Science.gov

Sample records for determine nitric oxide

  1. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Paracrine purinergic signaling determines lung endothelial nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kiefmann, Rainer; Islam, Mohammad N; Lindert, Jens; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2009-06-01

    Although the vascular bed is a major source of nitric oxide (NO) production, factors regulating the production remain unclear. We considered the role played by paracrine signaling. Determinations by fluorescence microscopy in isolated, blood-perfused rat and mouse lungs revealed that a brief lung expansion enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)cyt) oscillations in alveolar epithelial (AEC) and endothelial (EC) cells, and NO production in EC. Furthermore, as assessed by a novel microlavage assay, alveolar ATP production increased. Intra-alveolar microinfusion of the purinergic receptor antagonist, PPADS, and the nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, each completely blocked the Ca(2+)cyt and NO responses in EC. Lung expansion induced Ca(2+)cyt oscillations in mice lacking the P2Y1, but not the P2Y2, purinergic receptors, which were located in the perivascular interstitium basolateral to AEC. Prolonged lung expansion instituted by mechanical ventilation at high tidal volume increased EC expression of nitrotyrosine, indicating development of nitrosative stress in lung microvessels. These findings reveal a novel mechanism in which mechanically induced purinergic signaling couples cross-compartmental Ca(2+)cyt oscillations to microvascular NO production. PMID:19304909

  3. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  4. Detection of nitric oxide pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Weisbach, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of absorption spectra enhancement of certain atomic and molecular species inserter in dye-laser cavities have indicated that nitric oxide can be determined at low concentrations. Absorption coefficient of small amounts of nitric oxide in intra-laser-cavity absorption cell containing helium is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude.

  5. An improved method for the determination of dissolved nitric oxide (NO) in seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterbeck, H. E.; Bange, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived intermediate of the oceanic nitrogen cycle; however, due to its high reactivity, measurements of dissolved NO in seawater are rare. Here we present an improved method to determine NO concentrations in discrete seawater samples. The set-up of our system consisted of a chemiluminescence NO analyser connected to a stripping unit. The limit of detection for our method is 5 pmol NO in aqueous solution, which translates into 0.25 nmol L-1 when using a 20 mL seawater sample volume. Our method was applied to measure high-resolution depth profiles of dissolved NO during a cruise to the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. It is fast and comparably easy to handle; thus it opens the door for investigating the distribution of NO in the ocean, and it facilitates laboratory studies on NO pathways.

  6. Determinants of Children's Exhaled Nitric Oxide: New Insights from Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Salam, Muhammad T.; Linn, William S.; Rappaport, Edward B.; Bastain, Theresa M.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    While the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has proven useful in asthma research, its exact role in clinical care remains unclear, in part due to unexplained inter-subject heterogeneity. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that the effects of determinants of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) vary with differing levels of FeNO. In a population-based cohort of 1542 school children aged 12–15 from the Southern California Children's Health Study, we used quantile regression to investigate if the relationships of asthma, socio-demographic and clinical covariates with FeNO vary across its distribution. Differences in FeNO between children with and without asthma increased steeply as FeNO increased (Estimated asthma effects (in ppb) at selected 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles of FeNO are 2.4, 6.3 and 22.2, respectively) but the difference was steeper with increasing FeNO in boys and in children with active rhinitis (p-values<0.01). Active rhinitis also showed significantly larger effects on FeNO at higher concentrations of FeNO (Estimated active rhinitis effects (in ppb) at selected 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles of FeNO are 2.1, 5.7 and 14.3, respectively). Boys and children of Asian descent had higher FeNO than girls and non-Hispanic whites; these differences were significantly larger in those with higher FeNO (p-values<0.01). In summary, application of quantile regression techniques provides new insights into the determinants of FeNO showing substantially varying effects in those with high versus low concentrations. PMID:26214692

  7. Determinants of nitric oxide in exhaled gas in the isolated rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Carlin, R E; Ferrario, L; Boyd, J T; Camporesi, E M; McGraw, D J; Hakim, T S

    1997-03-01

    Nitric oxide concentrations in the exhaled gas (NOe) increases during various inflammatory conditions in humans and animals. Little is known about the sources and factors that influence NOe. NOe at end expiration was measured by chemiluminescence in an isolated, blood-perfused rabbit lung. The average end-expiratory concentration over 10 breaths was used. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), flow rate, pH, hypoxia, venous pressure, and flow pulsatility on NOe were determined. At constant blood flow, increasing PEEP from 1 to 5 cm H2O elicited a reproducible increase in NOe from 49 +/- 7 to 53 +/- 8 parts per billion (ppb) (p < 0.05). When blood pH was increased from 7.40 to 7.74 by breathing low CO2 gas, NOe rose from 45 +/- 7 to 55 +/- 7 ppb (p < 0.001). Hypoxia caused a dose-dependent decrease in NOe from 37 +/- 3 during baseline to 23 +/- 2 during ventilation with 0% O2 (p < 0.01). Venous pressure elevation from 0 to 5 and 10 mm Hg decreased NOe from 32 +/- 5, to 26 +/- 5 and 24 +/- 5 ppb, respectively (p < 0.05). Switching from steady to pulsatile flow (same man flow) resulted in a small, albeit significant reduction in NOe; 30 +/- 4 to 28 +/- 4 ppb (p < 0.05). Changes in flow rate between 200 and 20 ml/min were associated with small changes in NOe; however, when flow was stopped, NOe rose substantially to 56 +/- 6 ppb (p < 0.05). The changes in NOe were rapid (1 to 2 min) and reversible. The results suggest that NOe is influenced by ventilatory and hemodynamic variables, pH, and hypoxia. We suggest that caution must be taken when interpreting changes in exhaled NO in humans or experimental animals. Changes in total and regional blood flow, capillary blood volume, ventilation, hypoxia, and pH should not be overlooked. PMID:9117027

  8. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  9. Convergence of G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Nitric Oxide Pathways Determines the Outcome to Cardiac Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z. Maggie; Gao, Erhe; Fonseca, Fabio; Hayashi, Hiroki; Shang, Xiying; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Tian, Xufan; Tilley, Doug G.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Lefer, David J.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Koch, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure caused by ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death in the developed world. Treatment is currently centered on regimens involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or nitric oxide (NO). These regimens are thought to target distinct molecular pathways. We showed that these pathways were interdependent and converged on the effector GRK2 (GPCR kinase 2) to regulate myocyte survival and function. Ischemic injury coupled to GPCR activation, including GPCR desensitization and myocyte loss, requires GRK2 activation, and we found that cardioprotection mediated by S-nitrosylation and inhibition of GRK2 depended on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Conversely, the cardioprotective effects of NO bioactivity were absent in a knock-in mouse with a form of GRK2 that cannot be S-nitrosylated. Because GRK2 and eNOS inhibit each other, the balance of the activities these enzymes in the myocardium determined the outcome to ischemic injury. Our findings suggest new insights into the mechanism of action of classic drugs used to treat heart failure and new therapeutic approaches to ischemic heart disease. PMID:24170934

  10. BIOGENIC NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CROPLAND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined during late spring and summer 1995 and the spring of 1996 from four agricultural soils on which four different crops were grown. These agricultural soils were located at four different sites throughout North Carolina. Emission rates ...

  11. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  12. An electrogenic nitric oxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Sinan; de Vries, Simon

    2015-07-22

    Nitric oxide reductases (Nors) are members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily that reduce nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N?O). In contrast to the proton-pumping cytochrome oxidases, Nors studied so far have neither been implicated in proton pumping nor have they been experimentally established as electrogenic. The copper-A-dependent Nor from Bacillus azotoformans uses cytochrome c??? as electron donor but lacks menaquinol activity, in contrast to our earlier report (Suharti et al., 2001). Employing reduced phenazine ethosulfate (PESH) as electron donor, the main NO reduction pathway catalyzed by Cu(A)Nor reconstituted in liposomes involves transmembrane cycling of the PES radical. We show that Cu(A)Nor reconstituted in liposomes generates a proton electrochemical gradient across the membrane similar in magnitude to cytochrome aa?, highlighting that bacilli using Cu(A)Nor can exploit NO reduction for increased cellular ATP production compared to organisms using cNor. PMID:26149211

  13. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Morris, S M

    1998-01-01

    Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in animal cells, serving as a precursor for the synthesis not only of proteins but also of nitric oxide, urea, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine. Of the enzymes that catalyse rate-controlling steps in arginine synthesis and catabolism, argininosuccinate synthase, the two arginase isoenzymes, the three nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes and arginine decarboxylase have been recognized in recent years as key factors in regulating newly identified aspects of arginine metabolism. In particular, changes in the activities of argininosuccinate synthase, the arginases, the inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase and also cationic amino acid transporters play major roles in determining the metabolic fates of arginine in health and disease, and recent studies have identified complex patterns of interaction among these enzymes. There is growing interest in the potential roles of the arginase isoenzymes as regulators of the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Physiological roles and relationships between the pathways of arginine synthesis and catabolism in vivo are complex and difficult to analyse, owing to compartmentalized expression of various enzymes at both organ (e.g. liver, small intestine and kidney) and subcellular (cytosol and mitochondria) levels, as well as to changes in expression during development and in response to diet, hormones and cytokines. The ongoing development of new cell lines and animal models using cDNA clones and genes for key arginine metabolic enzymes will provide new approaches more clearly elucidating the physiological roles of these enzymes. PMID:9806879

  14. Inflammatory Monocytes Determine Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Uncoupling and Nitro-oxidative Stress Induced by Angiotensin II*

    PubMed Central

    Kossmann, Sabine; Hu, Hanhan; Steven, Sebastian; Schönfelder, Tanja; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Mikhed, Yuliya; Brähler, Melanie; Knorr, Maike; Brandt, Moritz; Karbach, Susanne H.; Becker, Christian; Oelze, Matthias; Bauersachs, Johann; Widder, Julian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas; Wenzel, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity amplify vascular oxidative stress. The role of inflammatory myelomonocytic cells as mediators of these processes and their impact on tetrahydrobiopterin availability and function have not yet been defined. Angiotensin II (ATII, 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days) increased Ly6Chigh and CD11b+/iNOShigh leukocytes and up-regulated levels of eNOS glutathionylation in aortas of C57BL/6 mice. Vascular iNOS-dependent NO formation was increased, whereas eNOS-dependent NO formation was decreased in aortas of ATII-infused mice as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation of lysozyme M-positive (LysM+) monocytes in ATII-infused LysMiDTR transgenic mice prevented eNOS glutathionylation and eNOS-derived N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive superoxide formation in the endothelial layer. ATII increased vascular guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I expression and biopterin synthesis in parallel, which was reduced in monocyte-depleted LysMiDTR mice. Vascular tetrahydrobiopterin was increased by ATII infusion but was even higher in monocyte-depleted ATII-infused mice, which was paralleled by a strong up-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase expression. EPR spectroscopy revealed that both vascular iNOS- and eNOS-dependent NO formation were normalized in ATII-infused mice following monocyte depletion. Additionally, deletion as well as pharmacologic inhibition of iNOS prevented ATII-induced endothelial dysfunction. In summary, ATII induces an inflammatory cell-dependent increase of iNOS, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I, tetrahydrobiopterin, NO formation, and nitro-oxidative stress as well as eNOS uncoupling in the vessel wall, which can be prevented by ablation of LysM+ monocytes. PMID:25143378

  15. Nitric oxide function in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthys, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process in the intima of conduit arteries, which disturbs the endothelium-dependent regulation of the vascular tone by the labile liposoluble radical nitric oxide (NO) formed by the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This defect predisposes to coronary vasospasm and cardiac ischaemia, with anginal pain as the typical clinical manifestation. It is now appreciated that endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis and that it may also involve the microcirculation, in which atherosclerotic lesions do not develop. On the other hand, the inflammatory environment in atherosclerotic plaques may result in the expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isozyme. Whether the dysfunction in endothelial NO production is causal to, or the result of, atherosclerotic lesion formation is still highly debated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that constitutive endothelial NO release protects against atherogenesis e.g. by preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Nitric oxide generated by the inducible isozyme may be beneficial by replacing the failing endothelial production but excessive release may damage the vascular wall cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:18472828

  16. Nitric oxide: a challenge to chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine recognized the biological significance of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is derived from the amino acid arginine. It is intimately involved with circulatory vessel dilation where, for example, it protects against heart attacks, and is the basis for new medications such as Sildenafil (Viagra). Nitric oxide acts as a neurotransmitter and can modulate many neurological reactions. The immune system uses nitric oxide to destroy pathogens by interfering with key enzymes. Nitric oxide is responsible for both osteoclastic and osteoblastic responses in bone and is a key player in the degenerative aspects of arthritis. The process of apoptosis employs nitric oxide in the orderly removal of unneeded cells. There is clear evidence that major signaling and control mechanisms exist in the body apart from the nervous system. Chiropractic is thus faced with the challenge of how to incorporate this new knowledge which conflicts with traditional chiropractic concepts.

  17. Nitric oxide release from resting human platelets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Hellermann, G R; Solomonson, L P

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the release of nitric oxide from resting human platelets. Nitric oxide was detected and quantitated by either measuring the conversion of oxy-hemoglobin to met-hemoglobin or generation of nitrite and nitrate by the cells. Nitric oxide was released from both intact resting platelets and platelets activated by collagen. Nitric oxide release was proportional to platelet concentration, and was equivalent to approximately 4.5 +/- 0.6 pmol (or 2.8 +/- 0.3 pmol in the presence of prostaglandin I2) and 11.2 +/- 1.3 pmol nitric oxide released per minute per 10(8) cells at 37 degrees C for resting platelets and platelets activated by collagen, respectively. The generation of nitric oxide by resting platelets was linear with respect to time over a two hour period, while the release of nitric oxide from platelets following activation was transient and was linear for only the first 10 min, after which it slowed to completion at approximately 30 min. The release of nitric oxide was it slowed to completion at approximately 30 min. The release of nitric oxide was stimulated by L-arginine, but was inhibited by L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The inhibitory effect of L-NAME could be reversed by addition of L-arginine. The release of nitric oxide from platelets was also partially inhibited by prostaglandin I2, prostaglandin E1, aspirin and EDTA. The amount of nitric oxide released from resting platelets compared with that released from endothelial cells suggests that platelet-derived nitric oxide may play a significant role in the maintenance of vascular tone and blood flow. PMID:7701481

  18. Novel effects of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  19. Role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lubos, Edith; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade basic and clinical research has highlighted the central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease. Enhanced production or attenuated degradation of ROS leads to oxidative stress, a process that affects endothelial and vascular function, and contributes to vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO), a product of the normal endothelium, is a principal determinant of normal endothelial and vascular function. In states of inflammation, NO production by the vasculature increases considerably and, in conjunction with other ROS, contributes to oxidative stress. This review examines the role of oxidative stress and NO in mechanisms of endothelial and vascular dysfunction with an emphasis on atherothrombosis. PMID:18508590

  20. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  1. Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

  2. Airway nitric oxide in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, D.; Gustafsson, L.; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Frostell, C.; Paiva, M.

    2005-10-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO), a molecule with a wide range of biological effects, is found in exhaled gas. Elevation of expired NO is an early sign of airway inflammation in asthma and dust inhalation. Animal experiments have demonstrated a marked increase of expired NO after venous gas emboli (bubbles, VGE), which may occur after decompression in conjunction with extravehicular activity (EVA). For this MAP project, astronauts will perform a simple inhalation-exhalation procedure weekly during their flights, and before and after EVA. Furthermore, the microgravity environment offers a possibility to gain new insights into how and where NO is formed in the lungs and what local effects NO may have there. The planned experiments have been made possible by recent developments of new techniques by the team's industrial partners; Aerocrine has developed a highly compact and accurate NO analyser, and Linde Gas Theapeutics has developed a highly compact device for NO administration in the inhaled air.

  3. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  4. Nitric oxide signaling in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J David; Man, H S Jeffrey; Marsden, Philip A

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) is classically viewed as a regulator of vasomotor tone. NO plays an important role in regulating O(2) delivery through paracrine control of vasomotor tone locally and cardiovascular and respiratory responses centrally. Very soon after the cloning and functional characterization of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), studies on the interaction between O(2) and NO made the paradoxical finding that hypoxia led to decreases in eNOS expression and function. Why would decreases in O(2) content in tissues elicit a loss of a potent endothelial-derived vasodilator? We now know that restricting our view of NO as a regulator of vasomotor tone or blood pressure limited deeper levels of mechanistic insight. Exciting new studies indicate that functional interactions between NO and O(2) exhibit profound complexity and are relevant to diseases states, especially those associated with hypoxia in tissues. NOS isoforms catalytically require O(2). Hypoxia regulates steady-state expression of the mRNA and protein abundance of the NOS enzymes. Animals genetically deficient in NOS isoforms have perturbations in their ability to adapt to changes in O(2) supply or demand. Most interestingly, the intracellular pathways for O(2) sensing that evolved to ensure an appropriate balance of O(2) delivery and utilization intersect with NO signaling networks. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization and transcriptional activity is achieved through two parallel pathways: (1) a decrease in O(2)-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of HIF and (2) S-nitrosylation of HIF pathway components. Recent findings support a role for S-nitrosothiols as hypoxia-mimetics in certain biological and/or disease settings, such as living at high altitude, exposure to small molecules that can bind NO, or anemia. PMID:22349396

  5. Triple point determinations of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, 2.2 percent by weight nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Irwin D.; Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1977-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to ascertain the triple points of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. A laboratory method indicated a triple point for monomethylhydrazine, but tests in a large vacuum chamber indicated that a triple point does not occur in spacelike conditions because the mono-methylhydrazine tends to supercool. Instead, an effective freezing point (with agitation) was obtained. New experimental values for liquid monomethylhydrazine vapor pressure were determined for temperatures from 275.2 to 207.6 K. The values were used to derive vapor pressure equations. Tentative values were obtained for the effective freezing point of nitrogen tetroxide spacelike conditions.

  6. Cogeneration of electric energy and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Vayenas, C G; Farr, R D

    1980-05-01

    A solid electrolyte fuel cell operating on ammonia fuel has been constructed and tested. The yield of nitric oxide can exceed 60 percent with simultaneous electric energy production. Two dimensionless numbers have been identified which govern the product selectivity and power output of this fuel cell. The cell appears to be a promising candidate for nitric acid and electric energy cogeneration. PMID:17732844

  7. Nitric oxide synthase in ferret brain: localization and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell, J. A.; Schmidt, H. H.; Kohlhaas, K. L.; Warner, T. D.; Förstermann, U.; Murad, F.

    1992-01-01

    1. In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the ferret brain. Nitric oxide synthase was determined biochemically and immunochemically. 2. In the rat brain, the highest nitric oxide synthase activity has been detected in the cerebellum. However, in the ferret brain, the highest activity was found in the striatum and the lowest in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The enzymatic activity was localized predominantly in the cytosolic fractions, it was dependent on NADPH and Ca2+, and inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine or NG-methyl-L-arginine. 3. Western blot analysis revealed that all regions of the ferret brain contained a 160 kD protein crossreacting with an antibody to nitric oxide synthase purified from the rat cerebellum, and the levels of relative intensity of staining by the antibody correlated with the distribution of nitric oxide synthase activity. 4. These results indicate that the ferret brain contains a nitric oxide synthase similar to the rat brain, but the distribution of enzymatic activity in the ferret brain differs markedly from the rat brain. Images Figure 1 PMID:1282076

  8. Nitric oxide emissions from engineered soil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.J.; Aneja, V.P.

    2000-03-01

    Sophisticated laboratory equipment and procedures are developed and used in controlled experiments to measure nitric oxide (NO) emissions ranging from 42 to 75 ng N/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s from sludge-amended soil of concern to environmental engineers because nitric oxide emitted to the troposphere is a precursor to troublesome ozone formation and also of concern to agricultural engineers because valuable nitrogen as fertilizer is lost from the soil. Water-filled pore space is confirmed to be of critical importance to NO flux, and the upper layers of soil are determined to contribute the larger portion of the NO fluxing from the soil to the troposphere. More than 42% of the total NO flux comes from the top 1 cm of soil, with NO contributions decreasing exponentially with soil depth and very little if any tropospheric NO contributed from soil at a depth of 20 cm or greater. The results are discussed in terms of microbiological, chemical, and soil transport processes that influence NO flux from sludge-amended soil.

  9. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  10. Electrochemical assay for the determination of nitric oxide metabolites using copper(II) chlorophyllin modified screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Murugesan; Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a novel electrochemical assay for the collective measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and its metabolites nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) in volume miniaturized sample at low cost using copper(II) chlorophyllin (CuCP) modified sensor electrode. Zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used as a host matrix for the immobilization of CuCP. The morphological changes of the ZnO and CuCP modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization of CuCP-ZnO-SPCE exhibited the characteristic quasi-reversible redox peaks at the potential +0.06 V versus Ag/AgCl. This biosensor electrode showed a wide linear range of response over NO concentrations from 200 nM to 500 ?M with a detection limit of 100 nM and sensitivity of 85.4 nA ?M(-1). Furthermore, NO2(-) measurement showed linearity of 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 100 nM for NO2(-) and sensitivity of 96.4 nA ?M(-1). Then, the concentration of NO3(-) was measured after its enzymatic conversion into NO2(-). Using this assay, the concentrations of NO, NO2(-), and NO3(-) present in human plasma samples before and after beetroot supplement were estimated using suitable membrane coated CuCP-ZnO-SPCE and validated with the standard Griess method. PMID:25700865

  11. Nitric oxide : cellular effects in vitro and in vivo

    E-print Network

    Wright, Teresa Leah, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    The overall aim of this project was to investigate various cellular responses and toxic effects of nitric oxide, NO' and in vitro and in vivo. Nitric oxide gives rise to a complex spectrum of reactive species in oxygenated ...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  17. Copper deficiency attenuates endothelial nitric oxide release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary copper deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to deter...

  18. Analytical study of mechanisms for nitric oxide formation during combustion of methane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The role of chemical kinetics in the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of methane was examined analytically by means of a detailed chemical mechanism for the oxidation of methane, for the reaction between hydrocarbon fragments, and for the formation of nitric oxide. By comparing predicted nitric oxide levels with values reported in the literature from jet-stirred combuster experiments, it was determined that the nitric oxide levels observed in fuel-rich flames cannot be described by a mechanism in which the rate of nitric oxide formation is controlled solely by the kinetics of oxygen atom formation. A proposed mechanism for the formation of nitric oxide in methane-rich flames reproduces the observed levels. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide appears to be an important factor in nitric oxide formation.

  19. Activated Macrophages as a Novel Determinant of Tumor Cell Radioresponse: The Role of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition of Cellular Respiration and Oxygen Sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Heng; De Ridder, Mark; Verovski, Valeri N.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Law, Kalun; Monsaert, Christinne; Van den Berge, Dirk L.; Verellen, Dirk; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard; Storme, Guy A.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is known to inhibit metabolic oxygen consumption because of interference with mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study examined whether activation of iNOS (a) directly in tumor cells or (b) in bystander macrophages may improve radioresponse through sparing of oxygen. Methods and Materials: EMT-6 tumor cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma, and examined for iNOS expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzymatic activity. Tumor cells alone, or combined with macrophages were subjected to metabolic hypoxia and analyzed for radiosensitivity by clonogenic assay, and for oxygen consumption by electron paramagnetic resonance and a Clark-type electrode. Results: Both tumor cells and macrophages displayed a coherent picture of iNOS induction at transcriptional/translational levels and NO/nitrite production, whereas macrophages showed also co-induction of the inducible heme oxygenase-1, which is associated with carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin production. Activation of iNOS in tumor cells resulted in a profound oxygen sparing and a 2.3-fold radiosensitization. Bystander NO-producing, but not CO-producing, macrophages were able to block oxygen consumption by 1.9-fold and to radiosensitize tumor cells by 2.2-fold. Both effects could be neutralized by aminoguanidine, a metabolic iNOS inhibitor. An improved radioresponse was clearly observed at macrophages to tumor cells ratios ranging between 1:16 to 1:1. Conclusions: Our study is the first, as far as we are aware, to provide evidence that iNOS may induce radiosensitization through oxygen sparing, and illuminates NO-producing macrophages as a novel determinant of tumor cell radioresponse within the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  20. Rate of Nitric Oxide Scavenging by hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Ivan; He, Xiaojun; Jeffers, Anne; Basu, Swati; Ucer, Burak; Hantgan, Roy R.; Levy, Andrew; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-free hemoglobin, released from the red cell, may play a major role in regulating the bioavailability of nitric oxide. The abundant serum protein haptoglobin, rapidly binds to free hemoglobin forming a stable complex accelerating its clearance. The haptoglobin gene is polymorphic with two classes of alleles denoted 1 and 2. We have previously demonstrated that the haptoglobin 1 protein-hemoglobin complex is cleared twice as fast as the haptoglobin 2 protein-hemoglobin complex. In this report we explored whether haptoglobin binding to hemoglobin reduces the rate of nitric oxide scavenging using time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. We found that both the haptoglobin 1 and haptoglobin 2 protein complexes react with nitric oxide at the same rate as unbound cell-free hemoglobin. To confirm these results we developed a novel assay where free hemoglobin and hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin competed in the reaction with NO. The relative rate of the NO reaction was then determined by examining the amount of reacted species using analytical ultracentrifugation. Since complexation of hemoglobin with haptoglobin does not reduce NO scavenging, we propose that the haptoglobin genotype may influence nitric oxide bioavailability by determining the clearance rate of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. We provide computer simulations showing that a two-fold difference in the rate of uptake of the haptoglobin hemoglobin complex by macrophages significantly affects nitric oxide bioavailability thereby providing a plausible explanation for why there is more vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in individuals and transgenic mice homozygous for the Hp 2 allele. PMID:18364244

  1. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)-a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells. PMID:26390975

  2. Endogenous nitric oxide generation in protoplast chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Prommer, Judith; Watanabe, Masami

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : NO generation is studied in the protoplast chloroplasts. NO, ONOO ( - ) and ROS (O ( 2 ) ( - ) and H ( 2 ) O ( 2 ) ) are generated in chloroplasts. Nitric oxide synthase-like protein appears to be involved in NO generation. Nitric oxide stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast differentiation. The present study was conducted to better understand the process of NO generation in the leaf chloroplasts and protoplasts. NO, peroxynitrite and superoxide anion were investigated in the protoplasts and isolated chloroplasts using specific dyes, confocal laser scanning and light microscopy. The level of NO was highest after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Suppression of NO signal in the presence of PTIO, suggests that diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA) detected NO. Detection of peroxynitrite, a reaction product of NO and superoxide anion, further suggests NO generation. Moreover, generation of NO and peroxynitrite in the chloroplasts of wild-type Arabidopsis and their absence or weak signals in the leaf-derived protoplasts of Atnoa1 mutants confirmed the reactivity of DAF-2DA and aminophenyl fluorescein to NO and peroxynitrite, respectively. Isolated chloroplasts also showed signal of NO. Suppression of NO signal in the presence of 100 ?M nitric oxide synthase inhibitors [L-NNA, N?-nitro-L-arginine and PBIT, S,S'-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)-bis-isothiourea] revealed that nitric oxide synthase-like system is involved in NO synthesis. Suppression of NO signal in the protoplasts isolated in the presence of cycloheximide suggests de novo synthesis of NO generating protein during the process of protoplast isolation. Furthermore, the lack of inhibition of NO production by sodium tungstate (250 ?M) and inhibition by L-NNA, and PBIT suggest involvement NOS-like protein, but not nitrate reductase, in NO generation in the leaf chloroplasts and protoplasts. PMID:22971939

  3. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  4. Detection of hydrazine compounds in gaseous samples by their conversion to nitric oxide-yielding derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rounbehler, D.P.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a method of detecting the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in a gaseous sample, essentially in real time. The method consists of the steps of: (a) contacting a gaseous sample with aldehyde or ketone vapors to convert hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the sample to hydrazine derivatives; (b) heating the sample in the presence of an oxidant to decompose derivatives produced in steps (a) to produce nitric oxide gas; and (c) determining the amount of nitric oxide gas produced in step (b), wherein any nitric oxide gas determined is indicative of the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the gaseous sample.

  5. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of askale coal by nitric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guru, M.

    2007-07-01

    Efficient use of fossil fuels is of utmost importance in a world that depends on these for the greatest part of its energy needs. Although lignite is a widely used fossil fuel, its sulfur content limits its consumption. This study aims to capture combustible sulfur in the ash by oxidizing it with solution of nitric acid solution. Thus, the combustible sulfur in the coal was converted to sulfate form in the ash. Parameters affecting the conversion of sulfur were determined to be nitric acid concentration, reaction time and mean particle size at constant (near room) temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 38.7% of the original combustible sulfur with 0.3 M nitric acid solution, 16 h of reaction time and 0.1 mm mean particle size.

  7. Splenic B lymphocyte programmed cell death is prevented by nitric oxide release through mechanisms involving sustained Bcl-2 levels.

    PubMed Central

    Genaro, A M; Hortelano, S; Alvarez, A; Martínez, C; Boscá, L

    1995-01-01

    Incubation of ex vivo cultured mature B cells in the presence of nitric oxide or nitric oxide-donor substances delays programmed cell death as determined by the appearance of DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis or by flow-cytometry analysis of DNA. Nitric oxide also rescues B cells from antigen-induced apoptosis but fails to provide a co-stimulatory signal that converts the signal elicited by the antigen into a proliferative response. The protective effects of nitric oxide against programmed cell death can be reproduced by treatment of the cells with permeant analogues of cyclic GMP. Regarding the mechanisms by which nitric oxide prevents apoptosis in B cells, we have observed that nitric oxide release prevents the drop in the expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, both at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the existence of an unknown pathway that links nitric oxide signaling with Bcl-2 expression. Images PMID:7706495

  8. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen . Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  10. Oleic AcidDependent Modulation of NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED1 Protein Levels Regulates Nitric

    E-print Network

    Kachroo, Pradeep

    ). Linolenic acid is involved in protein modifications in heat-stressed plants (Yamauchi et al., 2008). FAs exclusively in the plastids of all plant cells and leads to the synthesis of palmitic acid and oleic acid (18Oleic Acid­Dependent Modulation of NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED1 Protein Levels Regulates Nitric Oxide

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia). The ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea also possesses a functional nitric oxide reductase subunit of nitric oxide reductase (norB) were obtained from eight additional strains of ammonia

  12. Transport of Nitric Oxide by Perfluorocarbon Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel; Briceño, Juan C.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions can transport and release various gases based on concentration gradients. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of carrying and delivering exogenous nitric oxide (NO) into the circulation by simply loading PFC emulsion with NO prior infusion. PFC was equilibrated with room air (PFC) or 300 ppm NO (PFC-NO) at atmospheric pressure. Isotonic saline solution was used as a volume control (Saline). PFC and PFC-NO were infused at a dose of 3.5 mL/kg in the hamster window chamber model. Blood chemistry, and systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response were measured. Infusion of PFC preloaded with NO reduced blood pressure, induced microvascular vasodilation and increased capillary perfusion; although these changes lasted less than 30 min post infusion. On the other hand, infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction; however, the vasoconstriction was followed by vasodilatation at 30 min post infusion. Plasma nitrite and nitrate increased 15 min after infusion of NO preloaded PFC compared to PFC, 60 min after infusion nitrite and nitrate were not different, and 90 min after infusion plasma S-nitrosothiols increased in both groups. Infusion of NO preloaded PFC resulted in acute vascular relaxation, where as infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction, potentially due to NO sequestration by the PFC micelles. The late effects of PFC infusion are due to NO redistribution and plasma S-nitrosothiols. Gas solubility in PFC can provide a tool to modulate plasma vasoactive NO forms availability and improve microcirculatory function and promote increased blood flow. PMID:23966236

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen and hypoxia alter production of nitric oxide by J774 murine macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Burden, Kyland Irle

    1995-01-01

    (LPS). Production of nitric oxide was assayed spectrophotometrically by determining concentrations of nitrite in cellular supernatant. Results were expressed as [LM nitrite concentration and as the percent change of nitrite concentration from control...

  14. Nitric oxide reactions of bio-Inspired zinc and cobalt complexes

    E-print Network

    Kozhukh, Julia, 1985-

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1. Bioinorganic Chemistry of Nitric Oxide and of Some of Its Targets The redox-active nature of nitric oxide (NO) regulates the chemistry and roles of NO in biology. The interactions of NO with nitric oxide synthases, ...

  15. Nitric oxide may mediate nipple erection.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Murat; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sanli, Oner; Asoglu, Oktar; Kadioglu, Ates

    2012-01-01

    The nipple is a specialized structure that can become erect by cold, sexual arousal, breast-feeding, or other tactile stimulations, which can induce the milk ejection reflex and sexual arousal because of intense sensory innervation. The studies that have been conducted thus far to identify the mechanism of nipple erection (NE) are not sufficient. It has been stated that NE occurs via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and smooth muscle contraction. The purposes of this study were to investigate the existence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the nipple-areola complex (NAC) to explain the NE mechanism. Considering that smooth muscle relaxation might be effective in NE, endothelial and neuronal NOS expression and localization were investigated via immunohistochemical methods on sagittal sections from 17 human NACs. The results of this study indicate that eNOS is expressed in the vascular endothelium, ductal epithelium, and smooth muscles, whereas nNOS is expressed in the neural fibers, smooth muscles, ductal epithelium, and vascular endothelium in the NAC. Sinusoidal spaces with endothelial layers similar to those found in penile cavernosal tissue are not found in the NAC. Various mediators are known to affect the function of the NAC smooth muscles; however, this study demonstrates that enzymes (eNOS and nNOS) that synthesize nitric oxide are expressed in the NAC. PMID:22207705

  16. Melatonin and its precursors scavenge nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Y.; Mori, A.; Liburdy, R.; Packer, L.

    1998-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of melatonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan was examined by the Griess reaction using flow injection analysis. 1-Hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene(NOC-7) was used as NO generator. The Griess reagent stoichiometrically reacts with NO2-, which was converted by a cadmium-copper reduction column from the stable end products of NO oxidation. Except for tryptophan, all the compounds examined scavenged NO in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested. Serotonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively, showed moderate scavenging activity compared to melatonin. Tryptophan, which has neither a methoxy nor a hydroxyl group in the 5-position, exhibited the least NO scavenging activity.

  17. Modelling the Role of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Autoregulation

    E-print Network

    Mark Catherall

    2015-12-30

    Malfunction of the system which regulates the bloodflow in the brain is a major cause of stroke and dementia, costing many lives and many billions of pounds each year in the UK alone. This regulatory system, known as cerebral autoregulation, has been the subject of much experimental and mathematical investigation yet our understanding of it is still quite limited. One area in which our understanding is particularly lacking is that of the role of nitric oxide, understood to be a potent vasodilator. The interactions of nitric oxide with the better understood myogenic response remain un-modelled and poorly understood. In this thesis we present a novel model of the arteriolar control mechanism, comprising a mixture of well-established and new models of individual processes, brought together for the first time. We show that this model is capable of reproducing experimentally observed behaviour very closely and go on to investigate its stability in the context of the vasculature of the whole brain. In conclusion we find that nitric oxide, although it plays a central role in determining equilibrium vessel radius, is unimportant to the dynamics of the system and its responses to variation in arterial blood pressure. We also find that the stability of the system is very sensitive to the dynamics of Ca$^{2+}$ within the muscle cell, and that self-sustaining Ca$^{2+}$ waves are not necessary to cause whole-vessel radius oscillations consistent with vasomotion.

  18. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked…

  19. The Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-17

    To assess the importance of iron to hydrazine stability, the study of hydrazine oxidation by nitric acid has been extended to investigate the iron-catalyzed oxidation. This report describes those results.

  20. Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds

    E-print Network

    Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

  1. The latitudinal gradient of nitric oxide in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Gerard, J.-C.; Stewart, A. I.; Rusch, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of nitric oxide altitude profiles are made at five different latitudes by using neutral temperatures and composition primarily from the MSIS (mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter) model. The nitric oxide calculated for an altitude of 105 km remains nearly constant with increasing latitude. Observations made by the ultraviolet nitric oxide instrument on the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite show that at low magnetic activity (Ap value of approximately 4), the NO density at 105 km agrees with the theory; however, at moderate levels of activity it increases with latitude. This discrepancy between the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients of nitric oxide suggests the transport of NO from a high latitude source to lower latitudes. At 200 km the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients are in reasonable agreement, an indication that the knowledge of the local composition and temperature is sufficient to model nitric oxide at this altitude.

  2. Plant pathogenic Streptomyces species produce nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in response to host signals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking...

  3. Nitric Oxide Signaling and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tao Li, Jessica; Somasundaram, Chandra; Bian, Ka; Xiong, Weijun; Mahmooduddin, Faiz; Nath, Rahul K.; Murad, Ferid

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to examine whether nitric oxide signaling plays a role in human embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural cells. This article reviews current literature on nitric oxide signaling and neural stem cell differentiation for potential therapeutic application to peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Human embryonic H9-stem cells were grown, maintained on mitomycin C–treated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer, cultured on Matrigel to be feeder-free, and used for all the experiments. Fluorescent dual-immunolabeling and confocal image analysis were used to detect the presence of the neural precursor cell markers nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the percentage of expression. Results: We have shown the confocal image of stage 1 human embryonic stem cells coexpressing nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated 24.3% positive labeling of nitric oxide synthase-1. Adding retinoic acid (10?6 M) to the culture medium increased the percent of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 33.9%. Combining retinoic acid (10?6 M) with 8-brom cyclic guanosine monophosphate (10?5 M), the fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated a further increase of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 45.4%. Our current results demonstrate a prodifferentiation potency of nitric oxide synthase-1, stimulated by retinoic acid with and without cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time how nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling contributes to the development of neural precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells and enhances the differentiation of precursors toward functional neurons for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:20563304

  4. Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, A.S.; López-Rodríguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z.; Saavedra-Alanís, V.M.; Llamazares-Azuara, L.; Rodríguez-Martínez, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP?LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi?10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ?50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P?0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT. PMID:24141614

  5. The emerging multifaceted roles of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, P C; Schroeder, R A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical with a multitude of organ specific regulatory functions. Since 1985, NO has been the subject of numerous research efforts and as a result, has been found to play a major role in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous systems. In addition, deranged NO synthesis is the basis for a number of pathophysiologic states, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, pyloric stenosis, and the hypertension associated with renal failure. Traditional NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside and new pharmacologic NO adducts such as S-nitrosothiols may serve as exogenous sources of NO for the treatment of NO-deficient pathologic states. This review is an attempt to acquaint the surgical community with the fundamentals of NO biochemistry and physiology. Increased knowledge of its functions in normal homeostasis and pathologic states will enable physicians to better understand these disease processes and utilize new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:7717775

  6. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  7. Nitric oxide, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nagy, György; Clark, Joanna M; Buzás, Edit I; Gorman, Claire L; Cope, Andrew P

    2007-07-31

    Whilst many physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) have been revealed so far, recent evidence proposes an essential role for NO in T lymphocyte activation and signal transduction. NO acts as a second messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in signal transduction pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Several studies undertaken on patients with RA and SLE have documented increased endogenous NO synthesis, although the effects of NO may be distinct. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO contributes to T cell dysfunction in both SLE and RA by altering multiple signaling pathways in T cells. Although NO may play a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may perturb T cell activation, differentiation and effector responses, each of which may contribute in different ways to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17568690

  8. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  9. Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.

    PubMed

    Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere. PMID:24797527

  10. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  11. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  12. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  13. Fast Ferrous Heme-NO Oxidation in Nitric Oxide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, Jesús; Santolini, Jérôme; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    During catalysis, the heme in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) binds NO before releasing it to the environment. Oxidation of the NOS ferrous heme-NO complex by O2 is key for catalytic cycling, but the mechanism is unclear. We utilized stopped-flow methods to study reaction of O2 with ferrous heme-NO complexes of the inducible and neuronal NOS enzymes. We found that the reaction does not involve heme-NO dissociation, but instead proceeds by a rapid, direct reaction of O2 with the ferrous heme-NO complex. This behavior is novel and may distinguish heme-thiolate enzymes like NOS from related heme proteins. PMID:19691141

  14. The global distribution of nitric oxide at 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide at 200 km by the ultraviolet nitric oxide experiment on Atmosphere Explorer D are used to demonstrate the dependence of NO on latitude, longitude, and magnetic activity. NO is more abundant in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere and is more abundant during magnetically active times than during quiet times. A simple photochemical theory is used to show that the knowledge of local composition and temperature is sufficient to explain the variations of nitric oxide at this altitude.

  15. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  17. Hydrogen peroxide differentially modulates cardiac myocyte nitric oxide synthesis

    E-print Network

    Sartoretto, Juliano

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(subscript 2)O(subscript 2)) are synthesized within cardiac myocytes and play key roles in modulating cardiovascular signaling. Cardiac myocytes contain both the endothelial (eNOS) ...

  18. Prediction of nitric oxide concentrations during inflammation and carcinogenesis

    E-print Network

    Chin, Melanie Pei-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a biological messenger which is synthesized enzymatically throughout the body and which has numerous physiological functions, including roles in blood pressure control, regulation of clotting, and ...

  19. Controlled delivery of nitric oxide for cytotoxicity studies

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chen, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is essential for many physiological functions, including the immune defense. However, the sustained, high production of NO by immune cells (macrophages) that accompanies chronic ...

  20. Nitric Oxide/EDRF Signaling: Erectile dysfunction and other

    E-print Network

    Wang, Edith

    . Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning " nitric oxide as a signaling School of Medicine Los Angeles Ferid Murad, born 1936 Dept. of Integrative Biology Pharmacology

  1. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of...

  6. Detecting and Understanding the Roles of Nitric Oxide in biology

    E-print Network

    Tonzetich, Zachary J.

    We are pursuing a dual strategy for investigating the chemistry of nitric oxide as a biological signaling agent. In one approach, metal-based fluorescent sensors for the detection of NO in living cells are evaluated, and ...

  7. Generation, Translocation, and Action of Nitric Oxide in Living Systems

    E-print Network

    Tennyson, Andrew G.

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous diatomic radical that is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions in biology. Conceptually, the biochemistry of NO can be separated into three stages: generation ...

  8. Modifications in the nitric acid oxidation of D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler N; Hash, Kirk; Davey, Cara-Lee; Mills, Heidi; Williams, Holly; Kiely, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The nitric acid oxidation of D-glucose was reinvestigated in an effort to better understand and improve the oxidation and subsequent work up steps. The oxidation was carried out using a computer controlled reactor employing a closed reaction flask under an atmosphere of oxygen which allowed for a catalytic oxidation process with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. Removal of nitric acid from product included the use of both diffusion dialysis and nanofiltration methodologies. Product analysis protocols were developed using ion chromatography. PMID:22285512

  9. The Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-02

    Hydrazine nitrate-nitric acid solutions are used in the ion exchange process for separating Pu-238 and Np-237 and have been found to dissolve plutonium metal in a manner advantageous to SRP metal recovery operations. Laboratory tests on the stability of hydrazine in nitric acid solutions were performed to obtain accurate data, and the results of these tests are reported here. These tests provide sufficient information to specify temperature control for hydrazine-nitric acid solutions in plant processes.

  10. Obesity, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Raymond M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.; Tanner, Charles J.; Pierce, Joseph R.; Choi, Myung Dong

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (SI). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. SI was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (?43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on SI (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions. PMID:22797309

  11. The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23958488

  12. Increased serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in patients with acute intestinal amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nam?duru, ES; Tarakç?o?lu, M; Nam?duru, M; Kocaba?, R; Erba?c?, B; Meram, I; Karao?lan, I; Y?lmaz, N; Çekmen, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the level of oxygen-nitrogen stress parameters in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Methods Twenty-four acute intestinal amebiasis patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were determined spectrophotometrically. Results Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in acute intestinal amebiasis patients than healthy controls (P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that oxidative and nitrosative stress may play a major role in tissue damage in acute intestinal amebiasis patients. Also these parameters can be used to supplement the conventional microscopic method for reliable diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis. PMID:23569817

  13. Nitric oxide and teratogenesis: an update.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), generated by NO synthase (NOS) enzymes, is an important bioactive molecule involved in the regulation of several biological phenomena that are crucial for organogenesis, including gene expression, cell growth, matrix remolding, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of NOS isoforms in embryonic tissues is temporally and spatially regulated, and disruption of endogenous NO can lead to developmental defects. Maternal treatment with pan NOS inhibitors during early organogenesis caused severe malformations of the axial skeleton. In utero exposure during the fetal period induced limb reduction defects of vascular origin. Knock-out mice have been used to define the role of the various NOS isoforms on the origin of the abnormal development. Cardiovascular malformations, limb reduction defects, reduced growth and reduced survival have been observed in knock-out mice with targeted disruption of endothelial NOS (eNOS). Limited morphological changes were observed in mice lacking inducible NOS (iNOS) or neuronal NOS n(NOS). Results obtained with in vitro studies suggest that optimal levels of NO are required for neural tube closure. Disregulation of NO production was also recently proposed as a contributing mechanism in the origin of malformations associated with exposure to known environmental teratogens, such as valproic acid, thalidomide, copper deficiency, and diabetes. PMID:24502594

  14. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  15. Nitric oxide modulates sensitivity to ABA

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas with crucial signaling functions in plant defense and development. As demonstrated by generating a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant with extremely low levels of NO (February 2010 issue of Plant Physiology), NO is synthesized in plants through mainly two different pathways involving nitrate reductase (NR/NIA) and NO Associated 1 (AtNOA1) proteins. Depletion of basal NO levels leads to a priming of ABA-triggered responses that causes hypersensitivity to this hormone and results in enhanced seed dormancy and decreased seed germination and seedling establishment in the triple mutant. NO produced under non-stressed conditions represses inhibition of seed developmental transitions by ABA. Moreover, NO plays a positive role in post-germinative vegetative development and also exerts a critical control of ABA-related functions on stomata closure. The triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA in stomatal closure thus resulting in a extreme phenotype of resistance to drought. In the light of the recent discovery of PYR/PYL/RCAR as a family of potential ABA receptors, regulation of ABA sensitivity by NO may be exerted either directly on ABA receptors or on downstream signalling components; both two aspects that deserve our present and future attention. PMID:20168082

  16. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure-activity-relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03?Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73?Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  17. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  18. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology. PMID:23136136

  19. Hemoglobin: a nitric-oxide dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in Leishmania infantum-infected human macrophages stimulated with interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Panaro, M A; Acquafredda, A; Lisi, S; Lofrumento, D D; Trotta, T; Satalino, R; Saccia, M; Mitolo, V; Brandonisio, O

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide produced by an inducible nitric oxide synthase constitutes one of the main microbicidal mechanisms of murine macrophages and its importance is now being recognized for human macrophages. In this study we evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, nitric oxide release, and parasitocidal ability of Leishmania infantum-infected monocyte-derived human macrophages. The inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting and nitric oxide production was measured by the Griess reaction for nitrites. Parasite killing was microscopically evaluated by fluorescent dyes. Experiments were performed on macrophages with or without previous stimulation with recombinant human interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide release were higher in Leishmania-infected stimulated macrophages than in uninfected cells or infected cells without previous stimulation. Nitric oxide production and parasitocidal activity against Leishmania infantum were reduced in macrophages treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G) monomethylarginine. These results suggest a microbicidal role for nitric oxide in human leishmaniasis, with the possible practical application of immunological or pharmacological regulation of nitric oxide synthesis in the treatment of this infection. PMID:10592110

  1. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen has been studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principal result of the study was the determination of the rate constant k1 for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles. The data are fit closely by the expression k1 = 1.34 times 10 to the fourteenth power exp(-49 200/RT) cu cm/mole-sec. These data appear to be the first available for this rate constant.

