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Sample records for determine nitric oxide

  1. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Paracrine purinergic signaling determines lung endothelial nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kiefmann, Rainer; Islam, Mohammad N; Lindert, Jens; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2009-06-01

    Although the vascular bed is a major source of nitric oxide (NO) production, factors regulating the production remain unclear. We considered the role played by paracrine signaling. Determinations by fluorescence microscopy in isolated, blood-perfused rat and mouse lungs revealed that a brief lung expansion enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)cyt) oscillations in alveolar epithelial (AEC) and endothelial (EC) cells, and NO production in EC. Furthermore, as assessed by a novel microlavage assay, alveolar ATP production increased. Intra-alveolar microinfusion of the purinergic receptor antagonist, PPADS, and the nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, each completely blocked the Ca(2+)cyt and NO responses in EC. Lung expansion induced Ca(2+)cyt oscillations in mice lacking the P2Y1, but not the P2Y2, purinergic receptors, which were located in the perivascular interstitium basolateral to AEC. Prolonged lung expansion instituted by mechanical ventilation at high tidal volume increased EC expression of nitrotyrosine, indicating development of nitrosative stress in lung microvessels. These findings reveal a novel mechanism in which mechanically induced purinergic signaling couples cross-compartmental Ca(2+)cyt oscillations to microvascular NO production. PMID:19304909

  3. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  4. Biofiltration of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidova, Y.B.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Results of recent experiments on nitrogen transformations in biofilters suggest that oxides of nitrogen may be both oxidized or reduced within these systems. Under the proper conditions, nitric oxide (+2) can be reduced to molecular nitrogen (0) through microbial denitrification, or nitric oxide can be sequentially oxidized to nitrite (+3) and then to nitrate (+5) through microbial nitrification. There are major implications of these findings for the use of biofilters as air pollution control devices since economical NO{sub x} control technologies may be possible and should be exploited. Oxidation of ammonia ({minus}3) to nitrite (+3) by bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas and oxidation of nitrite (+3) to nitrate (+5) by bacteria of the genus Nitrobacter are ubiquitous reactions in soil and natural waters. The intermediates, nitrous oxide (+1) and nitric oxide (+2) are potentially oxidizable by nitrifying bacteria in the presence of atmospheric concentration of oxygen. The oxidation of nitric oxide within a biofilter was demonstrated. The authors have observed removal up to 70% in laboratory scale aerobic biofilters with a NO feed of 80 ppmv and an empty bed contact time of 12 minutes. Nitric oxide removal appears to be linear with nitric oxide concentration. Removal rates are a function of the flow rate of the gas, suggesting diffusion limitations. The biofilter system was sensitive to pH changes resulting from nitrification. Improved removal efficiency at shorter contact times may be possible with increased biomass and better distribution.

  5. Nitric oxide as an antioxidant

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, J.; Harel, S.; Granit, R. )

    1991-08-15

    Benzoate monohydroxy compounds, and in particular salicylate, were produced during interaction of ferrous complexes with hydrogen peroxide (Fenton reaction) in a N2 environment. These reactions were inhibited when Fe complexes were flushed, prior to the addition in the model system, by nitric oxide. Methionine oxidation to ethylene by Fenton reagents was also inhibited by nitric oxide. Myoglobin in several forms such as metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and nitric oxide-myoglobin were interacted with an equimolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Spectra changes in the visible region and the changes in membrane (microsomes) lipid peroxidation by the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were determined. The results showed that metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin were activated by H2O2 to ferryl myoglobin, which initiates membrane lipid peroxidation; but not nitric oxide-myoglobin, which, during interaction with H2O2, did not form ferryl but metmyoglobin which only poorly affected lipid peroxidation. It is assumed that nitric oxide, liganded to ferrous complexes, acts to prevent the prooxidative reaction of these complexes with H2O2.

  6. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. PMID:24857428

  7. An improved method for the determination of dissolved nitric oxide (NO) in seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterbeck, H. E.; Bange, H. W.

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived intermediate of the oceanic nitrogen cycle, however, due to its high reactivity, measurements of dissolved NO in seawater are rare. Here we present an improved method to determine NO concentrations in discrete seawater samples. The set-up of our system consisted of a chemiluminescence NO analyser connected to a stripping unit. The limit of detection for our method was 5 pmol NO in aqueous solution which translates into 0.25 nmol L-1 when using a 20 mL seawater sample volume. Our method was applied to measure high resolution depth profiles of dissolved NO during a cruise to the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. Our method is fast and comparably easy to handle thus it opens the door for deciphering the distribution of NO in the ocean and it facilitates laboratory studies on NO pathways.

