bioavailability through eNOS phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and interaction with associated proteins such as Hsp90 and Cav-1. PMID:24664541

Shin, Eunju; Yeo, Eunju; Lim, Jihye; Chang, Yun Hee; Park, Haeryun; Shim, Eugene; Chung, Haeyon; Hwang, Hye Jin; Chun, Jiyeon; Hwang, Jinah

2014-05-01

403

Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

Holstein, Gay R.

2003-01-01

404

Diurnal variation of nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km are reported. The observations were made at float altitude with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector together with in situ ozone measurements. The first measurement was made at 44 N on September 17, 1987, at an altitude of 40 km from before sunrise until 1000 LT. The second observation was made at the same latitude on June 18, 1988, at 39 km from 0800 to 1230 LT. At an altitude of 40 km, nitric oxide was observed to start increasing very rapidly at sunrise when the solar zenith angle reached about 95 deg. After the rapid initial buildup, the rate of NO increase stabilized for 3 hours at about 1.2 ppbv/hour. Near 1100 LT at 39 km in summer, the NO mixing ratio was observed to become nearly constant. These features of the diurnal variation of NO are in accord with the temporal variation expected from a time-dependent zero-dimensional photochemical model.

Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Pirre, M.; Ramaroson, R.; Matthews, W. A.

1990-01-01

405

Role of nitric oxide in placental vascular development and function  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most pleiotropic signaling molecules at systemic and cellular levels, participating in vascular tone regulation, cellular respiration, proliferation, apoptosis and gene expression. Indeed NO actively participates in trophoblast invasion, placental development and represents the main vasodilator in this tissue. Despite the large number of studies addressing the role of NO in the placenta, its participation in placental vascular development and the effect of altered levels of NO on placental function remains to be clarified. This review draws a time-line of the participation of NO throughout placental vascular development, from the differentiation of vascular precursors to the consolidation of vascular function are considered. The influence of NO on cell types involved in the origin of the placental vasculature and the expression and function of the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) throughout pregnancy are described. The developmental processes involved in the placental vascular bed are considered, such as the participation of NO in placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through VEGF and Angiopoietin signaling molecules. The role of NO in vascular function once the placental vascular tree has developed, in normal pregnancy as well as in pregnancy-related diseases, is then discussed.

Krause, B.J.; Hanson, M.A.; Casanello, P.

2011-01-01

406

Nitric oxide stimulates cyclic GMP in human thyrocytes.  

PubMed

Sodium nitroprusside spontaneously breaks down in solution to produce the vasodilator nitric oxide. In many cell types, this stimulates the cytosolic form of the enzyme guanylate cyclase, resulting in the elevation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). We have investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on the generation of cGMP in primary human thyrocytes and the SV40-transfected human thyroid cell line SGHTL-189. A dose-dependent increase in cGMP was obtained and the maximum response was observed with concentrations above 10 microM sodium nitroprusside in both cell types. Methylene blue (50 microM) had no significant effect on basal cGMP production but inhibited the effect of sodium nitroprusside at all concentrations tested, thus demonstrating that the effect was due to nitric oxide. Sodium nitroprusside had no effect on cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in these cells. TSH at 100 and 1000 microU/ml significantly stimulated the production of cAMP, but not that of cGMP, in primary human thyrocytes. Sodium nitroprusside had no significant effect on basal or TSH-stimulated triiodothyronine secretion in primary human thyrocytes. Forskolin (10 microM) significantly stimulated cAMP production in both primary thyrocytes and SGHTL-189 cells. Although forskolin had no significant effect on basal cGMP production, sodium nitroprusside-stimulated cGMP production was significantly reduced by forskolin. However, this inhibitory effect was not related to the production of cAMP. PMID:8097915