  2. Auxin and nitric oxide control indeterminate nodule formation

    PubMed Central

    Pii, Youry; Crimi, Massimo; Cremonese, Giorgia; Spena, Angelo; Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    Background Rhizobia symbionts elicit root nodule formation in leguminous plants. Nodule development requires local accumulation of auxin. Both plants and rhizobia synthesise auxin. We have addressed the effects of bacterial auxin (IAA) on nodulation by using Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria genetically engineered for increased auxin synthesis. Results IAA-overproducing S. meliloti increased nodulation in Medicago species, whilst the increased auxin synthesis of R. leguminosarum had no effect on nodulation in Phaseolus vulgaris, a legume bearing determinate nodules. Indeterminate legumes (Medicago species) bearing IAA-overproducing nodules showed an enhanced lateral root development, a process known to be regulated by both IAA and nitric oxide (NO). Higher NO levels were detected in indeterminate nodules of Medicago plants formed by the IAA-overproducing rhizobia. The specific NO scavenger cPTIO markedly reduced nodulation induced by wild type and IAA-overproducing strains. Conclusion The data hereby presented demonstrate that auxin synthesised by rhizobia and nitric oxide positively affect indeterminate nodule formation and, together with the observation of increased expression of an auxin efflux carrier in roots bearing nodules with higher IAA and NO content, support a model of nodule formation that involves auxin transport regulation and NO synthesis. PMID:17488509

  3. Shape- and nitric oxide flux-dependent bactericidal activity of nitric oxide-releasing silica nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Slomberg, Danielle L; Sun, Bin; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2013-06-24

    Silica nanorods (SNRs) are synthesized and then functionalized with aminoalkoxysilanes to prepare a new class of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials. The aspect ratio and size of the SNRs are tuned by varying the temperature, pH, and silane concentration used during the surfactant-templated synthesis. N-Diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors are formed on the secondary amine-functionalized SNRs by reaction with NO gas under basic conditions. Particle surface modifications are employed to manipulate the NO release kinetics. The diverse morphology (i.e., aspect ratio ?1-8), NO-release kinetics (2000-14,000 ppb NO/mg particle) and similar sizes (i.e., particle volume ?0.02 ?m³) of the resulting NO-releasing SNRs facilitates further studies of how particle shape and NO flux impacts bactericidal activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The bactericidal efficacies of these materials improves with increasing particle aspect ratio and initial NO flux. Both chemical (i.e., NO-release kinetics) and physical (i.e., morphology) properties greatly influenced the bactericidal activity of these materials. PMID:23362159

  4. Studies in nitric oxide mutagenesis in e. coli and s. typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Elespuru, R.K.; Mark, T.W.

    1995-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic and bio-regulatory molecule produced endogenously in response to varying stimuli. It has been shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations in Salmonella typhimurium as well as in mammalian systems. In exploring the mechanism of mutation generation by nitric oxide, several problems have become apparent. One arises from the evidence that different sources of nitric oxide, i.e. gaseous NO or No generated from drugs, behave differently both chemically and biologically. Hence, experiments with the two sources of NO are not comparable. In addition, an oxidation product of nitric oxide, No{sub 2}, is a DNA-strand breaking agent and may contribute to the genetic effects observed, especially from bubbled NO. While Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 is readily mutable by NO-delivering drugs, E. coli B strain WU3610 (wild type for DNA repair) has proved to be non-mutable. The experiments of Hartman and colleagues with sodium nitrite indicate a greatly enhanced sensitivity to mutation induction in UV repair-deficient strains and in certain target DNA sequences. We have sought to determine if the sodium nitrite model also fits nitric oxide. Contrary to expectations, however, the uvrA derivative of WU3610 is not mutable by SperNO, the most potent NO-delivering drug for Salmonella TA1535.

  5. The Nitric Acid Oxidation of Selected Alcohols and Ketones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Shows that nitric acid can be used as a rapid, versatile, and economical oxidant for selected organic substances. The experiments (with background information, procedures, and results provided) require one three-hour laboratory period but could serve as open-ended projects since substrates not described could be oxidized. (JN)

  6. Identification of gene variants related to the nitric oxide pathway in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umman, B; Cakmakoglu, B; Cincin, Z B; Kocaaga, M; Emet, S; Tamer, S; Gokkusu, C

    2015-12-10

    Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is known to have an essential role in the atherosclerotic process by releasing mediators including nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide maintains endothelial balance by controlling cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence suggests that variations in the NO pathway could include atherosclerotic events. The objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of genes on the nitric oxide pathway in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The blood samples of 100 patients with ACS and 100 controls were collected at Istanbul University, Department of Cardiology. DNA samples were genotyped by using Illumina Cyto-SNP-12 BeadChip. The additive model and Correlation/Trend Test were selected for association analysis. Afterwards, a Q-Q graphic was drawn to compare expected and obtained values. A Manhattan plot was produced to display p-values that were generated by -log10(P) function for each SNP. The p-values under 1×10(-4) were selected as statistically significant SNPs while p-values under 5×10(-2) were considered as suspicious biomarker candidates. Nitric oxide pathway analysis was then used to find the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to ACS. As a result, death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK) (rs10426955) was found to be most statistically significant SNP. The most suspicious biomarker candidates associated with the nitric oxide pathway analysis were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-1). Further studies with large sample groups are necessary to clarify the exact role of nitric oxide in the development of disease. PMID:26232608

  7. Nitric oxide synthase neurones and neuromuscular behaviour of the anorectum.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbing, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Intensive research into the biological roles of nitric oxide has shown that this tiny molecule is of vital physiological significance in numerous organ systems including the gastrointestinal tract, where nitric oxide has been proposed as an inhibitory enteric neurotransmitter. This paper outlines experiments using retrograde neuronal tracing and enzyme histochemistry in a guinea-pig model which provided the first direct anatomical evidence of a descending nitrergic rectoanal neuronal pathway appropriate to mediating relaxation of the internal anal sphincter during the rectoanal inhibitory reflex. Studies of human tissue showed that the in vitro responses of isolated strips of human rectum were typical of non-sphincter specialized gastrointestinal smooth muscle, that nitric oxide is involved in neurogenic relaxation of the rectum and that nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry identified a subpopulation of neurones in the myenteric ganglia and immunoreactive profiles within both layers of the muscularis propria of human rectum. Taken together, these data provide pharmacological and anatomical support for the hypothesis that nitric oxide acts as a functionally important mediator in the innervation of human anorectum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:9623382

  8. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nianzhen Li

    2002-06-27

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca{sup 2+} elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca{sup 2+} elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca{sup 2+} wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca{sup 2+}, possibly through store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca{sup 2+} change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca{sup 2+} using fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca{sup 2+} elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca{sup 2+} wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting that NO modulates glutamate release from astrocytes or glutamate receptor sensitivity of neurons.

  9. Nitric oxide and exercise in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P C; Marlin, D J; Demoncheaux, E; Scott, C; Casas, I; Smith, N C; Higenbottam, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal opening was lower when collected at a high flow rate of 80 l min-1 than at a low flow rate of 20 l min-1: when trotting at 3.7 m s-1 the values were 0.78 +/- 0.15 and 1.23 +/- 9.14 p.p.b., respectively, and when cantering at 9 m s-1 the values were 1.69 +/- 0.31 and 2.25 +/- 0.32 p.p.b., respectively. 3. Nebulized methoxamine (40 mg ml-1 for 60 s), an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, further reduced [NO] during the 9 m s-1 canter to 1.05 +/- 0.14 and 1.99 +/- 0.41 p.p.b. when collected at 80 and 20 l min-1, respectively, and induced cyclical changes in the breathing pattern. 4. Exercise induced a linear increase in VNO with work intensity to a maximum (428.1 +/- 31.6 pmol min-1 kg-1) which coincided with the maximal oxygen uptake for the horses (138.3 +/- 11.7 ml min-1 kg-1), although a further increase in VNO (779.3 +/- 38.4 pmol min-1 kg-1) occurred immediately after exercise. The changes in VNO correlated well with the tidal volume (r = 0.968; P < 0.01) and the haematocrit (r = 0.855; P < 0.01). 5. In the first 2 min of high intensity exercise, inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pulmonary artery pressure: during the first minute, pulmonary artery pressure was 83.1 +/- 7.6 mmHg compared with a control value of 94.4 +/- 6.3 mmHg, and during the second minute, 84.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg compared with a control value of 98.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg. There were no other significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory indices, including cardiac output, measured during exercise between control and inhaled NO tests. 6. The results show that exhaled NO is released from the airways of the horse and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. PMID:8887788

  10. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The reaction kinetics were studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principle result of the study was the determination of the rate constant for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k sub 1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles.

  11. A high-altitude rocket measurement of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The nitric oxide density was measured from 110 to 300 km by a rocket photometer during the day. The small measured peak density, about 6.2 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm at 111 km, can probably be attributed to the period of very low solar magnetic activity preceding the rocket flight. This experiment was coordinated with a similar measurement made by the Ultraviolet Nitric Oxide Experiment aboard the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite; the measurements are in good agreement. The altitude resolution (less than 1 km) and sensitivity (1600 counts/R/s) greatly exceed those of previous measurements. Comparison to a model shows agreement above 200 km but less nitric oxide and more structure below that.

  12. Global morphology of nitric oxide in the lower E region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Stewart, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide at 105 km by the ultraviolet nitric oxide experiment on Atmosphere Explorer C are presented. The amount of nitric oxide in the lower E region is shown to depend on latitude, longitude, and magnetic activity. Near the equator the density at the peak of the NO layer is typically about 2 x 10 to the 7th power/cu cm and varies little with longitude or magnetic activity, except during major storms. At high latitudes (up to 68 deg geographic latitude), peak densities are typically 2 or 3 times larger and much more variable. A longitudinal dependence is found in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates, with minimum densities found near 45 deg E geomagnetic longitude and maxima near 135 deg W geomagnetic longitude. At 40 deg dip latitude the half amplitude is about 30%.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase in macula densa regulates glomerular capillary pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C S; Welch, W J; Murad, F; Gross, S S; Taylor, G; Levi, R; Schmidt, H H

    1992-01-01

    Tubular-fluid reabsorption by specialized cells of the nephron at the junction of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule, termed the macula densa, releases compounds causing vasoconstriction of the adjacent afferent arteriole. Activation of this tubuloglomerular feedback response reduces glomerular capillary pressure of the nephron and, hence, the glomerular filtration rate. The tubuloglomerular feedback response functions in a negative-feedback mode to relate glomerular capillary pressure to tubular-fluid delivery and reabsorption. This system has been implicated in renal autoregulation, renin release, and longterm body fluid and blood-pressure homeostasis. Here we report that arginine-derived nitric oxide, generated in the macula densa, is an additional intercellular signaling molecule that is released during tubular-fluid reabsorption and counters the vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Antibody to rat cerebellar constitutive nitric oxide synthase stained rat macula densa cells specifically. Microperfusion of the macula densa segment of single nephrons with N omega-methyl-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) or with pyocyanin (a lipid-soluble inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxation factor) showed that generation of nitric oxide can vasodilate the afferent arteriole and increase glomerular capillary pressure; this effect was blocked by drugs that prevent tubular-fluid reabsorption. We conclude that nitric oxide synthase in macula densa cells is activated by tubular-fluid reabsorption and mediates a vasodilating component to the tubuloglomerular feedback response. These findings imply a role for arginine-derived nitric oxide in body fluid-volume and blood-pressure homeostasis, in addition to its established roles in modulation of vascular tone by the endothelium and in neurotransmission. Images PMID:1281548

  14. Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

  15. Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing

    E-print Network

    Lim, Mi Hee

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

  16. Shear stress regulation of nitric oxide production in uterine and placental artery endothelial cells

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    ; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; L-NAME, Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NNMA, NG- monomethyl-L-arginine acetate; NO, nitric oxide. resistance falls dramatically

  17. Pulmonary Nanoparticle Exposure Disrupts Systemic Microvascular Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Castranova, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs is/are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of reactive species and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) after nanoparticle exposure, and determine the relative contribution of hemoproteins and oxidative enzymes in this process. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fine TiO2 (primary particle diameter ?1 ?m) and TiO2 nanoparticles (primary particle diameter ?21 nm) via aerosol inhalation at depositions of 4–90 ?g per rat. As in previous intravital experiments in the spinotrapezius muscle, dose-dependent arteriolar dilations were produced by intraluminal infusions of the calcium ionophore A23187. Nanoparticle exposure robustly attenuated these endothelium-dependent responses. However, this attenuation was not due to altered microvascular smooth muscle NO sensitivity because nanoparticle exposure did not alter arteriolar dilations in response to local sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. Nanoparticle exposure significantly increased microvascular oxidative stress by ?60%, and also elevated nitrosative stress fourfold. These reactive stresses coincided with a decreased NO production in a particle deposition dose-dependent manner. Radical scavenging, or inhibition of either myeloperoxidase or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (reduced) oxidase partially restored NO production as well as normal microvascular function. These results indicate that in conjunction with microvascular dysfunction, nanoparticle exposure also decreases NO bioavailability through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms that may mutually increase local reactive species. PMID:19270016

  18. Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Godber, B L; Doel, J J; Sapkota, G P; Blake, D R; Stevens, C R; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R

    2000-03-17

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) was shown to catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of either NADH or xanthine as reducing substrate. NO production was directly demonstrated by ozone chemiluminescence and showed stoichiometry of approximately 2:1 versus NADH depletion. With xanthine as reducing substrate, the kinetics of NO production were complicated by enzyme inactivation, resulting from NO-induced conversion of XO to its relatively inactive desulfo-form. Steady-state kinetic parameters were determined spectrophotometrically for urate production and NADH oxidation catalyzed by XO and xanthine dehydrogenase in the presence of nitrite under anaerobic conditions. pH optima for anaerobic NO production catalyzed by XO in the presence of nitrite were 7.0 for NADH and oxidation competitively with nitrite. Strong preference for Mo=S over Mo=O was shown by the relatively very low NADH-nitrite reductase activity shown by desulfo-enzyme. The FAD site of XO was shown not to influence nitrite reduction in the presence of xanthine, although it was clearly involved when NADH was the reducing substrate. Apparent production of NO decreased with increasing oxygen tensions, consistent with reaction of NO with XO-generated superoxide. It is proposed that XO-derived NO fulfills a bactericidal role in the digestive tract. PMID:10713088

  19. Endothelial Cell-Derived Nitric Oxide Mobilization is Attenuated in Copper-Deficient Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary Cu deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to determine...

  20. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24?h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  1. Nitric Oxide and the Control of Firefly Flashing

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    Nitric Oxide and the Control of Firefly Flashing Barry A. Trimmer,1 * June R. Aprille,1 David M Bioluminescent flashing is essential for firefly reproduction, yet the specific molecular mechanisms that control light production are not well understood. We report that light production by fireflies can be stimulated

  2. Nitric oxide emissions from a central California dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were monitored downwind from a central California dairy facility during 2011 and 2012. NO concentrations at the dairy were significantly higher than the background levels during August 2011, but were indistinguishable from upwind concentrations during January, Apr...

  3. Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C. A.; Lu, G.; Roble, R. G.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of Joule heating on the density of nitric oxide in the thermosphere was studied using observations from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite and model calculations from the Thermospheric Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model for a Joule heating event that occurred on 25 September 1998. Model results and SNOE observations from fifteen orbits were compared in the latitude range 82°S to 82°N over the altitude range 100-150 km. Joule heating which occurred in the 55°- to 60°-latitude region produced a meridional wind blowing equatorward and a gravity wave propagating equatorward, which caused an increase in the temperature of the thermosphere in the 20°- to 75°-latitude region. When the heated thermosphere was illuminated by solar radiation, the density of nitric oxide increased over this entire latitude region because of a temperature-sensitive reaction between ground state nitrogen atoms and molecular oxygen. In the 24 hours following the Joule heating event, the increased nitric oxide diffused downward from the 150-km region to the 110-km level of the thermosphere.

  4. Relation between Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotypes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Larynx Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yanar, K; Çakatay, U; Ayd?n, S; Verim, A; Atukeren, P; Özkan, N E; Karatoprak, K; Cebe, T; Turan, S; Ozkök, E; Korkmaz, G; Cac?na, C; Küçükhüseyin, O; Yayl?m, I

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) is responsible for the endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO(•)). G894T polymorphism leads to the amino acid substitution from Glu298Asp that causes lower NOS3 activity and basal NO(•) production in NOS3 894T (298Asp) allele carriers compared with the GG homozygotes. NO(•) acts as an antioxidant protecting against Fenton's reaction which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Allelic variation of NOS3 may influence an individual's risk of laryngeal cancer (LC). In the current study we have examined the possible relationship between NOS3 G894T genotypes and various systemic oxidative damage markers such as protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, thiol group fractions, and lipid hydroperoxides in LC patients. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. In LC patients with TT genotype, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase activities and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly higher than the controls. In patients with GT and GG genotype, high levels of lipid hydroperoxides showed statistical significance when compared to controls. Our results indicate a potential relationship among G894T polymorphism of NOS3, and impaired redox homeostasis. Further studies are required to determine the role of NOS3 gene polymorphism and impaired plasma redox homeostasis. PMID:26682008

  5. Relation between Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotypes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yanar, K.; Çakatay, U.; Ayd?n, S.; Verim, A.; Atukeren, P.; Özkan, N. E.; Karatoprak, K.; Cebe, T.; Turan, S.; Ozkök, E.; Korkmaz, G.; Cac?na, C.; Küçükhüseyin, O.; Yayl?m, ?.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) is responsible for the endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO•). G894T polymorphism leads to the amino acid substitution from Glu298Asp that causes lower NOS3 activity and basal NO• production in NOS3 894T (298Asp) allele carriers compared with the GG homozygotes. NO• acts as an antioxidant protecting against Fenton's reaction which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Allelic variation of NOS3 may influence an individual's risk of laryngeal cancer (LC). In the current study we have examined the possible relationship between NOS3 G894T genotypes and various systemic oxidative damage markers such as protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, thiol group fractions, and lipid hydroperoxides in LC patients. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. In LC patients with TT genotype, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase activities and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly higher than the controls. In patients with GT and GG genotype, high levels of lipid hydroperoxides showed statistical significance when compared to controls. Our results indicate a potential relationship among G894T polymorphism of NOS3, and impaired redox homeostasis. Further studies are required to determine the role of NOS3 gene polymorphism and impaired plasma redox homeostasis. PMID:26682008

  6. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-11-03

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of a Linear Dinitrosyl-Triiron Complex; Comparison to a Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductase Intermediate

    E-print Network

    Victor, Eric

    Nitric oxide is released during the immune response by the host during bacterial infection. To counteract this response, bacteria have evolved nitric oxide reductases to convert NO to N[subscript 2]O. Some of these nitric ...

  8. Hypocholesterolemic properties of nitric oxide. In vivo and in vitro studies using nitric oxide donors.

    PubMed

    Kurowska, E M; Carroll, K K

    1998-05-20

    Previous results suggested that changes in the activity of nitric oxide (NO) can influence metabolism of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Therefore, we studied effects of exogenous NO donors and physiological NO precursors on metabolism of these lipoproteins. In rabbits, addition of 0.03% sodium nitroprusside (NaNP) to a semipurified, cholesterol-free, casein diet counteracted the elevation of LDL cholesterol induced by this diet but did not alter liver lipids after 4 weeks of feeding. In HepG2 cells, addition of nontoxic concentrations of another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) to culture medium caused a dose-dependent reduction of medium apo B after 24 h. At the concentration 0.5 mM, SNAP significantly decreased medium apo B by 50% without altering total synthesis and secretion of proteins and without altering rates of cellular sterol synthesis. In cells incubated with L-arginine, reduction of medium apo B was not associated with increased NO production whereas in those exposed to N-OH-Arg medium apo B levels were not altered. We concluded that synthetic NO donors can reduce hypercholesterolemia by affecting apo B metabolism directly in the liver, via the sterol-independent mechanism. PMID:9593815

  9. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  10. CONTRARY EFFECTS OF THE RTK INHIBITOR VANDETANIB ON CONSTITUTIVE AND FLOW-STIMULATED NITRIC OXIDE ELABORATION IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Erica L.; Dallabrida, Susan M.; Rupnick, Maria A.; Redline, Whitney M.; Hannagan, Keri; Ismail, Nesreen S.; Burstein, Harold J.; Beckman, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates neoplastic angiogenesis through production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. We performed a prospective evaluation of vascular function during treatment with vandetanib, a vascular endothelial growth receptor 2 and 3 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, to determine the effects of vascular endothelial growth receptor signal interruption on endothelial function in humans. Seventeen patients with stage IV breast cancer received dose escalated vandetanib in combination with low-dose oral chemotherapy. We measured blood pressure, systemic nitrate/nitrite levels, and brachial artery vascular function. In vitro analyses of cultured endothelial cells were performed to determine the effect of vandetanib on nitric oxide production, akt473 phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein content and membrane localization. Vandetanib treatment for 6 weeks significantly increased blood pressure, decreased resting brachial artery diameter, and decreased plasma systemic nitrate/nitrite levels compared to baseline. Flow-mediated vasodilation was preserved, and no change was noted in nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation. In vitro, endothelial cell nitrite levels and akt473 phosphorylation were reduced, vascular endothelial growth receptor 2 levels did not change, but endothelial nitric oxide synthase membrane concentration doubled. Vandetanib reduces constitutive nitric oxide production and increases blood pressure, yet flow-stimulated nitric oxide bioavailability was preserved. Changes in vascular function with tyrosine kinase inhibition are complex and require further study in humans. PMID:21482957

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Constituents, Nitric Oxide Synthase DNA Methylation and Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Qiao, Liping; Li, Huichu; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yunhui; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Hongli; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Xiaohui; Hu, Hui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-10-01

    It remains unknown how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) constituents affect differently the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, a biomarker of airway inflammation) and the DNA methylation of its encoding gene (NOS2A). We aimed to investigate the short-term effects of PM2.5 constituents on NOS2A methylation and FeNO. We designed a longitudinal study among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with six repeated health measurements in Shanghai, China. We applied linear mixed-effect models to evaluate the associations. We observed that the inverse association between PM2.5 and methylation at position 1 was limited within 24 h, and the positive association between PM2.5 and FeNO was the strongest at lag 1 day. Organic carbon, element carbon, NO3(-) and NH4(+) were robustly and significantly associated with decreased methylation and elevated FeNO. An interquartile range increase in total PM2.5 and the four constituents was associated with decreases of 1.19, 1.63, 1.62, 1.17, and 1.14 in percent methylation of NOS2A, respectively, and increases of 13.30%,16.93%, 8.97%, 18.26%, and 11.42% in FeNO, respectively. Our results indicated that organic carbon, element carbon, NO3(-) and NH4(+) might be mainly responsible for the effects of PM2.5 on the decreased NOS2A DNA methylation and elevated FeNO in COPD patients. PMID:26372312

  12. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-07-01

    Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

  13. Nitric oxide: considerations for the treatment of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Terpolilli, Nicole A; Moskowitz, Michael A; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Some 40 years ago it was recognized by Furchgott and colleagues that the endothelium releases a vasodilator, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Later on, several groups identified EDRF to be a gas, nitric oxide (NO). Since then, NO was identified as one of the most versatile and unique molecules in animal and human biology. Nitric oxide mediates a plethora of physiological functions, for example, maintenance of vascular tone and inflammation. Apart from these physiological functions, NO is also involved in the pathophysiology of various disorders, specifically those in which regulation of blood flow and inflammation has a key role. The aim of the current review is to summarize the role of NO in cerebral ischemia, the most common cause of stroke. PMID:22333622

  14. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Hemoglobin in Health, Disease, and Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is made in endothelial cells lining blood vessels and diffuses to smooth muscle cells where it leads to muscle relaxation, vessel dilatation, and increased blood flow and also plays a large role in controlling platelet aggregation and inflammation. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen carrying molecule in the blood, reacts at nearly diffusion limited rates with nitric oxide to (in some reactions) form nitrate ands thereby destroy NO activity. The presence of such large amounts of such a potent NO scavenger in the blood challenges the idea that NO is indeed the EDRF. Encapsulation in red blood cells in healthy individuals limits NO scavenging by Hb. Biophysical experiments will be described exploring and evaluating these mechanisms. Other studies will be described discussing how red cells break open (lyse) in pathological situations and the cell-free Hb reduces NO bioavailability. Finally, methods to restore NO bioavailability through therapeutics will be discussed.

  15. Nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere - Measurements and geophysical interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvath, J. J.; Frederick, J. E.; Orsini, N.; Douglass, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket-borne parachute-deployed chemiluminescence instrument has obtained seven new measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide for altitudes between 30 and 50 km at mid-latitudes. These results, when combined with profiles measured by an earlier version of the instrument, cover all four seasons and provide a more comprehensive picture of upper stratospheric nitric oxide than has been available previously. At the highest altitudes studied, the vertical gradient in mixing ratio displays positive and negative values during different observations, with the largest values tending to appear at the greatest heights in summer. Examination of the differences among the profiles, which exceed a factor of 3 near the stratopause, suggests that they arise from the action of transport processes which carry air into the mid-latitude upper stratosphere from regions of the atmosphere that contain widely different odd-nitrogen abundances.

  16. Existence of nitric oxide synthase in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, B; Schweizer, F E; Ryan, T A; Nakane, M; Murad, F; Scheller, R H; Tsien, R W

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a key retrograde messenger during long-term potentiation at hippocampal synapses, linking induction of long-term potentiation in postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal cells to expression of long-term potentiation in presynaptic nerve terminals. However, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the proposed NO-generating enzyme, has not yet been detected in the appropriate postsynaptic cells. We here demonstrate specific NOS immunoreactivity in the CA1 region of hippocampal sections by using an antibody specific for NOS type I and relatively gentle methods of fixation. NOS immunoreactivity was found in dendrites and cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells also displayed specific immunostaining. Control experiments showed no staining with preimmune serum or immune serum that was blocked with purified NOS. These results demonstrate that CA1 pyramidal cells contain NOS, as required were NO involved in retrograde signaling during hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Images PMID:7510887

  17. Novel inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Loredana; Modica, Maria N; Romeo, Giuseppe; Pittalà, Valeria; Siracusa, Maria A; Amato, Maria E; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2012-03-01

    We previously described a series of imidazole-based inhibitors substituted at N-1 with an arylethanone chain as interesting inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endowed with good selectivity vs endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). As a follow up of these studies, several analogs characterized by the presence of substituted imidazoles or other mono or bicyclic nitrogen-containing heterocycles instead of simple imidazole were synthesized, and their biological evaluation as in vitro inhibitors of both nNOS and eNOS is described herein. Most of these compounds showed improved nNOS and eNOS inhibitory activity with respect to reference inhibitors. Selected compounds were also tested to analyze their antioxidant properties. Some of them displayed good capacity to scavenge free radicals and ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. PMID:22280820

  18. [Advances in the study of nitric oxide-donating drugs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-hua; Peng, Si-xun

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a messenger and/or effector plays important roles in vivo. The decreased availability of NO or dysfunction in NO signaling has often been implicated in the development and progression of diseases, and design and research of NO-donating drugs has become one of the important strategies in drug discovery. In connection with authors' scientific practice, this article reviews the recent advances in the research of NO-donating drugs. PMID:21355319

  19. Nitric oxide production in plants: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Planchet, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Werner M

    2006-03-01

    There is now general agreement that nitric oxide (NO) is an important and almost universal signal in plants. Nevertheless, there are still many controversial observations and opinions on the importance and function of NO in plants. Partly, this may be due to the difficulties in detecting and even more in quantifying NO. Here, we summarize major pathways of NO production in plants, and briefly discuss some methodical problems. PMID:19521475

  20. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide donors modulate the biosynthesis of thaxtomin A, a nitrated phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael J; Kers, Johan A; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Evidence for the involvement of a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the biosynthesis of a phytotoxin is presented. Several species of Streptomyces bacteria produce secondary metabolites with unusual nitrogen groups, such as thaxtomin A (ThxA), which contains a nitroindole moiety. ThxA is a phytotoxin made by three pathogenic Streptomyces species that cause common scab of potato. All three species possess a gene homologous to the oxygenase domain of murine inducible NOS, and this gene, nos, is essential for normal levels of ThxA production. We grew Streptomyces turgidiscabies in the presence of several known NOS inhibitors and a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger to determine their effect on ThxA production. The NO scavenger (CPTIO) and four NOS inhibitors (NAME, NMMA, AG, and 7-NI) reduced ThxA production without affecting bacterial growth. A strain of S. turgidiscabies from which the nos gene had been deleted was grown in the presence of three NO donors (DEANO, SIN, and SNAP), and all three partially restored ThxA production. Our data suggest that bacterial nitric oxide synthases may, at least in part, produce NO for biosynthetic purposes, rather than for cellular signaling, as they do in mammals. PMID:15631947

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide system in experimental muscle crush injury.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, I; Abassi, Z; Coleman, R; Milman, F; Winaver, J; Better, O S

    1998-01-01

    Muscle crush injury is often complicated by hemodynamic shock, electrolyte disorders, and myoglobinuric renal failure. In this study, we examined the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the development of muscle damage in an experimental model of crush injury induced by exertion of standardized mechanical pressure on tibialis muscle of rat. The intact limb served as a control. Four days after injury, the crushed muscle was characterized by extreme capillary vasodilatation as demonstrated by histological morphometric analysis. These changes were accompanied by muscle hyperperfusion as evaluated by measurements of femoral blood flow (ultrasonic flowmetry) and capillary blood flow (laser-doppler flowmetry). Treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, largely decreased the hyperperfusion. Furthermore, the expression of the different NOS isoforms, assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and immunoreactive levels, determined by Western blot, revealed a remarkable induction of the inducible NOS in the crushed limb. Similarly, endothelial NOS mRNA increased gradually after the induction of muscle damage. In contrast, the major muscular NOS, i.e., neuronal isoform remained unchanged. In line with the alterations in the mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed parallel changes in the immunoreactive levels of the various NOS. These findings indicate that muscle crush is associated with activation of the NO system mainly due to enhancement of iNOS. This may contribute to NO-dependent extreme vasodilatation in the injured muscle and aggravate the hypovolemic shock after crush injury. PMID:9502774

  2. Nitric Oxide Diffusion Rate is Reduced in the Aortic Wall?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Collard, Eric; Grajdeanu, Paula; Zweier, Jay L.; Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays important physiological roles in the body. As a small diatomic molecule, NO has been assumed to freely diffuse in tissues with a diffusion rate similar to that in water. However, this assumption has not been tested experimentally. In this study, a modified Clark-type NO electrode attached with a customized aorta holder was used to directly measure the flux of NO diffusion across the aortic wall at 37°C. Experiments were carefully designed for accurate measurements of the apparent NO diffusion coefficient D and the partition coefficient ? in the aortic wall. A mathematical model was presented for analyzing experimental data. It was determined that ? = 1.15 ± 0.11 and D = 848 ± 45 ?m2/s (n = 12). The NO diffusion coefficient in the aortic wall is nearly fourfold smaller than the reported diffusion coefficient in solution at 37°C, indicating that NO diffusion in the vascular wall is no longer free, but markedly dependent on the environment in the tissue where these NO molecules are. These results imply that the NO diffusion rate in the vascular wall may be upregulated and downregulated by certain physiological and/or pathophysiological processes affecting the composition of tissues. PMID:18032554

  3. Cardiac nitric oxide synthases are elevated in dietary copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saari, Jack T; Wold, Loren E; Duan, Jinhong; Ren, Jun; Carlson, Hanqian L; Bode, Ann M; Lentsch, Alex B; Zeng, Huawei; Schuschke, Dale A

    2007-07-01

    Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency leads to cardiac morphological and functional defects suggestive of heart failure. However, simultaneous cytoprotective events also appear to occur. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this complex alteration of cardiac function by Cu deficiency have not been elucidated. Because prior work has implicated altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in this altered function, we have examined this pathway in further detail. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets that were either Cu adequate (6 mg Cu/kg diet) or Cu deficient (<0.5 mg Cu/kg diet) for 5 weeks. Endothelial NO synthase (NOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expressions, as measured by Western blot analysis, were 58% and 40% higher, respectively, in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rat hearts. Cardiac NOS activity, as measured by conversion of (3)H-arginine to (3)H-citrulline, was 130% higher in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rats. NFkappaB is a known transcription factor for iNOS. Activation of NFkappaB, determined by an ELISA for the p65 subunit, was found to be 33% higher in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rats. Coupled with prior evidence of elevated cardiac nitrate/nitrite production in Cu-deficient rats, these data suggest multiple pathways for enhanced NO production that may contribute to altered cardiac function under dietary Cu deficiency. PMID:16997540

  4. Sensor materials for an intravascular fiber optic nitric oxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Parikh, Bhairavi R.; Stahl, Russell F.

    1996-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulatory molecule in physiological processes including neurotransmission and the control of blood pressure. It is produced in excess during septic shock, the profound hypotensive state which accompanies severe infections. In-vivo measurement of NO would enhance the understanding of its varied biological roles. Our goal is the development of an intravascular fiber-optic sensor for the continuous measurement of NO. This study evaluated nitric oxide sensitive compounds as potential sensing materials in the presence and absence of oxygen. Using absorption spectroscopy we studied both the Fe II and Fe III forms of three biologically active hemes known to rapidly react with NO: hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c. The Fe II forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin and the Fe III form of cytochrome-c were found to have the highest sensitivity to NO. Cytochrome c (Fe III) is selective for NO even at high oxygen levels, while myoglobin is selective only under normal oxygen levels. NO concentrations as low as 1 (mu) M can be detected with our fiber-optic spectrometer using cytochrome c, and as low as 300 nM using myoglobin. Either of these materials would be adequate to monitor the increase in nitric oxide production during the onset of septic shock.

  5. High-latitude nitric oxide in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Barth, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    High-latitude observations of fluorescent nitric oxide gamma bands were made before and during a strong magnetic storm with the Ogo 4 ultraviolet spectrometer. Brightness measurements of the (1-0) gamma band of nitric oxide indicate a slow buildup of NO during the disturbed period. The NO column density reaches a value as high as a factor of 8 greater than the midlatitude value and shows no correlation with the brightness of the instantaneous aurora. A time-dependent model calculation indicates that the ionization and dissociation of N2 by auroral electrons can increase the NO and N(4-S) densities. This increase is dependent on the intensity and duration of the auroral precipitation and on the branching ratio of N(2-D) production by dissociation of N2. A steady state is not reached for NO until 100,000 sec in an aurora characterized by an energy flux of 10 ergs per sq cm sec. Dissociation by the solar ultraviolet radiation competes with horizontal and vertical transport as a loss process for the nitric oxide produced by the aurora. A high NO(plus)/O2(plus) ratio is to be expected in the period following a strong auroral precipitation.

  6. The response of thermospheric nitric oxide to an auroral storm

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The response of thermospheric nitric oxide (NO) to the auroral storm of September 19, 1984 is analyzed. Measurements of nitric oxide from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) ultraviolet spectrometer are compared with the calculations of a one-dimensional photochemical model of the lower thermosphere. The NCAR Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TGCM) is used to calculate the response of the background neutral atmosphere to auroral forcings such as Joule and particle heating. The output of the TGCM is used as input to the photochemical model. The time history of the auroral energy input is assessed using particle data from the NOAA 6 and 7 satellites. The SME NO measurements were made from 100 km to 140 km along two orbital tracks: one over the United States and one over Europe. The observations show a factor of 3 increase in NO at auroral latitudes for both orbits as a result of the storm. Nitric oxide at mid-latitudes also increased by a factor of 3 but only over the United States. Calculations of the mid-latitude NO response show that temperature increases which result from Joule heating lead to NO enhancements. A larger response is initially seen for altitudes greater than 120 km.

  7. L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, G. P. T.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Holstein, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody against L-citrulline or polyclonal anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase sera, and double immunofluorescence to detect neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-citrulline co-localization. The results demonstrate that the same CNS regions and cell types are labeled by neuronal nitric oxide synthase polyclonal antisera and L-citrulline monoclonal antibodies, using both immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Short-term pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor reduces L-citrulline immunostaining, but does not affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In the vestibular brainstem, double immunofluorescence studies show that many, but not all, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells co-express L-citrulline, and that local intracellular patches of intense L-citrulline accumulation are present in some neurons. Conversely, all L-citrulline-labeled neurons co-express neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cells expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase alone are interpreted as neurons with the potential to produce nitric oxide under other stimulus conditions, and the subcellular foci of enhanced L-citrulline staining are viewed as intracellular sites of nitric oxide production. This interpretation is supported by ultrastructural observations of subcellular foci with enhanced L-citrulline and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining that are located primarily at postsynaptic densities and portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. Copyright 2002 IBRO.

  8. Gene variations of nitric oxide synthase regulate the effects of a saturated fat rich meal on endothelial function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene variations have been linked to a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases by unknown mechanisms. Our aim was to determine if two SNPs located in NOS3 (E298D and i19342) interfere with microvascular endothelial function (MEF) and/or oxidative stress du...

  9. Choosing the right chondrocyte cell line: Focus on nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Anna; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Abella, Vanessa; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a catabolic factor that contributes to OA pathology by inducing chondrocytes apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases synthesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Thus, the research on NO regulation in chondrocytes represents a relevant field which needs to be explored in depth. However, to date, only the murine ATDC-5 cell line and primary chondrocytes are well-established cells to study NO production in cartilage tissues. The goal of this study is to determine whether two commonly used human chondrocytic cell lines: SW-1353 and T/C-28a2 cell lines are good models to examine lipopolysaccharide and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven NO release and iNOS expression. To this aim, we carefully examined NO production and iNOS protein expression in human T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 chondrocytes stimulated with LPS and interleukin (IL)-1 alone or in combination. We also use ATDC-5 cells as a positive control for NO production. NO accumulation has been determined by colorimetric Griess reaction, whereas NOS type II expression was determined by Western Blot analysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that neither human T/C-28a2 nor SW-1353 chondrocytes showed a detectable increase in NO production or iNOS expression after bacterial endotoxin or cytokines challenge with IL-1. Our study demonstrated that T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 human cell lines are not suitable for studying NO release and iNOS expression confirming that ATDC5 and human primary cultured chondrocytes are the best in vitro cell system to study the actions derived from this mediator. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1784-1788, 2015. PMID:26016689

  10. Study of the nitric oxide system in the rat cerebellum during aging

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cerebellum is the neural structure with the highest levels of nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter that has been proposed to play a key role in the brain aging, although knowledge concerning its contribution to cerebellar senescence is still unclear, due mainly to absence of integrative studies that jointly evaluate the main factors involved in its cell production and function. Consequently, in the present study, we investigate the expression, location, and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes; the protein nitration; and the production of nitric oxide in the cerebellum of adult and old rats. Results Our results show no variation in the expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms with aging, although, we have detected some changes in the cellular distribution pattern of the inducible isoform particularly in the cerebellar nuclei. There is also an increase in nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as greater protein-nitration levels, and maintenance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels in the senescent cerebellum. Conclusions The nitric oxide/nitric oxide syntahses system suffers from a number of changes, mainly in the inducible nitric oxide synthase distribution and in overall nitric oxide synthases activity in the senescent cerebellum, which result in an increase of the protein nitration. These changes might be related to the oxidative damage detected with aging in the cerebellum. PMID:20576087

  11. Real-time electrical detection of nitric oxide in biological systems with sub-nanomolar sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Xue, Teng; Liu, Yuan; Nel, Andre; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems and immune responses. Here we report a new design of nitric oxide sensors based on hemin-functionalized graphene field-effect transistors. With its single atom thickness and the highest carrier mobility among all materials, graphene holds the promise for unprecedented sensitivity for molecular sensing. The non-covalent functionalization through ?-? stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with a sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their practical functionality in complex biological systems.

  12. Nitric oxide-releasing polymer incorporated ointment for cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngnam; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Yeong Mi; Im, Sooseok; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-12-28

    This work demonstrates the development of nitric oxide-releasing ointment and its potential on efficient wound healing. Nitric oxide-releasing polymer was successfully synthesized, which is composed of biocompatible Pluronic F127, branched polyethylenimine and 1-substituted diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolates. The synthesized nitric oxide-releasing polymer was incorporated into the PEG-based ointment which not only facilitated nitric oxide release in a slow manner, but also served as a moisturizer to enhance the wound healing. As compared to control groups, the nitric oxide-releasing ointment showed the accelerated wound closure with enhanced re-epithelialization, collagen deposition, and blood vessel formation in vivo. Therefore, this nitric oxide-based ointment presents the promising potential for the efficient strategy to heal the cutaneous wound. PMID:26348389

  13. Role of exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive and safe measure of airways inflammation that may complement the assessment of asthma. Elevations of FeNO have recently been found to correlate with allergic sensitization. Therefore, FeNO may be a useful predictor of atopy in the general population. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO in predicting atopy in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in an age- and sex- stratified random sample of 13 to 15 year-olds in two communities in Peru. We asked participants about asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics, and underwent spirometry, assessment of FeNO and an allergy skin test. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of atopy as a function of FeNO, and calculated area-under-the-curves (AUC) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO as a predictor of atopy. Results Of 1441 recruited participants, 1119 (83%) completed all evaluations. Mean FeNO was 17.6 ppb (SD=0.6) in atopics and 11.6 ppb (SD=0.8) in non-atopics (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, a FeNO>20 ppb was associated with an increase in the odds of atopy in non-asthmatics (OR=5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.5) and asthmatics (OR=16.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 77.5). A FeNO>20 ppb was the best predictor for atopy with an AUC of 68% (95% CI 64% to 69%). Stratified by asthma, the AUC was 65% (95% CI 61% to 69%) in non-asthmatics and 82% (95% CI 71% to 91%) in asthmatics. Conclusions FeNO had limited accuracy to identify atopy among the general population; however, it may be a useful indicator of atopic phenotype among asthmatics. PMID:23639047

  14. Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst formation.