  8. An improved method for the determination of dissolved nitric oxide (NO) in seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterbeck, H. E.; Bange, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived intermediate of the oceanic nitrogen cycle; however, due to its high reactivity, measurements of dissolved NO in seawater are rare. Here we present an improved method to determine NO concentrations in discrete seawater samples. The set-up of our system consisted of a chemiluminescence NO analyser connected to a stripping unit. The limit of detection for our method is 5 pmol NO in aqueous solution, which translates into 0.25 nmol L-1 when using a 20 mL seawater sample volume. Our method was applied to measure high-resolution depth profiles of dissolved NO during a cruise to the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. It is fast and comparably easy to handle; thus it opens the door for investigating the distribution of NO in the ocean, and it facilitates laboratory studies on NO pathways.

  9. Determinants of Children's Exhaled Nitric Oxide: New Insights from Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Salam, Muhammad T.; Linn, William S.; Rappaport, Edward B.; Bastain, Theresa M.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    While the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has proven useful in asthma research, its exact role in clinical care remains unclear, in part due to unexplained inter-subject heterogeneity. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that the effects of determinants of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) vary with differing levels of FeNO. In a population-based cohort of 1542 school children aged 1215 from the Southern California Children's Health Study, we used quantile regression to investigate if the relationships of asthma, socio-demographic and clinical covariates with FeNO vary across its distribution. Differences in FeNO between children with and without asthma increased steeply as FeNO increased (Estimated asthma effects (in ppb) at selected 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles of FeNO are 2.4, 6.3 and 22.2, respectively) but the difference was steeper with increasing FeNO in boys and in children with active rhinitis (p-values<0.01). Active rhinitis also showed significantly larger effects on FeNO at higher concentrations of FeNO (Estimated active rhinitis effects (in ppb) at selected 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles of FeNO are 2.1, 5.7 and 14.3, respectively). Boys and children of Asian descent had higher FeNO than girls and non-Hispanic whites; these differences were significantly larger in those with higher FeNO (p-values<0.01). In summary, application of quantile regression techniques provides new insights into the determinants of FeNO showing substantially varying effects in those with high versus low concentrations. PMID:26214692

  10. Determination of in vivo nitric oxide levels in animal tissues using a novel spin trapping technology.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Timoshin, Alexander A

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that microdialysis ensured by the passage of aqueous solutions of Fe(3+) complexes with N-methyl-D: -glucamine dithiocarbamate (MGDMGD ) through fine dialysis fibers permeable for compounds with molecular weights below 5 kDa. These fibers can be implanted into heart, liver, and kidney tissues, enabling effective binding of Fe(3+)-MGD complexes to nitric oxide generated in interstitial fluids of narcotized rats in vivo. Subsequent treatment of dialyzate samples (60??L) with sodium dithionite favors conversion of newly formed diamagnetic NO-Fe(3+)-MGD complexes into electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable NO-Fe(2+)-MGD complexes. The basal levels of NO determined from the concentrations of the complexes in the respective tissues are similar (1???). The microdialysis data suggest that treatment of rats with a water-soluble analogue of nitroglycerine or a dinitrosyl iron complex with thiosulfate induces a long-lasting (>1 h) increase in the steady-state level of NO in animal tissues. This novel technology can be used for comparative analyses of production rates of NO and reactive oxygen species when using iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and spin traps for reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:21161635