Millatt, L J; Jackson, R; Williams, B C; Whitley, G S

1993-04-01

407

Cytokinins can act as suppressors of nitric oxide in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Maintaining nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is essential for normal plant physiological processes. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of NO modulation in plants. Here, we report a unique mechanism for the catabolism of NO based on the reaction with the plant hormone cytokinin. We screened for NO-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis and isolated two allelic lines, cnu1-1 and 1-2 (continuous NO-unstressed 1), that were identified as the previously reported altered meristem program 1 (amp1) and as having elevated levels of cytokinins. A double mutant of cnu1-2 and nitric oxide overexpression 1 (nox1) reduced the severity of the phenotypes ascribed to excess NO levels as did treating the nox1 line with trans-zeatin, the predominant form of cytokinin in Arabidopsis. We further showed that peroxinitrite, an active NO derivative, can react with zeatin in vitro, which together with the results in vivo suggests that cytokinins suppress the action of NO most likely through direct interaction between them, leading to the reduction of endogenous NO levels. These results provide insights into NO signaling and regulation of its bioactivity in plants. PMID:23319631

Liu, Wei-Zhong; Kong, Dong-Dong; Gu, Xue-Xin; Gao, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Xia, Min; Gao, Qian; Tian, Li-Li; Xu, Zhang-Hong; Bao, Fang; Hu, Yong; Ye, Neng-Sheng; Pei, Zhen-Ming; He, Yi-Kun

2013-01-22

408

Involvement of nitric oxide in learning & memory processes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from the amino acid, L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has received attention as a neurotransmitter in the brain. NO has been found to induce cognitive behaviour in experimental animals. In order to show evidence for the involvement of NO in learning and memory processes, the reports indicating the effects of its precursor, donors, and inhibitors of its synthesis in mammals, birds, fishes and invertebrates have been reviewed. Further, learning and memory impairment occurring in man and animals due to defective NO activity in the brain due to pathological conditions such as epilepsy, stress, diabetes and side effects of therapeutic agents and reversal of this condition by L-arginine and NO donors have been included. In addition, the reports that indicate ageing-induced impairment of cognition that is known to occur in Alzheimer's disease due to deposition of the toxic protein, beta amyloid and the effect of L-arginine and NO donors in preventing dementia in these patients have been reviewed.

Paul, Vanaja; Ekambaram, Perumal

2011-01-01

409

Environmental Effects on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Allergic Children  

PubMed Central

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and respiratory allergy. Environmental factors, especially indoor and outdoor air quality, may play an important role in triggering acute exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. The authors have reviewed the literature reporting effects of outdoor and indoor pollutants on FeNO in children. Although the findings are not consistent, urban and industrial pollution—mainly particles (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)—as well as formaldehyde and electric baseboard heating have been shown to increase FeNO, whilst ozone (O3) tends to decrease it. Among children exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS), a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed in order to better investigate the effect of gene and environment interactions which may affect the interpretation of FeNO values in the management of children with asthma, clinicians are recommended to consider environmental exposures when taking medical histories for asthma and respiratory allergy. Further research is also needed to assess the effects of remedial interventions aimed at reducing/abating environmental exposures in asthmatic/allergic patients.

La Grutta, Stefania; Ferrante, Giuliana; Malizia, Velia; Cibella, Fabio; Viegi, Giovanni

2012-01-01

410

Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression  

PubMed Central

A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression.

Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

2007-01-01

411

Nasal nitric oxide is a marker of poor asthma control.  

PubMed

Asthma control, evaluated by symptoms, exacerbations rate and lung function may be greatly influenced by comorbidities, particularly chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is a simple way to assess the severity of CRS. We aimed to analyze the relationship between asthma control and nasal NO. All patients with moderate-to-severe asthma on regular follow-up at our Outpatients' Clinic between November 2009 and April 2010 were included into the study. All patients were evaluated for asthma control by asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and comorbidities (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) or without nasal polyps, obesity). Exhaled nitric oxide and nNO were obtained in all patients. Eighty-two patients were enrolled (mean age: 48 years, range: 21-80; 42 females). According to ACQ, 53 patients (64.6%) reported controlled asthma. Patients with uncontrolled asthma had lower nNO and higher prevalence of CRSwNP, with a significant correlation between nNO and ACQ. nNO is a biomarker negatively related to asthma control. As low nNO values were associated to CRSwNP, our results indicate that asthma control is highly influenced by this comorbidity. PMID:23665726