    PubMed

    Lipari, Christopher W; Garcia, Jairo E; Zhao, Yulian; Thrift, Kimberly; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Rodriguez, Annabelle

    2009-04-01

    Eleven patients underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation yielding 72 embryos for evaluation. Mean nitric oxide metabolite levels in the insemination media were 2.6 times higher in embryos that progressed to blastocysts by culture day 5 than in those that did not. A comparison of the receiver operating characteristic curves between morphological predictors and nitric oxide metabolite levels revealed a trend toward a stronger association of insemination media nitric oxide metabolite with blastocyst formation. PMID:18377900

  15. Apigenin attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats via suppressing oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Jing; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Our present investigation aimed to determine the neuroprotection of apigenin (API) against diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) a diabetic rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. All experiment animals treated with vehicle or API by doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for seven weeks. Firstly, the body weight and blood glucose levels were detected. We used Morris water maze test to evaluate learning and memory function. The oxidative indicators (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)), cNOS, iNOS, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. API can increase body weight, reduce the blood glucose levels, and improve the cognitive function in rats induced by diabetes. API decrease the MDA content, and increase SOD activity and GSH level of diabetic animals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. Meanwhile, constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3/9 were markedly exhibited in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. In summary, our current work discloses that API attenuates DACD in rats via suppressing oxidative stress, nitric oxide and apoptotic cascades synthase pathway. PMID:26629041

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Target for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Article Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Target for Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus that induce oxidative stress to dramatically inhibit the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus;Chemistry & Biology Article Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Target for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus

  17. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  18. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, W; Cai, B; Liew, F Y

    2006-11-01

    There is a close relation between T helper (Th) 1 cells and nitric oxide in disease. Thus it is possible that a reciprocal regulatory mechanism exists between them. This paper briefly describes the experimental studies which have helped elucidate the mechanism by which nitric oxide selectively enhances Th 1 cell proliferation and the potential effect of nitric oxide on regulatory T (Treg) cells. On the basis of the results the authors propose that nitric oxide represents an additional signal for the induction of T cell subset response, contributing to the increasingly complex network of immune regulation essential for health and disease. PMID:17038470

  19. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, W; Cai, B; Liew, F Y

    2006-01-01

    There is a close relation between T helper (Th)?1 cells and nitric oxide in disease. Thus it is possible that a reciprocal regulatory mechanism exists between them. This paper briefly describes the experimental studies which have helped elucidate the mechanism by which nitric oxide selectively enhances Th?1 cell proliferation and the potential effect of nitric oxide on regulatory T (Treg) cells. On the basis of the results the authors propose that nitric oxide represents an additional signal for the induction of T cell subset response, contributing to the increasingly complex network of immune regulation essential for health and disease. PMID:17038470

  20. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25819134

  1. Dexamethasone, tetrahydrobiopterin and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Silke; Habermeier, Alice; Siuda, Daniel; Reifenberg, Gisela; Xia, Ning; Closs, Ellen I; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out whether dexamethasone induces an uncoupling of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Methods & Results A major cause of eNOS uncoupling is a deficiency of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Treatment of human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells with dexamethasone decreased mRNA and protein expression of both BH4-synthesizing enzymes: GTP cyclohydrolase I and dihydrofolate reductase. Consistently, a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of BH4, dihydrobiopterin (BH2) as well as BH4: BH2 ratio was observed in dexamethasone-treated cells. Surprisingly, no evidence for eNOS uncoupling was found. We then analyzed the expression and phosphorylation of the eNOS enzyme. Dexamethasone treatment led to a down-regulation of eNOS protein and a reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177. A reduction of eNOS expression may lead to a relatively normal BH4: eNOS molar ratio in dexamethasone-treated cells. Because the BH4-eNOS stoichiometry rather than the absolute BH4 amount is the key determinant of eNOS functionality (i.e., coupled or uncoupled), the down-regulation of eNOS may represent an explanation for the absence of eNOS uncoupling. Phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177 is needed for both the NO-producing activity of the coupled eNOS and the superoxide-producing activity of the uncoupled eNOS. Thus, a reduction of serine 1177 phosphorylation may render a potentially uncoupled eNOS hardly detectable. Conclusions Although dexamethasone reduces BH4 levels in endothelial cells, eNOS uncoupling is not evident. The reduction of NO production in dexamethasone-treated endothelial cells is mainly attributable to reduced eNOS expression and decreased eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177. PMID:26512245

  2. Repeatability of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rouhos, Annamari; Kainu, Annette; Piirilä, Päivi; Sarna, Seppo; Lindqvist, Ari; Karjalainen, Jouko; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation may help in predicting the steroid response in subjects with respiratory symptoms. Unlike patients with asthma, only a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) benefits from steroid treatment. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a useful surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation, but data on the repeatability of FENO measurements in COPD needed for the assessment of significant change are insufficient. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term repeatability of FENO measurement in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic airway obstruction compared to that in healthy subjects. We studied 20 patients with stable COPD and 20 healthy subjects, and determined FENO (flow rate 50 ml s?1) three times: at baseline, 10 min and 24 h after baseline. Spirometry was performed on the first study day after the FENO measurements. The median FENO concentration in patients with COPD was 15·6 ppb, and in healthy subjects, 15·2 ppb. The coefficient of variation (CoV) for 24-h measurements was 12·4% in COPD patients, and 15·9% in healthy subjects. Among COPD patients with global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease stage 2 disease, the CoV was 13·7%, and among those with stage 3–4 disease, 10·5%. The findings indicate that the short-term repeatability of FENO measurement in patients with moderate to very severe COPD is equally good as in healthy subjects. A change in FENO exceeding 24% is likely to reflect a minimum measurable change in COPD. PMID:21143751

  3. Increased angiogenesis in portal hypertensive rats: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Sumanovski, L T; Battegay, E; Stumm, M; van der Kooij, M; Sieber, C C

    1999-04-01

    Systemic and especially splanchnic arterial vasodilation accompany chronic portal hypertension. Different soluble mediators causing this vasodilation have been proposed, the strongest evidence being for nitric oxide (NO). No data exist if structural vascular changes may partly account for this vasodilatory state. Here, we developed a new in vivo quantitative angiogenesis assay in the abdominal cavity and determined if: 1) portal hypertensive rats show increased angiogenesis; and 2) angiogenesis is altered by inhibiting NO formation. Portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL). Sham-operated rats served as controls (CON). During the index operation (day 0), a teflon ring filled with collagen I (Vitrogen 100) was sutured in the mesenteric cavity. After 16 days, rings were explanted, embedded in paraffin, and ingrown vessels counted using a morphometry system. The role of NO was tested by adding an antagonist of NO formation (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine [NNA], 3.3 mg/kg/d) into the drinking water. The mean number of ingrown vessels per implant was significantly higher in PVL rats compared with CON rats, i.e., 1,453 +/- 187 versus 888 +/- 116, respectively (P <.05; N = 5 per group). NNA significantly (P <.01) inhibited angiogenesis in PVL (202 +/- 124; N = 5) and in CON (174 +/- 25; N = 6) rats, respectively. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol, did not prevent angiogenesis either in PVL or CON rats in a separate set of experiments (data not shown). The conclusions drawn from this study are that: 1) rats with portal hypertension show increased angiogenesis; and 2) inhibition of NO formation significantly prevents angiogenesis in both PVL and CON rats. Therefore, splanchnic vasodilation in chronic portal hypertension may also be a result of structural changes. PMID:10094944

  4. Xiaokening stimulates endothelial nitric oxide release in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Lei; Wei, Qunli; Cui, Jie; Yan, Changdong; Wang, Xin; Wu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus induces microangiopathic changes that lead to endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated the effect of Xiaokening, a type of Chinese compound medicine, on the mesenteric arteriolar endothelial cell function of diabetic rats and its underlying mechanism. METHODS Diabetes mellitus was induced in rat models via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin and observed over three weeks. Mesenteric arterioles, which were isolated in a cannulated and pressurised state, were incubated with intravascular injections of 1, 3 or 5 g/L Xiaokening for 24, 48 or 72 hours. The effects of Xiaokening on the release of nitric oxide (NO) on the mesenteric arterioles were detected under shear stress of 1, 10 and 20 dyn/cm2. Biochemical methods were used to determine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), SOD and XO in the mesenteric arterioles were assessed using Western blot. RESULTS Compared to normal rat arterioles, less NO was released in the mesenteric arterioles of diabetic rats. Xiaokening was found to have a concentration- and time-dependent effect on NO release; when the shear stress was increased, there was a gradual increase in the release of NO. Compared to normal arterioles, the expression of eNOS in the mesenteric arterioles of diabetic rats was lower. Incubation with Xiaokening increased SOD activity and expression, and decreased XO activity and expression in the mesenteric arterioles of the diabetic rats. CONCLUSION Xiaokening was able to significantly increase NO release and improve the endothelial function of mesenteric arterioles through antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:26243977

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates nitric oxide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    TAKADA, KOJI; HIROSE, JUN; YAMABE, SOICHIRO; UEHARA, YUSHUKE; MIZUTA, HIROSHI

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important mediators of chondrocyte apoptosis, which is a notable feature of cartilage degeneration. While apoptosis of chondrocytes is induced by p53, NO can also induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which may be involved in the process of NO-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine whether NO-induced ER stress (ERS) leads to apoptosis of chondrocytes and to investigate the temporal relationship between the expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), an ERS-associated apoptotic molecule, and the expression of p53 during apoptosis in NO-stimulated chondrocytes. Rat chondrocytes were stimulated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of CHOP, glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and p53. Apoptosis of chondrocytes was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SNP-treated chondrocytes showed an increase in CHOP and GRP78 mRNA expression and underwent apoptosis. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), an ERS inhibitor, reduced CHOP and GRP78, as well as SNP-stimulated apoptosis of chondrocytes, without affecting the SNP-dependent generation of NO. In addition, the blockade of CHOP following siRNA transfection reduced SNP-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes. The CHOP expression increased after apoptosis was detected in the SNP-treated chondrocytes, whereas the p53 expression increased prior to apoptosis. These data demonstrated that NO-induced ERS leads chondrocytes to apoptosis, although this effect appears to be limited to persistent impairment of NO stimulation. These findings may provide insight into the pathology of cartilage degeneration. PMID:24648941

  6. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  7. Nitric oxide involvement in pancreatic beta cell apoptosis by glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Malek Moien; Ansari, Mohammad

    2006-02-01

    Glibenclamide as a second-generation compound of sulfonylurea has widely been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients. It has been shown that it induces apoptosis in beta cells, which is partially mediated by Ca(2+) influx. Here, we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms on glibenclamide-induced apoptosis in rat insulinoma cells. Our results showed that glibenclamide induces NO generation (measured as nitrite) that is accompanied with decrease of cell viability in a defined concentration of glibenclamide. The effects of glibenclamide on cell viability were partially inhibited after treatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inhibitor more selective for constitutive nitric oxide synthase, and in the presence of D600--a blocker of voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels inhibited Ca(2+) influx into beta cells, whereas aminoguanidine (AG), a preferential inhibitor of inducible NOS, was significantly less effective. Analysis of DNA fragmentation by electrophoresis and staining with Hoechest 33342 and propidium iodide showed that L-NAME, but not AG, prevented DNA fragmentation and decreased the number of cells with condensed and fragmented nuclei. It revealed that the effects of glibenclamide on apoptosis were partially inhibited by treatment with L-NAME. In conclusion, we have shown that NO production in glibenclamide treated cells may be involved in the induction of apoptotic cell death in pure beta cell line and it may be due to Ca(2+) dependent activation of constitutive NOS isoforms. PMID:16256381

  8. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the ?1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (?1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCT?, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce ?1-sGC as well as ?1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in ?1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction. PMID:24213632

  9. Nitric oxide production increases during Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with the potential of causing severe encephalitis among immunocompromised human and animals. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and immunopathological role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous systems and to identify any correlation between toxoplasmosis neuropathology and investigate the consequences of the cellular responses protect against T. gondii. Mice were infected with ME49 strain T. gondii and levels of endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) were examined in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry, during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 10 30 and 60 days post infection. Results of the study revealed that the levels of eNOS (p < 0.05), nNOS (p < 0.05), iNOS (p < 0.005), GFAP (p < 0.005) and NF (p < 0.005) were remarkably higher in T. gondii-infected mice than in uninfected control. The most prominent finding from our study was 10 and 30 days after inoculation data indicating that increased levels of NO not only a potential neuroprotective role for immunoregulatory and immunopathological but also might be a molecular trigger of bradyzoite development. Furthermore, this findings were shown that high expressed NO origin was not only inducible nitric oxide synthase but also endothelial and neuronal. We demonstrated that activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages is a significant event in toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). The results also clearly indicated that increased levels of NO might contribute to neuropathology related with TE. Furthermore, expression of NF might gives an idea of the progress and critical for diagnostic significance of this disease. PMID:26115941

  10. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  11. Relevance of Chemical Kinetics for Medicine: The Case of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, Alexandru T.; Seitz, William

    2003-06-01

    Nitric oxide, NO, is central to many physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure and nerve signal transmission. Enzymes in endothelial cells and in the brain of mammals continuously synthesize it—generally in low and carefully regulated concentrations. The well known reaction of NO with oxygen to produce toxic nitrogen dioxide, NO2, has a rate which is bimolecular in NO. High concentrations of NO, as are found often in industrial plants or cigarettes, react rapidly with oxygen to produce toxic NO2. However, the half-life of NO at low NO concentrations as found in solutions and gases occurring in blood vessels, brains, and lungs is sufficiently long for biochemical purposes. Kinetics, then, determines the harmful versus helpful aspects of nitric oxide. At concentrations below 80 ppm NO is used in hospitals for lung vasodilation of preterm newborns and patients with pulmonary distress.

  12. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  13. Flavanols, the Kuna, Cocoa Consumption, and Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, Norman K.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

    2013-01-01

    The Kuna Indians who reside in an archipelago on the Caribbean Coast of Panama have very low blood pressure levels, live longer than other Panamanians, and have a reduced frequency of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer -- at least on their death certificates. One outstanding feature of their diet includes a very high intake of flavanol-rich cocoa. Flavonoids in cocoa activate nitric oxide synthesis in healthy humans. The possibility that the high flavanol intake protects the Kuna against high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer is sufficiently intriguing and sufficiently important that large, randomized controlled clinical trials should be pursued. PMID:20409950

  14. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use.

    PubMed

    Pizza, F X; Hernandez, I J; Tidball, J G

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells. PMID:9766622

  15. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

  16. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric oxide donors in vitro and in vivo has variable effects on vasopressin secretion, but the most common one is inhibition. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis has been reported to increase vasopressin secretion, but again variable results have been obtained. An attractive working hypothesis is that nitric oxide serves a neuromodulatory role as an inhibitor of vasopressin secretion.

  17. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sophie A; Steinert, Joern R

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD) which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's. PMID:26635909

  18. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  19. The flavonoid luteolin induces nitric oxide production and arterial relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Si, Hongwei; Wyeth, Richard P.; Liu, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Luteolin, a flavone present in many foods and medicinal plants, may have beneficial effects on various human chronic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that luteolin can directly act on vascular endothelial cells (ECs), leading to nitric oxide (NO) production and subsequent vascular relaxation. Methods Rat aortic rings were mounted in organ bath. Luteolin was added cumulatively and vessel relaxation of rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) or potassium was recorded. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at Ser1177 and NO production from aortic rings and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) exposed to luteolin were measured by using Western blot and fluorometric assay, respectively. Results Luteolin dose-dependently (10-100 ?mol/L) elicited relaxation of PE- or potassium-contracted aortic rings. The vasorelaxation effect of luteolin was attenuated by the eNOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting that this luteolin action is at least partially mediated by activating eNOS activity. We further found that luteolin dose-dependently (10-100 ?mol/L) increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (up to 1.9 fold) in isolated rat rings. Consistently, exposure of HAECs to luteolin also increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Conclusion Luteolin may be a vascular protective agent by directly acting on vascular ECs to stimulate NO-dependent vascular dilatation. PMID:23604495

  20. Interaction of Nitric Oxide with Catalase: Structural and Kinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present the structures of bovine catalase in its native form and complexed with ammonia and nitric oxide, obtained by X-ray crystallography. Using the NO generator 1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, we were able to generate sufficiently high NO concentrations within the catalase crystals that substantial occupation was observed despite a high dissociation rate. Nitric oxide seems to be slightly bent from the heme normal that may indicate some iron(II) character in the formally ferric catalase. Microspectrophotometric investigations inline with the synchrotron X-ray beam reveal photoreduction of the central heme iron. In the cases of the native and ammonia-complexed catalase, reduction is accompanied by a relaxation phase. This is likely not the case for the catalase NO complex. The kinetics of binding of NO to catalase were investigated using NO photolyzed from N,N?-bis(carboxymethyl)-N,N?-dinitroso-p-phenylenediamine using an assay that combines catalase with myoglobin binding kinetics. The off rate is 1.5 s–1. Implications for catalase function are discussed. PMID:21524057

  1. Endomorphin-suppressed nitric oxide release from mice peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Balog, Tihomir; Sari?, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Kusi?, Borka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2010-02-01

    Endomorphins are newly discovered mu-opioid receptor selective immunocompetent opioid peptides. Endomorphin 1 is predominantly distributed in brain, while endomorphin 2 is widely allocated in the spinal cord. Lately, endomorphins have been investigated as modulators of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide is short lived radical involved in various biological processes such as regulation of blood vessel contraction, inflammation, neurotransmission and apoptosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vivo effects of endomorphins on nitric oxide release and NOS 2 isoenzyme upregulation in mice peritoneal macrophages additionally challenged ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide. The results showed that endomorphin 1 or endomorphin 2 in vitro did not change NO release from peritoneal mouse macrophages during a 48 h incubation period. On the other hand in vivo endomorphins had suppressive effect on NO release as well as on NOS 2 and IL-1 protein concentration. The most of suppressive effect in vivo of both endomorphins was blocked with 30 min pretreatment with mu-receptor selective antagonist beta-FNA, which proved involvement of opioid receptor pathway in suppressive effects of endomorphins. PMID:20004470

  2. Implications of glial nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Jose Enrique; Tarragon, Ernesto; Campuzano, Carmen María; Ros-Bernal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26347610

  3. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  4. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sophie A.; Steinert, Joern R.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD) which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's. PMID:26635909

  5. Nitration of a peptide phytotoxin by bacterial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kers, Johan A; Wach, Michael J; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Widom, Joanne; Cameron, Kimberly D; Bukhalid, Raghida A; Gibson, Donna M; Crane, Brian R; Loria, Rosemary

    2004-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal in mammals that mediates key aspects of blood pressure, hormone release, nerve transmission and the immune response of higher organisms. Proteins homologous to full-length mammalian nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are found in lower multicellular organisms. Recently, genome sequencing has shown that some bacteria contain genes coding for truncated NOS proteins; this is consistent with reports of NOS-like activities in bacterial extracts. Biological functions for bacterial NOSs are unknown, but have been presumed to be analogous to their role in mammals. Here we describe a gene in the plant pathogen Streptomyces turgidiscabies that encodes a NOS homologue, and we reveal its role in nitrating a dipeptide phytotoxin required for plant pathogenicity. High similarity between bacterial NOSs indicates a general function in biosynthetic nitration; thus, bacterial NOSs constitute a new class of enzymes. Here we show that the primary function of Streptomyces NOS is radically different from that of mammalian NOS. Surprisingly, mammalian NO signalling and bacterial biosynthetic nitration share an evolutionary origin. PMID:15129284

  6. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite: lessons from extreme animals.

    PubMed

    Fago, Angela; Jensen, Frank B

    2015-03-01

    Among vertebrates able to tolerate periods of oxygen deprivation, the painted and red-eared slider turtles (Chrysemys picta and Trachemys scripta) and the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) are the most extreme and can survive even months of total lack of oxygen during winter. The key to hypoxia survival resides in concerted physiological responses, including strong metabolic depression, protection against oxidative damage and-in air-breathing animals-redistribution of blood flow. Each of these responses is known to be tightly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and during hypoxia by its metabolite nitrite. The aim of this review is to highlight recent work illustrating the widespread roles of NO and nitrite in the tolerance to extreme oxygen deprivation, in particular in the red-eared slider turtle and crucian carp, but also in diving marine mammals. The emerging picture underscores the importance of NO and nitrite signaling in the adaptive response to hypoxia in vertebrate animals. PMID:25729057

  7. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 ?M. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 ?M). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  8. Levels of selected minerals, nitric oxide, and vitamins in aborted Sakis sheep raised under semitropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Serap Unubol

    2010-01-01

    The serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron and of nitric oxide, retinol, and ?-carotene were determined in Sakiz ewes that had experienced an abortion and in healthy controls. Ten healthy and 25 aborted Sakiz sheep were selected from Afyon zone in western Turkey. Their ages ranged between 2 and 4 years weighing between 40 and 60 kg at the time of experiment. All of the abortions occurred in October. The concentrations of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus, and zinc were significantly lower and those of calcium and nitric oxide were increased in aborted ewes relative to healthy controls. The serum levels of iron, copper, and magnesium were not significantly different among the two groups. In conclusion, abortion is an important problem in commercially important species of ruminants in many regions in the tropics including of western Turkey. Deficiencies of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus and zinc, and the increase of calcium and nitric oxide concentration may play an important role in the etiology of abortion in ewes. Prophylactic measures such as vitamin and mineral supplementation may be of help to prevent or reduce the incidence of abortion in sheep. PMID:21076941

  9. Nitric oxide not apoptosis mediates differential killing of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Solís, Hugo; Vallecillo, Antonio J; Benítez-Guzmán, Alejandro; Adams, L Garry; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A

    2013-01-01

    To identify the resistance phenotype against Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, we used a bactericidal assay that has been considered a marker of this trait. Three of 24 cows (12.5%) were phenotyped as resistant and 21 as susceptible. Resistance of bovine macrophages (M?) to BCG challenge was evaluated for its association with SLC11A1 GT microsatellite polymorphisms within 3'UTR region. Twenty-three cows (95.8%) had a GT13 genotype, reported as resistant, consequently the SLC11A1 polymorphism was not in agreement with our bactericidal assay results. M? of cows with resistant or susceptible phenotype were challenged in vitro with virulent M. bovis field strain or BCG, and nitric oxide production, bacterial killing and apoptosis induction were measured in resting and LPS-primed states. M. bovis field strain induced more apoptosis than BCG, although the difference was not significant. Resistant M? controlled better the replication of M. bovis (P<0.01), produced more nitric oxide (P<0.05) and were slightly more prone to undergo apoptosis than susceptible cells. LPS pretreatment of M? enhanced all the functional parameters analyzed. Inhibition of nitric oxide production with n (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate enhanced replication of M. bovis but did not modify apoptosis rates in both resistant and susceptible M?. We conclude that nitric oxide production not apoptosis is a major determinant of macrophage resistance to M. bovis infection in cattle and that the influence of SLC11A1 gene 3'UTR polymorphism is not associated with this event. PMID:23691050

  10. Nitric Oxide Not Apoptosis Mediates Differential Killing of Mycobacterium bovis in Bovine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Solís, Hugo; Vallecillo, Antonio J.; Benítez-Guzmán, Alejandro; Adams, L. Garry; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A.

    2013-01-01

    To identify the resistance phenotype against Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, we used a bactericidal assay that has been considered a marker of this trait. Three of 24 cows (12.5%) were phenotyped as resistant and 21 as susceptible. Resistance of bovine macrophages (M?) to BCG challenge was evaluated for its association with SLC11A1 GT microsatellite polymorphisms within 3?UTR region. Twenty-three cows (95.8%) had a GT13 genotype, reported as resistant, consequently the SLC11A1polymorphism was not in agreement with our bactericidal assay results. M? of cows with resistant or susceptible phenotype were challenged in vitro with virulent M. bovis field strain or BCG, and nitric oxide production, bacterial killing and apoptosis induction were measured in resting and LPS-primed states. M. bovis field strain induced more apoptosis than BCG, although the difference was not significant. Resistant M? controlled better the replication of M. bovis (P<0.01), produced more nitric oxide (P<0.05) and were slightly more prone to undergo apoptosis than susceptible cells. LPS pretreatment of M? enhanced all the functional parameters analyzed. Inhibition of nitric oxide production with nG-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate enhanced replication of M. bovis but did not modify apoptosis rates in both resistant and susceptible M?. We conclude that nitric oxide production not apoptosis is a major determinant of macrophage resistance to M. bovis infection in cattle and that the influence of SLC11A1 gene 3?UTR polymorphism is not associated with this event. PMID:23691050

  11. The blood pressure buffering capacity of nitric oxide by comparison to the baroreceptor reflex

    E-print Network

    Just, Armin

    The blood pressure buffering capacity of nitric oxide by comparison to the baroreceptor reflex A buffering capacity of nitric oxide by comparison to the baroreceptor reflex. Am. J. Physiol. 267 (Heart Circ-term and circadian fluctuations of arterial blood pressure with that of the barore- ceptor reflex, conscious

  12. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-print Network

    Martín, Pino

    1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi;2 Abstract Experimental results are presented that support the surface-catalyzed production of nitric oxide from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

  13. Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser

    E-print Network

    require a compact and intense tunable light source. Quantum-cascade QC distributed-feedback DFB lasersCavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade for nitric oxide NO detection based on a cavity ringdown technique was designed and evaluated. A cw quantum-cascade

  14. SALICYLIC ACID- AND NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current advances in plant defense signaling is discussed, with emphasis on the role of nitric oxide and salicylic acid in the development of disease resistance. Nitric Oxide has recently been shown to have an important role in plant disease resistance. We show an increase in NOS-like activity in TMV...

  15. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... week of pregnancy) with respiratory failure. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy is typically administered in...-term infants, use of this therapy may shorten the length of time respiratory support is required... receive respiratory support? Are there short-term risks of inhaled nitric oxide therapy among...

  16. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  17. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on the carrageenan-induced paw edema.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carly Faria; Vieira, Rodolfo P; Lopes-Martins, Patrícia Sardinha Leonardo; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Borbely, Alexandre Urban; Gouvea, Irene Maria; Frigo, Lucio; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide therapy reaches not only pulmonary vessels, but also other vasculatures, presenting anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of inhaled nitric oxide on a mice model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Paw edema was induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.05 ml of a 1% suspension in 0.9% saline). The evaluation of time-course edema (mililiter) was measured by plethysmometry until 12 h following carrageenan administration. Thirty minutes after carrageenan injection, some groups received inhaled nitric oxide (300 ppm at variable doses and times) or Indometacin (INDO 5 mg/Kg, v.o), while others received sildenafil (1 mg/Kg, i.p) or rolipram (3 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without inhaled nitric oxide. Paws were assessed for edema levels by plethysmometry, mieloperoxidase activity and histological analysis. Inhaled nitric oxide significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, mieloperoxidase activity and inflammatory infiltrate, although similar results were also observed in sildenafil and rolipram treated groups. In addition, significant effects between inhaled nitric oxide with pharmacological therapy was observed. Inhaled nitric oxide presents anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induce paw edema, as observed through reduced edema, mieloperoxidase activity and neutrophil infiltration, indicating that inhaled nitric oxide therapy goes beyond lung vascular effects. PMID:25070733

  18. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  19. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Metamorphosis in Larvae of Crepidula fornicata, the Slippershell Snail

    E-print Network

    Nitric Oxide Inhibits Metamorphosis in Larvae of Crepidula fornicata, the Slippershell Snail JAN A metamorphosis in the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata. Metamorphosis was stimulated by the nitric oxide) at concentrations of about 100­1000 mol l 1 and 50­200 mol l 1 , respectively. Metamorphosis was not, however

  20. neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Eung Tae; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Jang, Hari; Lee, Dongho; Ahn, Jong Seog; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-25

    Three new neo-clerodane diterpenoids (1-3) along with 12 known compounds (4-15) were isolated from a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria barbata. The structures of 1-3 were determined by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS values. All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-4, 7, and 10-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging from 20.2 to 35.6 ?M. PMID:26331882

  1. Investigation of the production of nitric oxide by soft solar x rays in the e-region of the ionosphere. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    The production of nitric oxide by soft solar X rays in the E region of the ionosphere is investigated. An empirical expression for the variation in X ray flux as a function of F10.7 is determined. This expression is incorporated into a one-dimensional diffusive photochemical model to compute nitric oxide densities. The results of these calculations are compared with NO observations from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite. Variations of X-ray flux by a factor of 30 over the solar cycle can explain the observed variation in nitric oxide densities.

  2. Nitric oxide activation of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in human colon carcinoma cells

    E-print Network

    Wogan, Gerald N.

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates expression of genes that protect cells from oxidative damage. Here, we characterized nitric oxide (•NO)-induced Nrf2–Kelch-like ECH-associated protein ...

  3. Imaging Pulmonary Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression with PET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Howard J.; Isakow, Warren; Byers, Derek E.; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Debra; Brody, Steven L.; Gropler, Robert J.; Miller, J. Philip; Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Pierce, Richard A.; Castro, Mario; Mach, Robert H.; Chen, Delphine L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity increases in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Imaging iNOS expression may be useful as an inflammation biomarker for monitoring lung disease activity. We developed a novel tracer for PET that binds to iNOS in vivo, 18F-NOS. In this study, we tested whether 18F-NOS could quantify iNOS expression from endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers were screened to exclude cardiopulmonary disease. Qualifying volunteers underwent a baseline, 1-h dynamic 18F-NOS PET/CT scan. Endotoxin (4 ng/kg) was then instilled bronchoscopically in the right middle lobe. 18F-NOS imaging was performed again approximately 16 h after endotoxin instillation. Radiolabeled metabolites were determined from blood samples. Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after imaging were stained immunohistochemically for iNOS. 18F-NOS uptake was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) determined by Logan plot graphical analysis in volumes of interest placed over the area of endotoxin instillation and in an equivalent lung region on the left. The mean Hounsfield units (HUs) were also computed using the same volumes of interest to measure density changes. Results Seven healthy volunteers with normal pulmonary function completed the study with evaluable data. The DVR increased by approximately 30%, from a baseline mean of 0.42 ± 0.07 to 0.54 ± 0.12, and the mean HUs by 11% after endotoxin in 6 volunteers who had positive iNOS staining in BAL cells. The DVR did not change in the left lung after endotoxin. In 1 volunteer with low-level iNOS staining in BAL cells, the mean HUs increased by 7% without an increase in DVR. Metabolism was rapid, with approximately 50% of the parent compound at 5 min and 17% at 60 min after injection. Conclusion 18F-NOS can be used to image iNOS activity in acute lung inflammation in humans and may be a useful PET tracer for imaging iNOS expression in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:25525182

  4. Gonococcal nitric oxide reductase is encoded by a single gene, norB, which is required for anaerobic growth and is induced by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Householder, T C; Fozo, E M; Cardinale, J A; Clark, V L

    2000-09-01

    The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the absence of norB did not dramatically decrease anaerobic survival. In a wild-type background, induction of norB expression was seen anaerobically in the presence of nitrite but not anaerobically without nitrite or aerobically. norB expression is not regulated by FNR or NarP, but a functional aniA gene (which encodes an anaerobically induced outer membrane nitrite reductase) is necessary for expression. When aniA is constitutively expressed, norB expression can be induced both anaerobically and aerobically, but only in the presence of nitrite, suggesting that nitric oxide, which is likely to be produced by AniA as a product of nitrite reduction, is the inducing agent. This was confirmed with the use of the nitric oxide donor, spermine-nitric oxide complex, in an aniA null background both anaerobically and aerobically. NorB is important for gonococcal adaptation to an anaerobic environment, a physiologically relevant state during gonococcal infection. The presence of this enzyme, which is induced by nitric oxide, may also have implications in immune evasion and immunomodulation in the human host. PMID:10948150

  5. Nitrones: not only extraordinary spin traps, but also good nitric oxide sources in vivo.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Petkes, Hermina Iulia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Cotârlan, Remus; ?erban, Oana Elena; Dogaru, Titica Maria; Gâz Florea, ?erban Andrei; T?kés, Béla; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-01

    Free radicals are involved in the development of reperfusion injuries. Using a spin trap, the intensity of such lesions can be reduced. Nitrones (effective in vivo spin traps) were tried in this work as in vivo nitric oxide donors. Nitrite and nitrate concentration values (rabbit blood) were used as biomarkers of nitric oxide production. Most nitrones did not increase plasma concentrations of nitrite and nitrate; on the contrary, reduced plasma concentrations of these indicators were noted. However, glyoxal isopropyldinitrone, in a dose of 50 mg kg-1, was highly effective in increasing nitric oxide production. At the same time, nitrones do not react with hepatic homogenates, proving that the release of nitric oxide takes place in the tissues and is not related to hepatic metabolism. Before using nitrones in vivo, they were tested in vitro for the ability to release nitric oxide following a reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:26677898

  6. SAMPLING AND DETERMINATION OF GAS-PHASE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF OZONE BY GAS-PHASE REACTION WITH NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the ambient atmosphere is described, using impinger or diffusion scrubber collection of hydrogen peroxide with aqueous-phase analysis by an enzyme-catalyzed fluorescence technique. Interference from ozone at ambient levels is rem...

  7. Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and p66Shc Interplay in Diabetic Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Simona; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Gaetano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability play a causal role in endothelial cell dysfunction occurring in the vasculature of diabetic patients. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms underpinning diabetic endothelial and vascular dysfunction. In particular, we focused our attention on the complex interplay existing among NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and one crucial regulator of intracellular ROS production, p66Shc protein. PMID:24734227

  8. Effect of Mild Nitric Acid Oxidation on Dispersability, Size, and Structure of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Resasco, Daniel

    Effect of Mild Nitric Acid Oxidation on Dispersability, Size, and Structure of Single-Walled Carbon) with nitric acid increases their dispersability in water, methanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Two oxidation conditions carefully. Nitric acid has been the most frequently utilized agent for oxidation of carbon

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide in cardiac surgery: Evidence or tradition?

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Maria; Romano, Rosalba; Baca, Georgiana; Sarridou, Despoina; Fischer, Andreas; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor

    2015-09-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in cardiac surgery has been one of the most significant pharmacological advances in managing pulmonary hemodynamics and life threatening right ventricular dysfunction and failure. However, this remarkable story has experienced a roller-coaster ride with high hopes and nearly universal demonstration of physiological benefits but disappointing translation of these benefits to harder clinical outcomes. Most of our understanding on the iNO field in cardiac surgery stems from small observational or single centre randomised trials and even the very few multicentre trials fail to ascertain strong evidence base. As a consequence, there are only weak clinical practice guidelines on the field and only European expert opinion for the use of iNO in routine and more specialised cardiac surgery such as heart and lung transplantation and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) insertion. In this review the authors from a specialised cardiac centre in the UK with a very high volume of iNO usage provide detailed information on the early observations leading to the European expert recommendations and reflect on the nature and background of these recommendations. We also provide a summary of the progress in each of the cardiac subspecialties for the last decade and initial survey data on the views of senior anaesthetic and intensive care colleagues on these recommendations. We conclude that the combination of high price tag associated with iNO therapy and lack of substantial clinical evidence is not sustainable on the current field and we are risking loosing this promising therapy from our daily practice. Overcoming the status quo will not be easy as there is not much room for controlled trials in heart transplantation or in the current atmosphere of LVAD implantation. However, we call for international cooperation to conduct definite studies to determine the place of iNO therapy in lung transplantation and high risk mitral surgery. This will require new collaboration between the pharmaceutical companies, national grant agencies and the clinical community. Until these trials are realized we should gather multi-institutional experience from large retrospective studies and prospective data from a new international registry. We must step up international efforts if we wish to maintain the iNO modality in the armamentarium of hemodynamic tools for the perioperative management of our high risk cardiac surgical patients. PMID:26186889

  10. Modeling nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Vukovich, Jeff; Peirce, Jeffrey

    Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory in conjunction with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, nitric oxide concentrations [NO] were measured and NO fluxes were calculated during the summer, winter and spring of 1999/2000. The field site where these measurements were conducted was an agricultural soil amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. These NO flux values were then used to assess the impact of including biosolid amended soils as a land-use class in an air quality model. The average NO flux from this biosolid amended soil was found to be exponentially dependent on soil temperature [NO Flux ( ng N m-2 s-1)=1.07 exp(0.14 T soil) ; R2=0.81—NO Flux=71.3 ng N m -2 s-1 at 30°C]. Comparing this relationship to results of the widely applied biogenic emissions inventory system (BEIS2) model revealed that for this field site, if the BEIS2 model was used, the NO emissions would have been underestimated by a factor of 26. Using this newly developed NO flux algorithm, combined with North Carolina Division of Water Quality statistics on how many biosolid amended acres are permitted per county, county-based NO inventories from these biosolid amended soils were calculated. Results from this study indicate that county-level biogenic NO emissions can increase by as much as 18% when biosolid amended soils are included as a land-use class. The multiscale air quality simulation platform (MAQSIP) was then used to determine differences in ozone (O 3) and odd-reactive nitrogen compounds (NO y) between models run with and without the biosolid amended acreages included in the inventory. Results showed that during the daytime, when atmospheric mixing heights are typically at their greatest, any increase in O 3 or NO y concentrations predicted by the model were small (<3%). In some locations during late evening/early morning hours, ozone was found to be consumed by as much as 11%.

  11. Nitric Oxide Increases Lysine 48-Linked Ubiquitination Following Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oustwani, Chris S.; Tsihlis, Nick D.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Jiang, Qun; Martinez, Janet; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Proteins are targeted for degradation by the addition of a polyubiquitin chain. Chains of ubiquitin linked via lysine 48 (K48) are associated with protein degradation while chains linked via lysine 63 (K63) are associated with intracellular signaling. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in association with increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of UbcH10. The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of arterial injury and NO on K48- or K63-linked ubiquitination of cellular proteins. Methods The rat carotid artery balloon injury model was performed. Treatment groups included control, injury, injury+proline NONOate (PROLI/NO), and PROLI/NO alone. Arteries were harvested at designated time points and sectioned for immunohistochemical analysis of K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination or homogenized for protein analysis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) harvested from rat aortae were exposed to the NO donor diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO). Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis, or immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Results Arterial injury increased K48-linked ubiquitination in vivo. The addition of PROLI/NO following injury caused a further increase in K48-linked ubiquitination at 1 and 3 days, however, levels returned to that of injury alone by 2 weeks. Interestingly, treatment with PROLI/NO alone increased K48-linked ubiquitination in vivo to levels similar to injury alone. There were minimal changes in K63-linked ubiquitination in all three treatment groups. DETA/NO increased K48-linked ubiquitination in VSMC in vitro but had minimal effects on K63-linked ubiquitination. Low doses of DETA/NO decreased K48-linked ubiquitination of cyclin A and B, while high doses of DETA/NO increased K48-linked ubiquitination of cyclin A and B. Minimal changes were seen in K63-linked ubiquitination of cyclin A and B in vitro. Conclusions Arterial injury and NO increased K48-linked ubiquitination in vivo and in vitro. Remarkably, minimal changes were seen in K63-linked ubiquitination. These novel findings provide important insights into the vascular biology of arterial injury and suggest that one mechanism by which NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia is through regulation of protein ubiquitination. PMID:21737094

  12. Alveolar and bronchial nitric oxide output in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Sepponen, Anna; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Huhtala, Heini; Kaila, Minna; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2008-12-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration is a marker of pulmonary inflammation. It is usually measured at a single exhalation flow rate. However, measuring exhaled NO at multiple flow rates allows assessment of the flow-independent NO parameters: alveolar NO concentration, bronchial NO flux, bronchial wall NO concentration, and bronchial diffusing capacity of NO. Our aim was to determine the flow-independent NO parameters in healthy schoolchildren and to compare two different mathematical approaches. Exhaled NO was measured at four flow rates (10, 50, 100, and 200 ml/sec) in 253 schoolchildren (7-13 years old). Flow-independent NO parameters were calculated with linear method (flows >or=50 ml/sec) and non-linear method (all flows). Sixty-six children (32 boys and 34 girls) with normal spirometry and no history or present symptoms of asthma, allergy, atopy or other diseases were included in the analysis. Median bronchial NO flux was 0.4 nl/sec (mean +/- SD: 0.5 +/- 0.3 nl/sec) and median alveolar NO concentration was 1.9 ppb (2.0 +/- 0.8 ppb) with the linear method. Bronchial NO flux correlated positively with height (r = 0.423; P < 0.001), FEV(1) (r = 0.358; P = 0.003), and FVC (r = 0.359; P = 0.003). With the non-linear method, median bronchial wall NO concentration was 49.6 ppb (68.0 +/- 53.3 ppb) and bronchial diffusing capacity of NO was 10.0 pl/sec/ppb (11.8 +/- 7.5 pl/sec/ppb). The non-linear method gave lower alveolar NO concentration (1.4 [1.5 +/- 0.7] ppb, P < 0.001) and higher bronchial NO flux (0.5 [0.6 +/- 0.3] nl/sec, P < 0.001) than the linear method, but the results were highly correlated between the two methods (r = 0.854 and r = 0.971, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the multiple flow rate method is feasible in children but different mathematical methods give slightly different results. Reference values in healthy children are of value when applying bronchial and alveolar NO parameters in the diagnostics and follow-up of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:19009623

  13. Indirect determination of nitric oxide production by reduction of nitrate with a freeze-thawing-resistant nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli MC1061.

    PubMed

    Arias-Negrete, Sergio; Jiménez-Romero, Luis A; Solís-Martínez, Martha O; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Avila, Eva E; Cuéllar-Mata, Patricia

    2004-05-01

    Preparation of a nitrate reductase lysate of Escherichia coli MC1061 to measure nitrate and nitrite in biologic fluids is described. To obtain the crude bacterial lysate containing nitrate reductase activity, E. coli MC1061 was subjected to 16-20 freeze-thawing cycles, from -70 to 60 degrees C, until nitrite reductase activity was < or = 25%. Nitrate reductase activity was detected mainly in the crude preparation. To validate the nitrate reduction procedure, standard nitrate solutions (1.6-100 microM) were incubated with the nitrate reductase preparation for 3 h at 37 degrees C, and nitrite was estimated by the Griess reaction in a microassay. Nitrate solutions were reduced to nitrite in a range of 60-70%. Importantly, no cofactors were necessary to perform nitrate reduction. The biological samples were first reduced with the nitrate reductase preparation. After centrifugation, samples were deproteinized with either methanol/ether or zinc sulfate and nitrite was quantified. The utility of the nitrate reductase preparation was assessed by nitrate+nitrite determination in serum of animals infected with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica or the bacteria E. coli and in the supernatant of cultured lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Our results indicate that the nitrate reductase-containing lysate provides a convenient tool for the reduction of nitrate to determine nitrate+nitrite in biological fluids by spectrophotometric methods. PMID:15081902

  14. Effect of L-NAME on nitric oxide and gastrointestinal motility alterations in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhong, Yue-Xia; Zhang, Zong-You; Lu, Ju; Lan, Mei; Miao, Ji-Yan; Guo, Xue-Gang; Shi, Yong-Quan; Zhao, Yan-Qiu; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kai-Cun; Pan, Bo-Rong; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of L-NAME on nitric oxide and gastrointestinal motility alterations in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Rats with cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride were randomly divided into two groups, one (n = 13) receiving 0.5 mg·kg-1 per day of N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, for 10 d, whereas the other group (n = 13) and control (n = 10) rats were administrated the same volume of 9 g•L?¹ saline. Half gastric emptying time and 2 h residual rate were measured by SPECT, using 99mTc-DTPA-labeled barium sulfate as test meal. Gastrointestinal transition time was recorded simultaneously. Serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the kinetic cadmium reduction and colorimetric methods. Immunohistochemical SABC method was used to observe the expression and distribution of three types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Western blot was used to detect expression of gastrointestinal NOS isoforms. RESULTS: Half gastric emptying time and trans-gastrointestinal time were significantly prolonged (124.0 ± 26.4 min; 33.7 ± 8.9 min; 72.1 ± 15.3 min; P < 0.01), (12.4 ± 0.5 h; 9.5 ± 0.3 h; 8.2 ± 0.8 h; P < 0.01), 2 h residual rate was raised in cirrhotic rats than in controls and cirrhotic rats treated with L-NAME (54.9% ± 7.6%, 13.7% ± 3.2%, 34.9% ± 10.3%, P < 0.01). Serum concentration of NO was significantly increased in cirrhotic rats than in the other groups (8.20 ± 2.48) ?mol•L?¹, (5.94 ± 1.07) ?mol•L?¹, and control (5.66 ± 1.60) ?mol•L?¹, P < 0.01. NOS staining intensities which were mainly located in the gastrointestinal tissues were markedly lower in cirrhotic rats than in the controls and cirrhotic rats after treated with L-NAME. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was remarkably inhibited in cirrhotic rats, which could be alleviated by L-NAME.Nitric oxide may play an important role in the inhibition of gastrointestinal motility in cirrhotic rats. PMID:11925618

  15. Antibacterial Efficacy of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, C.J.; Sergesketter, A.R.; Offenbacher, S.; Schoenfisch, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Current treatments for periodontitis (e.g., scaling/root planing and chlorhexidine) have limited efficacy since they fail to suppress microbial biofilms satisfactorily over time, and the use of adjunctive antimicrobials can promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Herein, we report the novel application of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing scaffolds (i.e., dendrimers and silica particles) as anti-periodontopathogenic agents. The effectiveness of macromolecular NO release was demonstrated by a 3-log reduction in periodontopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis viability. In contrast, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis, caries-associated organisms, were substantially less sensitive to NO treatment. Both dendrimer- and silica-based NO release exhibited substantially less toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts at concentrations necessary to eradicate periodontopathogens than did clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine. These results suggest the potential utility of macromolecular NO-release scaffolds as a novel platform for the development of periodontal disease therapeutics. PMID:25139363

  16. Reaction between nitric oxide and ozone in solid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, D.; Pimentel, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is produced when nitric oxide, NO, and ozone, O3, are suspended in a nitrogen matrix at 11-20 K. The NO2 is formed with first-order kinetics, a 12 K rate constant of (1.4 + or - 0.2) x 0.00001/sec, and an apparent activation energy of 106 + or - 10 cal/mol. Isotopic labeling, variation of concentrations, and cold shield experiments show that the growth of NO2 is due to reaction between ozone molecules and NO monomers, and that the reaction is neither infrared-induced nor does it seem to be a heavy atom tunneling process. Reaction is attributed to nearest-neighbor NO.O3 pairs probably held in a specific orientational relationship that affects the kinetic behavior. When the temperature is raised, more such reactive pairs are generated, presumably by local diffusion. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, César G.; Litterio, María C.; Prince, Paula D.; Calabró, Valeria; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Galleano, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with benefits for human health. Those effects have been partially ascribed to their content in flavonoids, compounds that are present in many edible plants and its derived foods. In humans, a significant number of studies has been developed analyzing the effect of foods and beverages rich in flavonoids on the presence and progression of risk factors associated to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Cocoa derived products, rich in flavanols, have been thoroughly studied and demonstrated to be efficient improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure in humans and animals. However, the final chemical species and the mechanism/s responsible for these effects have not been completely defined. In this paper we present data supporting the hypothesis that flavanols could define superoxide anion production and then, establish optimal nitric oxide levels and blood pressure. PMID:21297914

  18. Metallo Protoporphyrin Functionalized Microelectrodes for Electrocatalytic Sensing of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Zhong; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Zhang, Wenbo; Scafa, Nikki; Zhang, Xueji

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered as an important bio-regulatory molecule in the physiological process. All the existing methods often employed for NO measurement are mainly indirect and not suitable for in vivo conditions. In this paper, we report a systematic study of electrocatalytic NO reduction by comparing the redox properties of NO at carbon microelectrodes functionalized by Fe, Mn and Co protoporphyrins. The mechanisms of electrocatalytic reduction of NO by different metalloporphyrins have been proposed and compared. In addition, by varying the metallic cores of the metalloporphyrins, NO exhibits voltammograms in which the cathodic peak current occur at different potential. A comparative study on the electrochemical behavior of each of these metalloporphyrin (as a result of varying the metallic core) has been performed and a possible mechanism for the observed behavior is proposed. The results confirmed the potential applicability of using metalloporphyrins modified electrodes for voltammetric NO detection. PMID:20526418

  19. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  20. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  1. Antibacterial efficacy of exogenous nitric oxide on periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Backlund, C J; Sergesketter, A R; Offenbacher, S; Schoenfisch, M H

    2014-11-01

    Current treatments for periodontitis (e.g., scaling/root planing and chlorhexidine) have limited efficacy since they fail to suppress microbial biofilms satisfactorily over time, and the use of adjunctive antimicrobials can promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Herein, we report the novel application of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing scaffolds (i.e., dendrimers and silica particles) as anti-periodontopathogenic agents. The effectiveness of macromolecular NO release was demonstrated by a 3-log reduction in periodontopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis viability. In contrast, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis, caries-associated organisms, were substantially less sensitive to NO treatment. Both dendrimer- and silica-based NO release exhibited substantially less toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts at concentrations necessary to eradicate periodontopathogens than did clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine. These results suggest the potential utility of macromolecular NO-release scaffolds as a novel platform for the development of periodontal disease therapeutics. PMID:25139363

  2. Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) pathway mediates important physiological functions associated with various integrative body systems including the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Furthermore, NO regulates cell growth, survival, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation at the cellular level. To understand the significance of the NO-cGMP pathway in development and differentiation, studies have been conducted both in developing embryos and stem cells. Manipulation of the NO-cGMP pathway by employing activators and inhibitors as pharmacological probes and/or genetic manipulation of NO signaling components has implicated the involvement of this pathway in regulation of stem cell differentiation. This review will focus on some of the work pertaining to the role of NO-cGMP in differentiation of stem cells into cells of various lineages particularly into myocardial cells and stem cell based therapy. PMID:22019632

  3. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J.; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis AJ; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits. PMID:22499176

  4. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  5. Phosphorylated neuronal nitric oxide synthase in neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhidong; Liang, Yingping; Deng, Fumou; Cheng, Yong; Sun, Jing; Guo, Lian; Xu, Guohai

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain caused by nervous system damage or system dysfunction. The pathogenesis and the mechanism underlying neuropathic pain remains unclear. The only known neurobiological component involved in the neuropathic pain is nitric oxide (NO). NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from L-arginine and oxygen. nNOS is involved in the inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. In this study, we aimed to identify whether KN93 reduced the pain in the rats. Sixty adult male SD rat were randomly divided into 4 groups. Sham group and model group were not received treatment. Experimental group received intrathecal injection of KN93, and negative control group received DMSO injection 30 min before pain test. After last test of pain threshold, the rats were sacrificed and lumbar spinal tissues were sampled for analysis of the expression of pnNOS and pCaMK II by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Pain threshold was increased in the rats received KN93 treatment (P<0.01), and the expression levels of pnNOS was increased (P<0.05) in experimental group and accompanied with decrease of CaMK II expression (P<0.05). By administration of KN93, the interaction of nNOS and the adaptor protein CAPON was reduced through inhibition of CaMK II by KN93. In conclusion, this study reveals that KN93 can reduce neuropathic pain via inhibiting the activity of CaMK II, and then increase the level of phosphorylated nNOS, to reduce the interaction with CAPON. PMID:26722464

  6. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  7. Tissue factor and nitric oxide: a controversial relationship!