  11. Nitric oxide signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Allan D

    2005-01-01

    Plants have four nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. NOS1 appears mitochondrial, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) chloroplastic. Distinct peroxisomal and apoplastic NOS enzymes are predicted. Nitrite-dependent NO synthesis is catalyzed by cytoplasmic nitrate reductase or a root plasma membrane enzyme, or occurs nonenzymatically. Nitric oxide undergoes both catalyzed and uncatalyzed oxidation. However, there is no evidence of reaction with superoxide, and S-nitrosylation reactions are unlikely except during hypoxia. The only proven direct targets of NO in plants are metalloenzymes and one metal complex. Nitric oxide inhibits apoplastic catalases/ascorbate peroxidases in some species but may stimulate these enzymes in others. Plants also have the NO response pathway involving cGMP, cADPR, and release of calcium from internal stores. Other known targets include chloroplast and mitochondrial electron transport. Nitric oxide suppresses Fenton chemistry by interacting with ferryl ion, preventing generation of hydroxyl radicals. Functions of NO in plant development, response to biotic and abiotic stressors, iron homeostasis, and regulation of respiration and photosynthesis may all be ascribed to interaction with one of these targets. Nitric oxide function in drought/abscisic acid (ABA)-induction of stomatal closure requires nitrate reductase and NOS1. Nitric oxide synthasel likely functions to produce sufficient NO to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport, allowing nitrite accumulation. Nitric oxide is produced during the hypersensitive response outside cells undergoing programmed cell death immediately prior to loss of plasma membrane integrity. A plasma membrane lipid-derived signal likely activates apoplastic NOS. Nitric oxide diffuses within the apoplast and signals neighboring cells via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent induction of salicylic acid biosynthesis. Response to wounding appears to involve the same NOS and direct targets. PMID:16492476

  12. Direct determination of the activation energy for the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The activation energy for the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone has been directly measured as a function of temperature. The instrument constructed for this study consisted of two flow tubes that are connected together at each end, where the reaction zone temperature of each flow tube was controlled independently. The reaction of nitric oxide and ozone was pseudo-first order ((NO)/(O/sub 3/) greater than or equal to 250) and studied by following the reduction of the chemiluminescence of one of the products (NO/sup *//sub 2/(/sup 2/B/sub 1,2/)) of the reaction. The chemiluminescence was measured using a microcomputer-controlled photon counter designed for these studies. The activation energy has been found to vary with temperature. The activation energy varies from 2390 +/- 10 calories at 216 K to 2970 +/- 60 calories at 333 K. The variation over the complete temperature range studied (204-353 K) is large enough (650 calories) that the errors associated with the method cannot account for all of the variation. There are other pathways for this reaction other than ground state reactants going to ground state products, and their contribution to the activation energy (approx.500 calories) has been found to be sufficient to account for the observed variation with temperature when added to the variation predicted by either transition state (180 calories) or collision (150 calories) theory.

  13. Study of Atmospheric Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of energetic nitrogen atoms to the production of nitric oxide in the thermosphere and their influence on the infrared emission spectrum. The nitric oxide molecules are important contributors to the cooling of the atmosphere. We first pointed out that in determining the energy distribution of the nitrogen atoms, it is important to take into account the thermal motion of the atmospheric gases. It had been ignored in all earlier studies. The source spectra are broadened considerably by the center of mass motion of the reactants. We worked out the consequences for the production of nitric oxide at night, using as sources of energetic N atoms, NO(+) + e yield N + O, N(D-2) + O yield N + O. The high energy tail is enhanced by orders of magnitude. We had earlier suggested (Sharma et al. 1993) that the reaction of energetic nitrogen atoms with O2 was responsible for the rotationally enhanced NO identified in the infrared spectrum. Our calculations provided quantitative confirmation of the suggestion. We proceeded to explore the validity of another approximation used in earlier analyses, the hard sphere approximation for the energy loss in elastic collisions. We carried out precise quantum mechanical calculations of the elastic 2 differential scattering of nitrogen atoms in collisions with oxygen atoms and showed that although the hard sphere approximation was nowhere of high precision, reasonable results could be obtained with an effective cross section of 6 x 10(exp 15)sq cm. We also initiated a program to include inelastic energy loss processes in the determination of the energy distribution function. We began a calculation of the rotation and vibrational excitation cross sections of molecular nitrogen and nitrogen atoms and developed a method for including inelastic energy loss as a function of scattering angle in the Boltzmann equation. A procedure for obtaining the solution of the Boltzman equation was worked out.

  14. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... valve and valve seat that will not deteriorate in contact with nitric oxide. Cylinders or valves may...