Heffler, Enrico; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Badiu, Iuliana; Guida, Giuseppe; Ricciardolo, Fabio Luigi Massimo; Bucca, Caterina; Rolla, Giovanni

2013-06-01

412

Mechanism of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Exclusion from Mycobacterial Phagosomes  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is sensitive to nitric oxide generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Consequently, to ensure its survival in macrophages, M. tuberculosis inhibits iNOS recruitment to its phagosome by an unknown mechanism. Here we report the mechanism underlying this process, whereby mycobacteria affect the scaffolding protein EBP50, which normally binds to iNOS and links it to the actin cytoskeleton. Phagosomes harboring live mycobacteria showed reduced capacity to retain EBP50, consistent with lower iNOS recruitment. EBP50 was found on purified phagosomes, and its expression increased upon macrophage activation, paralleling expression changes seen with iNOS. Overexpression of EBP50 increased while EBP50 knockdown decreased iNOS recruitment to phagosomes. Knockdown of EBP50 enhanced mycobacterial survival in activated macrophages. We tested another actin organizer, coronin-1, implicated in mycobacterium-macrophage interaction for contribution to iNOS exclusion. A knockdown of coronin-1 resulted in increased iNOS recruitment to model latex bead phagosomes but did not increase iNOS recruitment to phagosomes with live mycobacteria and did not affect mycobacterial survival. Our findings are consistent with a model for the block in iNOS association with mycobacterial phagosomes as a mechanism dependent primarly on reduced EBP50 recruitment.

Davis, Alexander S; Vergne, Isabelle; Master, Sharon S; Kyei, George B; Chua, Jennifer; Deretic, Vojo

2007-01-01

413

Regulation of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) generated by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in complex immunomodulatory and antitumoral mechanisms and has been described to have multiple beneficial microbicidal, antiviral and antiparasital effects. However, dysfunctional induction of iNOS expression seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Therefore iNOS has to be regulated very tightly. Modulation of expression, on both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, is the major regulation mechanism for iNOS. Pathways resulting in the induction of iNOS expression vary in different cells or species. Activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha and thereby activation of the iNOS promoter seems to be an essential step for the iNOS induction in most human cells. However, at least in the human system, also post-transcriptional mechanisms involving a complex network of RNA-binding proteins build up by AUF1, HuR, KSRP, PTB and TTP is critically involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. Recent data also implicate regulation of iNOS expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). PMID:20438856

Pautz, Andrea; Art, Julia; Hahn, Susanne; Nowag, Sebastian; Voss, Cornelia; Kleinert, Hartmut

2010-09-15

414

Nitric Oxide-Releasing Dendrimers as Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of a series of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers was evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A direct comparison of the bactericidal efficacy between NO-releasing and control PPI dendrimers (i.e., non-NO-releasing) revealed both enhanced biocidal action of NO-releasing dendrimers and reduced toxicity against mammalian fibroblast cells. Antibacterial activity for the NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers was shown to be a function of both dendrimer size (molecular weight) and exterior functionality. In addition to minimal toxicity against fibroblasts, NO-releasing PPI dendrimers modified with styrene oxide exhibited the greatest biocidal activity (?9.999% killing) against all bacterial strains tested. The N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers presented in this study hold promise as effective NO-based therapeutics for combating bacterial infections.

Sun, Bin; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Chudasama, Shalini L.; Lu, Yuan

2012-01-01

415

The potential of nitric oxide releasing therapies as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived, diatomic, lipophilic gas that plays an integral role in defending against pathogens. Among its many functions are involvement in immune cell signaling and in the biochemical reactions by which immune cells defend against bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. NO signaling directs a broad spectrum of processes, including the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of immune cells. When secreted by activated immune cells, NO diffuses across cellular membranes and exacts nitrosative and oxidative damage on invading pathogens. These observations led to the development of NO delivery systems that can harness the antimicrobial properties of this evanescent gas. The innate microbicidal properties of NO, as well as the antimicrobial activity of the various NO delivery systems, are reviewed.