    PubMed

    Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna; Cooper, Alan J; Lwaleed, Bashir A

    2007-04-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the primary physiological initiator of blood coagulation. TF has a high-affinity for factor (F) VII resulting in the formation of (TF:FVII:FVIIa) bimolecular complex which, in the presence of Ca(2+), increases the enzymatic activity of FVIIa towards its natural substrates, FIX and FX, generating their active forms FIXa and FXa, respectively. This eventually leads to thrombin generation and a fibrin clot formation. Up-regulation of TF in injured blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaque can lead to undesirable vascular thrombosis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical synthesized from L-arginine and molecular oxygen by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO participates in diverse physiological and pathophysiological process as an intra or extracellular messenger. A relationship between TF and NO has been proposed. Thus, models of TF regulation by NO has been studied in different cells and experimental animal models, but the results have been conflicting. The premise that NO donors can prevent TF expression in vivo has provided the foundation for a broad field of pharmacotherapeutics in vascular medicine. A new class of drugs combining a statin (inhibitors of coenzyme A reductase) with an NO-donating moiety has been described. The resulting drug, nitrostatin, has been suggested to increase the antithrombotic effects of native statin. However, it is questionable if NO release from these drugs had any significant role on TF inhibition. In summary, care must be taken in drawing conclusions about the relationship between NO and TF. Interpretation of NO studies must take several factors into consideration, including NO bioavailability, its half-life and inactivation, as well as the cell type and experimental model used. PMID:17221333

  8. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  9. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  10. Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    PACHER, PÁL; BECKMAN, JOSEPH S.; LIAUDET, LUCAS

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review. PMID:17237348

  11. The production of nitric oxide by marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea and inhibition of archaeal ammonia oxidation by a nitric oxide scavenger.

    PubMed

    Martens-Habbena, Willm; Qin, Wei; Horak, Rachel E A; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Schauer, Andrew J; Moffett, James W; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Devol, Allan H; Stahl, David A

    2015-07-01

    Nitrification is a critical process for the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, linking mineralization to the nitrogen loss processes of denitrification and anammox. Recent studies indicate a significant contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to nitrification. However, quantification of the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to in situ ammonia oxidation remains challenging. We show here the production of nitric oxide (NO) by Nitrosopumilus maritimus?SCM1. Activity of SCM1 was always associated with the release of NO with quasi-steady state concentrations between 0.05 and 0.08??M. NO production and metabolic activity were inhibited by the nitrogen free radical scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). Comparison of marine and terrestrial AOB strains with SCM1 and the recently isolated marine AOA strain HCA1 demonstrated a differential sensitivity of AOB and AOA to PTIO and allylthiourea (ATU). Similar to the investigated AOA strains, bulk water column nitrification at coastal and open ocean sites with sub-micromolar ammonia/ammonium concentrations was inhibited by PTIO and insensitive to ATU. These experiments support predictions from kinetic, molecular and biogeochemical studies, indicating that marine nitrification at low ammonia/ammonium concentrations is largely driven by archaea and suggest an important role of NO in the archaeal metabolism. PMID:25420929

  12. Geranylated flavanones from Paulownia coreana and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qinghao; Lee, Chul; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the flower of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of a new geranylated flavanone, 3'-O-methyl-5'-hydroxydiplacol (1), along with 10 known compounds (2-11). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, which included one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR. Among the isolates, compounds 1-6 showed potent inhibitory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging 1.48 to 16.66?µM. PMID:25948332

  13. Organelle-Specific Nitric Oxide Detection in Living Cells via HaloTag Protein Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Du, Zengmin; Hu, Aiguo; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a membrane-permeable signaling molecule that is constantly produced, transferred, and consumed in vivo. NO participates and plays important roles in multiple biological processes. However, spatiotemporal imaging of NO in living cells is challenging. To fill the gap in currently used techniques, we exploited the versatility of HaloTag technology and synthesized a novel organelle-targetable fluorescent probe called HTDAF-2DA. We demonstrate the utility of the probe by monitoring subcellular NO dynamics. The developed strategy enables precise determination of local NO function. PMID:25923693

  14. A hypothesis about cellular signaling with nitric oxide in the earliest life forms in evolution.

    PubMed

    Murad, Ferid; Barber, Roger

    2009-11-01

    We propose that nitric oxide participated as an extracellular and intracellular messenger in the early evolution of life. From a toxic and noxious substance it evolved into an important material for cellular communication and regulation with unique chemistry and properties. The presence of some nitric oxide complexes in extraterrestrial samples may support evidence for life forms in the past or present. Although nitric oxide probably participated in the evolution and maintenance of life, if pollution continues at an ever-increasing rate, it could also end life on the planet as we know it today. PMID:19439177

  15. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  16. The transport of nitric oxide in the upper atmosphere by planetary waves and the zonal mean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. A.; Avery, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical model was developed and used to study the interaction between planetary waves, the zonal mean circulation, and the trace constituent nitric oxide in the region between 55 km and 120 km. The factors which contribute to the structure of the nitric oxide distribution were examined, and the sensitivity of the distribution to changes in planetary wave amplitude was investigated. Wave-induced changes in the mean nitric oxide concentration were examined as a possible mechanism for the observed winter anomaly. Results indicate that vertically-propagating planetary waves induce a wave-like structure in the nitric oxide distribution and that at certain levels, transports of nitric oxide by planetary waves could significantly affect the mean nitric oxide distribution. The magnitude and direction of these transports at a given level was found to depend not only on the amplitude of the planetary wave, but also on the loss rate of nitric oxide at that level.

  17. The Biological Chemistry of Nitric Oxide as It Pertains to the Extrapulmonary Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects. PMID:16565423

  18. Effect of a nitric oxide releasing derivative of paracetamol in a rat model of endotoxaemia

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M; Keeble, J; Moore, P K

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nitroparacetamol is a nitric oxide-releasing paracetamol with novel anti-inflammatory properties compared to the parent compound. This study has investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of nitroparacetamol in a model of endotoxaemia in rats to probe the mechanisms underlying this effect. Experimental approach: Nitroparacetamol (92?mg?kg?1), paracetamol (50?mg?kg?1) or vehicle were administered to male, Wistar rats 15?min prior to or 3?h after lipopolysaccharide (0.5?mg?kg?1, serotype 0127:B8). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were measured for 5?h and plasma and organs were then obtained to determine organ dysfunction, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression (lung, liver and kidney tissue) and plasma nitrate/nitrite. In separate experiments, nitroparacetamol, paracetamol or vehicle was administered 1?h before acetylcholine (0.1??g?kg?1) or sodium nitroprusside (0.25??g?kg?1) to determine if nitroparacetamol desensitizes responses to exogenous/endogenous nitric oxide. Key results: Nitroparacetamol prevented but did not reverse the lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension. There was no effect on heart rate or plasma markers of organ dysfunction. Nitroparacetamol prevented the increased plasma nitrate/nitrite and expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas paracetamol exerted partial inhibition of COX-2 in lung alone. Nitroparacetamol also reduced responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Conclusions and implications: NO is the active component of nitroparacetamol in this model of endotoxaemia. Pro-inflammatory processes targeted by nitroparacetamol have been shown to include iNOS/COX-2 induction and possibly vascular soluble guanylyl cyclase. Precise mechanisms underlying the NO effect are unclear but inhbition of cytokine formation may be important. PMID:16940991

  19. Direct scavenging of nitric oxide by traditional crude drugs.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, T; Chen, C P; Tanaka, T

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-one traditional crude drugs and several pure compounds were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as a NO donor in vitro. Most of the crude drugs tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO. Eight crude drugs, including Sanguisorbae Radix, Caryophylli Flos, Gambir, Coptidis Rhizoma, Granati Cortex, Gallae Rhois, Rhei Rhizoma and Cinnamomi Cortex exhibited significant activity (IC50 values < 1000 micrograms/ml), and with the exception of Coptidis Rhizoma, all were found to contain tannins as their major constituents. In addition, some crude drugs containing flavonoids or essential oils also appeared to act against NO. Ten major tannins contained in Sanguisorbae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma showed high scavenging activity (IC50 values < 326.3 micrograms/ml), and 6 of 8 alkaloids obtained from Coptidis Rhizoma also effectively scavenged the NO radical (IC50 values < 455.4 micrograms/ml). It was indicated that these compounds may be the active principles of the crude drugs responsible for NO scavenging. The present results suggest that traditional crude drugs might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. These findings may also help to explain, at least in part, certain pharmacological activities of crude drugs, especially anti-infection and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:10715849

  20. Adrenoreceptors and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Corbi, Graziamaria; Izzo, Viviana; Vecchione, Carmine; Filippelli, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule that continues to attract much attention from the scientific community. Since its discovery, it has been evident that NO has a crucial role in the modulation of vascular tone. Moreover, NO is involved in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. NO effects can be either dependent or independent on cGMP, and rely also upon several mechanisms such as the amount of NO, the compartmentalization of the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis (NOS), and the local redox conditions. Several evidences highlighted the correlation among adrenoreceptors activity, vascular redox status and NO bioavailability. It was suggested a possible crosstalk between NO and oxidative stress hallmarks in the endothelium function and adaptation, and in sympathetic vasoconstriction control. Adrenergic vasoconstriction is a balance between a direct vasoconstrictive effect on smooth muscle and an indirect vasorelaxant action caused by ?2- and ?-adrenergic endothelial receptor-triggered NO release. An increased oxidative stress and a reduction of NO bioavailability shifts this equilibrium causing the enhanced vascular adrenergic responsiveness observed in hypertension. The activity of NOS contributes to manage the adrenergic pathway, thus supporting the idea that the endothelium might control or facilitate ?-adrenergic effects on the vessels and the polymorphic variants in ?2-receptors and NOS isoforms could influence aging, some pathological conditions and individual responses to drugs. This seems to be dependent, almost in part, on differences in the control of vascular tone exerted by NO. Given its involvement in such important mechanisms, the NO pathway is implicated in aging process and in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Thus, it is essential to pinpoint NO involvement in the regulation of vascular tone for the effective clinical/therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:24223559

  1. Nitric oxide as a regulator of B. anthracis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Popova, Taissia G; Teunis, Allison; Vaseghi, Haley; Zhou, Weidong; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A; Popov, Serguei G

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key physiological regulator in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It can cause a variety of biological effects by reacting with its targets or/and indirectly inducing oxidative stress. NO can also be produced by bacteria including the pathogenic Bacillus anthracis; however, its role in the infectious process only begins to emerge. NO incapacitates macrophages by S-nitrosylating the intracellular proteins and protects B. anthracis from oxidative stress. It is also implicated in the formation of toxic peroxynitrite. In this study we further assessed the effects of B. anthracis NO produced by the NO synthase (bNOS) on bacterial metabolism and host cells in experiments with the bNOS knockout Sterne strain. The mutation abrogated accumulation of nitrite and nitrate as tracer products of NO in the culture medium and markedly attenuated growth in both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The regulatory role of NO was also suggested by the abnormally high rate of nitrate denitrification by the mutant in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic regulation mediated by NO was reflected in reduced fermentation of glucose by the mutant correlating with the reduced toxicity of bacteria toward host cells in culture. The toxic effect of NO required permeabilization of the target cells as well as the activity of fermentation-derived metabolite in the conditions of reduced pH. The host cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of major survivor protein kinase AKT correlating with reduced toxicity of the mutant in comparison with Sterne. Our global proteomic analysis of lymph from the lymph nodes of infected mice harboring bacteria revealed numerous changes in the pattern and levels of proteins associated with the activity of bNOS influencing key cell physiological processes relevant to energy metabolism, growth, signal transduction, stress response, septic shock, and homeostasis. This is the first in vivo observation of the bacterial NO effect on the lymphatic system. PMID:26388860

  2. Nitric oxide as a regulator of B. anthracis pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Taissia G.; Teunis, Allison; Vaseghi, Haley; Zhou, Weidong; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key physiological regulator in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It can cause a variety of biological effects by reacting with its targets or/and indirectly inducing oxidative stress. NO can also be produced by bacteria including the pathogenic Bacillus anthracis; however, its role in the infectious process only begins to emerge. NO incapacitates macrophages by S-nitrosylating the intracellular proteins and protects B. anthracis from oxidative stress. It is also implicated in the formation of toxic peroxynitrite. In this study we further assessed the effects of B. anthracis NO produced by the NO synthase (bNOS) on bacterial metabolism and host cells in experiments with the bNOS knockout Sterne strain. The mutation abrogated accumulation of nitrite and nitrate as tracer products of NO in the culture medium and markedly attenuated growth in both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The regulatory role of NO was also suggested by the abnormally high rate of nitrate denitrification by the mutant in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic regulation mediated by NO was reflected in reduced fermentation of glucose by the mutant correlating with the reduced toxicity of bacteria toward host cells in culture. The toxic effect of NO required permeabilization of the target cells as well as the activity of fermentation-derived metabolite in the conditions of reduced pH. The host cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of major survivor protein kinase AKT correlating with reduced toxicity of the mutant in comparison with Sterne. Our global proteomic analysis of lymph from the lymph nodes of infected mice harboring bacteria revealed numerous changes in the pattern and levels of proteins associated with the activity of bNOS influencing key cell physiological processes relevant to energy metabolism, growth, signal transduction, stress response, septic shock, and homeostasis. This is the first in vivo observation of the bacterial NO effect on the lymphatic system. PMID:26388860

  3. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the gill of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    nNOS to nerve fibers and epithelial cells adjacent to mitochondrion-rich cells (ion transporting heteroclitus; Gill; Killifish; Neuronal nitric oxide; Ion transport; Nerve; Vascular tone; Mitochondrion

  4. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea 

    E-print Network

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30

    The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust ...

  5. EXAMINING THE TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the temporal variability of airborne emissions of ammonia from livestock operations and fertilizer application and nitric oxide from soils. In the United States, the livestock operations and fertilizer categories comprise the majority of the ammonia emissions...

  6. Genetic dissection of nitric oxide signalling network In plant defence response 

    E-print Network

    Yin, Minghui

    2014-11-27

    Following pathogen recognition, nitric oxide (NO) is rapidly produced in plants, this small molecule has emerged as a key signal in plant defence responses. S-nitrosylation is the major route of NO signal transduction ...

  7. Correlation between waist:height ratio and serum nitric oxide level in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Wafaa I; Abd El Maksoud, Rania A S; Hashad, Doaa I; El Azhary, Nesrine M; Abonayeem, Shaimaa M Al Saied

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of early childhood. This study shows that nitric oxide levels positively correlate with the clinical severity of AD, waist:height ratio, and weight. PMID:25580996

  8. Seminaphthofluorescein-Based Fluorescent Probes for Imaging Nitric Oxide in Live Cells

    E-print Network

    Pluth, Michael D.

    Fluorescent turn-on probes for nitric oxide based on seminaphthofluorescein scaffolds were prepared and spectroscopically characterized. The Cu(II) complexes of these fluorescent probes react with NO under anaerobic ...

  9. The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes

    E-print Network

    Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

  10. Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous Antibacterial Agent

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous supérieures Title of Thesis Titre de la thèse BIOCHEMICAL ADAPTATIONS IN PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS EXPOSED. fluorescens engineers an elaborate metabolic network to generate ATP whilst withstanding the injurious effects

  11. Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology

    E-print Network

    McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

  12. Biochemistry of mobile zinc and nitric oxide revealed by fluorescent sensors

    E-print Network

    Pluth, Michael D.

    Biological mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation ...

  13. Thalidomide ameliorates portal hypertension via nitric oxide synthase independent reduced systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Theodorakis, Nicholas G; Wang, Yining N; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Maluccio, Mary A; Skill, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and significantly increases mortality and morbidity. Previous reports have suggested that the compound thalidomide attenuates portal hypertension (PHT). However, the mechanism for this action is not fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that thalidomide destabilizes tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) mRNA and therefore diminishes TNF? induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO). To examine this hypothesis, we utilized the murine partial portal vein ligation (PVL) PHT model in combination with endothelial or inducible NOS isoform gene knockout mice. METHODS: Wild type, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-/- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-/- mice received either PVL or sham surgery and were given either thalidomide or vehicle. Serum nitrate (total nitrate, NOx) was measured daily for 7 d as a surrogate of NO synthesis. Serum TNF? level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TNF? mRNA was quantified in liver and aorta tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. PHT was determined by recording splenic pulp pressure (SPP) and abdominal aortic flow after 0-7 d. Response to thalidomide was determined by measurement of SPP and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: SPP, abdominal aortic flow (Qao) and plasma NOx were increased in wild type and iNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham operated control mice. In contrast, SPP, Qao and plasma NOx were not increased in eNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham controls. Serum TNF? level in both sham and PVL mice was below the detection limit of the commercial ELISA used. Therefore, the effect of thalidomide on serum TNF? levels was undetermined in wild type, eNOS-/- or iNOS-/- mice. Thalidomide acutely increased plasma NOx in wild type and eNOS-/- mice but not iNOS-/- mice. Moreover, thalidomide temporarily (0-90 min) decreased mean arterial pressure, SPP and Qao in wild type, eNOS-/- and iNOS-/- PVL mice, after which time levels returned to the respective baseline. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide does not reduce portal pressure in the murine PVL model by modulation of NO biosynthesis. Rather, thalidomide reduces PHT by decreasing MAP by an undetermined mechanism. PMID:25892862

  14. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. PMID:25944856

  15. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions were studied with the aid of a mass spectrometer. A pinhole bleed system provided continuous sampling of the gas mixture in the cell during the reaction. It was found that the homogeneous reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with hydrogen peroxide are too slow to be of any significance in the upper atmosphere. However, the heterogeneous reactions may be important in the conversion of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the case of polluted urban atmospheres.

  16. Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

  17. Laser absorption of nitric oxide for thermometry in high-enthalpy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    The design and demonstration of a laser absorption sensor for thermometry in high-enthalpy air is presented. The sensor exploits the highly temperature-sensitive and largely pressure-independent concentration of nitric oxide in air at chemical equilibrium. Temperature is thus inferred from an in situ measurement of nascent nitric oxide. The strategy is developed by utilizing a quantum cascade laser source for access to the strong fundamental absorption band in the mid-infrared spectrum of nitric oxide. Room temperature measurements in a high-pressure static cell validate the suitability of the Voigt lineshape model to the nitric oxide spectra at high gas densities. Shock-tube experiments enable calibration of a collision-broadening model for temperatures between 1200-3000?K. Finally, sensor performance is demonstrated in a high-pressure shock tube by measuring temperature behind reflected shock waves for both fixed-chemistry experiments where nitric oxide is seeded, and for experiments involving nitric oxide formation in shock-heated mixtures of N2 and O2. Results show excellent performance of the sensor across a wide range of operating conditions from 1100-2950?K and at pressures up to 140?atm.

  18. Effect of nitric oxide compounds on monkey ciliary muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gabelt, B'Ann T; Kaufman, Paul L; Rasmussen, Carol A

    2011-09-01

    The effects of various nitric oxide compounds and their inhibitors on monkey ciliary muscle contraction in vitro were investigated in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. The responses to nitric oxide compounds in carbachol precontracted ciliary muscle consisted of an initial relaxation often followed by recovery to near carbachol precontracted levels while the compound was still present. Sodium nitroprusside produced the greatest relaxation responses (nearly 100% relaxation in both vectors at 10(-3) M). The highest concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (10(-4) M) and L-arginine (10(-3) M) produced relaxation responses of approximately 50% in both vectors. 8-Bromo cyclic GMP produced the smallest relaxation responses (25-35%). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition enhanced carbachol contraction up to 20% in the longitudinal but not the circular vector. Phosphodiesterase inhibition did not further enhance the relaxation response to L-arginine. Guanylate cyclase inhibition partially attenuated the relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside. Nitric oxide generating compounds were effective in relaxing precontracted monkey ciliary muscle in vitro. Endogenous production of nitric oxide is likely involved in the regulation of the contractile response in monkey ciliary muscle. Nitric oxide generating compounds may have potential value in therapeutic areas where modulation of ciliary muscle tension is desirable. PMID:21147103

  19. Interactive effects of mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and oxidative stress in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos; Campos, Fabio Joly; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Moraes, Marcos Aurélio; Bonatto, Rossano Cesar; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Fioretto, Jose Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To compare conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), with/without inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), for oxygenation, inflammation, antioxidant/oxidative stress status, and DNA damage in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). Lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Rabbits were ventilated at [Formula: see text] 1.0 and randomly assigned to one of five groups. Overall antioxidant defense/oxidative stress was assessed by total antioxidant performance assay, and DNA damage by comet assay. Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded every 30min for 4h. ALI groups showed worse oxygenation than controls after lung injury. After 4h of mechanical ventilation, HFOV groups presented significant improvements in oxygenation. HFOV with and without iNO, and CMV with iNO showed significantly increased antioxidant defense and reduced DNA damage than CMV without iNO. Inhaled nitric oxide did not beneficially affect HFOV in relation to antioxidant defense/oxidative stress and pulmonary DNA damage. Overall, lung injury was reduced using HFOV or CMV with iNO. PMID:24148688

  20. Nitric Oxide-Releasing S-Nitrosothiol-Modified Xerogels

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Dobmeier, Kevin P.; Hetrick, Evan M.; Privett, Benjamin J.; Paul, Heather S.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, material characterization, and in vitro biocompatibility of S-nitrosothiol (RSNO)-modified xerogels is described. Thiol-functionalized xerogel films were formed by hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) sol-gel precursors at varying concentrations. Subsequent thiol nitrosation via acidified nitrite produced RSNO-modified xerogels capable of generating nitric oxide (NO) for up to 2 weeks under physiological conditions. Xerogels also exhibited NO generation upon irradiation with broad-spectrum light or exposure to copper, with NO fluxes proportional to wattage and concentration, respectively. Xerogels were capable of storing up to ?1.31 µmol NO mg?1, and displayed negligible fragmentation over a 2 week period. Platelet and bacterial adhesion to nitrosated films was reduced compared to non-nitrosated controls, confirming the antithrombotic and antibacterial properties of the NO-releasing materials. Fibroblast cell viability was maintained on the xerogel surfaces illustrating the promise of RSNO-modified xerogels as biomedical device coatings. PMID:19501904

  1. Kinetic-dependent Killing of Oral Pathogens with Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Backlund, C J; Worley, B V; Sergesketter, A R; Schoenfisch, M H

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-condensation of tetramethyl orthosilicate with aminosilanes and subsequent conversion of secondary amines to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. A series of ~150 nm NO-releasing particles with different NO totals and release kinetics (i.e., half-lives) were achieved by altering both the identity and mol% composition of the aminosilane precursors. Independent of identical 2 h NO-release totals, enhanced antibacterial action was observed against the periodontopathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis with extended NO-release kinetics at pH 7.4. Negligible bactericidal effect was observed against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans at pH 7.4, even when using NO-releasing silica particles with greater NO-release totals. However, antibacterial activity was observed against S. mutans at lower pH (6.4). This result was attributed to more rapid proton-initiated decomposition of the N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors and greater NO-release payloads. The data suggest a differential sensitivity to NO between cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria with implications for the future development of NO-releasing oral care therapeutics. PMID:26078424

  2. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  3. New nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Rolando, Barbara; Borretto, Emily; Guglielmo, Stefano; Joseph, Sony; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2011-08-11

    A new series of (((R-oxy)carbonyl)oxy)methyl esters of aspirin (ASA), bearing nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) releasing groups, was synthesized, and the compounds were evaluated as new ASA co-drugs. All the products were quite stable in buffered solution at pH 1 and 7.4. Conversely, they were all rapidly metabolized, producing ASA and the NO/H(2)S releasing moiety used for their preparation. Consequent on ASA release, the compounds were capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The simple NO/H(2)S donor substructures were able to relax contracted rat aorta strips, with a NO- and H(2)S-dependent mechanism, respectively, but they either did not trigger antiaggregatory activity or displayed antiplatelet potency markedly below that of the related co-drug. The new products might provide a safer and improved alternative to the use of ASA principally in its anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic applications. PMID:21688846

  4. Heparin modulation on hepatic nitric oxide synthase in experimental steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    HASSANIN, AMAL; MALEK, HALA ABDEL; SALEH, DALIA

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and has been etiologically associated with insulin resistance (IR). The histopathology of NAFLD ranges between simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with or without fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of heparin on steatohepatitis and hepatic-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in mice. Male mice were divided into four groups, which included the normal basal diet (control), high fat (HF) diet, HF diet + heparin (treatment group) and heparin control groups. After eight weeks from the initiation of the experiment, blood was collected and livers were harvested for biochemical analysis and histological studies. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline, as well as the IR, superoxide anion generation and mRNA expression of the hepatic iNOS enzyme were evaluated. Liver specimens were processed for histopathological and immunohistopathological evaluation. Heparin administration decreased the levels of the liver enzymes, IR, superoxide generation, hepatic TG, hydroxyproline and iNOS expression when compared with the HF diet group. These changes were associated with an improvement in inflammation and fibrosis observed via histopathological examination. Therefore, heparin treatment attenuates hepatic injury in steatohepatitis. PMID:25289058

  5. Phototherapeutic Release of Nitric Oxide with Engineered Nanoconstructs.

    PubMed

    Fraix, Aurore; Marino, Nino; Sortino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The multiple role nitric oxide (NO) plays in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes has, over the last few years, stimulated a massive interest in the development of new strategies and methods for generating NO in a controlled way, with the exciting prospect of tackling important diseases. Photochemical precursors of NO are particularly suited to this end because light triggering permits an exquisite control of location and timing of NO delivery. Integration of NO photodonors within the structure of appropriate materials represents a key step in the fabrication of functional devices for phototherapeutic applications. It also offers the advantage of concentrating a large number of chromophores in a restricted area with the result of significantly increasing the NO reservoir and the light harvesting properties. We present here an overview of the most significant advances made in the last 5 years in the fabrication of engineered nanoconstructs able to delivery NO under the exclusive control of light inputs, highlighting the logical design and their potential applications in battling cancer and bacterial infections. PMID:26589511

  6. Why is nitric oxide important for our brain?

    PubMed Central

    Džolji?, Eleonora; Grabatini?, Ivan; Kosti?, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Summary The freely diffusible gaseous compound nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an important messenger in many organ systems throughout the body, and particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). The importance of NO as an intermediary in cell communication in the brain is highlighted by the fact that the excitatory amino acid glutamate, the most abundant CNS neurotransmitter, is an initiator of the reaction that forms NO. Because of its numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles, the impact of NO on clinical medicine is developing. NO can act as a “double-edged sword” and it has been demonstrated that clarification of the dual effect of NO might have implications for clinical medicine, and could lead to the emergence of therapeutic opportunities. Accordingly, NO was proclaimed “Mole cule of the Year” in 1992 by the journal Science, while discovery of the pathways and roles of NO was acknowledged with the Nobel Prize in 1998. Additionally, the ubiquity of NO in the CNS implies that drugs designed to modify the biological activity of NO may have distinct effects. Thus, further clinical applications of NO, of its analogs or of newly developed NOS inhibitors are forthcoming. The therapeutic challenge would be to succeed in manipulating the NO pathways selectively.

  7. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P D; Assreuy, J

    1997-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (approximately 60% dead trophozoites). The effect was inhibited (> 90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 microM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 microM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (approximately 35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixtures of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoites killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite. PMID:9222410

  8. Photo-crosslinked Biodegradable Elastomers for Controlled Nitric Oxide Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kibbe, Melina R; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2013-06-01

    The delivery of nitric oxide (NO) has important applications in medicine, especially for procedures that involve the vasculature. We report photo-curable biodegradable poly(diol citrate) elastomers capable of slow release of NO. A methacrylated poly(diol citrate) macromonomer was prepared by polycondensation of citric acid with 1, 8-octanediol or 1, 12-dodecanediol followed by functionalization with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate. A miscible NO donor, diazeniumdiolated N, N-diethyldiethylenetriamine, was synthesized and incorporated into the polymer matrix. An elastomeric network was obtained via photo-polymerization of macromonomers upon UV irradiation within three minutes. Films and tubes of the NO-releasing crosslinked macromonomers exhibited strong tensile strength and radial compressive strength, respectively. They also exhibited cell compatibility and biodegradability in vitro. Sustained NO release under physiological conditions was achieved for at least one week. NO release enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells but inhibited the proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells. Photo-polymerizable NO-releasing materials provide a new approach for the localized and sustained delivery of NO to treat thrombosis and restenosis in the vasculature. PMID:24707352

  9. Photo-crosslinked Biodegradable Elastomers for Controlled Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Kibbe, Melina R.; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of nitric oxide (NO) has important applications in medicine, especially for procedures that involve the vasculature. We report photo-curable biodegradable poly(diol citrate) elastomers capable of slow release of NO. A methacrylated poly(diol citrate) macromonomer was prepared by polycondensation of citric acid with 1, 8-octanediol or 1, 12-dodecanediol followed by functionalization with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate. A miscible NO donor, diazeniumdiolated N, N-diethyldiethylenetriamine, was synthesized and incorporated into the polymer matrix. An elastomeric network was obtained via photo-polymerization of macromonomers upon UV irradiation within three minutes. Films and tubes of the NO-releasing crosslinked macromonomers exhibited strong tensile strength and radial compressive strength, respectively. They also exhibited cell compatibility and biodegradability in vitro. Sustained NO release under physiological conditions was achieved for at least one week. NO release enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells but inhibited the proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells. Photo-polymerizable NO-releasing materials provide a new approach for the localized and sustained delivery of NO to treat thrombosis and restenosis in the vasculature. PMID:24707352

  10. Nitric oxide removal by wastewater bacteria in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hejingying; Leung, Dennis Y C; Wong, Chifat; Zhang, Tong; Chan, Mayngor; Leung, Fred C C

    2014-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important air pollutants in atmosphere mainly emitted from combustion source. A biotrickling filter was designed and operated to remove NO from an air stream using bacteria extracted from the sewage sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant. To obtain the best operation conditions for the biotrickling filter, orthogonal experiments (L9(3(4))) were designed. Inlet oxygen concentration was found to be the most significant factor of the biotrickling filter and has a significant negative effect on the system. The optimal conditions of the biotrickling filter occurred at a temperature of 40°C, a pH of 8.0 and a chemical oxygen demand of 165 mg/L in the recycled water with no oxygen in the system. The bacteria sample was detected by DNA sequencing technology and showed 93%-98% similarity to Pseudomonas mendocina. Moreover, a full gene sequencing results indicated the bacterium was a brand new strain and named as P. mendocina DLHK. This strain can transfer nitrate to organic nitrogen. The result suggested the assimilation nitrogen process in this system. Through the isotope experimental analysis, two intermediate products ((15)NO and (15)N2O) were found. The results indicated the denitrification function and capability of the biotrickling filter in removing NO. PMID:25079268

  11. High correlations between temperature and nitric oxide in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining accurate predictions of the neutral density in the thermosphere has been a long-standing problem. During geomagnetic storms the auroral heating in the polar ionospheres quickly raises the temperature of the thermosphere, resulting in higher neutral densities that exert a greater drag force on objects in low Earth orbit. Rapid increases and decreases in the temperature and density may occur within a couple days. A key parameter in the thermosphere is the total amount of nitric oxide (NO). The production of NO is accelerated by the auroral heating, and since NO is an efficient radiator of thermal energy, higher concentrations of this molecule accelerate the rate at which the thermosphere cools. This paper describes an improved technique that calculates changes in the global temperature of the thermosphere. Starting from an empirical model of the Poynting flux into the ionosphere, a set of differential equations derives the minimum, global value of the exospheric temperature, which can be used in a neutral density model to calculate the global values. The relative variations in NO content are used to obtain more accurate cooling rates. Comparisons with the global rate of NO emissions that are measured with the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry instrument show that there is very good agreement with the predicted values. The NO emissions correlate highly with the total auroral heating that has been integrated over time. We also show that the NO emissions are highly correlated with thermospheric temperature, as well as indices of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Superoxide and nitric oxide in senescence and aging.

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, Igor

    2009-01-01

    In this review some aspects of free radical theory of aging are discussed. Many new and interesting findings concerning the role of physiological free radicals superoxide and nitric oxide in senescence and aging development are considered and the mechanisms of processes mediated by these radicals are discussed. It has been known for a long time that being themselves mostly harmless species, superoxide and NO are precursors of really reactive species hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, the initiators of aging and various pathologies. However, contemporary studies demonstrate the other maybe more important ways of damaging activity of physiological free radicals. Numerous studies show that lessening of NO production and its bioavailability could be a starting point of aging development. It results in a decrease in NO inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and an increase in dioxygen consumption. That in its turn leads to an increase in the production of superoxide and the other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and initiation of apoptosis, In conclusion the possibilities of pharmacological intervention with antioxidants and other antiradical procedures to suppress aging and senescence or even to expand the life span of animals are considered. PMID:19273321

  13. Structural basis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase binding to calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Mika; Arvai, Andrew S.; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is exquisitely regulated in vivo by the Ca2+ sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) to control production of NO, a key signaling molecule and cytotoxin. The differential activation of NOS isozymes by CaM has remained enigmatic, despite extensive research. Here, the crystal lographic structure of Ca2+-loaded CaM bound to a 20 residue peptide comprising the endothelial NOS (eNOS) CaM-binding region establishes their individual conformations and intermolecular interactions, and suggests the basis for isozyme-specific differences. The ?-helical eNOS peptide binds in an antiparallel orientation to CaM through extensive hydrophobic interactions. Unique NOS interactions occur with: (i) the CaM flexible central linker, explaining its importance in NOS activation; and (ii) the CaM C-terminus, explaining the NOS-specific requirement for a bulky, hydrophobic residue at position 144. This binding mode expands mechanisms for CaM-mediated activation, explains eNOS deactivation by Thr495 phosphorylation, and implicates specific hydrophobic residues in the Ca2+ independence of inducible NOS. PMID:12574113

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases after positive food-allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well described marker of airway inflammation in asthma and is also known to increase after chronic exposure to inhaled allergens. It is not known whether monitoring FeNO could be useful during food challenges to detect early or subclinical reactions. Methods Forty children aged 3 to 16 years undergoing an allergen-food challenge at two centres were prospectively recruited for this study. FeNO was assessed before and repeatedly after the food-challenge. Results Data were obtained from a total of 53 challenges (16 positive, 37 negative) and were compared between the two groups. Half of the patients with a positive food challenge exhibited clinical upper respiratory symptoms. The FeNO significantly decreased in 7 of 16 patients with a positive challenge test within 60 to 90 minutes after the first symptoms of an allergic reaction. Conclusion Our results show a significant decrease in FeNO after a positive food challenge suggesting involvement of the lower airways despite absence of clinical and functional changes of lower airways. Prospective blinded studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22409969

  15. Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release in human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Mantione, Kirk J; Capellan, Lismary; Casares, Federico M; Challenger, Sean; Ramin, Rohina; Samuel, Joshua M; Snyder, Christopher; Kream, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    The expression of morphine by plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells and organ systems, strongly indicates a high level of evolutionary conservation of morphine and related morphinan alkaloids as required for life. The prototype catecholamine, dopamine, serves as an essential chemical intermediate in morphine biosynthesis, both in plants and animals. We surmise that, before the emergence of specialized plant and animal cells/organ systems, primordial multi-potential cell types required selective mechanisms to limit their responsiveness to environmental cues. Accordingly, cellular systems that emerged with the potential for recruitment of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a multi-faceted autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule, were provided with extremely positive evolutionary advantages. Endogenous morphinergic signaling, in concert with NO-coupled signaling systems, has evolved as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis, energy metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Basic physiological processes involving morphinergic/NO-coupled regulation of mitochondrial function, with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, are critical to all organismic survival. Key to this concept may be the phenomenon of mitochondrial enslavement in eukaryotic evolution via endogenous morphine. PMID:26350413

  16. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y.; Salmond, Robert J.; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y.

    2014-01-01

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4+ T cells. NO de-represses the tumor suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGF?R and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2?/? mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared to wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells. PMID:25099390

  17. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y; Salmond, Robert J; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y

    2014-01-01

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4(+) T cells. NO de-represses the tumour suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGF?R and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2(-/-) mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared with wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells. PMID:25099390

  18. Nitric oxide mediates neuropathic pain behavior in peripherally denervated rats.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, B; Sánchez, A; Feria, M

    1995-03-16

    The involvement of spinal cord nitric oxide (NO) in the development of autotomy, a proposed behavioral model of denervation pain, was studied in sciatic and saphenous nerves transected rats injected intrathecally, 10-15 min prior to neurectomies, with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20-500 nmol), NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, 500 nmol), L- or D-arginine (5 mumol), and 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (8-Br-cGMP, 100 and 200 nmol). Self-inflicted lesions were scored daily for 8 weeks. The main effects on autotomy were: (1) a significant suppression in rats injected with L-NAME (500 nmol), but not with D-NAME; (2) a significant potentiation after L-arginine, but not D-arginine; and (3) a significant potentiation with 8-Br-cGMP, which was blocked by co-administration of L-NAME. These findings indicate that autotomy in rats can be modulated by blocking or enhancing nitroxidergic transmission at lumbosacral level, and suggest new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of certain pain syndromes, such as phantom limb pain. PMID:7783979

  19. Paradoxical Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Malik, Pulkit; Pandey, Deepesh; Gupta, Sonali; Jagnandan, Davin; de Chantemele, Eric Belin; Banfi, Botond; Marrero, Mario B.; Rudic, R Daniel; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been identified as a causative factor in endothelial dysfunction by reducing NO bioavailability and uncoupling endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, the specific contribution of ROS to endothelial function is not well understood. Methods and Results A major source of intracellular ROS is the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of enzymes. The goal of the current study was to directly assess the contribution of NADPH oxidase derived superoxide to eNOS function by expressing Nox5, a single gene product that constitutively produces superoxide within cells. Paradoxically, we found that instead of inhibiting eNOS, co-expression of Nox5 increased NO release from both bovine and human endothelial cells. To establish the functional significance of this observation in intact blood vessels, the endothelium of mouse aorta was transduced with Nox5 or control adenoviruses. Nox5 potently inhibited Ach-induced relaxation and potentiated contractile responses to phenylephrine. In precontracted aortae, acute exposure to superoxide dismutase induced significant vascular relaxation in vessels exposed to Nox5 versus control and unmasked the ability of Nox5 to activate eNOS in blood vessel endothelium. Conclusions These findings suggest that ROS inhibit eNOS function via consumption of NO rather than direct inhibition of enzymatic activity. PMID:18556569

  20. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  1. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O? at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  2. Nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones crosstalk during early plant development.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Luis; Albertos, Pablo; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Lechón, Tamara; Fernández-Marcos, María; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    During the past two decades, nitric oxide (NO) has evolved from a mere gaseous free radical to become a new messenger in plant biology with an important role in a plethora of physiological processes. This molecule is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development, pathogen defence and abiotic stress responses, and in most cases this is achieved through its interaction with phytohormones. Understanding the role of plant growth regulators is essential to elucidate how plants activate the appropriate set of responses to a particular developmental stage or a particular stress. The first task to achieve this goal is the identification of molecular targets, especially those involved in the regulation of the crosstalk. The nature of NO targets in these growth and development processes and stress responses remains poorly described. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of NO in these processes and their interaction with other plant hormones are beginning to unravel. In this review, we made a compilation of the described interactions between NO and phytohormones during early plant developmental processes (i.e. seed dormancy and germination, hypocotyl elongation and root development). PMID:25954048

  3. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Glomerular TGF-? Signaling via SMOC-1

    PubMed Central

    Dreieicher, Ellen; Lazaroski, Sandra; Boosen, Meike; Tsalastra-Greul, Wasiliki; Beck, Martina; Fleming, Ingrid; Schaefer, Liliana; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate rat mesangial cells to synthesize and secrete inflammatory mediators. To understand better the signaling pathways that contribute to this response, we exposed rat mesangial cells to the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-1? and analyzed the changes in the pattern of gene expression. IL-1? downregulated the gene encoding the matricellular glycoprotein secreted modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC-1) in mesangial cells. Inflammatory cytokines attenuated SMOC-1 mRNA and protein expression through endogenous production of NO, which activated the soluble guanylyl cyclase. Silencing SMOC-1 expression with small interfering RNA decreased the formation of TGF-?, reduced SMAD binding to DNA, and decreased mRNA expression of genes regulated by TGF-?. In a rat model of anti–Thy-1 glomerulonephritis, glomerular SMOC-1 mRNA and protein decreased and inducible NO synthase expression increased simultaneously. Treatment of nephritic rats with the inducible NO synthase–specific inhibitor l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine prevented SMOC-1 downregulation. In summary, these data suggest that NO attenuates SMOC-1 expression in acute glomerular inflammation, thereby limiting TGF-?–mediated profibrotic signaling. PMID:19578009

  4. Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Doursout, Marie-Françoise; Murad, Ferid

    2008-04-01

    In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway. PMID:18401228

  5. Nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in the eye.

    PubMed

    Murad, Ferid

    2008-06-01

    This brief review describes the components and pathways utilized in nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Since the discovery of the effects of NO and cGMP on smooth muscle relaxation about 30 years ago, the field has expanded in many directions such that many, but not all, biochemical and biological effects seem to be regulated by these unique signaling molecules. While many of the effects of NO are due to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) that can be considered the receptor for NO, cGMP, in turn, can activate a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) to phosphorylate an array of proteins. Some of the effects of cGMP can be independent of PKG and are due to effects on ion channels or cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Also, some of the effects of NO can be independent of sGC activation. The isoenzymes and macromolecules that participate in these signaling pathways can serve as molecular targets to identify compounds that increase or decrease their activation and thus serve as chemical leads for discovering novel drugs for a variety of diseases. Some examples are given. However, with about 90,000 publications in the field since our first reports in 1977, this brief review can only give the readers a sample of the excitement and opportunities we have found in this cell signaling system. PMID:18443613

  6. Nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, James G; Wehling-Henricks, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) that occurs in dystrophic muscle is the basis of numerous, complex and interacting features of the dystrophic pathology that affect not only muscle itself, but also influence the interaction of muscle with other tissues. Many mechanisms through which nNOS deficiency contributes to misregulation of muscle development, blood flow, fatigue, inflammation and fibrosis in dystrophic muscle have been identified, suggesting that normalization in NO production could greatly attenuate diverse aspects of the pathology of muscular dystrophy through multiple regulatory pathways. However, the relative importance of the loss of nNOS from the sarcolemma versus the importance of loss of total nNOS from dystrophic muscle remains unknown. Although most current evidence indicates that nNOS localization at the sarcolemma is not required to achieve NO-mediated reductions of pathology in muscular dystrophy, the question remains open concerning whether membrane localization would provide a more efficient rescue from features of the dystrophic phenotype. PMID:25194047

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of nitric oxide in myoglobin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Meuwly, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ligand migration of photodissociated nitric oxide (NO) in and around the active sites in myoglobin (Mb) are investigated. A distributed multipolar model for open-shell systems is developed and used, which allows one to realistically describe the charge distribution around the diatomic probe molecule. The IR spectra were computed from the trajectories for two conformational substates at various temperatures. The lines are narrow (width of 3–7 cm–1 at 20–100 K), in agreement with the experimental observations where they have widths of 4–5 cm–1 at 4 K. It is found that within one conformational substate (B or C) the splitting of the spectrum can be correctly described compared with recent experiments. Similar to photodissociated CO in Mb, additional substates exist for NO in Mb, which are separated by barriers below 1 kcal/mol. Contrary to full quantum mechanical calculations, however, the force field and mixed QM/MM simulations do not correctly describe the relative shifts between the B- and C-states relative to gas-phase NO. Free energy simulations establish that NO preferably localizes in the distal site and the barrier for migration to the neighboring Xe4 pocket is ?GB?C = 1.7–2.0 kcal/mol. The reverse barrier is ?GB?C = 0.7 kcal/mol, which agrees well with the experimental value of 0.7 kcal/mol, estimated from kinetic data.