  15. Chemiluminescence of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Rusch, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the intensities of the delta and gamma bands of nitric oxide in the nighttime terrestrial thermosphere are presented and used to infer the rate coefficient for the transition from the C 2 Pi to the A 2 Sigma + states. The nightglow spectrum was observed between 1900 and 2300 A at a resolution of 15 A by a rocket-borne scanning 1/4-m spectrometer pointing north at an apogee of 150 km. Progressions of the delta, gamma and epsilon bands are identified on the spectra by the construction of synthetic spectra, and the contributions of resonance fluorescence to the total band intensities are calculated. Finally, the ratio of the sum of the gamma bands for v-prime = 0 to the sum of the delta bands for v-prime = 0 is used to derive a branching ratio of 0.21 + or - 0.04 to the A 2 Sigma + state, which yields a probability for the C-A transition of 5.6 + or - 1.5 x to the 6th/sec.

  16. Nitric oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schairer, David O.; Martinez, Luis R.; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason S.; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections. PMID:22286699

  17. Nitric oxide and memory.

    PubMed

    Susswein, Abraham J; Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Hurwitz, Itay

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is widely used in neural circuits giving rise to learning and memory. NO is an unusual neurotransmitter in its modes of release and action. Is its association with learning and memory related to its unusual properties? Reviewing the literature might allow the formulation of a general principle on how NO and memory are related. However, other than confirming that there is indeed a strong association between NO and memory, no simple rules emerge on the role of NO in learning and memory. The effects of NO are not associated with a particular stage or form of memory and are highly dependent on species, strain, and behavior or training paradigm. Nonetheless, a review does provide hints on why NO is associated with learning and memory. Unlike transmitters acting via receptors expressed only in neurons designed to respond to the transmitter, NO is a promiscuous signal that can affect a wide variety of neurons, via many molecular mechanisms. In circuits giving rise to learning and memory, it may be useful to signal some events via a promiscuous messenger having widespread effects. However, each circuit will use the promiscuous signal in a different way, to achieve different ends. PMID:15070489

  18. The Capacity of Red Blood Cells to Reduce Nitrite Determines Nitric Oxide Generation under Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fens, Marcel H.; Larkin, Sandra K.; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Morris, Claudia R.; Kuypers, Frans A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of vascular tone. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for NO generation under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxia however, eNOS is inactive and red blood cells (RBC) provide an alternative NO generation pathway from nitrite to regulate hypoxic vasodilation. While nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin is well acknowledged, little is known about generation of NO by intact RBC with physiological hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to develop and apply a new approach to provide insights in the ability of RBC to convert nitrite into NO under hypoxic conditions. We established a novel experimental setup to evaluate nitrite uptake and the release of NO from RBC into the gas-phase under different conditions. NO measurements were similar to well-established clinical measurements of exhaled NO. Nitrite uptake was rapid, and after an initial lag phase NO release from RBC was constant in time under hypoxic conditions. The presence of oxygen greatly reduced NO release, whereas inhibition of eNOS and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) did not affect NO release. A decreased pH increased NO release under hypoxic conditions. Hypothermia lowered NO release, while hyperthermia increased NO release. Whereas fetal hemoglobin did not alter NO release compared to adult hemoglobin, sickle RBC showed an increased ability to release NO. Under all conditions nitrite uptake by RBC was similar. This study shows that nitrite uptake into RBC is rapid and release of NO into the gas-phase continues for prolonged periods of time under hypoxic conditions. Changes in the RBC environment such as pH, temperature or hemoglobin type, affect NO release. PMID:25007272

  19. Plasma levels of nitric oxide metabolites are markedly reduced in normotensive men with electrocardiographically determined left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Tsutsui, Masato; Takahashi, Masao; Sonoda, Shinjo; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Adachi, Tetsuo; Abe, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that electrocardiographically determined left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular death not only in hypertensive patients but also in normotensive subjects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that normotensive subjects with ECG-LVH have reduced nitric oxide production. A total of 840 Japanese male workers were enrolled, and 579 eligible subjects were studied. ECG-LVH was assessed according to the Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria and the Cornell voltage-duration product. The median level of plasma NOx (nitrite plus nitrate), a marker of systemic nitric oxide production, was markedly lower in the normotensive subjects with ECG-LVH (n=73) than in those without (n=506), and the clinical characteristics were significantly different between the 2 groups (each P<0.05). Importantly, a one-to-one propensity score matching analysis showed similar markedly lower median plasma NOx level in the normotensive subjects with ECG-LVH compared with that observed in the matched normotensive subjects without ECG-LVH (P<0.05). Furthermore, the tertiles of the plasma NOx levels were inversely correlated with the prevalence and severity of ECG-LVH (both P<0.05). The lower plasma NOx levels were associated with significantly higher plasma 8-isoprostane levels, a marker of systemic lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). These results provide the first evidence that normotensive subjects with ECG-LVH exhibit defective nitric oxide production, along with increased oxidative stress. Our findings may thus explain, at least in part, a potential mechanism underlying the increased risk of cardiovascular death in normotensive individuals with ECG-LVH. PMID:24914203