Schairer, David O.; Chouake, Jason S.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

2012-01-01

416

Nitric oxide synthase and VIP distribution in enteric nervous system in idiopathic chronic constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic chronic constipation has been correlated to neural abnormalities that consist of a reduced number of myenteric plexus neurons and a decreased concentration of VIP-positive nerve fibers within the circular muscle. Recent studies hypothesized the involvement of nitric oxide in motility disorders of the human gut. To date, no information is available on nitric oxide involvement in idiopathic chronic constipation.

Camillo Cortesini; Fabio Cianchi; Aldo Infantino; Mario Lise

1995-01-01

417

Inhaled Nitric Oxide Is Not A Myocardial Depressant In A Porcine Model Of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to be a potent and selective pulmonary vasodilator. Reports of increases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and episodes of pulmonary edema during the clinical use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with preexisting left ventricular dysfunction have raised concerns that this agent may have myocardial depressant effects. We therefore undertook a study of

Michael Argenziano; David A. Dean; Nader Moazami; Daniel J. Goldstein; Eric A. Rose; Henry M. Spotnitz; Daniel Burkhoff; Mehmet C. Oz; Marc L. Dickstein

1998-01-01

418

The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the cardiovascular system in reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the cardiovascular system of reptiles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on its effects on central vascular blood flows in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. New data is presented that describes the effects on hemodynamic variables in varanid lizards of exogenously administered NO via the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and inhibition

Nini Skovgaard; Gina Galli; Augusto Abe; Edwin W. Taylor; Tobias Wang

2005-01-01

419

Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of androgen receptor activity: possible implications for prostate cancer progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic inflammation increases the risk of cancer and many cancers, including prostate cancer, arise at sites of chronic inflammation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an enzyme dominantly expressed during inflammatory reactions. Although synthesis of high amounts of nitric oxide (NO) by iNOS has been demonstrated in pathophysiological processes, such as acute or chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases or tumorigenesis, the

M V Cronauer; Y Ince; R Engers; L Rinnab; W Weidemann; C V Suschek; M Burchardt; H Kleinert; J Wiedenmann; H Sies; R Ackermann; K-D Kröncke

2007-01-01

420

The Effect of Nuclear Explosions on Stratospheric Nitric Oxide and Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the derivation by Foley and Ruderman of the injection of nitric oxide into the stratosphere by nuclear bomb tests and compares it with similar studies. Upper and lower limits of this pollutant are estimated by us and compared with the amount and distribution of nitric oxide in the stratosphere possible from supersonic transports. The effect on ozone

Harold Johnston; Garry Whitten; John Birks

1973-01-01

421

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Cortical Activation: A Diffuse Wake-Up System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in some of the central pathways engaged in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. The existence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) cells projecting to the cortex suggests a role for NO in the activation induced by the BF during arousal. We tested, in the anesthetized cat, the hypothesis

Jorge Marino; Javier Cudeiro

2003-01-01

422

On the increases in nitric oxide density at midlatitudes during ionospheric storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study examines the causes of changes in observed and modeled nitric oxide density at midlatitudes during magnetic storms in September 1974. Results are presented for two altitudes where the behavior of nitric oxide is different because of the different chemical lifetimes. At 110 km altitude, the lifetime is a day or more, while at 150 km altitude the

P. G. Richards

2004-01-01

423

On the increases in nitric oxide density at midlatitudes during ionospheric storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the causes of changes in observed and modeled nitric oxide density at midlatitudes during magnetic storms in September 1974. Results are presented for two altitudes where the behavior of nitric oxide is different because of the different chemical lifetimes. At 110 km altitude, the lifetime is a day or more, while at 150 km altitude the lifetime

P. G. Richards

2004-01-01

424

Molecular cloning and characterization of the nitric oxide synthase gene from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) signaling is involved in many physiological processes in vertebrates and invertebrates. In crustaceans, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays a significant role in the regulation of the nervous system and in innate immunity. Here, we describe the entire cDNA sequence (4616 bp) of the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus NOS (Mj NOS) generated using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