  8. Electrospun nitric oxide releasing bandage with enhanced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A; Bills, J; Verma, R; Lavery, L; Davis, K; Balkus, K J

    2015-02-01

    Research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) enhances wound healing. The incorporation of NO into polymers for medical materials and surgical devices has potential benefits for many wound healing applications. In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)-based terpolymers were electrospun to form non-woven sheets of bandage or wound dressing type materials. NO is bound to the polymer backbone via the formation of a diazeniumdiolate group. In a 14 day NO release study, the dressings released 79 ?mol NO g(-1) polymer. The NO-loaded dressings were tested for NO release in vivo, which demonstrate upregulation of NO-inducible genes with dressing application compared to empty dressings. Studies were also conducted to evaluate healing progression in wounds with dressing application performed weekly and daily. In two separate studies, excisional wounds were created on the dorsa of 10 mice. Dressings with NO loaded on the fibers or empty controls were applied to the wounds and measurements of the wound area were taken at each dressing change. The data show significantly enhanced healing progression in the wounds with weekly NO application, which is more dramatic with daily application. Further, the application of daily NO bandages results in improved wound vascularity. These data demonstrate the potential for this novel NO-releasing dressing as a valid wound healing therapy. PMID:25463501

  9. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection. PMID:26391171

  10. Effects of Erythrocyte Aging on Nitric Oxide and Nitrite Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Benjamin Y.; Stapley, Ryan; Honavar, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent studies have suggested that in addition to oxygen transport, red blood cells (RBC) are key regulators of vascular function by both inhibiting and promoting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Most studies assume that RBC are homogenous, but, in fact, they comprise cells of differing morphology and biochemical composition which are dependent on their age, parameters that control NO reactions. We tested the hypothesis that distinct RBC populations will have differential effects on NO signaling. Results: Young and old RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Consistent with previous reports, old RBC had decreased levels of surface N-acetyl neuraminic acid and increased oxygen binding affinities. Competition kinetic experiments showed that older RBCs scavenged NO?2-fold faster compared with younger RBC, which translated to a more potent inhibition of both acetylcholine and NO-donor dependent vasodilation of isolated aortic rings. Moreover, nitrite oxidation kinetics was faster with older RBC compared with younger RBC; whereas no differences in nitrite-reduction kinetics were observed. This translated to increased inhibitory effect of older RBC to nitrite-dependent vasodilation under oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions. Finally, leukodepleted RBC storage also resulted in more dense RBC, which may contribute to the greater NO-inhibitory potential of stored RBC. Innovation: These results suggest that a key element in vascular NO-homeostasis mechanisms is the distribution of RBC ages across the physiological spectrum (0–120 days) and suggest a novel mechanism for inhibited NO bioavailability in diseases which are characterized by a shift to an older RBC phenotype. Conclusion: Older RBC inhibit NO bioavailability by increasing NO- and nitrite scavenging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1198–1208. PMID:23311696

  11. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  12. Studies on the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene 1: Oxidation of hexamethylbenzene with nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiba, K.; Tomura, S.; Mizuno, T.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidative reaction of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) with nitric acid was studied, and the hitherto unknown polymethylbenzenepolycarboxylic acids were isolated: tetramethylphthalic anhydride, tetramethylisophthalic acid, 1,3,5-, 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids. When HMB was warmed with 50% nitric acid at about 80 C, tetramethylphthalic anhydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were initially produced. The continued reaction led to the production of trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids, but only slight amounts of dimethylbenzenetetracarboxylic acids were detected in the reaction mixture. Whereas tetramethylphthalic anydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were obtained, pentamethylbenzoic acid, a possible precursor of them, was scarcely produced. On the other hand, a yellow material extracted with ether from the initial reaction mixture contained bis-(nitromethyl)prehnitene (CH3)4C6(CH2NO2)2, which was easily converted into the phthalic anhydride.

  13. Role of arginine guanidinium moiety in nitric-oxide synthase mechanism of oxygen activation.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Claire; Moreau, Magali; Mattioli, Tony A; Balland, Véronique; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Xu-Li, Yun; Stuehr, Dennis J; Santolini, Jérôme

    2010-03-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) are highly regulated heme-thiolate enzymes that catalyze two oxidation reactions that sequentially convert the substrate L-Arg first to N(omega)-hydroxyl-L-arginine and then to L-citrulline and nitric oxide. Despite numerous investigations, the detailed molecular mechanism of NOS remains elusive and debatable. Much of the dispute in the various proposed mechanisms resides in the uncertainty concerning the number and sources of proton transfers. Although specific protonation events are key features in determining the specificity and efficiency of the two catalytic steps, little is known about the role and properties of protons from the substrate, cofactors, and H-bond network in the vicinity of the heme active site. In this study, we have investigated the role of the acidic proton from the L-Arg guanidinium moiety on the stability and reactivity of the ferrous heme-oxy complex intermediate by exploiting a series of L-Arg analogues exhibiting a wide range of guanidinium pK(a) values. Using electrochemical and vibrational spectroscopic techniques, we have analyzed the effects of the analogues on the heme, including characteristics of its proximal ligand, heme conformation, redox potential, and electrostatic properties of its distal environment. Our results indicate that the substrate guanidinium pK(a) value significantly affects the H-bond network near the heme distal pocket. Our results lead us to propose a new structural model where the properties of the guanidinium moiety finely control the proton transfer events in NOS and tune its oxidative chemistry. This model may account for the discrepancies found in previously proposed mechanisms of NOS oxidation processes. PMID:19951943

  14. Mamao Pomace Extract Alleviates Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Nitric Oxide Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Donpunha, Wanida; Sripui, Jintana; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Boonla, Orachorn

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress plays a major role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Antidesma thwaitesianum (local name: Mamao) is a tropical plant distributed in the tropical/subtropical areas of the world, including Thailand. Mamao pomace (MP), a by-product generated from Mamao fruits, contains large amounts of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive and antioxidative effects of MP using hypertensive rats. For this purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in drinking water (50 mg/kg) for three weeks. MP extract was orally administered daily at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. l-NAME administration induced marked increase in blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and oxidative stress. MP treatment significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure, hindlimb blood flow and hindlimb vascular resistance of l-NAME treated hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). The antihypertensive effect of MP treatment was associated with suppression of superoxide production from carotid strips and also with an increase in eNOS protein expression and nitric oxide bioavailability. The present results provide evidence for the antihypertensive effect of MP and suggest that MP might be useful as a dietary supplement against hypertension. PMID:26225998

  15. Nitric oxide metabolites induced in Anopheles stephensi control malaria parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tina M.L.; Gow, Andrew J.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes is limited by inflammatory levels of nitric oxide metabolites. To assess the mechanisms of parasite stasis or toxicity, we investigated the biochemistry of these metabolites within the blood-filled mosquito midgut. Our data indicate that nitrates, but not nitrites, are elevated in the Plasmodium-infected midgut. Although levels of S-nitrosothiols do not change with infection, blood proteins are S-nitrosylated after ingestion by the mosquito. In addition, photolyzable nitric oxide, which can be attributed to metal nitrosyls, is elevated following infection and, based on the abundance of hemoglobin, likely includes heme iron nitrosyl. The persistance of oxyhemoglobin throughout blood digestion and changes in hemoglobin conformation in response to infection suggest that hemoglobin catalyzes the synthesis of nitric oxide metabolites in a reducing environment. Provision of urate, a potent reductant and scavenger of oxidants and nitrating agents, as a dietary supplement to mosquitoes increased parasite infection levels relative to allantoin-fed controls, suggesting that nitrosative and/or oxidative stresses negatively impact developing parasites. Collectively, our results reveal a unique role for nitric oxide in an oxyhemoglobin-rich environment. In contrast to facilitating oxygen delivery by hemoglobin in the mammalian vasculature, nitric oxide synthesis in the blood-filled mosquito midgut drives the formation of toxic metabolites that limit parasite development. PMID:17157200

  16. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001.

    PubMed

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer - while not entirely understood - is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. PMID:26164533

  17. Breathing new life into nitric oxide signaling: A brief overview of the interplay between oxygen and nitric oxide?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (•NO, nitrogen monoxide) is one of the most unique biological signaling molecules associated with a multitude of physiologic and pathological conditions. In order to fully appreciate its numerous roles, it is essential to understand its basic biochemical properties. Most signaling effector molecules such as steroids or proteins have a significant life-span and function through classical receptor–ligand interactions. •NO, however, is a short-lived free-radical gas that only reacts with two types of molecules under biological conditions; metals and other free radicals. These simple interactions can lead to a myriad of complex intermediates which in turn have their own phenotypic effects. For these reasons, responses to •NO often appear to be random or contradictory when outcomes are compared across various experimental settings. This article will serve as a brief overview of the chemical, biological, and microenvironmental factors that dictate •NO signaling with an emphasis on •NO metabolism. The prominent role that oxygen (dioxygen, O2) plays in •NO metabolism and how it influences the biological effects of •NO will be highlighted. This information and these concepts are intended to help students and investigators think about the interpretation of data from experiments where biological effects of •NO are being elucidated. PMID:26056766

  18. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001?

    PubMed Central

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M.; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer – while not entirely understood – is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. PMID:26164533

  19. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Nugroho, Agung; Song, Byong-Min; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae) were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 ?g/mL). In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease. PMID:26633331

  20. Endogenous Nitric-Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA after Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Carla S.; Wispel, Christian; Zweckberger, Klaus; Beynon, Christopher; Hertle, Daniel; Sakowitz, Oliver W.; Unterberg, Andreas W.

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in comparison to controls. Furthermore, perilesionally ADMA is positively correlated with neuroscore performance, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 are negatively correlated. ADMA and its metabolizing enzymes show significant temporal changes after TBI and may be new targets in TBI treatment. PMID:24663083

  1. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing; Zhang Fengmin; Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan; Wu Jianguo

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  2. Site of pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide in the perfused lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rimar, S.; Gillis, C.N.

    1995-05-01

    Site of pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide in the perfused lung. To determine the site of inhaled nitric oxide (NO)-induced pulmonary vasodilation, a double vascular occlusion technique was used with rabbit lungs ventilated and perfused at 20 ml/min with Krebs solution containing 3% dextran and 30 {mu}M indomethacin. Inhaled NO (120 ppm for 3% min) reduced pulmonary vasoconstriction produced by U-46619 infusion (0.5 -1.2 nmol/min), significantly decreasing total resistance (RT) [1,080 {plus_minus} 51 (SE) vs. 1,545 {plus_minus} 109 mmHg-min/l; P < 0.01]. Acetylcholine infusion (ACh; 2-5 nmol/min) and nitroglycerin (NTG; 0.35 {mu}mol) likewise decreased RT. Arterial resistance (Ra) was also significantly less with inhaled NO, ACh, and NTG compared with U-46619 alone. Venous resistance (Rv), however, was unchanged. When the direction of perfusion was reversed in the lung, inhaled NO, ACh, and NTG significantly decreased RT compared with U-46619 alone, and Rv was also reduced by all three agents. After electrolysis-induced acute lung injury, inhaled NO significantly reduced both RT and Ra compared with U-46619 alone, whereas Rv was unaffected. Our results demonstrate that inhaled NO gas affects primarily the arterial (precapillary) component of the pulmonary circulation but, under conditions of extreme venous constriction, may dilate the postcapillary component as well. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Increased hepatic expression of nitric oxide synthase type II in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Qiu, Fa-Zu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS II) in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Expression of NOS II mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The activity of nitric oxide synthase and serum levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and degrees of cirrhosis were measured with high sensitive methods. Chinese traditional medicine tetrandrine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and to evaluate the function of NO. Double-blind method was applied during the experiment. RESULTS: The concentration of NO and the activity of NOS were increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis, and iNOSmRNA was greatly expressed. Meanwhile the portal-venous-pressure (PVP), and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the quantity of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. CONCLUSION: Increased hepatic expression of NOS II is one of the important causes of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. PMID:15222038

  4. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  5. Improvement of Tissue Survival of Skin Flaps by 5?-Reductase Inhibitors: Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ajami, Marjan; Asadi, Yasin; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Gorjipour, Fazel; Malekloo, Roya; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin flap grafting is a popular approach for reconstruction of critical skin and underlying soft tissue injuries. In a previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of two 5?-reductase inhibitors, azelaic acid and finasteride, on tissue survival in a rat model of skin flap grafting. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in graft survival mediated by these agents. Methods: A number of 42 male rats were randomly allocated into six groups: 1, normal saline topical application; 2, azelaic acid (100 mg/flap); 3, finasteride (1 mg/flap); 4, injection of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (i.p., 20 mg/kg); 5, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + azelaic acid (100 mg/flap, topical); 6, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + finasteride (1 mg/flap, topical). Tissue survival, level of nitric oxide, and iNOS expression in groups were measured. Results: Our data revealed that azelaic acid and finasteride significantly increased the expression of iNOS protein and nitric oxide (NO) levels in graft tissue (P < 0.05). These increases in iNOS expression and NO level were associated with higher survival of the graft tissue. Conclusion: It appears that alterations of the NO metabolism are implicated in the azelaic acid- and finasteride-mediated survival of the skin flaps. PMID:25864816

  6. Role of oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor-beta in the protective effect of diosgenin in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Obaid, Al Arqam Z; Zaki, Hala F; Agha, Azza M

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease of various origins that is associated with right ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, the protective effect of diosgenin was investigated in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Diosgenin (100 mg/kg) was given by oral administration once daily for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were recorded. Rats were then sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta contents. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Diosgenin treatment provided a significant improvement toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline in rats. Furthermore, diosgenin therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in nitric oxide production, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis. These findings support the beneficial effect of diosgenin in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats. PMID:25062790

  7. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Freschi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception, and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates, and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO–phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic, and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO–phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed. PMID:24130567

  8. Microgravity decreases and hypergravity increases exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Kerckx, Yannick; Gustafsson, Lars E; Hemmingsson, Tryggve E; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-11-01

    Inhalation of toxic dust during planetary space missions may cause airway inflammation, which can be monitored with exhaled nitric oxide (NO). Gravity will differ from earth, and we hypothesized that gravity changes would influence exhaled NO by altering lung diffusing capacity and alveolar uptake of NO. Five subjects were studied during microgravity aboard the International Space Station, and 10 subjects were studied during hypergravity in a human centrifuge. Exhaled NO concentrations were measured during flows of 50 (all gravity conditions), 100, 200, and 500 ml/s (hypergravity). During microgravity, exhaled NO fell from a ground control value of 12.3 +/- 4.7 parts/billion (mean +/- SD) to 6.6 +/- 4.4 parts/billion (P = 0.016). In the centrifuge experiments and at the same flow, exhaled NO values were 16.0 +/- 4.3, 19.5 +/- 5.1, and 18.6 +/- 4.7 parts/billion at one, two, and three times normal gravity, where exhaled NO in hypergravity was significantly elevated compared with normal gravity (P

  9. Fluorinated Xerogel-Derived Microelectrodes for Amperometric Nitric Oxide Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Ho; Privett, Benjamin J.; Kita, Justin M.; Wightman, R. Mark; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric fluorinated xerogel-derived nitric oxide (NO) microelectrode is described. A range of fluorine-modified xerogel polymers were synthesized via the co-hydrolysis and condensation of alkylalkoxy- and fluoroalkoxysilanes. Such polymers were evaluated as NO sensor membranes to identify the optimum composition for maximizing NO permeability while providing sufficient selectivity for NO in the presence of common interfering species. By taking advantage of both the versatility of sol–gel chemistry and the “poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)-like” high NO permselective properties of the xerogels, the performance of the fluorinated xerogel-derived sensors was excellent, surpassing all miniaturized NO sensors reported to date. In contrast to previous electrochemical NO sensor designs, xerogel-based NO microsensors were fabricated using a simple, reliable dip-coating procedure. An optimal permselective membrane was achieved by synthesizing xerogels of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and 20% (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trimethoxysilane (17FTMS, balance MTMOS) under acid-catalyzed conditions. The resulting NO microelectrode had a conical tip of ~20 ?m in diameter and ~55 mm in length, and exhibited sensitivities of 7.91 pA·nM?1 from 0.2 to 3.0 nM (R2 = 0.9947) and 7.60 nA·mM?1 from 0.5 to 4.0 ?M (R2 = 0.9999), detection limit of 83 pM (S/N = 3), response time (t95%) of <3 sec, and selectivity (logKNO,jamp) of ?5.74,

  10. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, Giti; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Wilson, Gary W; Goodwin, David A; Garthwaite, John

    2015-03-01

    In the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) transmits signals from one neurone to another, or from neurones to astrocytes or blood vessels, but the possibility of oligodendrocytes being physiological NO targets has been largely ignored. By exploiting immunocytochemistry for cGMP, the second messenger generated on activation of NO receptors, oligodendrocytes were found to respond to both exogenous and endogenous NO in cerebellar slices from rats aged 8 days to adulthood. Atrial natriuretic peptide, which acts on membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, also raised oligodendrocyte cGMP in cerebellar slices. The main endogenous source of NO accessing oligodendrocytes appeared to be the neuronal NO synthase isoform, which was active even under basal conditions and in a manner that was independent of glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes in brainstem slices were also shown to be potential NO targets. In contrast, in the optic nerve, oligodendrocyte cGMP was raised by natriuretic peptides but not NO. When cultures of cerebral cortex were continuously exposed to low NO concentrations (estimated as 40-90 pM), oligodendrocytes responded with a striking increase in arborization. This stimulation of oligodendrocyte growth could be replicated by low concentrations of 8-bromo-cGMP (maximum effect at 1 µM). It is concluded that oligodendrocytes are probably widespread targets for physiological NO (or natriuretic peptide) signals, with the resulting rise in cGMP serving to enhance their growth and maturation. NO might help coordinate the myelination of axons to the ongoing level of neuronal activity during development and could potentially contribute to adaptive changes in myelination in the adult. PMID:25327839

  11. Nitric oxide status in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Y. S.; Kiranmayi, V. S.; Bitla, A. R.; Krishna, G. S.; Rao, P. V. L. N. Srinivasa; Sivakumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity and mortality, mainly due to atherosclerosis. Decreased production or reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) can result in endothelial dysfunction (ED). Multiple mechanisms are known to cause a state of NO deficiency in patients with CKD. Patients in various stages of CKD grouped as group-1 (CKD stage 1 and 2), group-2 (CKD stage 3 and 4), group-3 (CKD stage 5) and healthy controls were included in the study. Each group of patients and controls comprised 25 subjects. Plasma nitrites, L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and citrulline were measured in all the subjects. Patients in all stages of CKD had lower NO and higher ADMA levels compared to controls. Further, group-2 and group-3 patients had lower levels of NO and higher levels of ADMA than group-1 patients. L-arginine levels showed no difference between patients and controls. However, group-3 patients had lower L-arginine levels compared to group-1 patients. Citrulline levels were decreased in group-3 patients. NO production was decreased in patients in all stages of CKD. The decrease could be due to decreased availability of the substrate, L-arginine or due to an increased ADMA, a potent inhibitor of endothelial NO synthase. Therapeutic interventions directed towards improvement of NO production in addition to management of other CVD risk factors may prevent development of ED and facilitate proper management of CKD patients who are at increased risk for CVD.

  12. Effects of ambient pressure on pulmonary nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Tryggve E; Linnarsson, Dag; Frostell, Claes; Van Muylem, Alain; Kerckx, Yannick; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2012-02-01

    Airway nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to play a role in the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema. We undertook a study of the effects of acute changes of ambient pressure on exhaled and alveolar NO in the range 0.5-4 atmospheres absolute (ATA, 379-3,040 mmHg) in eight healthy subjects breathing normoxic nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. On the basis of previous work with inhalation of low-density helium-oxygen gas, we expected facilitated backdiffusion and lowered exhaled NO at 0.5 ATA and the opposite at 4 ATA. Instead, the exhaled NO partial pressure (Pe(NO)) did not differ between pressures and averaged 1.21 ± 0.16 (SE) mPa across pressures. As a consequence, exhaled NO fractions varied inversely with pressure. Alveolar estimates of the NO partial pressure differed between pressures and averaged 88 (P = 0.04) and 176 (P = 0.009) percent of control (1 ATA) at 0.5 and 4 ATA, respectively. The airway contribution to exhaled NO was reduced to 79% of control (P = 0.009) at 4 ATA. Our finding of the same Pe(NO) at 0.5 and 1 ATA is at variance with previous findings of a reduced Pe(NO) with inhalation of low-density gas at normal pressure, and this discrepancy may be due to the much longer durations of low-density gas breathing in the present study compared with previous studies with helium-oxygen breathing. The present data are compatible with the notion of an enhanced convective backtransport of NO, compensating for attenuated backdiffusion of NO with increasing pressure. An alternative interpretation is a pressure-induced suppression of NO formation in the airways. PMID:22162525

  13. Induction of myocardial nitric oxide synthase by cardiac allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X; Chowdhury, N; Cai, B; Brett, J; Marboe, C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1994-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation, effective therapy for end-stage heart failure, is frequently complicated by allograft rejection, the mechanisms of which remain incompletely understood. Nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator which is cytotoxic and negatively inotropic, can be produced in large amounts by an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to cytokines. To investigate whether iNOS is induced during cardiac allograft rejection, hearts from Lewis or Wistar-Furth rats were transplanted into Lewis recipients. At day 5, allogeneic grafts manifested reduced contractility and histologic evidence of rejection (inflammatory infiltrate, edema, necrosis of myocytes). The mRNA for iNOS and iNOS protein were detected in ventricular homogenates and in isolated cardiac myocytes from rejecting allogeneic grafts but not in tissue and myocytes from syngeneic control grafts. Immunocytochemistry showed increased iNOS staining in infiltrating macrophages and in microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac muscle fibers and also in isolated purified cardiac myocytes from the rejecting allografts. Using a myocardial cytosolic iNOS preparation, nitrite formation from L-arginine and [3H] citrulline formation from [3H]L-arginine were increased significantly in the rejecting allogeneic grafts (P < 0.01). Myocardial cyclic GMP was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The data indicate myocardial iNOS mRNA, protein and enzyme activity are induced in infiltrating macrophages and cardiac myocytes of the rejecting allogeneic grafts. Synthesis of NO by iNOS may contribute to myocyte necrosis and ventricular failure during cardiac allograft rejection. Images PMID:7518842

  14. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Garthwaite, Giti; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Wilson, Gary W; Goodwin, David A; Garthwaite, John

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) transmits signals from one neurone to another, or from neurones to astrocytes or blood vessels, but the possibility of oligodendrocytes being physiological NO targets has been largely ignored. By exploiting immunocytochemistry for cGMP, the second messenger generated on activation of NO receptors, oligodendrocytes were found to respond to both exogenous and endogenous NO in cerebellar slices from rats aged 8 days to adulthood. Atrial natriuretic peptide, which acts on membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, also raised oligodendrocyte cGMP in cerebellar slices. The main endogenous source of NO accessing oligodendrocytes appeared to be the neuronal NO synthase isoform, which was active even under basal conditions and in a manner that was independent of glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes in brainstem slices were also shown to be potential NO targets. In contrast, in the optic nerve, oligodendrocyte cGMP was raised by natriuretic peptides but not NO. When cultures of cerebral cortex were continuously exposed to low NO concentrations (estimated as 40–90 pM), oligodendrocytes responded with a striking increase in arborization. This stimulation of oligodendrocyte growth could be replicated by low concentrations of 8-bromo-cGMP (maximum effect at 1 µM). It is concluded that oligodendrocytes are probably widespread targets for physiological NO (or natriuretic peptide) signals, with the resulting rise in cGMP serving to enhance their growth and maturation. NO might help coordinate the myelination of axons to the ongoing level of neuronal activity during development and could potentially contribute to adaptive changes in myelination in the adult. PMID:25327839

  15. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  16. Nitric oxide, antioxidants and prooxidants in plant defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Felicitas; Durner, Jörg; Gaupels, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the free radical nitric oxide (NO) interacts both with anti- as well as prooxidants. This review provides a short survey of the central roles of ascorbate and glutathione—the latter alone or in conjunction with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase—in controlling NO bioavailability. Other major topics include the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by NO and the interplay between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under stress conditions NO regulates antioxidant enzymes at the level of activity and gene expression, which can cause either enhancement or reduction of the cellular redox status. For instance chronic NO production during salt stress induced the antioxidant system thereby increasing salt tolerance in various plants. In contrast, rapid NO accumulation in response to strong stress stimuli was occasionally linked to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a subsequent rise in hydrogen peroxide levels. Moreover, during incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae interactions ROS burst and cell death progression were shown to be terminated by S-nitrosylation-triggered inhibition of NADPH oxidases, further highlighting the multiple roles of NO during redox-signaling. In chemical reactions between NO and ROS reactive nitrogen species (RNS) arise with characteristics different from their precursors. Recently, peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide has attracted much attention. We will describe putative functions of this molecule and other NO derivatives in plant cells. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHb) were proposed to act in NO degradation. Additionally, like other oxidases nsHb is also capable of catalyzing protein nitration through a nitrite- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent process. The physiological significance of the described findings under abiotic and biotic stress conditions will be discussed with a special emphasis on pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:24198820

  17. Nitric oxide and its role in ischaemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keynes, Robert G; Garthwaite, John

    2004-03-01

    The role of the neural messenger nitric oxide (NO) in cerebral ischaemia has been investigated extensively in the past decade. NO may play either a protective or destructive role in ischaemia and the literature is plagued with contradictory findings. Working with NO presents many unique difficulties and here we review the potential artifacts that may have contributed to discrepancies and cause future problems for the unwary investigator. Recent evidence challenges the idea that NO from neurones builds up to levels (micromolar) sufficient to directly elicit cell death during the post-ischaemic period. Concomitantly, the case is strengthened for a role of NO in delayed death mediated post-ischaemia by the inducible NO synthase. Mechanistically it seems unlikely that NO is released in high enough quantities to inhibit respiration in vivo; the formation of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, represents the more likely pathway to cell death. The protective and restorative properties of NO have become of increasing interest. NO from endothelial cells may, via stimulating cGMP production, protect the ischaemic brain by acutely augmenting blood flow, and by helping to form new blood vessels in the longer term (angiogenesis). Elevated cGMP production may also stop cells dying by inhibiting apoptosis and help repair damage by stimulating neurogenesis. In addition NO may act as a direct antioxidant and participate in the triggering of protective gene expression programmes that underlie cerebral ischaemic preconditioning. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which NO is protective may ultimately identify new potential therapeutic targets. PMID:15032712

  18. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition: the effect on rabbit pyloric muscle.

    PubMed

    Grisoni, E; Dusleag, D; Super, D

    1996-06-01

    The relaxation mechanism of the pyloric smooth muscle is largely dependent on a nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory innervation mediated in part by nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NO antagonists on the contractility of the pyloric smooth muscle. In the clinical trial, 10 anesthetized experimental rabbits were infused intraarterially with the NO synthesis inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), at a concentration of 10(-4) mol/L; 10 controls received normal saline intraarterially. Pyloric contractility was assessed by balloon manometry. L-NNA infusion produced a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of the pyloric contraction. The maximal increase in frequency occurred during the slow L-NNA infusion rate of 146 ng/min (baseline-adjusted frequencies of experimental v control: 1.267 +/- 0.389 v 0.632 +/- 0.375; P = .001). The increased frequency level was sustained over the subsequent fast infusion rate of 292 ng/min (experimental v control: 1.362 +/- 0.604 v 0.704 +/- 0.579; P = .022). Both the duration and the amplitude of the pyloric contractions were not affected by the L-NNA infusion. These findings suggest that blockage of the L-arginine-NO pathway may have resulted in inhibition of the NANC-induced gastric muscle and relaxation of the pyloric sphincter. The authors speculate that the decreased NO production may be responsible for the sustained contraction of the pyloric smooth muscle with secondary hypertrophy, characteristic of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. PMID:8783107

  19. From synaptically localized to volume transmission by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, John

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions widely as a transmitter/diffusible second messenger in the central nervous system, exerting physiological effects in target cells by binding to specialized guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, resulting in cGMP generation. Despite having many context-dependent physiological roles and being implicated in numerous disease states, there has been a lack of clarity about the ways that NO operates at the cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, several approaches have been used to try to gain a more concrete, quantitative understanding of this unique signalling pathway. These approaches have included analysing the kinetics of NO receptor function, real-time imaging of cellular NO signal transduction in target cells, and the use of ultrasensitive detector cells to record NO as it is being generated from native sources in brain tissue. The current picture is that, when formed in a synapse, NO is likely to act only very locally, probably mostly within the confines of that synapse, and to exist only in picomolar concentrations. Nevertheless, closely neighbouring synapses may also be within reach, raising the possibility of synaptic crosstalk. By engaging its enzyme-coupled receptors, the low NO concentrations are able to stimulate physiological (submicromolar) increases in cGMP concentration in an activity-dependent manner. When many NO-emitting neurones or synapses are active simultaneously in a tissue region, NO can act more like a volume transmitter to influence, and perhaps coordinate, the behaviour of cells within that region, irrespective of their identity and anatomical connectivity. PMID:26486504

  20. Nitric oxide inhibitory principles from Derris trifoliata stems.

    PubMed

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Karalai, Chatchanok

    2009-06-01

    Nine rotenoids were isolated from the hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Derris trifoliata stems and were tested for nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity using RAW264.7 cells. The result indicated that 12a-hydroxyrotenone (7) possessed very potent NO inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.002 microM, followed by 1 (deguelin, IC(50)=0.008 microM), 9 (12a-hydroxyelliptone, IC(50)=0.010 microM) and 2 (alpha-toxicarol, IC(50)=0.013 microM), respectively. In addition, the DPPH scavenging activity of rotenoids was also investigated. It was found that 6a,12a-dehydrodeguelin (5) possessed the highest activity against DPPH with an IC(50) value of 7.4 microM, followed by deguelin (1, IC(50)=27.4 microM). All compounds did not show any cytotoxicity at their IC(50) values for NO inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these rotenoids against NO release are as follows: (1) hydroxylation at C12a dramatically increased activity, (2) prenylation at furan ring increased activity markedly and (3) hydrogenation of a double bond at C6a-C12a conferred higher activity. For the DPPH radical scavenging effect, it was found that (1) introduction of a double bond at C6a-C12a increased activity and (2) hydroxylation of C11 at the D-ring decreased activity. As regards active compounds of Derris trifoliata stems, the isolated compounds are responsible for the NO inhibitory effect, especially 7, 1, 9 and 2, whereas 5 and 1 are those for the DPPH scavenging activity. PMID:19303755

  1. Nitric oxide directly promotes vascular endothelial insulin transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Aileen X; Aylor, Kevin; Barrett, Eugene J

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance strongly associates with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction. In the vasculature, NO mediates multiple processes that affect insulin delivery, including dilating both resistance and terminal arterioles in skeletal muscle in vivo. However, whether NO directly regulates vascular endothelial cell (EC) insulin uptake and its transendothelial transport (TET) is unknown. We report in this article that L-N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment blocked, whereas L-arginine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) each enhanced, EC uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled insulin. SNP also partly or fully reversed the inhibition of EC insulin uptake caused by L-NAME, wortmannin, the Src inhibitor PP1, and tumor necrosis factor-?. In addition, SNP promoted [(125)I]Tyr(A14)insulin TET by ~40%. Treatment with insulin with and without SNP did not affect EC cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, and the cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP did not affect FITC-insulin uptake. In contrast, treatment with insulin and SNP significantly increased EC protein S-nitrosylation, the colocalization of S-nitrosothiol (S-NO) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) and inhibited PTP1B activity. Moreover, a high-fat diet significantly inhibited EC insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and FITC-insulin uptake that was partially reversed by SNP in rats. Finally, inhibition of S-nitrosylation by knockdown of thioredoxin-interacting protein completely eliminated SNP-enhanced FITC-insulin uptake. We conclude that NO directly promotes EC insulin transport by enhancing protein S-nitrosylation. NO also inhibits PTP1B activity, thereby enhancing insulin signaling. PMID:23863813

  2. Proliferation of macrophages due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Monika; Gruber, Miriam; Schmid, Diethart; Baran, Halina; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is assumed to be a major causal agent in hypercholesteraemia-induced atherosclerosis. Because the proliferation of lipid-loaden macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions has been described, we investigated the dependence of macrophage proliferation on the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by hypochlorite oxidized LDL. Ox-LDL induces a dose dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-interferon stimulated mouse macrophages (J774.A1) with concomitant macrophage proliferation as assayed by cell counting, tritiated-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cell protein. Native LDL did not influence macrophage proliferation and inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein and mRNA was reduced by HOCl-oxidized LDL (0-40 µg/ml) as revealed by immunoblotting and competitive semiquantitative PCR. Macrophage proliferation was increased by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The addition of ox-LDL to L-NAME containing incubations induced no further statistically significant increase in cell number. Nitric oxide donors decreased ox-LDL induced macrophage proliferation and nitric oxide scavengers restored macrophage proliferation to the initial values achieved by ox-LDL. The decrease of cytosolic DNA fragments in stimulated macrophages incubated with ox-LDL demonstrates that the proliferative actions of ox-LDL are associated with a decrease of NO-induced apoptosis. Our data show that inhibition of iNOS dependent nitric oxide production caused by hypochlorite oxidized LDL enhances macrophage proliferation. This might be a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. Reduction of nitric oxide catalyzed by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase from an anammox bacterium.

    PubMed

    Irisa, Tatsuya; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji; Fujii, Takao

    2014-12-01

    The hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) from the anammox bacterium, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis has been reported to catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to nitric oxide (NO) by using bovine cytochrome c as an oxidant. In contrast, we investigated whether the HAO from anammox bacterium strain KSU-1 could catalyze the reduction of NO with reduced benzyl viologen (BVred) and the NO-releasing reagent, NOC 7. The reduction proceeded, resulting in the formation of NH2OH as a product. The oxidation rate of BVred was proportional to the concentration of BVred itself for a short period in each experiment, a situation that was termed quasi-steady state. The analyses of the states at various concentrations of HAO allowed us to determine the rate constant for the catalytic reaction, (2.85 ± 0.19) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), governing NO reduction by BVred and HAO, which was comparable to that reported for the HAO from the ammonium oxidizer, Nitrosomonas with reduced methyl viologen. These results suggest that the anammox HAO functions to adjust anammox by inter-conversion of NO and NH2OH depending on the redox potential of the physiological electron transfer protein in anammox bacteria. PMID:24996970

  4. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01

    Efforts continued towards the synthesis of new pillared clay catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia. The possibility of utilizing hydrocarbons was also investigated.

  5. Exogenous reactive oxygen and nitric oxide alter intracellular oxidant status of skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Murrant, C L; Andrade, F H; Reid, M B

    1999-06-01

    To test whether exogenous oxidants alter intracellular oxidant levels in skeletal muscle fibres, we exposed rat diaphragm to donors of nitric oxide (NOx), reactive oxygen species (ROS) or hyperoxia, and monitored intracellular oxidant levels using a fluorescent probe. Fibre bundles were dissected from the diaphragm and loaded with 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH); emissions were monitored using a fluorescence microscope. DCFH-loaded muscles were exposed to either a NOx donor (1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine, SNAP; 1 mM sodium nitroprusside, SNP; 400 microM 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-3-methyl-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazen, NOC-7), an ROS donor (100 microM hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; 100 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide; 1 mM hypoxanthine plus 0.01 U mL-1 xanthine oxidase, HXXO) or a range of PO2s (25, 60 or 95% O2 oxygenating Krebs-Ringer solution) for 40 min; time-matched control bundles remained in Krebs-Ringer solution. Control muscles oxidized DCFH at a rate of 0.32 +/- 0.1 greyscale units min-1. SNAP (766%), SNP (1244%), NOC-7 (851%), H2O2 (543%), and HXXO (541%) increased DCFH oxidation from control levels. The increase in emissions caused by NOC-7 and SNP were blunted by the NOx scavenger haemoglobin (1 microM). DCFH oxidation by HXXO was unaffected by 1000 U mL-1 superoxide dismutase but was significantly decreased by 1000 U mL-1 catalase and 1 mM salicylate. PO2 had no effect on intracellular oxidant levels. Therefore, extracellular NOx and ROS can alter intracellular oxidant status in skeletal muscle fibres. These observations suggest that intrafibre oxidant levels could be the result of both intracellular and extracellular oxidant production. PMID:10383490

  6. Antioxidants Modulate the Antiproliferative Effects of Nitric Oxide on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Adventitial Fibroblasts by Regulating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Elaine K.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Moreira, Edward S.; Havelka, George E.; Jiang, Qun; Lee, Vanessa R.; Van Lith, Robert; Ameer, Guillermo A.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Background S-nitrosothiols (SNO) release nitric oxide (NO) through interaction with ascorbic acid (AA). However, little is known about their combined effect in the vasculature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of AA on SNO-mediated NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death and oxidative stress in vascular cells. Methods VSMC and adventitial fibroblasts (AF) harvested from the aortae of Sprague Dawley rats were treated with AA, ± S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or ± diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO). NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress were determined by the Greiss reaction, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, trypan blue exclusion, and DCF staining, respectively. Results AA increased NO release from GSNO 3-fold (p<0.001). GSNO and DETA/NO significantly decreased proliferation, but AA abrogated this effect (p<0.05). Mirroring the proliferation data, changes in cell cycle progression induced by GSNO and DETA/NO were reversed by addition of AA. GSNO- and DETA/NO-mediated increases in oxidative stress were significantly decreased by addition of AA (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite causing increased NO release from GSNO, AA reduced the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of GSNO and DETA/NO through modulation of oxidative stress. PMID:21944289

  7. Exercise training restores oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthases in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L E; Magalhães, W G; Bezerra, F S; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J; Isoldi, M C; Alzamora, A C

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesize that exercise training (EX) reverses the level of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress into rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of renovascular hypertensive rats (two kidneys, one clip - 2K1C). Microinjections of L-arginine (5 nmol), L-NAME (10 nmol), or saline (100 nl) were made into RVLM of 2K1C and normotensive (SHAM) rats sedentary (SED) or subjected to swimming for 4 weeks. mRNA expression (by qRT-PCR) of nitric oxide synthases isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper and zinc superoxide (Cu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox), concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and CAT activity into RVLM were evaluated. The mean arterial pressure was reduced in 2K1C EX compared with that in 2K1C SED rats. L-arginine into RVLM induced hypertensive effect in 2K1C and SHAM SED rats, while L-NAME prevented hypertensive effect only in SHAM-SED. EX reduced hypertensive effect of L-arginine in SHAM and 2K1C rats. mRNA expression of NOS isoforms, p22(phox), and concentration of TBARS were increased while CAT and Cu/ZnSOD expression and CAT activity decreased into RVLM of 2K1C-SED compared with SHAM-SED rats. Additionally, EX reversed mRNA expression of CAT and NOS isoforms, concentration of TBARS, and CAT activity into RVLM of 2K1C-EX rats. These data suggest that the levels of NOS and oxidative stress into RVLM are important to determine the level of hypertension. Furthermore, EX can restore the blood pressure by reversing the levels of NOS and CAT expression, and reducing TBARS concentration into RVLM for the physiological state. PMID:26140386

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Increases Vitamin D Receptor mRNA Expression and the Production of Nitric Oxide and Cathelicidin in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    SISWANTO, Siswanto; ZUHRIYAH, Lilik; HANDONO, Kusworini; FITRI, Loeki Enggar; PRAWIRO, Sumarno Reto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The innate immune response to tuberculosis infection may involve the increased production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin due to the up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), though this proposed mechanism remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine how the exposure of human monocytes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) DNA affects the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin, as well as the expression of VDR. Methods: This study was performed using monocytes obtained from healthy donors. After 24 h incubation, monocytes were stimulated with M. tuberculosis DNA for 18 h to determine the expression of VDR mRNA and the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin versus non-stimulated cells (the control group). Results: The expression of VDR mRNA was higher in the monocytes exposed to M. tuberculosis DNA compared to the control group (P = 0.020). Monocytes exposed to M. tuberculosis DNA also showed significantly increased production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin compared to the control group (P = 0.0001; P = 0.028). Conclusion: The stimulation of human monocytes with M. tuberculosis DNA increases the expression of the VDR mRNA and the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin. PMID:26715892

  9. Immunologic role of nitric oxide in acute rejection of golden hamster to rat liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tong-Jin; Yuan, Tong-Ye; Li, You-Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the immunologic role and expression significances of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and its isoenzyme in acute rejection to liver xenografts from golden hamster in rat. METHODS: Liver transplantations were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6-9):isografts (group I); xenografts (group II); xenografts plus cyclosporine treatment (group III), xenografts plus cyclophosphamide treatment combined with splenectomy (group IV), and xenografts using cyclophosphamide in combination with splenectomy (group IV) and xenografts using splenectomy in addition to cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine treatments (group V). The levels of ALT, TNF-?, and nitric oxide production (NOx) in serum of reciprents were examined, and expressions of type II (iNOS) and type III (cNOS) nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inducible NOS (iNOS) and constitutive NOS (cNOS) were observed by NADPH diaphorase histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The level of serum ALT, activity of serum TNF-? and systemic levels of NO metabolite in groups II and IV were higher than those of groups I and V (serum ALT, 2416 ± 475, 2540 ± 82.5) nkat•L?¹-1 vs (556.8 ± 43.5, 677.30 ± 38.2) nkat•L?¹-1, P < 0.01; (serum TNF-?, 353.5 ± 16.1, 444.6 ± 28.1) ng•L-1, vs 38.5 ± 5.2, 52.0 ± 5.7) ng•L-1, P < 0.01; (serum NOx 514.6 ± 18.1, 336.0 ± 43.0) nmol•g?¹, vs 26.1 ± 5.7, 27.7 ± 6.0) nmol•g?¹, P < 0.01. Cyclosporine in group III can repress the cellular immune response and the synthesis of nitric oxide and the expression of NO synthase, but not prolong the liver xenograft survival. The over-expression of NOS, iNOS and cNOS in liver xenograft rejection in groups II and IV were detected by NADPH diaphorase histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSION: The degrees of acute rejection can be effectively repressed in golden hamster to rat liver xenografts with splenectomy and cyclosporine. Nitric oxide metabolites, and nitric oxide synthase and its isoenzymes, above all inducible NOS (iNOS) can be used as potential diagnostic markers for acute rejection in liver transplantation. The cellular localization of nitric oxide varies according to the immunologic status of liver xenografts, thus thinking that hepatocyte derived nitric oxide may be protective in the hyporesponsive state, but hepatic injury is likely triggered by centrilobular iNOS expression in the superresponsive state. PMID:12174390

  10. Role of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in bile salt-induced apoptosis: relevance to colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Washo-Stultz, D; Hoglen, N; Bernstein, H; Bernstein, C; Payne, C M

    1999-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory indicated that the bile salt sodium deoxycholate (NaDOC) induced apoptosis in cultured cells and in normal goblet cells of the colonic mucosa. We also reported that the normal-appearing flat mucosa of patients with colon cancer exhibited apoptosis resistance. Using immunofluorescence in conjunction with confocal microscopy, we now report that high physiological concentrations (0.5 mM) of NaDOC result in the formation of nitrotyrosine residues, a footprint for the formation of reactive nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite, in plasma membrane-associated proteins of HT-29 cells. Because peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion, we specifically looked at the role of nitric oxide and superoxide anion in NaDOC-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with the inhibitor/antioxidants, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, copper (II) 3,5-diisopropyl salicylate hydrate, a superoxide dismutase mimetic compound, and Trolox, a water-soluble analog of alpha-tocopherol, alone or in combination, sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM NaDOC. These results suggest that nitric oxide may be part of a signaling pathway that is responsible for apoptosis resistance. The results also indicate that nitric oxide does not appear to protect cells against NaDOC-induced apoptosis by scavenging superoxide anion. PMID:10693173

  11. Monoclonal L-citrulline immunostaining reveals nitric oxide-producing vestibular neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, G. R.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Martinelli, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide is an unstable free radical that serves as a novel messenger molecule in the central nervous system (CNS). In order to understand the interplay between classic and novel chemical communication systems in vestibular pathways, the staining obtained using a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline was compared with the labeling observed using more traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide. Brainstem tissue from adult rats was processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, a polyclonal antiserum against neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and/or NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Our findings demonstrate that L-citrulline can be fixed in situ by vascular perfusion, and can be visualized in fixed CNS tissue sections by immunocytochemistry. Further, the same vestibular regions and cell types are labeled by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase antiserum, and by our anti-L-citrulline antibody. Clusters of L-citrulline-immunoreactive neurons are present in subregions of the vestibular nuclei, including the caudal portion of the inferior vestibular nucleus, the magnocellular portion of the medial vestibular nucleus, and the large cells in the ventral tier of the lateral vestibular nucleus. NADPH-diaphorase histochemical staining of these neurons clearly demonstrated their multipolar, fusiform and globular somata and long varicose dendritic processes. These results provide support for the suggestion that nitric oxide serves key roles in both vestibulo-autonomic and vestibulo-spinal pathways.