  20. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxideproducing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  1. Nitric oxide deficiency determines global chromatin changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Claudia; Gurtner, Aymone; Rosati, Jessica; Illi, Barbara; Ragone, Gianluca; Piaggio, Giulia; Moggio, Maurizio; Lamperti, Costanza; D'Angelo, Grazia; Clementi, Emilio; Minetti, Giulia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Antonini, Annalisa; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2009-07-01

    The present study provides evidence that abnormal patterns of global histone modification are present in the skeletal muscle nuclei of mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. A combination of specific histone H3 modifications, including Ser-10 phosphorylation, acetylation of Lys 9 and 14, and Lys 79 methylation, were found enriched in muscle biopsies from human patients affected by DMD and in late-term fetuses, early postnatal pups, or adult mdx mice. In this context, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed an enrichment of these modifications at the loci of genes involved in proliferation or inflammation, suggesting a regulatory effect on gene expression. Remarkably, the reexpression of dystrophin induced by gentamicin treatment or the administration of nitric oxide (NO) donors reversed the abnormal pattern of H3 histone modifications. These findings suggest an unanticipated link between the dystrophin-activated NO signaling and the remodeling of chromatin. In this context, the regulation of class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4 and 5 was found altered as a consequence of the reduced NO-dependent protein phosphatase 2A activity, indicating that both NO and class IIa HDACs are important for satellite cell differentiation and gene expression in mdx mice. In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a role for NO as an epigenetic regulator in DMD. PMID:19264835

  2. Satellite measurements of the backscattered ultraviolet to determine ozone trends, volcanic SO2, and nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric backscattered UV albedo have been used from satellites for more than 20 years to measure ozone. The longest continuous record has been from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) and TOMS on the Nimbus 7 satellite, which have been in operation since November of 1978. Because of degradation in space of the diffuser plate used to measure extraterrestrial solar flux, it has been necessary to develop new techniques to maintain the calibration of these instruments. Calibration is maintained by requiring that ozone measured by different wavelength pairs be consistent, and by requiring that ozone measured at different solar zenith angles be consistent. This technique of using a geophysical quantity, ozone, as a transfer standard for wavelength calibration is very powerful. The recalibrated data have been used to measure total ozone trends to an accuracy of +/- 1.3 percent 2(sigma) error over ten years. No significant trends are found near the equator, but significant trends larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry are found at middle to high latitudes in both hemispheres. In addition, UV albedo data have been used to measure SO2 using band structure in the 300-310 nm range, and to measure nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere using the (10) and (02) NO gamma band fluorescence features.

  3. Convergence of G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Nitric Oxide Pathways Determines the Outcome to Cardiac Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z. Maggie; Gao, Erhe; Fonseca, Fabio; Hayashi, Hiroki; Shang, Xiying; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Tian, Xufan; Tilley, Doug G.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Lefer, David J.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Koch, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure caused by ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death in the developed world. Treatment is currently centered on regimens involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or nitric oxide (NO). These regimens are thought to target distinct molecular pathways. We showed that these pathways were interdependent and converged on the effector GRK2 (GPCR kinase 2) to regulate myocyte survival and function. Ischemic injury coupled to GPCR activation, including GPCR desensitization and myocyte loss, requires GRK2 activation, and we found that cardioprotection mediated by S-nitrosylation and inhibition of GRK2 depended on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Conversely, the cardioprotective effects of NO bioactivity were absent in a knock-in mouse with a form of GRK2 that cannot be S-nitrosylated. Because GRK2 and eNOS inhibit each other, the balance of the activities these enzymes in the myocardium determined the outcome to ischemic injury. Our findings suggest new insights into the mechanism of action of classic drugs used to treat heart failure and new therapeutic approaches to ischemic heart disease. PMID:24170934