Mari Inada; Tohru Mekata; Raja Sudhakaran; Shogo Okugawa; Tomoya Kono; Amel Mohammed El Asely; Nguyen T. H. Linh; Terutoyo Yoshida; Masahiro Sakai; Toshifumi Yui; Toshiaki Itami

2010-01-01

425

Regulation of the expression of nitric oxide synthase by Leishmania mexicana amastigotes in murine dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian hosts, Leishmania parasites are obligatory intracellular organisms that invade macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DC). In M?, the production of nitric oxide (NO) catalyzed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as a major defense against Leishmania infection. The modulation of this microbicidal mechanism by different species of Leishmania has been well studied in M?.

Arturo A. Wilkins-Rodríguez; Alma Reyna Escalona-Montańo; Magdalena Aguirre-García; Ingeborg Becker; Laila Gutiérrez-Kobeh

2010-01-01

426

Four-Dimensional Neuronal Signaling by Nitric Oxide: A Computational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a transmitter of neurons that express the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. NO, however, violates some of the key tenets of chemical transmission, which is classically regarded as occur- ring at points of close apposition between neurons. It is the ability of NO to diffuse isotropically in aqueous and lipid

Andrew Philippides; Phil Husbands; Michael O'Shea

2000-01-01

427

Establishment of Patterned Thalamocortical Connections Does Not Require Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subplate neurons are early-generated neurons that project into the overlying neocortex and are required for the formation of ocular dominance columns. A subset of subplate neurons ex- press nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and produce nitric oxide (NO), a neuronal messenger thought to be involved in adult hip- pocampal synaptic plasticity and also in the establishment of certain specific connections during

Eva M. Finney; Carla J. Shatz

1998-01-01

428

Nitric oxide: comparative synthesis and signaling in animal and plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its identification as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the 1980s, nitric oxide has become the source of intensive and exciting research in animals. Nitric oxide is now considered to be a widespread signaling molecule involved in the regulation of an impressive spectrum of mammalian cellular functions. Its diverse effects have been attributed to an ability to chemically react with

David Wendehenne; Alain Pugin; Daniel F. Klessig; Jörg Durner

2001-01-01

429

Nitric oxide and its modulators in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in peripheral neuropathy induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve of rats by using NO precursor, NO donors and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve of rats resulted in peripheral neuropathy as confirmed by nociceptive behavioural tests using mechanical, thermal and cold

Ajit K. Naik; Surendra K. Tandan; Dinesh Kumar; Shailesh P. Dudhgaonkar

2006-01-01

430

Effects of Nitric Oxide Inhibition by Methylene Blue in Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased endogenous nitric oxide production has been proposed as an important mediator of the peripheral arterial vasodilation and the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis, whereas a decreased intrahepatic production of nitric oxide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of methylene blue, which is a potent inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and

Georgios Kalambokis; Michalis Economou; Andreas Fotopoulos; Jihad Al Bokharhii; Pappas Christos; Kosta Paraskevi; Papadimitriou Konstantinos; Afroditi Katsaraki; Epameinondas V. Tsianos

2005-01-01

431

Nitric oxide but not carbon monoxide is continuously released in the human nasal airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide but not carbon monoxide is continuously released in the human nasal airways. J.O.N. Lundberg, J. Palm, K. Alving. #ERS Journals Ltd 2002. ABSTRACT: Results from different laboratories indicate that nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) coexist in the human airways both in health and disease. These gases are present in exhaled human breath and high concentrations of

J. O. N. Lundberg; J. Palm; K. Alving

2002-01-01

432

Nitric Oxide (NO) and Lactic Acid Bacteria-Contributions to Health, Food Quality, and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide producer bacteria on food quality, safety, and human health care high lighted. NO, which was previously recognized as a toxic gas, has attracted attention in the last two decades due to its vital role in many physiological processes of animals and plants. Particularly, it is important to note

Aynur Gül Karahan; M. Lütfü Çakmakçi; Buket Cicioglu-Aridogan; Arzu Kart-Gündogdu

2005-01-01