  12. Localized cell stimulation by nitric oxide using a photoactive porous coordination polymer platform

    PubMed Central

    Diring, Stéphane; Wang, Dan Ohtan; Kim, Chiwon; Kondo, Mio; Chen, Yong; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Furukawa, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Functional cellular substrates for localized cell stimulation by small molecules provide an opportunity to control and monitor cell signalling networks chemically in time and space. However, despite improvements in the controlled delivery of bioactive compounds, the precise localization of gaseous biomolecules at the single-cell level remains challenging. Here we target nitric oxide, a crucial signalling molecule with site-specific and concentration-dependent activities, and we report a synthetic strategy for developing spatiotemporally controllable nitric oxide-releasing platforms based on photoactive porous coordination polymers. By organizing molecules with poor reactivity into polymer structures, we observe increased photoreactivity and adjustable release using light irradiation. We embed photoactive polymer crystals in a biocompatible matrix and achieve precisely controlled nitric oxide delivery at the cellular level via localized two-photon laser activation. The biological relevance of the exogenous nitric oxide produced by this strategy is evidenced by an intracellular change in calcium concentration, mediated by nitric oxide-responsive plasma membrane channel proteins. PMID:24158008

  13. Trigeminocardiac Reflex by Mandibular Extension on Rat Pial Microcirculation: Role of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Dominga; Federighi, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, M. Paola; del Seppia, Cristina; Ghione, Sergio; Colantuoni, Antonio; Scuri, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we have extended our previous findings about the effects of 10 minutes of passive mandibular extension in anesthetized Wistar rats. By prolonging the observation time to 3 hours, we showed that 10 minutes mandibular extension caused a significant reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate respect to baseline values, which persisted up to 160 minutes after mandibular extension. These effects were accompanied by a characteristic biphasic response of pial arterioles: during mandibular extension, pial arterioles constricted and after mandibular extension dilated for the whole observation period. Interestingly, the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolished the vasoconstriction observed during mandibular extension, while the administration of N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the vasodilation observed after mandibular extension. Either drug did not affect the reduction of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate induced by mandibular extension. By qRT-PCR, we also showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene expression was significantly increased compared with baseline conditions during and after mandibular extension and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression markedly increased at 2 hours after mandibular extension. Finally, western blotting detected a significant increase in neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression. In conclusion mandibular extension caused complex effects on pial microcirculation involving opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide release by both neurons and endothelial vascular cells at different times. PMID:25551566

  14. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, H T; Solares, G J; Kim, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2015-02-01

    Boosting nitric oxide production during exercise by various means has been found to improve exercise performance. We investigated the effects of a nitric oxide releasing lozenge with added caffeine (70?mg) on oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise and cycling time trial performance using a double-blinded randomized, crossover experimental design. 15 moderately trained cyclists (7 females and 8 males) were randomly assigned to ingest the caffeinated nitric oxide lozenge or placebo 5?min before exercise. Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were assessed at rest and at 50%, 65% and 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise performance was assessed by time to complete a simulated 20.15?km cycling time-trial course. No significant treatment effects for oxygen consumption or blood lactate at rest or during steady-state exercise were observed. However, time-trial performance was improved by 2.1% (p<0.01) when participants consumed the nitric oxide lozenge (2,424±69?s) compared to placebo (2,476±78?s) and without a significant difference in rating of perceived exertion. These results suggest that acute supplementation with a caffeinated nitric oxide releasing lozenge may be a practical and effective means of improving aerobic exercise performance. PMID:25285468

  15. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by nitric oxide: antiviral effect of nitric oxide on RNA virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y L; Huang, Y L; Ma, S H; Yeh, C T; Chiou, S Y; Chen, L K; Liao, C L

    1997-01-01

    The antiviral effects of nitric oxide (NO) on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, were investigated in this study. In vitro, inhibition of replication of JEV in gamma interferon-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was correlated to cellular NO production. When cocultured with infected murine neuroblastoma N18 cells, gamma interferon-activated RAW 264.7 cells also efficiently hindered JEV replication in contiguous bystanders, and this anti-JEV effect could be reversed by an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate. In vivo, the mortality rate increased as the NOS activity of JEV-infected mice was inhibited by its competitive inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Moreover, when an organic donor, S-nitro-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), was used, the NO-mediated antiviral effect was also observed in primarily JEV-infected N18, human neuronal NT-2, and BHK-21 cells, as well as in persistently JEV-infected C2-2 cells. These data reaffirm that NO has an effective and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against diversified intracellular pathogens. Interestingly, the antiviral effect of NO was not enhanced by treatment of N18 cells with SNAP prior to JEV infection, a measure which has been shown to greatly increase the antiviral effect of NO in infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. From biochemical analysis of the impact of NO on JEV replication in cell culture, NO was found to profoundly inhibit viral RNA synthesis, viral protein accumulation, and virus release from infected cells. The results herein thus suggest that NO may play a crucial role in the innate immunity of the host to restrict the initial stage of JEV infection in the central nervous system. PMID:9188590

  16. Nitric oxide enhances MPP(+)-induced hydroxyl radical generation via depolarization activated nitric oxide synthase in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Obata, T; Yamanaka, Y

    2001-06-01

    We examined the effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, on extracellular potassium ion concentration ([K(+)](o))-enhanced hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation due to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) was examined in the rat striatum. Rats were anesthetized, and sodium salicylate in Ringer's solution (0.5 nmol/microl per min) was infused through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of.OH as reflected by the non-enzymatic formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in the striatum. Induction of KCl (20, 70 and 140 mM) increased MPP(+)-induced.OH formation trapped as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in a concentration dependent manner. However, the application of L-NAME (5 mg/kg i.v.) abolished the [K(+)](o) depolarization-induced.OH formation with MPP(+). Dopamine (DA; 10 microM) also increased the levels of DHBA due to MPP(+). However, the effect of DA after application of L-NAME did not change the levels of DHBA. On the other hand, the application of allopurinol (20 mg/kg i.v., 30 min prior to study), a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor was abolished the both [K(+)](o)- and DA-induced.OH generation. Moreover, when iron(II) was administered to MPP(+) then [K(+)](o) (70 mM)-pretreated animals, a marked increase in the level of DHBA. However, when corresponding experiments were performed with L-NAME-pretreated animals, the same results were obtained. Therefore, NOS activation may be no relation to Fenton-type reaction via [K(+)](o) depolarization-induced.OH generation. The present results suggest that [K(+)](o)-induced depolarization augmented MPP(+)-induced.OH formation by enhancing NO synthesis. PMID:11384616

  17. Syringaresinol causes vasorelaxation by elevating nitric oxide production through the phosphorylation and dimerization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Sookon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Lee, Jung Joon; Baek, Yi-Yong; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Won, Moo-Ho; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in vascular functions, including vasorelaxation. We here investigated the pharmacological effect of the natural product syringaresinol on vascular relaxation and eNOS-mediated NO production as well as its underlying biochemical mechanism in endothelial cells. Treatment of aortic rings from wild type, but not eNOS-/- mice, with syringaresinol induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was abolished by addition of the NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Treatment of human endothelial cells and mouse aortic rings with syringaresinol increased NO production, which was correlated with eNOS phosphorylation via the activation of Akt and AMP kinase (AMPK) as well as elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. A phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor blocked the increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels, AMPK-dependent eNOS phosphorylation, and NO production, but not Akt activation, in syringaresinol-treated endothelial cells. Syringaresinol-induced AMPK activation was inhibited by co-treatment with PLC inhibitor, Ca2+ chelator, calmodulin antagonist, and CaMKK? siRNA. This compound also increased eNOS dimerization, which was inhibited by a PLC inhibitor and a Ca2+-chelator. The chemicals that inhibit eNOS phosphorylation and dimerization attenuated vasorelaxation and cGMP production. These results suggest that syringaresinol induces vasorelaxation by enhancing NO production in endothelial cells via two distinct mechanisms, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and PLC/Ca2+/CaMKK?-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and Ca2+-dependent eNOS dimerization. PMID:22170035

  18. Syringaresinol causes vasorelaxation by elevating nitric oxide production through the phosphorylation and dimerization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Sookon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Lee, Jung Joon; Baek, Yi-Yong; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Won, Moo-Ho; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-03-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in vascular functions, including vasorelaxation. We here investigated the pharmacological effect of the natural product syringaresinol on vascular relaxation and eNOS-mediated NO production as well as its underlying biochemical mechanism in endothelial cells. Treatment of aortic rings from wild type, but not eNOS(-/-) mice, with syringaresinol induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was abolished by addition of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Treatment of human endothelial cells and mouse aortic rings with syringaresinol increased NO production, which was correlated with eNOS phosphorylation via the activation of Akt and AMP kinase (AMPK) as well as elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. A phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor blocked the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels, AMPK-dependent eNOS phosphorylation, and NO production, but not Akt activation, in syringaresinol- treated endothelial cells. Syringaresinol-induced AMPK activation was inhibited by co-treatment with PLC inhibitor, Ca(2+) chelator, calmodulin antagonist, and CaMKK? siRNA. This compound also increased eNOS dimerization, which was inhibited by a PLC inhibitor and a Ca(2+)-chelator. The chemicals that inhibit eNOS phosphorylation and dimerization attenuated vasorelaxation and cGMP production. These results suggest that syringaresinol induces vasorelaxation by enhancing NO production in endothelial cells via two distinct mechanisms, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and PLC/Ca(2+)/CaMKK?-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and Ca(2+)-dependent eNOS dimerization. PMID:22170035

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Disrupts Cerebrovascular Tone Through Endothelial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Nitric Oxide Gain of Function

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Nuria; Sonkusare, Swapnil K.; Longden, Thomas A.; Tran, Tram L.; Sackheim, Adrian M.; Nelson, Mark T.; Wellman, George C.; Freeman, Kalev

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported to increase the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and can lead to loss of cerebrovascular tone; however, the sources, amounts, and consequences of excess NO on the cerebral vasculature are unknown. Our objective was to elucidate the mechanism of decreased cerebral artery tone after TBI. Methods and Results Cerebral arteries were isolated from rats 24 hours after moderate fluid?percussion TBI. Pressure?induced increases in vasoconstriction (myogenic tone) and smooth muscle Ca2+ were severely blunted in cerebral arteries after TBI. However, myogenic tone and smooth muscle Ca2+ were restored by inhibition of NO synthesis or endothelium removal, suggesting that TBI increased endothelial NO levels. Live native cell NO, indexed by 4,5?diaminofluorescein (DAF?2 DA) fluorescence, was increased in endothelium and smooth muscle of cerebral arteries after TBI. Clamped concentrations of 20 to 30 nmol/L NO were required to simulate the loss of myogenic tone and increased (DAF?2T) fluorescence observed following TBI. In comparison, basal NO in control arteries was estimated as 0.4 nmol/L. Consistent with TBI causing enhanced NO?mediated vasodilation, inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G, and large?conductance Ca2+?activated potassium (BK) channel restored function of arteries from animals with TBI. Expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase was upregulated in cerebral arteries isolated from animals with TBI, and the inducible isoform of NO synthase inhibitor 1400W restored myogenic responses following TBI. Conclusions The mechanism of profound cerebral artery vasodilation after TBI is a gain of function in vascular NO production by 60?fold over controls, resulting from upregulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase in the endothelium. PMID:25527626

  20. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Rutherford, Daniel; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator in both health and disease. In addition to its effects on vascular tone and platelet function, it plays roles in inflammation and pain perception that may be of relevance in osteoarthritis. Many patients with osteoarthritis take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) long term for pain control. Over recent years concern has been raised about the possible cardiovascular side effects of NSAIDs. The reasons for this possible increased cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs are not yet entirely clear, although changes in blood pressure, renal salt handling and platelet function may contribute. Recently, drugs that chemically link a NSAID with a NO donating moiety (cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting NO-donating drugs [CINODs]) were developed. NO is an important mediator of endothelial function, acting as a vasodilator and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and having anti-inflammatory properties. The potential benefits of CINODs include the combination of effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with NO release, which might counterbalance any adverse cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Effects of CINODs in animal studies include inhibition of vasopressor responses, blood pressure reduction in hypertensive rats and inhibition of platelet aggregation. CINODs may also reduce ischemic damage to compromised myocardial tissue. In addition, endothelial dysfunction is a recognized feature of inflammatory arthritides, and therefore a drug that might provide slow release of NO to the vasculature while treating pain is an attractive prospect in these conditions. Further studies of the effects of CINODs in humans are required, but these agents represent a potential exciting advance in the management of osteoarthritis. PMID:19007428

  1. Interactions between substrates and the haem-bound nitric oxide of ferric and ferrous bacterial nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, François J. M.; Couture, Manon

    2006-01-01

    We report here the resonance Raman spectra of the FeIII–NO and FeII–NO complexes of the bacterial NOSs (nitric oxide synthases) from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The haem–NO complexes of these bacterial NOSs displayed Fe–N–O frequencies similar to those of the mammalian NOSs, in presence and absence of L-arginine, indicating that haem-bound NO and L-arginine had similar haem environments in bacterial and mammalian NOSs. The only notable difference between the two types of NOS was the lack of change in Fe–N–O frequencies of the FeIII–NO complexes upon (6R) 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin binding to bacterial NOSs. We report, for the first time, the characterization of NO complexes with NOHA (N?-hydroxy-L-arginine), the substrate used in the second half of the catalytic cycle of NOSs. In the FeIII–NO complexes, both L-arginine and NOHA induced the Fe–N–O bending mode at nearly the same frequency as a result of a steric interaction between the substrates and the haem-bound NO. However, in the FeII–NO complexes, the Fe–N–O bending mode was not observed and the ?Fe?NO mode displayed a 5 cm?1 higher frequency in the complex with NOHA than in the complex with L-arginine as a result of direct interactions that probably involve hydrogen bonds. The different behaviour of the substrates in the FeII–NO complexes thus reveal that the interactions between haem-bound NO and the substrates are finely tuned by the geometry of the Fe-ligand structure and are relevant to the use of the FeII–NO complex as a model of the oxygenated complex of NOSs. PMID:16970546

  2. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results 

    E-print Network

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15

    The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the effects of cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) on nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and 2) determine if the consideration of ccv affects the average NO emission as compared to the mean cycle NO emission...

  3. Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants Associate With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nikkari, Seppo T.; Määttä, Kirsi M.; Kunnas, Tarja A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and expression has been associated with hypertension, but less is known whether the 2 known functional polymorphic sites in the iNOS gene (g.–1026 C/A (rs2779249), g.2087 G/A (rs2297518)) affect susceptibility to hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic variants of iNOS and diagnosed hypertension in a Finnish cohort. This study included 320 hypertensive cases and 439 healthy controls. All participants were 50-year-old men and women and the data were collected from the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk study (TAMRISK). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and iNOS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed using KASP genotyping PCR. Data analysis was done by logistic regression. At the age of 50 years, the SNP rs2779249 (C/A) associated significantly with hypertension (P?=?0.009); specifically, subjects carrying the A-allele had higher risk of hypertension compared to those carrying the CC genotype (OR?=?1.47; CI?=?1.08–2.01; P?=?0.015). In addition, a 15-year follow-up period (35, 40, and 45 years) of the same individuals showed that carriers of the A-allele had more often hypertension in all of the studied age-groups. The highest risk for developing hypertension was obtained among 35-year-old subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; confidence interval [CI]?=?1.20–12.27; P?=?0.024). Those carrying variant A had also significantly higher readings of both systolic (P?=?0.047) and diastolic (P?=?0.048) blood pressure during the follow-up. No significant associations between rs2297518 (G/A) variants alone and hypertension were found. However, haplotype analysis of rs2779249 and rs2297518 revealed that individuals having haplotype H3 which combines both A alleles (CA–GA, 19.7% of individuals) was more commonly found in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (OR?=?2.01; CI?=?1.29–3.12; P?=?0.002). In conclusion, there was a significant association between iNOS genetic variant (rs2779249) and hypertension in the genetically homogenous Finnish population. Those who carried the rare A-allele of the gene had higher risk for hypertension already at the age of 35 years. PMID:26579803

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 ?g/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and NO-releasing nanoparticle-treated cells was observed. Taken together, our results reveal a potent toxic effect of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against different life cycle forms of T. cruzi, indicating that the encapsulation of the NO donor S-nitroso-MSA represents an interesting approach to combat and to prevent Chagas disease.

  5. Structures of new phenylbutanoids and nitric oxide production inhibitors from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Iwami, Junko; Matsuda, Hisashi; Wakayama, Hiroko; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-11-01

    The methanolic (MeOH) extract from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar showed nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. From the MeOH extract, six new phenylbutanoids, phlains I-VI, were isolated together with 16 known constituents. The structures of new phenylbutanoids were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the inhibitory effects of the principal constituents on the NO production were examined. Among them, phlain III (IC50=24 microM), (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (69 microM), (E)-1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (83 microM), and cassumunaquinone 1 (47 microM) were found to show the inhibitory effects. PMID:19881279

  6. Relationship between Methacholine Challenge Testing and exhaled nitric oxide in adult patients with suspected bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, M; Valli, M; Ribuffo, V; Melara, R; Cappiello, G; Businarolo, E; Andreani, A

    2014-05-01

    Usually, hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine is considered closely associated with a diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Recently, it has been clearly pointed out that bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is not a constant feature of asthma and that this condition is not always related to airways inflammation. In the present study we evaluated 42 Patients (21 positive and 21 negative for bronchial hyperreactivity, BHR) with the aim to determine the effect of Methacholine Challenge Testing (MCT) on the levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO). Higher FeNO levels were found before methacholine provocation in the group that eventually resulted positive to the challenge, while after the challenge in both groups FeNO decreased in similar way, with no statistical difference. These data confirm that MCT is a relevant test for asthma diagnosis, but it is not always related to the severity of bronchial inflammation, while FeNO levels in our study have limited clinical significance when evaluated out of asthma exacerbation. PMID:24853569

  7. Inhibitory constituents of Sophora tonkinensis on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin Tae; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract from the roots of Sophora tonkinensis resulted in the isolation of a new pterocarpan glycoside (1) together with nine known compounds, maackiain (2), sophoranone (3), sophoranochromene (4), pinoresinol (5), syringaresinol (6), medioresinol (7), 4',7-dihydroxyflavone (8), calycosin (9), and genistein (10). The structure of the new compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including NMR and CD data in combination with acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-4 exhibited the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging from 13.6 to 33.0?M in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:25592708

  8. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Nak Doo; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Oh, Seok Jeong; Lee, Moo Yeol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-08-01

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells. Rg3 increased both the phosphorylation and the expression of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner and a maximal effect was found at 10 {mu}g/ml of Rg3. The enzyme activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase were enhanced as were estrogen receptor (ER)- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent reporter gene transcriptions in Rg3-treated endothelial cells. Rg3-induced eNOS phosphorylation required the ER-mediated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Moreover, Rg3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through up-regulation of CaM kinase II and Rg3-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. The present results provide a mechanism for Rg3-stimulated endothelial NO production.

  10. Use-dependent loss of active sympathetic neurogenic vasodilation after nitric oxide synthase inhibition in conscious rats. Evidence for the presence of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, R. L.; Shaffer, R. A.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether air-jet stress-induced active sympathetic hindlimb vasodilation in conscious rats involves the release of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors. We determined the effects of repeated episodes of air-jet stress (six episodes given 5 minutes apart) on mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances in the mesenteric bed and intact and sympathetically denervated hindlimb beds of conscious rats treated with saline or the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mumol/kg IV). In saline-treated rats, air-jet stress produced alerting behavior, minor changes in blood pressure, pronounced mesenteric vaso-constriction, and immediate and marked vasodilation in the sympathetically intact hindlimb but a minor vasodilation in the sympathetically denervated hindlimb. Each air-jet stress produced virtually identical responses. In L-NAME-treated rats, the first air-jet stress produced vasodilator responses in the sympathetically intact and sympathetically denervated hindlimbs that were similar to those in the saline-treated rats. However, each subsequent air-jet stress produced progressively smaller vasodilator responses in the sympathetically intact but not the sympathetically denervated hindlimb. There was no loss of air-jet stress-induced alerting behavior or mesenteric vasoconstriction, suggesting that L-NAME did not interfere with the central processing of the air-jet or the resultant changes in autonomic nerve activity. The progressive diminution of air-jet stress-induced vasodilation in the intact hindlimb of L-NAME-treated rats may be due to the use-dependent depletion of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors that cannot be replenished in the absence of nitric oxide synthesis.

  11. Behaviour of nitric oxide trails deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberstein, I. J.; Aikin, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    The transient behavior of a nitric oxide trail deposited at approximately 60 km altitude is studied by the solution of the appropriate multidimensional diffusion equation which includes terms representing the effects of wind shear. Similar analysis is then carried out for the situation in the stratosphere. Trail behavior is found to be relatively independent of altitude and background ozone, but strongly dependent on the magnitude of eddy diffusity and the initial nitric oxide concentration. The nitric oxide trail reacts with ambient ozone to form nitrogen dioxide. For a trail 100 m initial radius, an ozone hole will form to a maximum size in 4 to 6 hours and then decay. The overall recovery time of the atmosphere following the creation of the trail is less than 12 hours.

  12. Disruption and eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms using nitric oxide-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Reighard, Katelyn P.; Hill, David B.; Dixon, Graham A.; Worley, Brittany; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm disruption and eradication were investigated as a function of nitric oxide- (NO) releasing chitosan oligosaccharide dose with results compared to control (ie non-NO-releasing) chitosan oligosaccharides and tobramycin. Quantification of biofilm expansion/contraction and multiple-particle tracking microrheology were used to assess the structural integrity of the biofilm before and after antibacterial treatment. While tobramycin had no effect on the physical properties of the biofilm, NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited dose-dependent behavior with biofilm degradation. Control chitosan oligosaccharides increased biofilm elasticity, indicating that the scaffold may mitigate the biofilm disrupting power of nitric oxide somewhat. The results from this study indicate that nitric oxide-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides act as dual-action therapeutics capable of eradicating and physically disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:26610146

  13. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. PMID:26548622

  14. [Nitric oxide (NO)--Nobel prize in medicine and physiology for 1998].

    PubMed

    Derentowicz, P; Markiewicz, K; Wawrzyniak, M; Czerwi?ska-Kartowicz, I; Bu?awa, E; Siwi?ska-Go?ebiowska, H

    2000-01-01

    On October 12, 1998. The Nobel Assembly announced the award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to pharmacologists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad. The Nobel Committee decided to award the prize for their discoveries concerning--nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) has a key importance for vascular tonus, acts as a signal molecule in the nervous system and plays an important function in the immunological system. Nitric oxide is a multifunction molecule which controls the blood pressure, modulates gastrointestinal motility. It is produced in abnormal level intensifies septic shock and destruction of nervous tissue. NO is important in different branches of medicine. For instance NO gas has been used to reduced high blood pressure in the lung of infants. Several unknown NO applications in medicine are waiting for discovery. PMID:11013875

  15. Model studies of nitric oxide fluorescence in the earth's backscattered spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Abrams, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescent emissions from nitric oxide appear imposed upon the Rayleigh backscattered spectrum of the earth's atmosphere between 250 and 300 nm in wavelength. Satellite instruments designed to monitor the global ozone distribution can routinely observe these signals although techniques for exploiting the data are not yet available. Application of a radiative transfer equation developed for an atmosphere including absorption by ozone, molecular scattering, and nitric oxide fluorescence shows the three most prominent NO emissions relative to the 250-300 nm backscattered sunlight to be the (1,4), (1,6), and (0,3) gamma bands. Analysis of the contribution function for each emission band indicates that the fluorescent signals can provide useful information on the magnitude and variability of nitric oxide between 40 and 140 km in altitude.

  16. Experimental and analytical study of nitric oxide formation during combustion of propane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.; Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    A jet-stirred combustor, constructed of castable zirconia and with an Inconel injector, was used to study nitric oxide formation in propane-air combustion with residence times in the range from 3.2 to 3.3 msec and equivalence ratios varying from 0.7 to 1.4. Measurements were made of combustor operating temperature and of nitric oxide concentration. Maximum nitric oxide concentrations of the order of 55 ppm were found in the range of equivalence ratio from 1.0 to 1.1. A finite-rate chemical kinetic mechanism for propane combustion and nitric oxide formation was assembled by coupling an existing propane oxidation mechanism with the Zeldovich reactions and reactions of molecular nitrogen with hydrocarbon fragments. Analytical studies using this mechanism in a computer simulation of the experimental conditions revealed that the hydrocarbon-fragment-nitrogen reactions play a significant role in nitric oxide formation during fuel-rich combustion.

  17. Low Extracellular Zinc Increases Neuronal Oxidant Production Through NADPH Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Aimo, Lucila; Cherr, Gary N.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    A decrease in zinc (Zn) levels increases the production of cell oxidants, affects the oxidant defense system and triggers oxidant sensitive signals in neuronal cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This work tested the hypothesis that the increase in neuronal oxidants that occurs when cellular Zn decreases is mediated by the activation of the NMDA receptor. Differentiated PC12 cells were cultured in control, Zn-deficient or Zn-repleted media. The incubation in Zn deficient media led to a rapid increase in cellular calcium levels, which was prevented by a NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801). Cellular calcium accumulation was associated with NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation, an increase in cell oxidant levels, and an associated activation of a redox-sensitive signal (AP-1). In cells incubated in the Zn deficient medium, NADPH oxidase activation was prevented by MK-801 and by a protein kinase C inhibitor. The rise in cell oxidants was prevented by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, of the NOS and by MK-801. A similar pattern of inhibitor action was observed for zinc deficiency-induced AP-1 activation. Results demonstrate that a decrease in extracellular Zn leads to an increase in neuronal oxidants through the activation of the NMDAR that leads to calcium influx and to a calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C/NADPH oxidase and NOS. Changes in extracellular Zn concentrations can be sensed by neurons, which using reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as second messengers, can regulate signaling involved in neuronal development and function. PMID:20211250

  18. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  19. Local delivery of nitric oxide: targeted delivery of therapeutics to bone and connective tissues

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Scott P.; Storm, Wesley L.; Koh, Ahyeon; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive treatment of injuries and disorders affecting bones and connective tissue is a significant challenge facing the medical community. A treatment route that has recently been proposed is nitric oxide (NO) therapy. Nitric oxide plays several roles in physiology with many conditions lacking adequate levels of NO. As NO is a radical, localized delivery via NO donors is essential to promoting biological activity. Herein, we review current literature related to therapeutic NO delivery in the treatment of bone, skin and tendon repair. PMID:22433782

  20. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure HF plasma source: generation of nitric oxide and ozone for bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, S.; Bibinov, N.; Gesche, R.; Awakowicz, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new miniature high-frequency (HF) plasma source intended for bio-medical applications is studied using nitrogen/oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be used as an element of a plasma source array for applications in dermatology and surgery. Nitric oxide and ozone which are produced in this plasma source are well-known agents for proliferation of the cells, inhalation therapy for newborn infants, disinfection of wounds and blood ozonation. Using optical emission spectroscopy, microphotography and numerical simulation, the gas temperature in the active plasma region and plasma parameters (electron density and electron distribution function) are determined for varied nitrogen/oxygen flows. The influence of the gas flows on the plasma conditions is studied. Ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in the effluent of the plasma source are measured using absorption spectroscopy and electro-chemical NO-detector at variable gas flows. Correlations between plasma parameters and concentrations of the particles in the effluent of the plasma source are discussed. By varying the gas flows, the HF plasma source can be optimized for nitric oxide or ozone production. Maximum concentrations of 2750 ppm and 400 ppm of NO and O3, correspondingly, are generated.

  1. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on the development of analgesic tolerance to dipyrone in mice.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ulugol, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that, similarly to opioids, tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in opioid-induced analgesic tolerance; we, therefore, planned to determine if nitric oxide also plays role in the analgesic tolerance to dipyrone, a NSAID. Using the hot-plate test in mice, an analgesic tolerance developed to dipyrone with its 150 and 300 mg/kg intraperitoneal doses after 7 days; no tolerance was observed with its dose of 600 mg/kg. Neither 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a neuronal NOS inhibitor, nor aminoguanidine (30 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducible NOS inhibitor, had any effect on dipyrone-induced analgesic tolerance with doses, which also had no analgesic effect when used alone. Our results show that nitric oxide does not play role in the analgesic tolerance to dipyrone; however, further experiments are required to delineate the mechanisms and to take preventive measures against this problem, which will possibly limit the use of NSAIDs. PMID:19326282

  2. Involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in the cardioprotective actions of bradykinin in rats with experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Veeravalli, K K; Akula, A

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator in the coronary vascular bed. Endothelial mediators released by bradykinin include nitric oxide, prostacyclin and as yet unidentified endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factors. We wished to determine the involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in the cardioprotective actions mediated by bradykinin via the combined inhibition of ACE and aminopeptidase P (APP) in an in vivo rat model of acute ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (4h). Myocardial infarct size was measured by using the staining agent 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). Lipid peroxide levels in serum and in heart tissue were estimated spectrophotometrically. A lead II electrocardiogram was monitored at various intervals throughout the experiment. Infarct size reduction obtained with the combined inhibition of enalapril and apstatin, lisinopril and apstatin was blocked partially but significantly with the prior administration of L-NAME (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) or aspirin, suggesting the involvement of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in the cardioprotective actions mediated by bradykinin. PMID:14597148

  3. Propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity via a TRPA1-, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?

    PubMed Central

    Sinharoy, Pritam; Zhang, Hongyu; Sinha, Sayantani; Prudner, Bethany C; Bratz, Ian N; Damron, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous anesthetic, propofol, restores the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel subtype-1 (TRPV1) receptors via a protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?)-dependent and transient receptor potential ankyrin channel subtype-1 (TRPA1)-dependent pathway in sensory neurons. The extent to which the two pathways are directly linked or operating in parallel has not been determined. Using a molecular approach, our objectives of the current study were to confirm that TRPA1 activation directly results in PKC? activation and to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which this occurs. F-11 cells were transfected with complimentary DNA (cDNA) for TRPV1 only or both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. An immunoblot analysis of the total and phosphorylated forms of PKC?, nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and TRPV1 was also performed. In F-11 cells containing both channels, PKC? inhibition prevented the propofol- and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity to agonist stimulation as well as increased phosphorylation of PKC? and TRPV1. In cells containing TRPV1 only, neither agonist induced PKC? or TRPV1 phosphorylation. Moreover, NOS inhibition blocked propofol-and AITC-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity and PKC? phosphorylation, and PKC? inhibition prevented the nitric oxide donor, SNAP, from restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Also, propofol-and AITC-induced phosphorylation of nNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production were blocked with the TRPA1-antagonist, HC-030031. These data indicate that the AITC- and propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity is mediated by a TRPA1-dependent, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?. PMID:26171233

  4. MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN HUMANS USING 15N-ARGININE AND TANDEM LC/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in several physiologic processes, including modulation of peripheral vascular resistance, gastrointestinal peristalsis, inflammation and neuronal function. NO is synthesized in tissues by three classes of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and rapidly degraded to ni...

  5. Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase Deficiency Impairs the Long-Term Memory of Olfactory Fear Learning and Increases Odor Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Heldt, Scott A.; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    Experience-induced changes associated with odor learning are mediated by a number of signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), which is predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. Mice…

  6. 10 Fulton, D. et al. (1999) Regulation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide production by the protein

    E-print Network

    Pal, Debnath

    1999-01-01

    by the protein kinaseAkt. Nature 399, 597­601 11 Dimmeler, S. et al. (1999)Activation of nitric oxide synthase10 Fulton, D. et al. (1999) Regulation of endothelium- derived nitric oxide production-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. FEBS Lett. 443, 285­289 13 Kim, F. et al. (2001

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates the nitric oxide component of reflex cutaneous vasodilatation during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Tanner C; Keen, Jeremy T; Simmons, Grant H; Alexander, Lacy M; Wong, Brett J

    2014-12-01

    Recent data suggests neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mediates the NO component of reflex cutaneous vasodilatation with passive heat stress. We tested the hypothesis that nNOS inhibition would attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilatation during sustained dynamic exercise in young healthy humans. All subjects first performed an incremental V?O2, peak test to exhaustion on a custom-built supine cycle ergometer. On a separate day, subjects were instrumented with four intradermal microdialysis fibres on the forearm and each randomly assigned as: (1) lactated Ringer's (control); (2) 20 mm N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (non-selective NOS inhibitor); (3) 5 mm N-propyl-l-arginine (nNOS inhibitor); and (4) 10 mm N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine dihydrochloride [endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor]. Following microdialysis placement, subjects performed supine cycling with the experimental arm at heart level at 60% V?O2, peak for a period sufficient to raise core temperature 0.8°C. At the end of cycling, all microdialysis sites were locally heated to 43°C and sodium nitroprusside was perfused to elicit maximal vasodilatation. Mean arterial pressure, skin blood flow via laser-Doppler flowmetry and core temperature via ingestible telemetric pill were measured continuously; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flowmetry/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum. There was no significant difference between control (58 ± 2%CVCmax) and nNOS-inhibited (56 ± 3%CVCmax) sites in response to exercise-induced hyperthermia. The increase in CVC at eNOS-inhibited (41 ± 3%CVCmax) and non-selective NOS-inhibited (40 ± 4%CVCmax) sites were significantly attenuated compared to control and nNOS-inhibited (P < 0.001 all conditions) but there was no difference between eNOS-inhibited and non-selective NOS-inhibited sites. These data suggest eNOS, not nNOS, mediate NO synthesis during reflex cutaneous vasodilatation with sustained dynamic exercise. PMID:25260636

  8. Nitric Oxide Oxidation Products are Increased in the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Children with Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Holguin, Fernando; Teague, W. Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with severe allergic asthma have persistent airway inflammation and oxidant stress. Objectives We hypothesized that children with severe allergic asthma would have increased concentrations of the NO oxidation products nitrite, nitrate, and nitrotyrosine in the proximal and distal airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF). We further hypothesized that NO oxidation products would be associated with higher exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), greater allergic sensitization, and lower pulmonary function. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained from 15 children with mild-to-moderate asthma, 30 children with severe allergic asthma, 5 non-asthmatic children and 20 non-smoking adults. The BAL was divided into proximal and distal portions and nitrite, nitrate, and nitrotyrosine were quantified. Results Children with mild-to-moderate and severe allergic asthma had increased concentrations of nitrite (adult control: 15 ± 3; pediatric control: 23 ± 4; mild-to-moderate asthma: 56 ± 26; severe asthma: 74 ± 18 µM), nitrate (37 ± 13 vs. 145 ± 38 vs. 711 ± 155 vs. 870 ± 168 µM) and nitrotyrosine (2 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 vs. 9 ± 3 vs. 10 ± 4 µM) in the proximal ELF. Similar results were seen in the distal ELF although the concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 for each). Although univariate analyses revealed no associations between NO oxidation products and clinical features, multivariate analyses revealed FENO to be a significant predictor of NO oxidation in asthmatic children. Conclusions NO oxidation products are increased in the ELF of asthmatic children. The relationship between FENO and airway nitrosative stress is complicated and requires further study. PMID:19895987

  9. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots. PMID:25943507

  10. The structural studies of fullerenol C60(OH)24 and nitric oxide mixture in water solvent - MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Dawid, A; Górny, K; Gburski, Z

    2011-11-30

    The potential nitric oxide scavenging activity of polyhydroxylated derivative of fullerene C(60)(OH)(24), called fullerenol, has been tested using the computer simulation (MD) method. The study is motivated by the expected diverse biological applications of water-soluble fullerenols. The static structure factor of the nitric oxide and fullerenol mixture in water solvent, related to the neutron scattering experiment, has been calculated and discussed. The distribution of nitric oxide NO molecules near fullerenol in water solution have been observed by calculating the partial radial distribution function at several temperatures, from 300 to 325K. The slight uptake of nitric oxide molecules by fullerenol has been detected at physiological temperature T=310K. The temperature dependence of the nitric oxide scavenging by fullerenol has been estimated. PMID:21945054

  11. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  12. Hdm2 and Nitric Oxide Radicals Contribute to the P53-Dependent Radioadaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize the radioadaptive response at the molecular level. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53-containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulations of p53, the human homolog of endogenous murine double minute 2 (Hdm2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase were analyzed with Western blotting. Quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. Results: In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low-dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about two- to fourfold after challenging irradiation subsequent to a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of 5, 5'-(2, 5-Furanidiyl)bis-2-thiophenemethanol (RITA) or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with isosorbide dinitrate (an NO-generating agent) alone. Conclusions: These findings suggest that NO radicals are initiators of the radioadaptive response, acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  13. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid microglia, resulting in a significant iNOS upregulation. PMID:25170849

  14. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia of the developing quail retina.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid microglia, resulting in a significant iNOS upregulation. PMID:25170849

  15. Functional regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Schmeltzer, Christian; Sousa, Erica; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Rüdiger, Sten; Hamassaki, Dânia Emi; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    In the nervous system within physiological conditions, nitric oxide (NO) production depends on the activity of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), and particularly on the expression of the neuronal isoform (nNOS). In the sensory systems, the role of NO is poorly understood. In this study, we identified nNOS-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rat retina, with distinct characteristics such as somata size, immunolabeling level and location. Employing mathematical cluster analysis, we determined that nNOS amacrine cells are formed by two distinct populations. We next investigated the molecular identity of these cells, which did not show colocalization with calbindin (CB), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), parvalbumin (PV) or protein kinase C (PKC), and only partial colocalization with calretinin (CR), revealing the accumulation of nNOS in specific amacrine cell populations. To access the functional, circuitry-related roles of these cells, we performed experiments after adaptation to different ambient light conditions. After 24h of dark-adaptation, we detected a subtle, yet statistically significant decrease in nNOS transcript levels, which returned to steady-state levels after 24h of normal light-dark cycle, revealing that nNOS expression is governed by ambient light conditions. Employing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we demonstrated that dark-adaptation decreases NO production in the retina. Furthermore, nNOS accumulation changed in the dark-adapted retinas, with a general reduction in the inner plexiform layer. Finally, computational analysis based on clustering techniques revealed that dark-adaptation differently affected both types of nNOS-positive amacrine cells. Taken together, our data disclosed functional regulation of nNOS expression and activity, disclosing new circuitry-related roles of nNOS-positive cells. More importantly, this study indicated unsuspected roles for NO in the sensory systems, particularly related to adaptation to ambient demands. PMID:25116452

  16. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (?FVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ?FVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ?FVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ?FVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ?FVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction.

  17. High density lipoprotein from patients with valvular heart disease uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Jun; Yuan, Hai-Yun; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Fu, Li; Lin, Ze-Bang; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Shen-Ming; Zhou, Li; Xu, Ying-Qi; Wang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Ou, Jing-Song

    2014-09-01

    Normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) protects vascular function; however these protective effects of HDL may absent in valvular heart disease (VHD). Because vascular function plays an important role in maintaining the circulation post-cardiac surgery and some patients are difficult to stabilize, we hypothesized that a deleterious vascular effect of HDL may contribute to vascular dysfunction in VHD patients following surgery. HDL was isolated from age-match 28 healthy subjects and 84 patients with VHD and during cardiac surgery. HDL pro-inflammation index was measured and the effects of HDL on vasodilation, protein interaction, generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide were determined. Patients with VHD received either simvastatin (20mg/d) or routine medications, and endothelial effects of HDL were characterized. HDL inflammation index significantly increased in VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery. HDL from VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, inhibited both Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), NO production and increased eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation. Simvastatin therapy partially reduced HDL inflammation index, improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate eNOS and Akt phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with HSP90, NO production, reduced eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Our data demonstrated that HDL from VHD patients and cardiac surgery contributed to endothelial dysfunction through uncoupling of eNOS. This deleterious effect can be reversed by simvastatin, which improves the vasoprotective effects of HDL. Targeting HDL may be a therapeutic strategy for maintaining vascular function and improving the outcomes post-cardiac surgery. PMID:24887036

  18. Basic fibroblast growth factor increases nitric oxide and endothelin production in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z S; Yang, Y Z; Zhao, W; Pang, Y Z; Liu, N K; Tang, C S

    2000-06-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on aortic production of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin of aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and WKY rats. Rat aortas were cut into vessel slices and incubated with 10 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for 6 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in aortic slices and contents of NO(-)(2) and endothelin in the medium were determined. The results showed that NOS activity in aortic slices of SHR was 17.6% lower than that of WKY (P<0.01). NO(-)(2) and endothelin contents in the medium of SHR aortic slices were 59.7% lower and 37.4% higher than those of WKY aortic slices. Upon the exposure of low and high doses of bFGF, NOS activity in the aorta of SHR was increased by 29.7% and 59.6% (both P<0.01),respectively, while the NO(-)(2) contents in the medium were increased respectively by 28.2% (P<0.05) and 70.5% (P<0.01). Aortic endothelin production was increased by 24.1% and 44.5% (both P<0.01) respectively while the NOS activity in the aorta of WKY was increased by 24.4% and 53.7% (both P<0.01). NO(-)(2) contents in the medium were augmented by 18.8% (P<0.05)and 25.9% (P<0.01), respectively. Aortic endothelin production was increased by 84.1% and 93.1% (both P<0.01). It is concluded that bFGF may modulate the production of NO and endothelin in both SHR and WKY rats. PMID:11956566

  19. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide with nitric oxide as an oxidant gas Jaeyeong Heo, Sang Bok Kim and Roy G. Gordon*

    E-print Network

    absorption is enabled by nanostructures, which provides a large surface area to increase the conversion will be more problematic when SnO2 should be formed on nm- sized porous features of large surface area, whereAtomic layer deposition of tin oxide with nitric oxide as an oxidant gas Jaeyeong Heo, Sang Bok Kim

  20. Arginine-induced stimulation of protein synthesis and survival in IPEC-J2 cells is mediated by mTOR but not nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine (ARG) is an indispensable amino acid in neonates and required for growth. Neonatal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are capable of ARG transport, catabolism, and synthesis, and express nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to produce NO from ARG. Our aim was to determine whether ARG directly stimul...

  1. EVALUATION OF NATURAL- AND FORCED-DRAFT STAGING AIR SYSTEMS FOR NITRIC OXIDE REDUCTION IN REFINERY PROCESS HEATERS. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results of pilot-scale tests to evaluate combustion modifications for emission reduction and efficiency enhancement on petroleum process heaters. Objectives were to determine nitric oxide (NO) emission reductions, thermal efficiency changes, long-term ...

  2. EVALUATION OF NATURAL- AND FORCED-DRAFT STAGING AIR SYSTEMS FOR NITRIC OXIDE REDUCTION IN REFINERY PROCESS HEATERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results of pilot-scale tests to evaluate combustion modifications for emission reduction and efficiency enhancement on petroleum process heaters. Objectives were to determine nitric oxide (NO) emission reductions, thermal efficiency changes, long-term ...

  3. The role of nitric oxide in muscle fibers with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    SciTech Connect

    Tengan, Celia H. . E-mail: chtengan@neuro.epm.br; Kiyomoto, Beatriz H.; Godinho, Rosely O.; Gamba, Juliana; Neves, Afonso C.; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary S.B.; Gabbai, Alberto A.

    2007-08-03

    NO has been pointed as an important player in the control of mitochondrial respiration, especially because of its inhibitory effect on cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, all the events involved in this control are still not completely elucidated. We demonstrate compartmentalized abnormalities on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity on muscle biopsies of patients with mitochondrial diseases. NOS activity was reduced in the sarcoplasmic compartment in COX deficient fibers, whereas increased activity was found in the sarcolemma of fibers with mitochondrial proliferation. We observed increased expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in patients and a correlation between nNOS expression and mitochondrial content. Treatment of skeletal muscle culture with an NO donor induced an increase in mitochondrial content. Our results indicate specific roles of NO in compensatory mechanisms of muscle fibers with mitochondrial deficiency and suggest the participation of nNOS in the signaling process of mitochondrial proliferation in human skeletal muscle.

  4. Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

  5. Nitric oxide ameliorates zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced phytotoxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chao; Yin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Peng, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-10-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to function in enhancing plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, role of NO in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. Here, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) was used to investigate the possible roles and the regulatory mechanisms of NO in counteracting ZnO NPs toxicity in rice seedlings. Our results showed that 10 ?M SNP significantly inhibited the appearance of ZnO NP toxicity symptoms. SNP addition significantly reduced Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation caused by ZnO NPs. The protective role of SNP in reducing ZnO NPs-induced oxidative damage is closely related to NO-mediated antioxidant system. A decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, as well as an increase in reduced glutathione content and peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed under SNP and ZnO NPs combined treatments, compared to ZnO NPs treatment alone. The relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes exhibited a similar change. The role of NO in enhancing ZnO NPs tolerance was further confirmed by genetic analysis using a NO excess mutant (noe1) and an OsNOA1-silenced plant (noa1) of rice. Together, this study provides the first evidence indicating that NO functions in ameliorating ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity. PMID:25958266

  6. Nitric-oxide synthase is a mechanical signal transducer that modulates talin and vinculin expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidball, J. G.; Spencer, M. J.; Wehling, M.; Lavergne, E.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli can cause changes in muscle mass and structure which indicate that mechanisms exist for transducing mechanical stimuli into signals that influence gene expression. Myotendinous junctions show adaptations to modified muscle loading which suggest that these are transcriptionally distinct domains in muscle fibers that may experience local regulation of expression of structural proteins that are concentrated at these sites. Vinculin and talin are cytoskeletal proteins that are highly enriched at myotendinous junctions that we hypothesize to be subject to local transcriptional regulation. Our findings show that mechanical stimulation of muscle cells in vivo and in vitro causes an increase in the expression of vinculin and talin that is mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, nitric oxide-stimulated increases in vinculin and talin expression occur through a protein kinase G-dependent pathway and therefore differ from other mechanisms through which nitric oxide has been shown previously to modulate transcription. Analysis of vinculin mRNA distribution in mechanically stimulated muscle fibers shows that the mRNA is highly concentrated at myotendinous junctions, which supports the hypothesis that myotendinous junctions are distinct domains in which the expression of cytoskeletal proteins is modulated by mechanical stimuli through a nitric oxide and protein kinase G-dependent pathway.

  7. REMOTE MONITORING OF NITRIC OXIDE BY GAS-FILTER CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in the effluent of industrial stacks has been investigated analytically and experimentally in the laboratory. The type of instrument considered employs two or more gas-filter cells that contain differen...