  4. A Kinetic Platform to Determine the Fate of Nitric Oxide in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jonathan L.; Brynildsen, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by the innate immune response to neutralize pathogens. NO and its autoxidation products have an extensive biochemical reaction network that includes reactions with iron-sulfur clusters, DNA, and thiols. The fate of NO inside a pathogen depends on a kinetic competition among its many targets, and is of critical importance to infection outcomes. Due to the complexity of the NO biochemical network, where many intermediates are short-lived and at extremely low concentrations, several species can be measured, but stable products are non-unique, and damaged biomolecules are continually repaired or regenerated, kinetic models are required to understand and predict the outcome of NO treatment. Here, we have constructed a comprehensive kinetic model that encompasses the broad reactivity of NO in Escherichia coli. The incorporation of spontaneous and enzymatic reactions, as well as damage and repair of biomolecules, allowed for a detailed analysis of how NO distributes in E. coli cultures. The model was informed with experimental measurements of NO dynamics, and used to identify control parameters of the NO distribution. Simulations predicted that NO dioxygenase (Hmp) functions as a dominant NO consumption pathway at O2 concentrations as low as 35 M (microaerobic), and interestingly, loses utility as the NO delivery rate increases. We confirmed these predictions experimentally by measuring NO dynamics in wild-type and mutant cultures at different NO delivery rates and O2 concentrations. These data suggest that the kinetics of NO metabolism must be considered when assessing the importance of cellular components to NO tolerance, and that models such as the one described here are necessary to rigorously investigate NO stress in microbes. This model provides a platform to identify novel strategies to potentiate the effects of NO, and will serve as a template from which analogous models can be generated for other organisms. PMID:23658508

  5. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  6. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 C (70 F). Transportation of...

  7. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 C (70 F). Transportation of...

  8. Electron-impact excitation of nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. J.; Zipf, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the excitation of the nitrosyl cation Baer-Miescher bands, two nitric oxide bands, and several atomic nitrogen multiplets in the vacuum UV by electron impact on NO have been measured over an energy range extending from threshold to 300 eV. The variation of the dipole transition moment for the nitrosyl cation band system was also determined.

  9. BIOGENIC NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CROPLAND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined during late spring and summer 1995 and the spring of 1996 from four agricultural soils on which four different crops were grown. These agricultural soils were located at four different sites throughout North Carolina. Emission rates ...

  10. Determination of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviour in rodents: methodological aspects and role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Sestakova, Natalia; Puzserova, Angelika; Kluknavsky, Michal

    2013-01-01

    In various areas of the bio-medical, pharmacological and psychological research a multitude of behavioural tests have been used to investigate the effects of environmental, genetic and epi-genetic factors as well as pharmacological substances or diseased states on behaviour and thus on the physiological and psycho-social status of experimental subjects. This article is reviewing the most frequently used behavioural tests in animal research (open field, elevated plus maze, zero maze, and black and white box). It provides a summary of common characteristics as well as differences in the methods used in various studies to determine motor activity, anxiety and emotionality. Additionally to methodological aspects, strain, sex and stress-related differences as well as the involvement of nitric oxide in modulation of motor activity and anxiety of rodents were briefly reviewed. PMID:24678249

  11. Nitric oxide releasing nanoparticle synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Han, George; Friedman, Adam J; Friedman, Joel M

    2011-01-01

    While the potential applications of nitric oxide for both understanding human physiology and treating disease are far reaching, the development of a reliable, cost-effective, and practical sustained delivery system for nitric oxide has yet to emerge. Using a sol-gel/glass hybrid system, we have demonstrated controlled, sustained release of nitric oxide from a stable, dry powder. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, the material begins releasing therapeutic levels of nitric oxide over several hours to days, making it an ideal material for evaluation of nitric oxide efficacy for both clinical and research applications. PMID:21161638

  12. Inflammatory Monocytes Determine Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Uncoupling and Nitro-oxidative Stress Induced by Angiotensin II*

    PubMed Central

    Kossmann, Sabine; Hu, Hanhan; Steven, Sebastian; Schnfelder, Tanja; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Mikhed, Yuliya; Brhler, Melanie; Knorr, Maike; Brandt, Moritz; Karbach, Susanne H.; Becker, Christian; Oelze, Matthias; Bauersachs, Johann; Widder, Julian; Mnzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas; Wenzel, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity amplify vascular oxidative stress. The role of inflammatory myelomonocytic cells as mediators of these processes and their impact on tetrahydrobiopterin availability and function have not yet been defined. Angiotensin II (ATII, 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days) increased Ly6Chigh and CD11b+/iNOShigh leukocytes and up-regulated levels of eNOS glutathionylation in aortas of C57BL/6 mice. Vascular iNOS-dependent NO formation was increased, whereas eNOS-dependent NO formation was decreased in aortas of ATII-infused mice as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation of lysozyme M-positive (LysM+) monocytes in ATII-infused LysMiDTR transgenic mice prevented eNOS glutathionylation and eNOS-derived N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive superoxide formation in the endothelial layer. ATII increased vascular guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I expression and biopterin synthesis in parallel, which was reduced in monocyte-depleted LysMiDTR mice. Vascular tetrahydrobiopterin was increased by ATII infusion but was even higher in monocyte-depleted ATII-infused mice, which was paralleled by a strong up-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase expression. EPR spectroscopy revealed that both vascular iNOS- and eNOS-dependent NO formation were normalized in ATII-infused mice following monocyte depletion. Additionally, deletion as well as pharmacologic inhibition of iNOS prevented ATII-induced endothelial dysfunction. In summary, ATII induces an inflammatory cell-dependent increase of iNOS, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I, tetrahydrobiopterin, NO formation, and nitro-oxidative stress as well as eNOS uncoupling in the vessel wall, which can be prevented by ablation of LysM+ monocytes. PMID:25143378

  13. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Morris, S M

    1998-01-01

    Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in animal cells, serving as a precursor for the synthesis not only of proteins but also of nitric oxide, urea, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine. Of the enzymes that catalyse rate-controlling steps in arginine synthesis and catabolism, argininosuccinate synthase, the two arginase isoenzymes, the three nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes and arginine decarboxylase have been recognized in recent years as key factors in regulating newly identified aspects of arginine metabolism. In particular, changes in the activities of argininosuccinate synthase, the arginases, the inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase and also cationic amino acid transporters play major roles in determining the metabolic fates of arginine in health and disease, and recent studies have identified complex patterns of interaction among these enzymes. There is growing interest in the potential roles of the arginase isoenzymes as regulators of the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Physiological roles and relationships between the pathways of arginine synthesis and catabolism in vivo are complex and difficult to analyse, owing to compartmentalized expression of various enzymes at both organ (e.g. liver, small intestine and kidney) and subcellular (cytosol and mitochondria) levels, as well as to changes in expression during development and in response to diet, hormones and cytokines. The ongoing development of new cell lines and animal models using cDNA clones and genes for key arginine metabolic enzymes will provide new approaches more clearly elucidating the physiological roles of these enzymes. PMID:9806879

  14. Nitric oxide reburning with methane

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpaty, S.K.; Subramanian, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with initial findings from the ongoing, three-year DOE program that began on 02/01/1995. The program involves computer simulation studies to aid in planning and conducting a series of experiments that will extend the knowledge of reburning process. The objective of this work is to find nitric oxide reduction effectiveness for various reburning fuels and identify both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction mechanisms characterizing NO reduction.

  15. Nitric oxide: a challenge to chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine recognized the biological significance of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is derived from the amino acid arginine. It is intimately involved with circulatory vessel dilation where, for example, it protects against heart attacks, and is the basis for new medications such as Sildenafil (Viagra). Nitric oxide acts as a neurotransmitter and can modulate many neurological reactions. The immune system uses nitric oxide to destroy pathogens by interfering with key enzymes. Nitric oxide is responsible for both osteoclastic and osteoblastic responses in bone and is a key player in the degenerative aspects of arthritis. The process of apoptosis employs nitric oxide in the orderly removal of unneeded cells. There is clear evidence that major signaling and control mechanisms exist in the body apart from the nervous system. Chiropractic is thus faced with the challenge of how to incorporate this new knowledge which conflicts with traditional chiropractic concepts.

  16. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Corbelli, Regula; Hammer, Jrg

    2007-09-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is produced in high quantity in the upper airways. It is thought to be involved in host defence functions and regulation of mucociliary function, and to serve as a biochemical airborne transmitter. The measurement of nNO is easy and non-invasive. It has evolved as a screening test to exclude primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in patients with suggestive symptoms, because nNO is extremely low in this condition. Nasal NO is also altered in other nasal, sinus and pulmonary pathologies, but is without diagnostic value outside of PCD. PMID:17868927

  17. Novel effects of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  18. Nitric oxide is required for determining root architecture and lignin composition in sunflower. Supporting evidence from microarray analyses.