  8. Detoxification of nitric oxide by Fusarium verticillioides is linked to denitrification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent cellular signaling molecule and a byproduct of nitrogen metabolism. High concentrations of NO are a form of nitrosative stress, and to alleviate this stress, organisms utilize flavohemoglobins to convert NO into nontoxic nitrate ions. We have investigated the capacity o...

  9. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-

    E-print Network

    Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser- based cavity output spectroscopy ICOS with a quantum cascade laser operating at 5.22 m capable of real; integrated cavity output spectroscopy; chemiluminescence; quantum cascade laser. Paper 06361RR received Dec

  10. Quantum cascade laser-based sensor system for nitric oxide detection Frank K. Tittel*a

    E-print Network

    1 Quantum cascade laser-based sensor system for nitric oxide detection Frank K. Tittel*a , James J), distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, with typical concentration levels ranging from 24.0 ppbv to 54.0 ppbv. Keywords: Quantum cascade laser, quartz

  11. ARGININE FLUX AND NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION DURING HUMAN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare second-trimester, third-trimester, and postpartum arginine flux and nitric oxide production using infusions of the stable isotope L-[(15)N(2)]-arginine in normal human gestation, kinetic measurements were made in pregnant volunteers with uncomplicated singleton gestations in mid gestation...

  12. Rotenoid derivatives from Derris trifoliata with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro; Murata, Tomiyasu; Tan, Hugh T-W; Kaneda, Norio; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Itoigawa, Masataka

    2012-11-01

    Study of the chemical constituents of the stems of Derris trifoliata Lour. (Leguminosae) collected in Singapore led to the isolation and identification of three known and two new rotenoid derivatives. The new derivatives, named derrisfolin A (1) and B (2), inhibited nitric oxide production in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23285811

  13. Arginase II reduces arginine availability and nitric oxide production during endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginase is the main pathway for arginine (Arg) disposal and it has been reported that it regulates intracellular Arg availability for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis during endotoxemia. To test the hypothesis that arginase II not only regulates intracellular, but also whole body Arg availability, a mul...

  14. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES CONTROLLING NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work...

  16. INCORPORATION OF LABELED NITRIC OXIDE INTO RESPIRATORY TRACT LINING FLUIDS AND BLOOD PLASMA DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporation of labeled nitric oxide (N18O) into respiratory tract lining fluids and blood plasma during lung inflammation. Slade, R., Norwood, J., Crissman, K., McKee, J., Hatch, G. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Res. Tri. Pk., NC

    Our earlier studies have demonstrated t...

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase Imunolabeling in the Molluscan CNS and Peripheral Tissues

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    Nitric Oxide Synthase Imunolabeling in the Molluscan CNS and Peripheral Tissues W. J. Hurst,* L. L- ripheral tissues of the sea slugs Pleurobranchaea cali- fornica, Tritonia diomedea and Aplysia californica differences in tissue localization and biochemical properties of molluscan NOS isoforms. © 1999 Academic Press

  18. NITRIC OXIDE AND NITRITE TREATMENTS REDUCE ETHYLENE EVOLUTION FROM APPLE FRUIT DISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Golden Delicious’ apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.)] cortex disks suspended in solutions containing a nitric oxide ('NO) donor [S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)], 'NO gas, or nitrite (KNO2) were utilized to identify impacts of 'NO on ethylene production and NO...

  19. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    •The proposed new FRM measurement principle for ozone is based on quantitative measurement of the chemiluminescence emission from the gas-phase reaction of ozone in an air sample with nitric oxide (NO).•The chemiluminescence from the NO-O3 reaction (with excess NO) is p...

  20. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides involves flavohemoglobins and the denitrification pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly mobile and potent signaling molecule, yet as a free radical it can also cause nitrosative stress to cells. To alleviate negative effects from excessive accumulation of endogenous NO or from potential exogenous sources, flavohemoglobin proteins can convert NO into nonto...

  1. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shiliang

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

  2. DEPENDENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS ON VEHICLE LOAD: RESULTS FROM THE GTRP INSTRUMENTED VEHICLE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discussed the dependence of nitric oxide (NO) emissions on vehicle load, bases on results from an instrumented-vehicle program. The accuracy and feasibility of modal emissions models depend on algorithms to allocate vehicle emissions based on a vehicle operation...

  3. Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Chemistry

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Imke

    Nitrite Reductase: 1204 2. Copper Nitrite Reductases 1206 B. Nitric Oxide Reductase 1208 1. Structure 1208 2. cNOR 1209 3. qNOR 1210 4. qCuANOR 1210 5. Catalytic Mechanism and Comparisons to Heme-Copper Oxidases 1211 III. Coordination Compounds 1212 A. NIR Model Compounds 1213 1. General Considerations 1213 2

  4. Nitric oxide metabolism and the role of NO detoxifying flavohaemoglobin in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical, highly reactive, and responsible for both cytotoxic and cytostimulant effects in the cell. The dual nature of NO makes it the perfect candidate for both molecular signaling and an effective first line of defense against pathogens. Fusarium verticillioides i...

  5. A new calculation of nitric oxide photolysis in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Minschwaner, K.; Siskind, D.E.

    1993-11-20

    Photodissociation of nitric oxide in the middle and upper atmosphere is examined using a line-by-line approach to describe absorption in the NO {delta} bands and O{sub 2} Schumann-Runge bands. The new analysis of O{sub 2} absorption results in greater transmission of ultraviolet radiation in the Schumann-Runge (5-0) band in comparison with previous studies, leading to increased rates for photolysis of nitric oxide in the {delta}(0-0) band. Reduced transmission in the O{sub 2} (9-0) and (10-0) Schumann-Runge bands produces smaller photolysis rates for the NO {delta}(1-0) band. Absorption in strong lines of the NO {delta} bands is shown to make a nonnegligible contribution to atmospheric opacity at wavelenghts which are important for NO photodissocation. Representative distributions of nitric oxide are used to quantify possible changes in the NO photolysis rate over the course of a solar cycle. As a result of changes in the NO abundance in the thermosphere, modulation of the photolysis frequency at lower altitudes may be opposite in phase to variations in the solar irradiance. For solar zenith angles greater than 60{degrees}, photolysis rates at altitudes below 100 km may be smaller during solar maximum compared to solar minimum. A method is described which enables rapid calculation of NO photolysis frequencies, allowing also for effects of varying opacity by nitric oxide. 48 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide Production in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial mediator in host defense and is one of the major killing mechanisms within macrophages. Its induction is highly affected by the types of cytokines and the infectious agents present. In the current study, NO production was evaluated after in vitro infection of unfractio...

  7. A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN A METHANE/AIR TURBULENT DIFFUSION FLAME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical analysis of nitric oxide production in a methane/air turbulent diffusion flame. In the coherent flame model used, the chemical reactions take place in laminar flame elements which are lengthened by the turbulent fluid motion and shortened...

  8. The Identification of Nitric Oxide as Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Loscalzo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Summary The identification of endothelium-derived relaxing factor as nitric oxide dramatically altered the course of vascular biology, as well as other biomedical disciplines. The ubiquity of this natural product of cell metabolism and the complexity of its biochemistry provide a rich source of molecular mediators of phenotype in health and disease. PMID:23833290

  9. INFLUENCE OF FUEL COMPOSITION ON NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION IN MASS-BURNING STOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of testing seven coals of varying rank in an experimental mass-burning simulation to assess general nitric oxide (NO) emission characteristics. The fuels were compared to ascertain a relationship between NO emissions, fuel nitrogen content, nitrogen vola...

  10. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE FLUX FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured from the summer of 1994 to the spring of 1995 from an intensively managed agricultural soil using a dynamic flow through chamber technique in order to study the seasonal variability in the emissions of NO. The measurements were made on a ...

  11. Heme Distortion Modulated by Ligand-Protein Interactions in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    coordinated heme macrocycle, a tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) cofactor and an L-arginine (L-Arg) / N- hydroxy-L-arginine. Abbreviations: H4B: tetrahydrobiopterin; NOHA: N-hydroxy-L-arginine; iNOS, eNOS, nNOS: inducible, endothelial Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the formation of NO from oxygen and L-arginine (L-Arg) via

  12. Nitric Oxide and Interlukin-6 Levels in Intellectual Disability Adults with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Beiker, Reut; Morad, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) are highly reactive mediators that have been shown to play different roles in a variety of different biological process. The role of NO and IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of brain seizures is still questionable. In order to evaluate the role of NO and IL-6 in neurological disorders such as seizures, we…

  13. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Mourão Jacomini, André; Celso Dutra de Souza, Hugo; da Silva Dias, Danielle; de Oliveira Brito, Janaina; Cezar Pinheiro, Lucas; Bernardino da Silva, Anderson; Fernanda da Silva, Roberta; Alexandre Trapé, Atila; De Angelis, Kátia; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Lia do Amaral, Sandra; Saranz Zago, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old). All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP). Training status (TS) was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a “Functional Fitness Battery Test” to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI). All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good). Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS. PMID:26697141

  14. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal A.; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130–190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy. PMID:19918318

  15. Morphometric analysis of alveolar responses of F344 rats to subchronic inhalation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Mercer, R R

    1999-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)*, the principal airborne pollutant generated from combustion processes such as gas stoves, tobacco smoke, and burning of fossil fuels, is being tested as a therapeutic agent in clinical trials. A prior morphometric study of rats exposed for 9 weeks to 0.5 parts per million (ppm) NO demonstrated focal degeneration of the alveolar interstitium and increased numbers of fenestrated alveolar septa (Mercer et al. 1995). The limited size and distribution of defects in this NO exposure did not alter alveolar surface area or other morphometric indicators of lung function, but were of interest as the responses to inhaled NO appeared to differ from those produced by other oxidants such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric oxide exposures at the same concentration and duration as prior morphometric studies of O3 and NO2 were necessary in order to make a comparison. This was the purpose of the current study in which F344 rats were exposed for 6 weeks to air, 2 ppm NO, or 6 ppm NO. Following exposure, the lungs of NO- and air-exposed rats were preserved and prepared for electron microscopy. The lungs of replicate groups were lavaged and analyzed for protein content and antioxidants. Ultrastructural alterations due to exposure were determined by quantitative morphometric analyses and serial-section counts of the number of alveolar fenestrae. In contrast to the prior study of NO, there was no significant difference in the number of alveolar fenestrae/lung between control and NO-exposed groups. Morphometric analysis of the 6 ppm NO-exposure group demonstrated a significant increase from controls in the percentage of epithelial basement membrane covered by type II epithelial cells and a significant increase in the number of type II epithelial cells and airspace macrophages. At 2 ppm, only the percentage of epithelial basement membrane covered by type II epithelial cells was significant. No significant differences were found in lavage protein or in lavage ascorbic acid or glutathione content between clean-air controls and NO-exposed groups. Overall, the proinflammatory responses by type II epithelial cells and airspace macrophages following inhaled NO were comparable to those of O3 and NO2. These results, derived from experiments using significantly higher concentrations than in the prior study, demonstrate that inhaled NO produces a pattern of injury similar to that of other oxidants. PMID:10553264

  16. Effects of nitric oxide on the horizontal cell network and dopamine release in the carp retina.

    PubMed

    Pottek, M; Schultz, K; Weiler, R

    1997-05-01

    In the teleost retina the intercellular messenger nitric oxide can be synthesized by several cell types including cone photoreceptors and H1 horizontal cells, indicating a modulatory role within the outer plexiform layer, the first stage of the visual information processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of nitric oxide on the physiology of cone horizontal cells in the intact retina. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (0.5-2.5 mM) enhanced the light responsiveness of cone horizontal cells and reduced the degree of electrical coupling in the network. Furthermore, the spread of intracellularly injected Lucifer Yellow was restricted. The effects on light responsiveness and electrical coupling were qualitatively mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP (0.5 mM) and could not be achieved by ferrocyanide (1 mM), the byproduct of nitric oxide liberation from nitroprusside. The effects of NO on the responsiveness of horizontal cells may be due to an action on green- and red-sensitive cones. Nitroprusside (0.1 mM) diminished the K(+)-stimulated release of endogenous dopamine by 50%, whereas the basal dopamine release was not affected, indicating that the effects on electrotonic horizontal cell coupling were not elicited by an NO-induced release of dopamine. With respect to the morphologic plasticity of the cone-horizontal cell synapse the inhibitor of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis L-nitroarginine (0.1 mM) had no influence on the formation or retraction of spinules. These results show that NO affects the responsiveness and coupling of the horizontal cell network in a dopamine-independent way. PMID:9196728

  17. Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

  18. Neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH-diaphorase staining in rat and human pancreas: influence of fixation.

    PubMed

    Wörl, J; Wiesand, M; Mayer, B; Greskötter, K R; Neuhuber, W L

    1994-11-01

    In this study, we wished to clarify the distribution and co-localization of nitric oxide synthase and NA-DPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in nerve cells, nerve fibres and parenchymal cells in exocrine and endocrine pancreas, and to assess the influence of fixation on the staining pattern obtained. For this purpose, we applied nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry to rat and human pancreas under different fixation conditions. Antibodies to neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were similarly applied. We found complete co-localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-d in ganglion cells, and in nerve fibres around acini, excretory ducts, blood vessels and in islets of Langerhans of rat and human pancreas. Immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was co-localized with NADPH-d in endothelial cells. However, in NADPH-d reactive islet and ductal epithelial cells we could detect neither brain nor endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity with any fixation protocol applied. There were marked differences in NADPH-d staining of both neurons and parenchymal cells under different fixation conditions. These results indicate the existence of different types of NADPH-d, which are associated or not associated with nitric oxide synthase(s), and which are differently influenced by various fixation procedures in rat and human pancreas. PMID:7532638

  19. Nitric oxide synthase protein levels, not the mRNA, are downregulated in olfactory bulb interneurons of reeler mice.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Gudrun; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Baum, Oliver; Scotti, Alessandra L

    2007-03-01

    Homozygous mutations in the Reelin gene result in severe disruption of brain development. The histogenesis of layered regions, like the neocortex, hippocampus and the cerebellum, is most notably affected in mouse reeler mutants and similar traits are also present in mice lacking molecular components of the Reelin signalling pathway. Moreover, there is evidence for an additional role of Reelin in sustaining synaptic plasticity in adult networks. Nitric oxide is an important gaseous messenger that can modulate neuronal plasticity both in developing and mature synaptic networks and has been shown to facilitate synaptic changes in the hippocampus, cerebellum and olfactory bulb. We studied the distribution and content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory bulbs of reeler and wildtype mice. Immunocytochemistry reveals that Reelin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing interneurons are two distinct, non overlapping cell populations of the olfactory bulb. We show by in situ hybridization that both nitrergic and Reelin expressing cells represent only a subset of olfactory bulb GABAergic neurons. Immunoblots show that neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein content is decreased by two thirds in reeler mice causing a detectable loss of immunolabelled cells throughout the olfactory bulb of this strain. However, neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels, essayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, are unaffected in the reeler olfactory bulb. Thus, disruption of the Reelin signalling pathway may modify the turnover of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory bulb and possibly affects nitric oxide functions in reeler mice. PMID:17307331

  20. Nitric oxide for anammox recovery in a nitrite-inhibited deammonification system.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Loorits, Liis; Kroon, Kristel; Fritze, Hannu; Tuomivirta, Tero; Vabamäe, Priit; Raudkivi, Markus; Mandel, Anni; Dc Rubin, Sergio S C; Tenno, Taavo

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. In the current research the deammonification reactor in a reverse order (first anammox, then the nitrifying biofilm cultivation) was started up with a high maximum N removal rate (1.4?g?N?m(-2)?d(-1)) in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Cultivated biofilm total nitrogen removal rates were accelerated the most by anammox intermediate - nitric oxide (optimum 58?mg?NO-N?L(-1)) addition. Furthermore, NO was added in order to eliminate inhibition caused by nitrite concentrations (>50?mg [Formula: see text]) increasing [Formula: see text] (2/1, respectively) along with a higher ratio of [Formula: see text] (0.6/1, respectively) than stoichiometrical for this optimal NO amount added during batch tests. Planctomycetales clone P4 sequences, which was the closest (98% and 99% similarity, respectively) relative to Candidatus Brocadia fulgida sequences quantities increase to 1?×?10(6) anammox gene copies?g(-1) total suspended solids to till day 650 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PMID:25827614

  1. Silent Partner in Blood Vessel Homeostasis? Pervasive Role of Nitric Oxide in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Ruba S; Lamon, Brian D; Hajjar, David P

    2009-11-01

    The endothelium generates powerful mediators that regulate blood flow, temper inflammation and maintain a homeostatic environment to prevent both the initiation and progression of vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is arguably the single most influential molecule in terms of dictating blood vessel homeostasis. In addition to direct effects associated with altered NO production (e.g. vasoconstriction, excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction), NO is a critical modulator of vaso-relevant pathways including cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin production and angiotensin II generation by the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, NO may influence the selectivity of COX-2 inhibitors and ultimately contribute to controversies associated with the use of these drugs. Consistent with a central role for NO in vascular disease, disruptions in the production and bioavailability of NO have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, aging, and smoking. The ability of the vessel wall to control disease-associated oxidative stress may be the most critical determinant in maintaining homeostatic levels of NO and subsequently the prospect of stroke, myocardial infarction and other CV abnormalities. To this end, investigation of mechanisms that alter the balance of protective mediators, including pathways that are indirectly modified by NO, is critical to the development of effective therapy in the treatment of CV disease. PMID:20368751

  2. Silent Partner in Blood Vessel Homeostasis? Pervasive Role of Nitric Oxide in Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Ruba S.; Lamon, Brian D.; Hajjar, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The endothelium generates powerful mediators that regulate blood flow, temper inflammation and maintain a homeostatic environment to prevent both the initiation and progression of vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is arguably the single most influential molecule in terms of dictating blood vessel homeostasis. In addition to direct effects associated with altered NO production (e.g. vasoconstriction, excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction), NO is a critical modulator of vaso-relevant pathways including cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin production and angiotensin II generation by the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, NO may influence the selectivity of COX-2 inhibitors and ultimately contribute to controversies associated with the use of these drugs. Consistent with a central role for NO in vascular disease, disruptions in the production and bioavailability of NO have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, aging, and smoking. The ability of the vessel wall to control disease-associated oxidative stress may be the most critical determinant in maintaining homeostatic levels of NO and subsequently the prospect of stroke, myocardial infarction and other CV abnormalities. To this end, investigation of mechanisms that alter the balance of protective mediators, including pathways that are indirectly modified by NO, is critical to the development of effective therapy in the treatment of CV disease. PMID:20368751

  3. Nitric oxide (NO)--biogeneration, regulation, and relevance to human diseases.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of NO, the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin; GTN) is the first compound of this category. Alfred Nobel (the founder of Nobel Prize) himself had suffered from angina pectoris and was prescribed nitroglycerin for his chest pain. Almost a century later, research in the NO field has dramatically extended and the role of NO in physiology and pathology has been extensively studied. The steady-state concentration and the biological effects of NO are critically determined not only by its rate of formation, but also by its rate of decomposition. Biotransformation of NO and its related N-oxides occurs via different metabolic routes within the body and presents another attractive field for our research as well as for the venture of drug discovery. PMID:12456375

  4. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  5. Effect of Electrode Composition and Microstructure on Impedancemetric Nitric Oxide Sensors based on YSZ Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Martin, L P; Glass, R S; Wang, W; Jung, S; Gorte, R J; Murray, E P; Novak, R F; Visser, J H

    2007-04-02

    The role of metal (Au, Pt, and Ag) electrodes in YSZ electrolyte-based impedancemetric nitric oxide (NO) sensors is investigated using impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuit analysis. The test cell consists of a rectangular block of porous YSZ with two metal wire loop electrodes, both exposed to the same atmosphere. Of the electrode materials, only Au was sensitive to changes in NO concentration. The impedance behavior of porous Au electrodes in a slightly different configuration was compared with dense Au electrodes and was also insensitive to NO. Ag showed no sensitivity to either O{sub 2} or NO, and the measured impedances occurred at frequencies > 10 kHz, which are typically associated with ionic conduction in YSZ. Pt and porous Au showed sensitivity to O{sub 2}, which was quantified using power-law exponents that suggest electrochemical rate-determining mechanisms occurring at the triple phase boundary. The behavior of the dense Au suggests different rate-determining processes (e.g., diffusion or adsorption) for the O{sub 2} reaction. Although the exact mechanism is not determined, the composition and microstructure of the metal electrode seem to alter the rate-limiting step of the interfering O{sub 2} reaction. Impedance behavior of the O{sub 2} reaction that is limited by processes occurring away from the triple phase boundary may be crucial for impedancemetric NO sensing.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in femoral artery of the hypertensive rats is nitric oxide independent.

    PubMed

    Púzserová, A; Kopincová, J; Slezák, P; Bališ, P; Bernátová, I

    2013-12-20

    This study examined nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative load and endothelium-dependent relaxation (NO-dependent and NO-independent) in adult male borderline hypertensive (BHR) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats as compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was determined by tail-cuff. NO production was determined by conversion of [(3)H]-L-arginine. Conjugated dienes (CD) and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were measured for assessment of oxidative load. Vascular function was investigated in rings of the femoral artery (FA) using a wire myograph. BP of WKY, BHR and SHR was 106+/-2, 143+/-3 and 191+/-3 mm Hg, respectively (p<0.01 for each). Significant left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy and elevated levels of CD and TBARS in the LV were present in BHR and SHR as compared to WKY. NO production was elevated significantly in the aorta of BHR and SHR vs. WKY as well as in the LV of SHR vs. WKY. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of the FA was reduced significantly in both BHR and SHR vs. WKY. The NO-dependent component of ACh-induced relaxation had increasing tendency in hypertensive groups and it correlated positively with BP. The NO-independent component of vasorelaxation was reduced significantly in BHR and SHR vs. WKY and it correlated negatively with BP. In conclusion, the results showed that endothelial dysfunction in the experimental model of borderline hypertensive and hypertensive rats is NO-independent. The results suggest that borderline hypertension represents a risk of other cardiovascular disorders which is qualitatively similar to that of fully developed hypertension. PMID:23869891

  7. Structural basis of biological N2O generation by bacterial nitric oxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Hino, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Yushi; Nagano, Shingo; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Fukumori, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2010-12-17

    Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) is an iron-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to generate a major greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Here, we report the crystal structure of NOR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals details of the catalytic binuclear center. The non-heme iron (Fe(B)) is coordinated by three His and one Glu ligands, but a His-Tyr covalent linkage common in cytochrome oxidases (COX) is absent. This structural characteristic is crucial for NOR reaction. Although the overall structure of NOR is closely related to COX, neither the D- nor K-proton pathway, which connect the COX active center to the intracellular space, was observed. Protons required for the NOR reaction are probably provided from the extracellular side. PMID:21109633

  8. Structure-guided Design of Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Li, Huiying; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) comprise three closely related isoforms that catalyze the oxidation of l-arginine to l-citrulline and the important second messenger nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological selective inhibition of neuronal NOS (nNOS) has the potential to be therapeutically beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present a structure-guided, selective nNOS inhibitor design based on the crystal structure of lead compound 1 in nNOS. The best inhibitor, 7, exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory potency and good isoform selectivities (nNOS over eNOS and iNOS are 472-fold and 239-fold, respectively). Consistent with the good selectivity, 7 binds to nNOS and eNOS with different binding modes. The distinctly different binding modes of 7, driven by the critical residue Asp597 in nNOS, offers compelling insight to explain its isozyme selectivity, which should guide future drug design programs. PMID:23451760

  9. Gene structure and expression profile of cytochrome bc nitric oxide reductase from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2006-07-01

    The genes for a nitric oxide reductase-like cytochrome bc complex were cloned from a thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6. The structural genes norC and norB, which encode cytochrome c and cytochrome b subunits of the complex respectively, are probably transcribed as a tricistronic operon with a following gene encoding a putative membrane protein. NorC has, unusually, two hydrophobic transmembrane spans in its N-terminus. Immunoblot analysis showed that expression of NorC was induced by nitrate, nitrite, or sodium nitropurusside, suggesting that the norCB gene product is a denitrification enzyme, nitric oxide reductase. The consensus sequences for the DNR/NnrR-type or the NorR/FhpR-type nitric oxide-sensing regulators of proteobacteria were not found in the norC promoter region, but consensus -35 and -10 sequences were found in this region. These results indicate that strain TK-6 has a nitrogen oxide-sensing regulatory system that differs from proteobacterial systems. PMID:16861801

  10. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Maria Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Sidnei Bessa; Silveira, Cristiane Silva; Rodrigues, Verônica Pinto; de Sousa Menezes, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2006-09-19

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a plant of great economic value in Brazil. Although the heart of palm extracted from its trunk is considered a delicacy the world over, its fruits are popular only among Brazilians. In some poor regions of Brazil, there are reports on the popular use of its juice in the treatment of several disorders, mainly those of oxidative onset as cardiovascular ones. Because of its wide utilization; because there are very few scientific studies of this species, and to discover if its use in folk medicine for problems related with oxidation is in fact justifiable, we decided, in this study, to evaluate the effects of Euterpe oleracea flowers, fruits and spikes fractions on: nitric oxide (NO) production, NO scavenger capacity, and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, as well. Results showed that the fractions obtained from fruits were the most potent in inhibiting NO production, followed by those from flowers and spikes. Only in high doses, did some fractions reduce cell viability. Reduction on NO production was not due to NO scavenger activity. These results were accompanied by inhibition of iNOS expression. The more pronounced effect was observed in the fractions in which the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside were higher. To sum up, our results indicate that fractions from Euterpe oleracea inhibits NO production by reducing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. PMID:16635558

  11. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2003-01-24

    NO and CO may complement each other as signaling molecules in some physiological situations. We have examined the binding of NO to human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an enzyme that oxidizes heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron, to determine whether inhibition of hHO-1 by NO can contribute to the signaling interplay of NO and CO. An Fe(3+)-NO hHO-1-heme complex is formed with NO or the NO donors NOC9 or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide.sodium salt. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that ferric hHO-1-heme forms a 6-coordinated, low spin complex with NO. The nu(N-O) vibration of this complex detected by Fourier transform IR is only 4 cm(-1) lower than that of the corresponding metmyoglobin (met-Mb) complex but is broader, suggesting a greater degree of ligand conformational freedom. The Fe(3+)-NO complex of hHO-1 is much more stable than that of met-Mb. Stopped-flow studies indicate that k(on) for formation of the hHO-1-heme Fe(3+)-NO complex is approximately 50-times faster, and k(off) 10 times slower, than for met-Mb, resulting in K(d) = 1.4 microm for NO. NO thus binds 500-fold more tightly to ferric hHO-1-heme than to met-Mb. The hHO-1 mutations E29A, G139A, D140A, S142A, G143A, G143F, and K179A/R183A do not significantly diminish the tight binding of NO, indicating that NO binding is not highly sensitive to mutations of residues that normally stabilize the distal water ligand. As expected from the K(d) value, the enzyme is reversibly inhibited upon exposure to pathologically, and possibly physiologically, relevant concentrations of NO. Inhibition of hHO-1 by NO may contribute to the pleiotropic responses to NO and CO. PMID:12433915

  12. Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Mandon, Julien; Persijn, Stefan; Cristescu, Simona M.; Moshkov, Igor E.; Novikova, Galina V.; Hall, Michael A.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Gupta, Kapuganti J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims After a series of seminal works during the last decade of the 20th century, nitric oxide (NO) is now firmly placed in the pantheon of plant signals. Nitric oxide acts in plant–microbe interactions, responses to abiotic stress, stomatal regulation and a range of developmental processes. By considering the recent advances in plant NO biology, this review will highlight certain key aspects that require further attention. Scope and conclusions The following questions will be considered. While cytosolic nitrate reductase is an important source of NO, the contributions of other mechanisms, including a poorly defined arginine oxidizing activity, need to be characterized at the molecular level. Other oxidative pathways utilizing polyamine and hydroxylamine also need further attention. Nitric oxide action is dependent on its concentration and spatial generation patterns. However, no single technology currently available is able to provide accurate in planta measurements of spatio-temporal patterns of NO production. It is also the case that pharmaceutical NO donors are used in studies, sometimes with little consideration of the kinetics of NO production. We here include in planta assessments of NO production from diethylamine nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione and sodium nitroprusside following infiltration of tobacco leaves, which could aid workers in their experiments. Further, based on current data it is difficult to define a bespoke plant NO signalling pathway, but rather NO appears to act as a modifier of other signalling pathways. Thus, early reports that NO signalling involves cGMP—as in animal systems—require revisiting. Finally, as plants are exposed to NO from a number of external sources, investigations into the control of NO scavenging by such as non-symbiotic haemoglobins and other sinks for NO should feature more highly. By crystallizing these questions the authors encourage their resolution through the concerted efforts of the plant NO community. PMID:23372921

  13. A computational model for nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate biotransport in the microcirculation: effect of reduced nitric oxide consumption by red blood cells and blood velocity

    PubMed Central

    Deonikar, Prabhakar; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    Bioavailability of vasoactive endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in vasculature is a critical factor in regulation of many physiological processes. Consumption of NO by RBC plays a crucial role in maintaining NO bioavailability. Recently, Deonikar et al (Deonikar and Kavdia, 2009b) reported a effective NO-RBC reaction rate constant of 0.2×105 M?1s?1 that is ~7 times lower than the commonly used NO-RBC reaction rate constant of 1.4×105 M?1s?1. To study the effect of lower NO-RBC reaction rate constant and nitrite and nitrate formation (products of NO metabolism in blood), we developed a 2D mathematical model of NO biotransport in 50 and 200 ?m ID arterioles to calculate NO concentration in radial and axial direction in the vascular lumen and vascular wall of the arterioles. We also simulated the effect of blood velocity on NO distribution in the arterioles to determine whether NO can be transported to downstream locations in the arteriolar lumen. The results indicate that lowering the NO-RBC reaction rate constant increased the NO concentration in the vascular lumen as well as the vascular wall. Increasing the velocity also led to increase in NO concentration. We predict increased NO concentration gradient along the axial direction with an increase in the velocity. The predicted NO concentration were 281–1163 nM in the smooth muscle cell layer for 50 ?m arteriole over the blood velocity range of 0.5–4 cm/s for kNO-RBC of 0.2×105 M?1 s?1, which are much higher than the reported values from earlier mathematical modeling studies. The NO concentrations are similar to the experimentally measured vascular wall NO concentration range of 300–1000 nM in several different vascular beds. The results are significant from the perspective that the downstream transport of NO is possible under right circumstances. PMID:20888842

  14. The lethal effects of cytokine-induced nitric oxide on cardiac myocytes are blocked by nitric oxide synthase antagonism or transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, D J; Cai, B; Yang, X; Rodriguez, C; Sciacca, R R; Cannon, P J

    1995-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is cytotoxic to invading organisms and has an important role in host defense. Recent studies have demonstrated inducible NO production within the heart, and that cytokine-induced NO mediates alterations in cardiac contractility, but the cytotoxic potential of nitric oxide with respect to the heart has not been defined. To evaluate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on cardiac myocyte cytotoxicity, we exposed adult rat cardiac myocytes to either cytokines alone or to activated J774 macrophages in coculture. Increased expression of both iNOS message and protein was seen in J774 macrophages treated with IFN gamma and LPS and cardiac myocytes treated with TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN gamma. Increased NO synthesis was confirmed in both the coculture and isolated myocyte preparations by increased nitrite production. Increased NO synthesis was associated with a parallel increase in myocyte death as measured by CPK release into the culture medium as well as by loss of membrane integrity, visualized by trypan blue staining. Addition of the competitive NO synthase inhibitor L-NMMA to the culture medium prevented both the increased nitrite production and the cytotoxicity observed after cytokine treatment in both the isolated myocyte and the coculture experiments. Because transforming growth-factor beta modulates iNOS expression in other cell types, we evaluated its effects on cardiac myocyte iNOS expression and NO-mediated myocyte cytotoxicity. TGF-beta reduced expression of cardiac myocyte iNOS message and protein, reduced nitrite production, and reduced NO-mediated cytotoxicity in parallel. Taken together, these experiments show the cytotoxic potential of endogenous NO production within the heart, and suggest a role for TGF-beta or NO synthase antagonists to mute these lethal effects. These findings may help explain the cardiac response to sepsis or allograft rejection, as well as the progression of dilated cardiomyopathies of diverse etiologies. Images PMID:7532189

  15. Modeling the solar cycle change in nitric oxide in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Measurements from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite have shown that low-latitude nitric oxide densities at 110 km decrease by about a factor of 8 from January 1982 to April 1985. This time period corresponds to the descending phase of the last solar cycle where the monthly smoothed sunspot number decreased from more than 150 to less than 25. In addition, nitric oxide was observed to vary by a factor of 2 over a solar rotation, during high solar activity. A one-dimensional, globally averaged model of the thermosphere and upper mesosphere has been used to study the height distribution of nitric oxide (NO) and its response to changes in the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) through the solar cycle and over a solar rotation. The primary source of nitric oxide is the reaction of excited atomic nitrogen, N([sup 2]D), with molecular oxygen. The atomic nitrogen is created by a number of ion-neutral reactions and by direct dissociation of molecular nitrogen by photons and photoelectrons. The occurrence of the peak nitric oxide density at or below 115 km is a direct consequence of ionization and dissociation of molecular nitrogen by photoelectrons, which are produced by the solar flux below 30.0 nm (XUV). Nitric oxide is shown to vary over the solar cycle by a factor of 7 at low latitudes in the lower thermosphere E region, due to the estimated change in the solar EUV flux, in good agreement with the SME satellite observations. The NO density is shown to be strongly dependent on the temperature profile in the lower thermosphere and accounts for the difference between the current model and previous work. Wavelengths less than 1.8 nm have little impact on the NO profile. A factor of 3 change in solar flux below 5.0 nm at high solar activity produced a factor of 2 change in the peak NO density, consistent with SME observations over a solar rotation; this change also lowered the peak to 100 km, consistent with rocket data. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Native crystal structure of a nitric oxide-releasing lectin from the seeds of Canavalia maritima.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Lima Mota, Mário Rogério; Pinto, Nilson Vieira; Passos Meireles, Ana Vaneska; Borges, Júlio César; Freitas, Beatriz Tupinamba; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Emmanuel Prata; Delatorre, Plínio; Criddle, David Neil; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2005-12-01

    Here, we report the crystallographic study of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) and its relaxant activity on vascular smooth muscle, to provide new insights into the understanding of structure/function relationships of this class of proteins. ConM was crystallized and its structure determined by standard molecular replacement techniques. The amino acid residues, previously suggested incorrectly by manual sequencing, have now been determined as I17, I53, S129, S134, G144, S164, P165, S187, V190, S169, T196, and S202. Analysis of the structure indicated a dimer in the asymmetric unit, two metal binding sites per monomer, and loops involved in the molecular oligomerization. These confer 98% similarity between ConM and other previously described lectins, derived from Canavalia ensiformis and Canavalia brasiliensis. Our functional data indicate that ConM exerts a concentration-dependent relaxant action on isolated aortic rings that probably occurs via an interaction with a specific lectin-binding site on the endothelium, resulting in a release of nitric oxide. PMID:16337811

  17. Colocalization of cannabinoid receptor 1 with somatostatin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in rat brain hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shenglong; Kumar, Ujendra

    2015-10-01

    Somatostatin (SST), a growth hormone inhibitory peptide, is expressed in different parts of the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In the central nervous system (CNS), SST inhibits Ca(2+) influx and regulates neuronal excitability in the hippocampus, the brain region which plays a major role in seizure, as well as cognitive and memory function. Much like SST, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptor) is also widely distributed in the CNS, associated with memory function ad exerts inhibitory effects on seizure. It is unknown whether overlapping functional activities of SST and CB1 receptor are also associated with coexpression in the hippocampus. In the present study, we determined the colocalization between SST and CB1 receptor in adult rat brain hippocampus. In the CNS, the majority of SST positive interneurons coexpress neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Accordingly, colocalization studies were also performed to determine whether nNOS positive neurons display comparable colocalization with CB1 receptor. The findings suggested that SST and nNOS are expressed in most interneurons whereas CB1 receptor is present in both interneurons and projection neurons in hippocampal regions. The distinct neuronal populations either expressing CB1 receptor, SST and nNOS alone or colocalization were observed in a region specific manner. Taken together, the observations described here anticipate the possibility of crosstalk between somatostatin subtypes and CB1 receptor in regulation of physiological activities in the hippocampus. PMID:26115586

  18. Laser induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide in high-pressure premixed flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisel, John R.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been applied to the quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in premixed, laminar, high-pressure flames. Their chemistry was also studied using three current kinetics schemes to determine the predictive capabilities of each mechanism with respect to NO concentrations. The flames studied were low-temperature (1600 less than T less than 1850K) C2H6/O2/N2 and C2H6/O2/N2 flames, and high temperature (2100 less than T less than 2300K) C2H6/O2/N2 flames. Laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) was initially used to measure the NO concentrations. However, while the excitation transition was well saturated at atmospheric pressure, the fluorescence behavior was basically linear with respect to laser power at pressures above 6 atm. Measurements and calculations demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching rate variation is negligible for LIF measurements of NO at a given pressure. Therefore, linear LIF was used to perform quantitative measurements of NO concentration in these high-pressure flames. The transportability of a calibration factor from one set of flame conditions to another also was investigated by considering changes in the absorption and quenching environment for different flame conditions. The feasibility of performing LIF measurements of (NO) in turbulent flames was studied; the single-shot detection limit was determined to be 2 ppm.

  19. Nitric oxide releases Cl? from acidic organelles in retinal amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijai; Gleason, Evanna

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors regulating cytosolic Cl? in neurons is fundamental to our understanding of the function of GABA- and glycinergic synapses. This is because the Cl? distribution across the postsynaptic plasma membrane determines the sign and strength of postsynaptic voltage responses. We have previously demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) releases Cl? into the cytosol from an internal compartment in both retinal amacrine cells and hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in cytosolic Cl? is dependent upon a decrease in cytosolic pH. Here, our goals were to confirm the compartmental nature of the internal Cl? store and to test the hypothesis that Cl? is being released from acidic organelles (AO) such as the Golgi, endosomes or lysosomes. To achieve this, we made whole cell voltage clamp recordings from cultured chick retinal amacrine cells and used GABA-gated currents to track changes in cytosolic Cl?. Our results demonstrate that intact internal proton gradients are required for the NO-dependent release of internal Cl?. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increasing the pH of AO leads to release of Cl? into the cytosol. Intriguingly, the elevation of organellar pH results in a reversal in the effects of NO. These results demonstrate that cytosolic Cl? is closely linked to the regulation and maintenance of organellar pH and provide evidence that acidic compartments are the target of NO. PMID:26106295

  20. Prostaglandins and nitric oxide in copper-complex mediated protection against ethanol-induced gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Doria, D

    1997-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of oral administration of the copper(II) complex of amino acids, on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats and the possible mechanism(s) of protection. The copper(II) complex of L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine is reported as the most effective in reducing ulcer numbers as well as ulcer severity of the many amino acid complexes studied. We investigated the role of PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) in the protection afforded by Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe) against ethanol-induced damage. The involvement of endogenous eicosanoids and NO was evaluated with the respective inhibitors of prostaglandin and NO synthesis, indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). Ex vivo PGE2 accumulation in the rat gastric mucosa has also been determined. Pretreatment with indomethacin only partially counteracted the protective activity of Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe). L-NNA did not attenuate the protection by Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe), which was reduced but not prevented by indomethacin, suggesting that prostanoids contribute to the Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe) protective effect, together with some mechanism(s) other than NO synthesis. PMID:9441731

  1. A novel liposomal nanomedicine for nitric oxide delivery and breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Yeon; Rim, Yonghoon; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer occurring among women in the United States. Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenous signaling molecules that regulate biological processes. NO has the potential to induce either cancer progression or cancer cell apoptosis depending on intra-tumoral NO concentration. High levels of NO have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. A novel cytotoxic gas delivery system has been developed using NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (ELIP) for breast cancer treatment. Empty ELIP and NO-ELIP were prepared using the previously developed freezing-under-pressure method with modified lipid composition. Echogenicity of NO-ELIP was measured to determine the stability of NO-ELIP. Two types of breast cancer cell (BCC) lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, were utilized. MTT assay was performed after NO-ELIP treatment to determine BCC viability. Echogenicity data demonstrated improved stability of NO-ELIP with the use of BSA for resuspension of NO-ELIP. Cell death induced by NO-ELIP was not from lipid cytotoxicity but from NO. The cytotoxic effect of NO-ELIP on BCC was highly dependent on NO-ELIP concentration. NO-ELIP in concentration of 1.0-2.0 mg/ml induced dramatically decreased BCC viability. This novel cytotoxic gas delivery nanomedicine using liposomal carriers, NO-ELIP, has the potential to provide improved therapeutic effect for breast cancer treatment. PMID:24211883

  2. Occurrence and turnover of nitric oxide in a nitrogen-impacted sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Yoshinari, T.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about nitric oxide (NO) production or consumption in the subsurface, an environment which may be conducive to NO accumulation. A study conducted in a nitrogen-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts assessed the occurrence and turnover of NO within a contaminant plume in which nitrification and denitrification were known to occur. NO (up to 8.6 nM) was detected in restricted vertical zones located within a nitrate (NO 3-) gradient and characterized by low dissolved oxygen (<10 ??M). NO concentrations correlated best with nitrite (NO 2-) (up to 35 ??M), but nitrous oxide (N2O) (up to 1 ??M) also was present. Single-well injection tests were used to determine NO production and consumption in situ within these zones. First-order rate constants for NO consumption were similar (0.05-0.08 h-1) at high and low (260 and 10 nM) NO concentrations, suggesting a turnover time at in situ concentrations of 10-20 h. Tracer tests with 15N[NO] demonstrated that oxidation to 15N[NO2-] occurred only during the initial stages, but after 4 h reduction to 15N[N2O] was the primary reaction product Added NO 2- (31 ??M) or NO3- (53 ??M) resulted in a linear NO accumulation at 2.4 and 1.0 nM h-1 for the first 6 h of in situ tests. These results suggest that NO was primarily produced by denitrification within this aquifer. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  3. Increased expression of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and the formation of peroxynitrite in colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, H; Hokari, R; Miura, S; Shigematsu, T; Hirokawa, M; Akiba, Y; Kurose, I; Higuchi, H; Fujimori, H; Tsuzuki, Y; Serizawa, H; Ishii, H

    1998-01-01

    Background—Increased production of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen has been implicated in chronic inflammation of the gut. The object of this study was to examine the magnitude and location of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and peroxynitrite formation in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis in relation to the degree of inflammation. ?Subjects—Thirty three patients with active ulcerative colitis (17 with mild or moderate inflammation, 16 with severe inflammation). ?Methods—Inducible NOS activity was determined in the colonic mucosa by measuring the conversion of L-arginine to citrulline in the absence of calcium. The localisation of NOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was assessed immunohistochemically using the labelled streptavidin biotin method. ?Results—Inducible NOS activity increased in parallell with the degree of inflammation of the mucosa. Expression of inducible NOS was found not only in the lamina propria, but also in the surface of the epithelium. Peroxynitrite formation as assessed by nitrotyrosine staining was frequently observed in the lamina propria of actively inflamed mucosa. ?Conclusions—Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite formation may play an important role in causing irreversible cellular injury to the colonic mucosa in patients with active ulcerative colitis. ?? Keywords: nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; nitric oxide synthase; ulcerative colitis; colonic mucosa PMID:9536941

  4. Identification of redox partners and development of a novel chimeric bacterial nitric oxide synthase for structure activity analyses.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Lim, Nathan; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-17

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) requires electrons to reduce the heme iron for substrate oxidation. Both FAD and FMN flavin groups mediate the transfer of NADPH derived electrons to NOS. Unlike mammalian NOS that contain both FAD and FMN binding domains within a single polypeptide chain, bacterial NOS is only composed of an oxygenase domain and must rely on separate redox partners for electron transfer and subsequent activity. Here, we report on the native redox partners for Bacillus subtilis NOS (bsNOS) and a novel chimera that promotes bsNOS activity. By identifying and characterizing native redox partners, we were also able to establish a robust enzyme assay for measuring bsNOS activity and inhibition. This assay was used to evaluate a series of established NOS inhibitors. Using the new assay for screening small molecules led to the identification of several potent inhibitors for which bsNOS-inhibitor crystal structures were determined. In addition to characterizing potent bsNOS inhibitors, substrate binding was also analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry giving the first detailed thermodynamic analysis of substrate binding to NOS. PMID:25194416

  5. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  6. The importance of domain-domain interactions in the regulation and activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase 

    E-print Network

    Welland, Andrew David

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyse the production of the physiological messenger molecule NO from L-arginine in a unique two step oxygenation reaction. Constitutive forms of NOS are activated by the binding of ...

  7. Specific Visualization of Nitric Oxide in the Vasculature with Two-Photon Microscopy Using a Copper Based Fluorescent Probe

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Mitrajit

    To study the role and (sub) cellular nitric oxide (NO) constitution in various disease processes, its direct and specific detection in living cells and tissues is a major requirement. Several methods are available to measure ...

  8. In Silico Modeling of Shear-Stress-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells through Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Koo, Andrew

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by vascular endothelial cells is a potent vasodilator and an antiinflammatory mediator. Regulating production of endothelial-derived NO is a complex undertaking, involving multiple signaling and ...

  9. Characterization of Iron Dinitrosyl Species Formed in the Reaction of Nitric Oxide with a Biological Rieske Center

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hongxin

    Reactions of nitric oxide with cysteine-ligated iron?sulfur cluster proteins typically result in disassembly of the iron?sulfur core and formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs). Here we report the first evidence ...

  10. Inhibitory effects of nitric oxide on oxidative phosphorylation in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, H; Shimoji, H; Ohshiro, Y; Sakihama, Y

    2001-06-01

    Plant nitrate reductase (NR) produces nitric oxide (NO) when nitrite is provided as the substrate in the presence of NADH [H. Yamasaki and Y. Sakihama (2000) FEBS Lett. 468, 89-92]. Using a NR-dependent NO producing system, we investigated the effects of NO on the energy transduction system in plant mitochondria isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata). Plant mitochondria are known to possess two respiratory electron transport pathways-the cytochrome and alternative pathways. When the alternative pathway was inhibited by n-propyl gallate, the addition of NR strongly suppressed respiratory O(2) consumption driven by the cytochrome pathway. In contrast, the alternative pathway measured in the presence of antimycin A was not affected by NO. The extent of the steady-state membrane potential (Deltapsi) generated by respiratory electron transport rapidly declined in response to NO production. The addition of bovine hemoglobin, a quencher of NO, resulted in the recovery of Deltapsi to the uninhibited level. Consistent with its inhibition of Deltapsi, NO produced by NR strongly suppressed ATP synthesis in the mitochondria. These results provide substantial evidence to confirm that the plant alternative pathway is resistant to NO and support the idea that the alternative pathway may lower respiration-dependent production of active oxygens under conditions where NO is overproduced. PMID:11384199

  11. Nitrosyl-Heme Structures of Bacillus subtilis Nitric Oxide Synthase Have Implications for Understanding Substrate Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pant,K.; Crane, B.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of nitrosyl-heme complexes of a prokaryotic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS) reveal changes in active-site hydrogen bonding in the presence of the intermediate N{sup {omega}}-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) compared to the substrate L-arginine (L-Arg). Correlating with a Val-to-Ile residue substitution in the bsNOS heme pocket, the Fe(II)-NO complex with both L-Arg and NOHA is more bent than the Fe(II)-NO, L-Arg complex of mammalian eNOS. Structures of the Fe(III)-NO complex with NOHA show a nearly linear nitrosyl group, and in one subunit, partial nitrosation of bound NOHA. In the Fe(II)-NO complexes, the protonated NOHA N{sup {omega}} atom forms a short hydrogen bond with the heme-coordinated NO nitrogen, but active-site water molecules are out of hydrogen bonding range with the distal NO oxygen. In contrast, the L-Arg guanidinium interacts more weakly and equally with both NO atoms, and an active-site water molecule hydrogen bonds to the distal NO oxygen. This difference in hydrogen bonding to the nitrosyl group by the two substrates indicates that interactions provided by NOHA may preferentially stabilize an electrophilic peroxo-heme intermediate in the second step of NOS catalysis.

  12. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  13. A biochemical rationale for the discrete behavior of nitroxyl and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Katrina M.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Katori, Tatsuo; Thomas, Douglas D.; Ford, Eleonora; Bartberger, Michael D.; Espey, Michael G.; Kass, David A.; Feelisch, Martin; Fukuto, Jon M.; Wink, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The redox siblings nitroxyl (HNO) and nitric oxide (NO) have often been assumed to undergo casual redox reactions in biological systems. However, several recent studies have demonstrated distinct pharmacological effects for donors of these two species. Here, infusion of the HNO donor Angeli's salt into normal dogs resulted in elevated plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide, whereas neither the NO donor diethylamine/NONOate nor the nitrovasodilator nitroglycerin had an appreciable effect on basal levels. Conversely, plasma cGMP was increased by infusion of diethylamine/NONOate or nitroglycerin but was unaffected by Angeli's salt. These results suggest the existence of two mutually exclusive response pathways that involve stimulated release of discrete signaling agents from HNO and NO. In light of both the observed dichotomy of HNO and NO and the recent determination that, in contrast to the O2/\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} couple, HNO is a weak reductant, the relative reactivity of HNO with common biomolecules was determined. This analysis suggests that under biological conditions, the lifetime of HNO with respect to oxidation to NO, dimerization, or reaction with O2 is much longer than previously assumed. Rather, HNO is predicted to principally undergo addition reactions with thiols and ferric proteins. Calcitonin gene-related peptide release is suggested to occur via altered calcium channel function through binding of HNO to a ferric or thiol site. The orthogonality of HNO and NO may be due to differential reactivity toward metals and thiols and in the cardiovascular system, may ultimately be driven by respective alteration of cAMP and cGMP levels. PMID:12865500

  14. Creation of cold nitric oxide by extraction of the cold fraction of a thermal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichsel, Bryan J.; Alexander, Jason; Dahal, Parshuram; Morrison, Michael A.; Shafer-Ray, Neil E.; Abraham, E. R. I.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a device using the Stark effect to extract the cold fraction of nitric oxide molecules from a warmer thermal distribution. Room temperature NO is cryogenically cooled to 72-82 K and injected into a straight, hexapole guide that uses the Stark effect. By blocking line-of-sight trajectories from the input to the output, primarily the slowest molecules are guided around the obstruction and are transferred into a new chamber. We measure the temperature distribution using a field-stabilized Rydberg time-of-flight technique. A superposition of molecular Rydberg states is excited, sufficiently increasing the lifetime of the excited state for a time-of-flight measurement for cold molecular samples. We produce a continuous source of nitric oxide with temperatures ranging from 7 to 20 K in the lowest ro-vibrational state. The output temperature is controlled by the initial temperature distribution and the guide voltage.

  15. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  16. Isosorbide-based aspirin prodrugs: integration of nitric oxide releasing groups.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael; Inkielewicz, Iwona; Medina, Carlos; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Radomski, Anna; Radomski, Marek W; Lally, Maeve N; Moriarty, Louise M; Gaynor, Joanne; Carolan, Ciaran G; Khan, Denise; O'Byrne, Paul; Harmon, Shona; Holland, Valerie; Clancy, John M; Gilmer, John F

    2009-11-12

    Aspirin prodrugs and related nitric oxide releasing compounds hold significant therapeutic promise, but they are hard to design because aspirin esterification renders its acetate group very susceptible to plasma esterase mediated hydrolysis. Isosorbide-2-aspirinate-5-salicylate is a true aspirin prodrug in human blood because it can be effectively hydrolyzed to aspirin upon interaction with plasma BuChE. We show that the identity of the remote 5-ester dictates whether aspirin is among the products of plasma-mediated hydrolysis. By observing the requirements for aspirin release from an initial panel of isosorbide-based esters, we were able to introduce nitroxymethyl groups at the 5-position while maintaining ability to release aspirin. Several of these compounds are potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation. The design of these compounds will allow better exploration of cross-talk between COX inhibition and nitric oxide release and potentially lead to the development of selective COX-1 acetylating drugs without gastric toxicity. PMID:19821574

  17. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350–450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  18. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  19. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Fulton, David

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous signaling molecule. In blood vessels, it is synthesized in a dynamic fashion by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and influences vascular function via two distinct mechanisms, the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling and the S-nitrosylation of proteins with reactive thiols (S-nitrosylation). The regulation of eNOS activity and NO bioavailability is critical to maintain blood vessel function. The activity of eNOS and ability to generate NO is regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels. Post-translational modifications acutely impact eNOS activity and dysregulation of these mechanisms compromise eNOS activity and foster the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review will intergrate past and current literature on the post-translational modifications of eNOS in both health and disease. PMID:24379783

  20. Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2012-09-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

  1. Development Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors for Neurodegeneration and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Cinelli, Maris A.; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in the human body, playing a crucial role in cell and neuronal communication, regulation of blood pressure, and in immune activation. However, overproduction of NO by the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)is one of the fundamental causes underlying neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. Therefore, developing small molecules for selective inhibition of nNOS over related isoforms(eNOS and iNOS) is therapeutically desirable. The aims of this review focus on the regulation and dysregulation of NO signaling, the role of NO in neurodegeneration and pain, the structure and mechanism of nNOS, and the use of this information to design selective inhibitors of this enzyme. Structure-based drug design, the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of these inhibitors, and extensive target validation through animal studies are addressed. PMID:24549364

  2. Protein Kinase D Interacts with Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Phosphorylates the Activatory Residue Serine1412

    PubMed Central

    García-Guerra, Lucía; Pose-Utrilla, Julia; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Iglesias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) is the biosynthetic enzyme responsible for nitric oxide (·NO) production in muscles and in the nervous system. This constitutive enzyme, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, presents an N-terminal PDZ domain known to display a preference for PDZ-binding motifs bearing acidic residues at -2 position. In a previous work, we discovered that the C-terminal end of two members of protein kinase D family (PKD1 and PKD2) constitutes a PDZ-ligand. PKD1 has been shown to regulate multiple cellular processes and, when activated, becomes autophosphorylated at Ser916, a residue located at -2 position of its PDZ-binding motif. Since nNOS and PKD are spatially enriched in postsynaptic densities and dendrites, the main objective of our study was to determine whether PKD1 activation could result in a direct interaction with nNOS through their respective PDZ-ligand and PDZ domain, and to analyze the functional consequences of this interaction. Herein we demonstrate that PKD1 associates with nNOS in neurons and in transfected cells, and that kinase activation enhances PKD1-nNOS co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization. However, transfection of mammalian cells with PKD1 mutants and yeast two hybrid assays showed that the association of these two enzymes does not depend on PKD1 PDZ-ligand but its pleckstrin homology domain. Furthermore, this domain was able to pull-down nNOS from brain extracts and bind to purified nNOS, indicating that it mediates a direct PKD1-nNOS interaction. In addition, using mass spectrometry we demonstrate that PKD1 specifically phosphorylates nNOS in the activatory residue Ser1412, and that this phosphorylation increases nNOS activity and ·NO production in living cells. In conclusion, these novel findings reveal a crucial role of PKD1 in the regulation of nNOS activation and synthesis of ·NO, a mediator involved in physiological neuronal signaling or neurotoxicity under pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke or neurodegeneration. PMID:24740233

  3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase G894T Polymorphism Associates with Disease Severity in Puumala Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Sirpa; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Pessi, Tanja; Tuomisto, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Pörsti, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hantavirus infections are characterized by both activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis whether the polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS G894T, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS G2087A, are associated with the severity of acute Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Patients and Methods Hospitalized patients (n = 172) with serologically verified PUUV infection were examined. Clinical and laboratory variables reflecting disease severity were determined. The polymorphisms of eNOS G894T (Glu298Asp, rs1799983) and iNOS G2087A (Ser608Leu, rs2297518) were genotyped. Results The rare eNOS G894T genotype was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The non-carriers of G-allele (TT-homozygotes) had higher maximum level of serum creatinine than the carriers of G-allele (GT-heterozygotes and GG-homozygotes; median 326, range 102–1041 vs. median 175, range 51–1499 ?mol/l; p = 0.018, respectively). The length of hospital stay was longer in the non-carriers of G-allele than in G-allele carriers (median 8, range 3–14 vs. median 6, range 2–15 days; p = 0.032). The rare A-allele carriers (i.e. AA-homozygotes and GA-heterozygotes) of iNOS G2087A had lower minimum systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the non-carriers of A-allele (median 110, range 74–170 vs.116, range 86–162 mmHg, p = 0.019, and median 68, range 40–90 vs. 72, range 48–100 mmHg; p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions Patients with the TT-homozygous genotype of eNOS G894T had more severe PUUV-induced AKI than the other genotypes. The eNOS G894T polymorphism may play role in the endothelial dysfunction observed during acute PUUV infection. PMID:26561052

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Nitric Oxide-Iron Oxide magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Palladino, M. V.; Justo, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    The present work is focused on the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical applications, such as drug-delivery. To this end, toxicological studies of their potential effects in biological systems must be better evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of thiolated (SH) and S-nitrosated (S-NO) SPIONs in cancer cell lines. SPIONs were prepared by the coprecipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were coated with thiol containing molecule cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of an aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH- SPIONs). These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results obtained showed that Cys-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm at solid state and present super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature. Thiol groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were nitrosated through the addition of sodium nitrite leading to the formation of S-NOCys-SPIONs (S-nitrosated-Cys-SPIONs), which act as spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) donor). The cytotoxicity of thiolated and S-nitrosated nanoparticles was evaluated in acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) and Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells. The results showed that at low concentrations thiolated (Cys) and S- nitrosated (S-NOCyst) SPIONs display low cytotoxicity in both cell types. However, at higher concentrations, Cys-SPIONs exhibited cytotoxic effects, whereas S-NOCys-SPIONs protected them, and also promoted cell proliferation.

  5. Terminoside A, a new triterpene glycoside from the bark of Terminalia arjuna inhibits nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asif; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Abdullah, Tarique; Ali, Mohammed; Niwa, M; Alam, M S

    2003-06-01

    Terminoside A (1), a new oleanane-type triterpene was isolated from the acetone fraction of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna. The structure was established as olean-1alpha,3beta,22beta-triol-12-en-28-oic acid-3beta-D-glucopyranoside. On the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions, terminoside A, potently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:12765198

  6. Nitric oxide mediates Cd-dependent induction of signaling- associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Chmielowska-B?k, Jagna; Deckert, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The first reaction of plants to stress factors, including cadmium, is activation of signal transduction pathways leading to the mobilization of defense mechanisms. In a recent study we have demonstrated that cadmium causes a rapid induction of several genes associated with cellular signaling in soybean seedlings. Here we show that nitric oxide can be an important signaling molecule mediating observed increase in genes expression under short-term cadmium stress. PMID:24105301

  7. Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide as an Antiatherogenic Mechanism: Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sukhovershin, Roman A.; Yepuri, Gautham; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (eNO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule critically involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. In addition to its role as a potent endogenous vasodilator, eNO suppresses key processes in vascular lesion formation and opposes atherogenesis. This review discusses eNO as an antiatherogenic molecule and highlights factors that influence its bioavailability and therapeutic approaches to restore or enhance its levels. PMID:26634024

  8. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Chiba, Zoher (Moraga, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Norvell (Palo Alto, CA); Steward, G. Anthony (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  9. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  10. Oxygen Regulates the Effective Diffusion Distance of Nitric Oxide in the Aortic Wall

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Collard, Eric; Grajdeanu, Paula; Lok, Kevin; Boyle, Sarah E.; Friedman, Avner; Zweier, Jay L.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is critical in maintaining vascular tone. Accumulating evidence shows that NO bioavailability is regulated by oxygen concentration. However, it is unclear to what extent the oxygen concentration regulates NO bioavailability in the vascular wall. In this study, a recently developed experimental setup was used to measure the NO diffusion fluxes across the aortic wall at different oxygen concentrations. It was observed that for a constant NO concentration at the endothelial surface, the measured NO diffusion flux out of the adventitial surface at [O2]=0 ?M is around 5-fold greater than at [O2]=150 ?M, indicating that NO is consumed in the aortic wall in an oxygen-dependent manner. Analysis of experimental data shows that the rate of NO consumption in the aortic wall is first order with respect to [NO] and first order with respect to [O2], and the rate constant k1 was determined as (4.0 ± 0.3)×103 M-1s-1. Computer simulations demonstrate that NO concentration distribution significantly changes with oxygen concentration and the effective NO diffusion distance at low oxygen level ([O2]?25 ?M) is significantly longer than that at high oxygen level ([O2]=200 ?M). These results suggest that the oxygen-dependent NO consumption may play an important role in dilating blood vessels during hypoxia by increasing the effective NO diffusion distance. PMID:19969071

  11. TNF-? induced endothelial MAdCAM-1 expression is regulated by exogenous, not endogenous nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Tadayuki; Jordan, Paul; Grisham, Matthew B; Alexander, Jonathan S; Jennings, Merilyn; Sasaki, Makotoh; Manas, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Background MAdCAM-1 is an adhesion molecule expressed in Peyer's patches and lymphoid tissues which is mobilized by cytokines like TNF-? and is a major determinant of lymphocyte trafficking to the gut in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It has been suggested that both reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites participate in regulating adhesion molecule expression in response to TNF-?. Methods To examine how exogenous and endogenous sources of NO modulate MAdCAM-1 induction by TNF-?, we pre-treated mouse lymphatic endothelial cells with either long or short acting NO donors prior to TNF-?-stimulation, and measured MAdCAM-1 induction at 24 h. Results and Discussion DETA-NO, a long-acting NO donor, and SperNO, a rapid releasing NO donor both inhibited TNF-?-stimulated MAdCAM-1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Both NO donors also reduced a4b7-dependent lymphocyte endothelial adhesion. Inhibition of endogenous NO production by either L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, or by 1400 w, a selective iNOS inhibitor failed to induce, or potentiate TNF-? regulated MAdCAM-1 expression. Conclusions Exogenous NO donors may be beneficial in the treatment of IBD, while endogenous nitric oxide synthases may be less effective in controlling adhesion molecule expression in response to cytokines. PMID:11481030

  12. A Stress Surveillance System Based on Calcium and Nitric Oxide in Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Casotti, Raffaella; De Martino, Alessandra; Ribalet, François; Miralto, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Diatoms are an important group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, responsible for about 20% of global primary productivity. Study of the functional role of chemical signaling within phytoplankton assemblages is still in its infancy although recent reports in diatoms suggest the existence of chemical-based defense strategies. Here, we demonstrate how the accurate perception of diatom-derived reactive aldehydes can determine cell fate in diatoms. In particular, the aldehyde (2E,4E/Z)-decadienal (DD) can trigger intracellular calcium transients and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by a calcium-dependent NO synthase-like activity, which results in cell death. However, pretreatment of cells with sublethal doses of aldehyde can induce resistance to subsequent lethal doses, which is reflected in an altered calcium signature and kinetics of NO production. We also present evidence for a DD–derived NO-based intercellular signaling system for the perception of stressed bystander cells. Based on these findings, we propose the existence of a sophisticated stress surveillance system in diatoms, which has important implications for understanding the cellular mechanisms responsible for acclimation versus death during phytoplankton bloom successions. PMID:16475869

  13. Observations of Nitric Oxide by the Remote Atmospheric Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonker, J. D.; Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Minschwaner, K. R.; Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a minor constituent of the lower thermosphere which plays numerous key roles there. Its production is very sensitive to those energy sources able to break the strong molecular nitrogen bond; thus NO concentrations are indicative of energy deposition. Cooling through infrared NO emission is a crucial part of the thermospheric energy balance. NO is also the terminal ion in the E-region of the ionosphere. If NO is transported to lower altitudes, it is a catalytic destroyer of ozone. The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of limb viewing radiance monitors observing the lower thermosphere at wavelengths from the EUV through the NIR. An inverse technique is applied to radiance profiles near 237 nm measurements so that the vertical profile of NO density can be determined. One of the key advantages of RAIDS NO observations compared to previous experiments is that RAIDS is attached to the International Space Station and thus not in a sun-synchronous orbit. RAIDS thus will be able to observe NO concentrations at all sunlit local times. To validate the RAIDS NO observations, we present comparisons with previous NO measurements from SNOE. We will also show our first results regarding local time variation of NO and observe the longer-term variation from the data of the past few months.

  14. Communication between the Zinc and Tetrahydrobiopterin Binding Sites in Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dimer is stabilized by a Zn2+ ion coordinated to four symmetry-related Cys residues exactly along the dimer 2-fold axis. Each of the two essential tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) molecules in the dimer interacts directly with the heme, and each H4B molecule is ?15 Å from the Zn2+. We have determined the crystal structures of the bovine endothelial NOS dimer oxygenase domain bound to three different pterin analogues, which reveal an intimate structural communication between the H4B and Zn2+ sites. The binding of one of these compounds, 6-acetyl-2-amino-7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydro-4(3H)-pteridinone (1), to the pterin site and Zn2+ binding are mutually exclusive. Compound 1 both directly and indirectly disrupts hydrogen bonding between key residues in the Zn2+ binding motif, resulting in destabilization of the dimer and a complete disruption of the Zn2+ site. Addition of excess Zn2+ stabilizes the Zn2+ site at the expense of weakened binding of 1. The unique structural features of 1 that disrupt the dimer interface are extra methyl groups that extend into the dimer interface and force a slight opening of the dimer, thus resulting in disruption of the Zn2+ site. These results illustrate a very delicate balance of forces and structure at the dimer interface that must be maintained to properly form the Zn2+, pterin, and substrate binding sites. PMID:24819538

  15. Cerebral nitric oxide represses choroid plexus NF?B-dependent gateway activity for leukocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Kertser, Alexander; Porat, Ziv; Schwartz, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is evident in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders and is often associated with excessive nitric oxide (NO) production within the central nervous system (CNS). Under such conditions, increased NO levels are observed at the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial layer that forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) and serves as a selective gateway for leukocyte entry to the CNS in homeostasis and following injury. Here, we hypothesized that elevated cerebral NO levels interfere with CP gateway activity. We found that induction of leukocyte trafficking determinants by the CP and sequential leukocyte entry to the CSF are dependent on the CP epithelial NF?B/p65 signaling pathway, which was inhibited upon exposure to NO. Examining the CP in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-Tg) revealed impaired ability to mount an NF?B/p65-dependent response. Systemic administration of an NO scavenger in AD-Tg mice alleviated NF?B/p65 suppression at the CP and augmented its gateway activity. Together, our findings identify cerebral NO as a negative regulator of CP gateway activity for immune cell trafficking to the CNS. PMID:25940071

  16. Nitric oxide synthase distribution in esophageal mucosa and hemodynamic changes in rats with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Qiu; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Zhang, De-Zhong; Mo, Jian-Zhong

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To observe the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) distribution in the esophageal mucosa and hemodynamic changes in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: NOS distribution in the lower esophagus of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis was assessed by using NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemical method. Concentration of NO in serum were measured by fluorometric assay. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), splanchnic vascular resistance (SVR), and splanchnic blood flow (SBF) were also determined using 57Co-labled microsphere technique. RESULTS: Intensity of NOS staining in the esophageal epithelium of cirrhotic rats was significantly stronger than that in controls. There was a NOS-positive staining area in the endothelia of esophageal submucosal vessels of cirrhotic rats, but the NOS staining was negative in normal rats. NO concentration of serum in cirrhotic rats were significantly higher in comparison with that of controls. Cirrhotic rats had significantly lower MAP, SVR and higher SBF than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: Splanchnic hyperdynamic circulatory state was observed in rats with cirrhosis. The endogenous NO may play an important role in development of esophageal varices and in changes of hemodynamics in cirrhosis. PMID:11819432

  17. Increased Cytokine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Serum of Dogs Experimentally Infected with Rangelia vitalii

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S.; Paim, Carlos Breno V.; França, Raqueli T.; Costa, Márcio M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Sangoi, Manuela B.; Moresco, Rafael N.; Monteiro, Silvia G.; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Twelve female mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups; group A (uninfected controls) composed by healthy dogs (n=5) and group B consisting of dogs inoculated with R. vitalii (n=7). Animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite on day 5 post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected through the jugular vein on days 0, 10, and 20 PI to determine the serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and NOx. Cytokines were assessed by ELISA quantitative sandwich technique, and NOx was measured by the modified Griess method. Cytokine levels (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1, and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) in serum of infected animals. Serum levels of NOx were also increased on days 10 PI (P<0.01) and 20 PI (P<0.05) in infected animals. Therefore, the infection with R. vitalii causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide content. These alterations may be associated with host immune protection against the parasite. PMID:23467990

  18. Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic infiltration of the lung. It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid treatment, but symptoms and radiopacities recur frequently after tapering or discontinuing the medication. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationships of FeNO with peripheral eosinophilia and the clinical state of CEP and its validity for predicting exacerbation of CEP. Methods Standard clinical and laboratory parameters, peripheral eosinophil percentage and count, and FeNO level were measured in 18 patients with CEP at several assessment points over 1 year. Results FeNO level was positively correlated with peripheral eosinophil count (r?=?0.341, P?=?0.005) and percentage (r?=?0.362, P?=?0.003). The median (IQR) FeNO levels were 79 (41–88) and 35 (26–49) ppb in uncontrolled (13/74 measurements) and controlled (61/74 measurements) CEP, respectively (P?=?0.010). The FeNO level of 66.0 ppb showed the largest area under the curve (0.835) for predicting exacerbation of CEP (sensitivity?=?0.80, specificity?=?0.84). Conclusion FeNO may be useful for monitoring eosinophilic parenchymal inflammation and determining the appropriate corticosteroid dose in CEP. PMID:24885379

  19. Glycolytic Dependency of High-Level Nitric Oxide Resistance and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Vitko, Nicholas P.; Spahich, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a prolific human pathogen capable of causing severe invasive disease with a myriad of presentations. The ability of S. aureus to cause infection is strongly linked with its capacity to overcome the effects of innate immunity, whether by directly killing immune cells or expressing factors that diminish the impact of immune effectors. One such scenario is the induction of lactic acid fermentation by S. aureus in response to host nitric oxide (NO·). This fermentative activity allows S. aureus to balance redox during NO·-induced respiration inhibition. However, little is known about the metabolic substrates and pathways that support this activity. Here, we identify glycolytic hexose catabolism as being essential for S. aureus growth in the presence of high levels of NO·. We determine that glycolysis supports S. aureus NO· resistance by allowing for ATP and precursor metabolite production in a redox-balanced and respiration-independent manner. We further demonstrate that glycolysis is required for NO· resistance during phagocytosis and that increased levels of extracellular glucose limit the effectiveness of phagocytic killing by enhancing NO· resistance. Finally, we demonstrate that S. aureus glycolysis is essential for virulence in both sepsis and skin/soft tissue models of infection in a time frame consistent with the induction of innate immunity and host NO· production. PMID:25852157

  20. Blockade of phencyclidine-induced effects by a nitric oxide donor

    PubMed Central

    Bujas-Bobanovic, M; Bird, D C; Robertson, H A; Dursun, S M

    2000-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is widely used as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of action of PCP and to determine whether positive NO modulators may provide a new approach to the treatment of schizophrenia. The effects of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), were studied in PCP-treated rats. Following drug administration, behavioural changes and the expression of c-fos, a metabolic marker of functional pathways in the brain, were simultaneously monitored. Acute PCP (5?mg?kg?1, i.p.) treatment induced a complex behavioural syndrome, consisting of hyperlocomotion, stereotyped behaviours and ataxia. Treatment with SNP (2–6?mg?kg?1, i.p.) by itself produced no effect on any behaviour studied but completely abolished PCP-induced behaviour in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PCP had differential regional effects on c-fos expression in rat brain, suggesting regionally different patterns of neuronal activity. The most prominent immunostaining was observed in the cortical regions. Pre-treatment with SNP blocked PCP-induced c-fos expression at doses similar to those that suppress PCP-induced behavioural effects. These results implicate the NO system in the mechanism of action of PCP. The fact that SNP abolished effects of PCP suggests that drugs targeting the glutamate-NO system may represent a novel approach to the treatment of PCP-induced psychosis and schizophrenia. PMID:10882384

  1. Resolution of experimental lung injury by Monocyte-derived inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Tsushima, Kenji; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Mock, Jason R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Files, Daniel C.; Avalos, Claudia R.; Rodriguez, Jackie V.; Waickman, Adam T.; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Pearse, David B.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Crow, Michael T.; King, Landon S.

    2012-01-01

    While early events in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) have been defined, little is known about mechanisms mediating resolution. To search for determinants of resolution, we exposed wild type (WT) mice to intratracheal lipopolysacaccharide (i.t. LPS) and assessed the response at intervals to day 10, when injury had resolved. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly upregulated in the lung at day 4 after LPS. When iNOS?/? mice were exposed to i.t. LPS, early lung injury was attenuated, however recovery was markedly impaired compared to wild type (WT) mice. iNOS?/? mice had increased mortality and sustained increases in markers of lung injury. Adoptive transfer of WT (iNOS+/+) bone marrow-derived monocytes or direct adenoviral gene delivery of iNOS into injured iNOS?/? mice restored resolution of ALI. Irradiated bone marrow chimeras confirmed the protective effects of myeloid-derived iNOS, but not of epithelial iNOS. Alveolar macrophages exhibited sustained expression of co-signalling molecule CD86 in iNOS?/? mice compared to WT mice. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD86 in iNOS?/? mice improved survival and enhanced resolution of lung inflammation. Our findings show that monocyte-derived iNOS plays a pivotal role in mediating resolution of ALI by modulating lung immune responses, thus facilitating clearance of alveolar inflammation and promoting lung repair. PMID:22844117

  2. Flow-Tagging Velocimetry for Hypersonic Flows Using Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; OByrne, Sean; Houwing, A. Frank P.; Fox, Jodie S.; Smith, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new variation of molecular-tagging velocimetry for hypersonic flows based on laser-induced fluorescence. A thin line of nitric-oxide molecules is excited with a laser beam and then, after a time delay, a fluorescence image of the displaced line is acquired. One component of velocity is determined from the time of flight. This method is applied to measure the velocity profile in a Mach 8.5 laminar, hypersonic boundary layer in the Australian National University s T2 free-piston shock tunnel. The single-shot velocity measurement uncertainty in the freestream was found to be 3.5%, based on 90% confidence. The method is also demonstrated in the separated flow region forward of a blunt fin attached to a flat plate in a Mach 7.4 flow produced by the Australian National University s T3 free-piston shock tunnel. The measurement uncertainty in the blunt fin experiment is approximately 30%, owing mainly to low fluorescence intensities, which could be improved significantly in future experiments. This velocimetry method is applicable to very high-speed flows that have low collisional quenching of the fluorescing species. It is particularly convenient in facilities where planar laser-induced fluorescence is already being performed.

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in T cells regulates T cell death and immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Monika; Srivastava, Smita; Kandpal, Usha; Sade, Hadassah; Lewis, Virginia; Sarin, Apurva; George, Anna; Bal, Vineeta; Durdik, Jeannine M.; Rath, Satyajit

    2004-01-01

    The progeny of T lymphocytes responding to immunization mostly die rapidly, leaving a few long-lived survivors functioning as immune memory. Thus, control of this choice of death versus survival is critical for immune memory. There are indications that reactive radicals may be involved in this death pathway. We now show that, in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), higher frequencies of both CD4 and CD8 memory T cells persist in response to immunization, even when iNOS+/+ APCs are used for immunization. Postactivation T cell death by neglect is reduced in iNOS–/– T cells, and levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are increased. Inhibitors of the iNOS-peroxynitrite pathway also enhance memory responses and block postactivation death by neglect in both mouse and human T cells. However, early primary immune responses are not enhanced, which suggests that altered survival, rather than enhanced activation, is responsible for the persistent immunity observed. Thus, in primary immune responses, iNOS in activated T cells autocrinely controls their susceptibility to death by neglect to determine the level of persisting CD4 and CD8 T cell memory, and modulation of this pathway can enhance the persistence of immune memory in response to vaccination. PMID:15199408

  4. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-?B transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-?B target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1?. However, zinc did not affect NF-?B translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

  5. Effects of composite restorations on nitric oxide and uric acid levels in saliva

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Nilgun; Gul, Pinar; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Kiziltunc, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, and should, therefore, not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances capable of causing side effects. This study was intended to investigate the effects on salivary nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid (UA) levels after application of dental composite filling materials to healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 individuals (32 female and 20 male) participated in the study. Filtek Z250 composite filling material (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) was applied to healthy volunteers. Saliva samples were collected before restoration (baseline) and 1 h, 1-day, 7 days, and 30 days after restoration. NO concentrations were measured using the Griess reaction method, and UA was measured using an enzymatic method. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test (? =5%). Results: NO values increased statistically significant after 7 days (P < 0.05). In addition, lower UA levels were determined compared to the baseline levels, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between NO and UA levels in saliva (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Composite resins activated the antioxidant system in saliva. However, further studies are now needed to confirm our findings and to permit a definitive conclusion. PMID:26321839

  6. Treatment with nitric oxide donors diminishes hyperinfection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice treated with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Ana Lucía; López-Abán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; de Melo, Alan Lane; Muro, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The effects of using nitric oxide (NO) donors and inhibitors in experimental strongyloidiasis were showed using, both naïve and dexamethasone immunosuppressed BALB/c mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible NO synthase and LA419 a NO donor, were administered. Dexamethasone was used to induce immunosuppression. The study in BALB/c mice revealed increases in counts of fecal eggs, larvae in lungs and parasitic females following treatment with aminoguanidine, while mice treated with LA419 had limited egg output with low larval and adult recoveries. Mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone developed hyperinfection with high long lasting fecal egg emission, high numbers of larvae in lungs and high numbers of parasitic females in the intestine even when the infection had already been cleared in non-immunosuppressed infected controls. Mice treated with dexamethasone and aminoguanidine had the highest egg output and the highest larva and parasitic female recovery showing a severe hyperinfection syndrome. In contrast, treatment with dexamenthasone and LA419 resulted in a controlled hyperinfection syndrome and these mice were able to eliminate the parasite. Therefore, NO modulation appears to be a determinant factor in severe strongyloidiasis and further studies should be conducted to confirm in other experimental models. PMID:26342794

  7. Estrogen upregulates endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase expression in human osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Armour, K E; Ralston, S H

    1998-02-01

    The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system are thought to be mediated, in part, by nitric oxide (NO). Estrogen also has protective effects on bone although the mechanisms of action have not been fully established. Since nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have been found to abrogate the protective effect of estrogen on bone in ovariectomised rats, we studied the effects of 17beta-estradiol on NOS activity and NOS mRNA levels in cultured human osteoblast-like cells. 17beta-Estradiol stimulated NOS activity by approximately 2.0 fold and this effect was reversed by the calcium chelator, EGTA, and the NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, implicating activation of a constitutive, calcium-dependent isoform. Further studies using RT/PCR indicated that only the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) isoform was expressed and RNase protection assays showed that 17beta-Estradiol treatment resulted in a 2.2 fold increase in ecNOS mRNA levels. These findings suggest that estrogen stimulates NOS activity in osteoblastic cells by activation of the ecNOS pathway, and taken together with previous data, is consistent with the possibility that NO may act as a mediator of estrogen actions on bone. PMID:9449657

  8. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Forlenza, Maria; Taverne-Thiele, Anja; Rombout, Jan H W M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-06-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30-40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like receptors, clearly pointing at immune functions of carp thrombocytes. Few studies have described the role of fish thrombocytes during infection. Carp are natural host to two different but related protozoan parasites, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii, which reside in the blood and tissue fluids. We used the two parasites to undertake controlled studies on the role of fish thrombocytes during these infections. In vivo, but only during infection with T. borreli, thrombocytes were massively depleted from the blood and spleen leading to severe thrombocytopenia. Ex vivo, addition of nitric oxide induced a clear and rapid apoptosis of thrombocytes from healthy carp, supporting a role for nitric oxide-mediated control of immune-relevant thrombocytes during infection with T. borreli. The potential advantage for parasites to selectively deplete the host of thrombocytes via nitric oxide-induced apoptosis is discussed. PMID:25681740

  9. The nitric oxide pathway and possible therapeutic options in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Johal, Tamanrit; Lees, Christoph C; Everett, Thomas R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious multisystem disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. Although not causal, endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability are likely to play an important role in the maternal and fetal pathophysiology of this condition. Lack of treatment modalities that can target the underlying pathophysiological changes and reverse the endothelial dysfunction frequently leads to iatrogenic preterm delivery of the fetus, causing neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the condition itself is associated with short- and longer term maternal morbidity and mortality. Drugs that target various components of the nitric oxide–soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway can help to increase NO bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of clinical research involving these therapeutic modalities in the context of pre-eclampsia, with the focus being on the following: nitric oxide donors, including organic nitrates and S-nitrosothiols; l-arginine, the endogenous precursor of NO; inhibitors of cyclic guanosine 3?,5?-monophosphate breakdown, including sildenafil; and other novel inhibitors of NO donor metabolism. The advantages and limitations of each modality are outlined, and scope for development into established therapeutic options for pre-eclampsia is explored. PMID:24313856

  10. What is next in nitric oxide research? From cardiovascular system to cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Murad, Ferid

    2014-12-01

    The broad role of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in biochemistry and biology as important messenger molecules is evident from the numerous publications in this research field. NO and cGMP have been known as components of the key signaling pathway in regulating numerous processes such as vascular dilation, blood pressure, neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and renal function. In spite of almost 150,000 publications with nitric oxide and cyclic GMP, there are few publications regarding the effects of these messenger molecules on gene regulation, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. Our research data with embryonic stem cells and several cancer cell lines suggest that nitric oxide, its receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and sGC's product cyclic GMP can regulate the processes of proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we have found that undifferentiated stem cells and some malignant tumors such as human glioma have decreased levels of sGC and translocation of the sGC?1 subunit to the nucleus. We propose that sGC and cyclic GMP function as tumor suppressors. An understanding of the mechanisms of the translocation of the sGC?1 subunit into the nucleus and the possible regulation of gene expression of NO and/or cyclic CMP could lead to novel and innovative approaches to cancer therapy and stem cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25153032

  11. Hypoxia and Nitric Oxide Induce a Rapid, Reversible Cell Cycle Arrest of the Drosophila Syncytial Divisions*

    PubMed Central

    DiGregorio, Paul J.; Ubersax, Jeffrey A.; O'Farrell, Patrick H.

    2009-01-01

    Cells can respond to reductions in oxygen (hypoxia) by metabolic adaptations, quiescence or cell death (1). The nuclear division cycles of syncytial stage Drosophila melanogaster embryos reversibly arrest upon hypoxia. We examined this rapid arrest in real time using a fusion of green fluorescent protein and histone 2A. In addition to an interphase arrest, mitosis was specifically blocked in metaphase, much like a checkpoint arrest. Nitric oxide, recently proposed as a hypoxia signal in Drosophila, induced a reversible arrest of the nuclear divisions comparable with that induced by hypoxia. Syncytial stage embryos die during prolonged hypoxia, whereas post-gastrulation embryos (cellularized) survive (2, 3). We examined ATP levels and morphology of syncytial and cellularized embryos arrested by hypoxia, nitric oxide, or cyanide. Upon oxygen deprivation, the ATP levels declined only slightly in cellularized embryos and more substantially in syncytial embryos. Reversal of hypoxia restored ATP levels and relieved the cell cycle and developmental arrests. However, morphological abnormalities suggested that syncytial embryos suffered irreversible disruption of developmental programs. Our results suggest that nitric oxide plays a role in the response of the syncytial embryo to hypoxia but that it is not the sole mediator of these responses. PMID:11054409

  12. Arginine-Based Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Therapeutic Potential and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Víte?ek, Jan; Lojek, Antonín; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Kubala, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    In the past three decades, nitric oxide has been well established as an important bioactive molecule implicated in regulation of cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that much effort has been made to find specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), the enzymes responsible for production of nitric oxide. Among the many NOS inhibitors developed to date, inhibitors based on derivatives and analogues of arginine are of special interest, as this category includes a relatively high number of compounds with good potential for experimental as well as clinical application. Though this group of inhibitors covers early nonspecific compounds, modern drug design strategies such as biochemical screening and computer-aided drug design have provided NOS-isoform-specific inhibitors. With an emphasis on major advances in this field, a comprehensive list of inhibitors based on their structural characteristics is discussed in this paper. We provide a summary of their biochemical properties as well as their observed effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we focus in particular on their pharmacology and use in recent clinical studies. The potential of newly designed specific NOS inhibitors developed by means of modern drug development strategies is highlighted. PMID:22988346

  13. DNA damage and nitric oxide synthesis in experimentally infected Balb/c mice with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Calvi, Sueli A; Picka, Mariele M; Persi, Eliana; de Carvalho, Thaís B; Caetano, Priscila K; Nagoshi, Lidiana R; Lima, Carlos R G; Machado, Jussara M; Salvadori, Daisy M F

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether experimental Chagas disease in acute phase under benznidazole therapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, heart, and spleen cells or induce nitric oxide synthesis in spleen cells. Twenty Balb/c mice were distributed into four groups: control (non-infected animals); Trypanosoma cruzi infected; T. cruzi infected and submitted to benznidazole therapy; and only treated with benznidazole. The results obtained with the single cell gel (comet) assay showed that T. cruzi was able induce DNA damage in heart cells of both benznidazole treated or untreated infected mice. Similarly, T. cruzi infected animals showed an increase of DNA lesions in spleen cells. Regarding nitric oxide synthesis, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in all experimental groups compared to negative control, the strongest effect observed in the T. cruzi infected group. Taken together, these results indicate that T. cruzi may increase the level of DNA damage in mice heart and spleen cells. Probably, nitric oxide plays an important role in DNA damaging whereas benznidazole was able to minimize induced T. cruzi genotoxic effects in spleen cells. PMID:17286971

  14. Different sources of nitric oxide mediate neurovascular coupling in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.

    PubMed

    de Labra, Carmen; Rivadulla, Casto; Espinosa, Nelson; Dasilva, Miguel; Cao, Ricardo; Cudeiro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the link between neuronal responses (NRs) and metabolic signals is fundamental to our knowledge of brain function and it is a milestone in our efforts to interpret data from modern non invasive optical techniques such as fMRI, which are based on the close coupling between metabolic demand of active neurons and local changes in blood flow. The challenge is to unravel the link. Here we show, using spectrophotometry to record oxyhaemoglobin and methemoglobin (surrogate markers of cerebral flow and nitric oxide levels respectively) together with extracellular neuronal recordings in vivo and applying a multiple polynomial regression model, that the markers are able to predict up about 80% of variability in NR. Furthermore, we show that the coupling between blood flow and neuronal activity is heavily influenced by nitric oxide (NO). While NRs show the typical saturating response, blood flow shows a linear behaviour during contrast-response curves, with nitric oxide from different sources acting differently for low and high intensity. PMID:19826613

  15. Impaired pulmonary artery contractile responses in a rat model of microgravity: role of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyhan, Daniel; Kim, Soonyul; Dunbar, Stacey; Li, Dechun; Shoukas, Artin; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    Vascular contractile hyporesponsiveness is an important mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance after microgravity. Baroreceptor reflexes can modulate both pulmonary resistance and capacitance function and thus cardiac output. We hypothesized, therefore, that pulmonary vasoreactivity is impaired in the hindlimb-unweighted (HLU) rat model of microgravity. Pulmonary artery (PA) contractile responses to phenylephrine (PE) and U-46619 (U4) were significantly decreased in the PAs from HLU vs. control (C) animals. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-5) M) enhanced the contractile responses in the PA rings from both C and HLU animals and completely abolished the differential responses to PE and U4 in HLU vs. C animals. Vasorelaxant responses to ACh were significantly enhanced in PA rings from HLU rats compared with C. Moreover, vasorelaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were also significantly enhanced. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and soluble guanlyl cyclase expression were significantly enhanced in PA and lung tissue from HLU rats. In marked contrast, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was unchanged in lung tissue. These data support the hypothesis that vascular contractile responsiveness is attenuated in PAs from HLU rats and that this hyporesponsiveness is due at least in part to increased nitric oxide synthase activity resulting from enhanced eNOS expression. These findings may have important implications for blood volume distribution and attenuated stroke volume responses to orthostatic stress after microgravity exposure.

  16. Treatment of sunitinib-induced hypertension in solid tumor by nitric oxide donors?

    PubMed Central

    León-Mateos, L.; Mosquera, J.; Antón Aparicio, L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) are overexpressed in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. This characteristic has supported the rationale of targeting VEGF-driven tumour vascularization, especially in clear cell RCC. VEGF-inhibiting strategies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib) and neutralizing antibodies such as bevacizumab. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. HTN observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of HTN. Although the exact mechanism by tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce HTN has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction) occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition. NO donors could be successfully used not only for the treatment of developed angiogenesis-inhibitor-induced hypertension but also for preventive effects. PMID:26386874

  17. The nitric oxide pathway and possible therapeutic options in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Johal, Tamanrit; Lees, Christoph C; Everett, Thomas R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2014-08-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious multisystem disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. Although not causal, endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability are likely to play an important role in the maternal and fetal pathophysiology of this condition. Lack of treatment modalities that can target the underlying pathophysiological changes and reverse the endothelial dysfunction frequently leads to iatrogenic preterm delivery of the fetus, causing neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the condition itself is associated with short- and longer term maternal morbidity and mortality. Drugs that target various components of the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway can help to increase NO bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of clinical research involving these therapeutic modalities in the context of pre-eclampsia, with the focus being on the following: nitric oxide donors, including organic nitrates and S-nitrosothiols; l-arginine, the endogenous precursor of NO; inhibitors of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate breakdown, including sildenafil; and other novel inhibitors of NO donor metabolism. The advantages and limitations of each modality are outlined, and scope for development into established therapeutic options for pre-eclampsia is explored. PMID:24313856

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of ²?³Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode.

    PubMed

    Dares, Christopher J; Lapides, Alexander M; Mincher, Bruce J; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Selective oxidation of trivalent americium (Am) could facilitate its separation from lanthanides in nuclear waste streams. Here, we report the application of a high-surface-area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand to the oxidation of Am(III) to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 volts (V) versus the saturated calomel electrode were applied, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 molar acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides a method to access the higher oxidation states of Am in noncomplexing media for the study of the associated coordination chemistry and, more important, for more efficient separation protocols. PMID:26542564

  19. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Audrey; Bruckdorfer, K. Richard; Abraham, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc) is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO), a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc. PMID:22111028

  20. mtDNA haplogroup J Modulates telomere length and Nitric Oxide production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress due to the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. Therefore, the goal of this work is to describe the difference in telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and Nitric Oxide (NO) production between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup J and non-J carriers, as indirect approaches of oxidative stress. Methods The telomere length of PBL was analyzed in DNA samples from 166 healthy controls (114 J and 52 non-J) and 79 OA patients (41 J and 38 non-J) by means of a validated qPCR method. The NO production was assessed in 7 carriers of the haplogroup J and 27 non-J carriers, by means of the colorimetric reaction of the Griess reagent in supernatants of cultured chondrocytes. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from these samples was analyzed by qPCR. Appropiated statistical analyses were performed Results Carriers of the haplogroup J showed a significantly longer telomere length of PBLs than non-J carriers, regardless of age, gender and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Cultured chondrocytes carrying the mtDNA haplogroup J also showed a lower NO production than non-J carriers (p = 0.043). No significant correlations between age and telomore length of PBLs were detected neither for carriers of the haplogroup J nor for non-J carriers. A strong positive correlation between NO production and iNOS expression was also observed (correlation coefficient = 0.791, p < 0.001). Conclusion The protective effect of the mtDNA haplogroup J in the OA disease arise from a lower oxidative stress in carriers of this haplogroup, since this haplogroup is related to lower NO production and hence longer telomere length of PBLs too. PMID:22171676