    PubMed

    Corti Monzón, Georgina; Pinedo, Marcela; Di Rienzo, Julio; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Pomar, Federico; Lamattina, Lorenzo; de la Canal, Laura

    2014-05-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule involved in several physiological processes in plants, including root development. Despite the importance of NO as a root growth regulator, the knowledge about the genes and metabolic pathways modulated by NO in this process is still limited. A constraint to unravel these pathways has been the use of exogenous applications of NO donors that may produce toxic effects. We have analyzed the role of NO in root architecture through the depletion of endogenous NO using the scavenger cPTIO. Sunflower seedlings growing in liquid medium supplemented with cPTIO showed unaltered primary root length while the number of lateral roots was deeply reduced; indicating that endogenous NO participates in determining root branching in sunflower. The transcriptional changes induced by NO depletion have been analyzed using a large-scale approach. A microarray analysis showed 330 genes regulated in the roots (p≤0.001) upon endogenous NO depletion. A general cPTIO-induced up-regulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway was observed. Even if no detectable changes in total lignin content could be detected, cell walls analyses revealed that the ratio G/S lignin increased in roots treated with cPTIO. This means that endogenous NO may control lignin composition in planta. Our results suggest that a fine tuning regulation of NO levels could be used by plants to regulate root architecture and lignin composition. The functional implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24747108

  19. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  20. Role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lubos, Edith; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade basic and clinical research has highlighted the central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease. Enhanced production or attenuated degradation of ROS leads to oxidative stress, a process that affects endothelial and vascular function, and contributes to vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO), a product of the normal endothelium, is a principal determinant of normal endothelial and vascular function. In states of inflammation, NO production by the vasculature increases considerably and, in conjunction with other ROS, contributes to oxidative stress. This review examines the role of oxidative stress and NO in mechanisms of endothelial and vascular dysfunction with an emphasis on atherothrombosis. PMID:18508590

  1. Triple point determinations of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, 2.2 percent by weight nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Irwin D.; Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1977-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to ascertain the triple points of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. A laboratory method indicated a triple point for monomethylhydrazine, but tests in a large vacuum chamber indicated that a triple point does not occur in spacelike conditions because the mono-methylhydrazine tends to supercool. Instead, an effective freezing point (with agitation) was obtained. New experimental values for liquid monomethylhydrazine vapor pressure were determined for temperatures from 275.2 to 207.6 K. The values were used to derive vapor pressure equations. Tentative values were obtained for the effective freezing point of nitrogen tetroxide spacelike conditions.

  2. Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

  3. Airway nitric oxide in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, D.; Gustafsson, L.; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Frostell, C.; Paiva, M.

    2005-10-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO), a molecule with a wide range of biological effects, is found in exhaled gas. Elevation of expired NO is an early sign of airway inflammation in asthma and dust inhalation. Animal experiments have demonstrated a marked increase of expired NO after venous gas emboli (bubbles, VGE), which may occur after decompression in conjunction with extravehicular activity (EVA). For this MAP project, astronauts will perform a simple inhalation-exhalation procedure weekly during their flights, and before and after EVA. Furthermore, the microgravity environment offers a possibility to gain new insights into how and where NO is formed in the lungs and what local effects NO may have there. The planned experiments have been made possible by recent developments of new techniques by the team's industrial partners; Aerocrine has developed a highly compact and accurate NO analyser, and Linde Gas Theapeutics has developed a highly compact device for NO administration in the inhaled air.

  4. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  5. Genotype polymorphisms of genes regulating nitric oxide synthesis determine long-term arteriovenous fistula patency in male hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hua; Tsai, Wen-Jung; Chen, Yu-Wei; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lee, Chiu-Yang; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Chen, Yung-Tai; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lee, Pui-Ching; Chung, Ming-Yi; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Nitric oxide (NO) is a pivotal vasoactive substance modulating arteriovenous fistula (AVF) patency for hemodialysis (HD). Since genetic background could be the predicting factor of AVF malfunction, we aimed to investigate whether the NO-related genotype polymorphisms determine AVF survival rates. Methods This is a retrospective, observational, multi-center study involving eight HD units in Taiwan, enrolled 580 patients initiating maintenance HD via AVFs. Genotype polymorphisms of NO-biosynthesis regulating enzymes (DDAH-1, DDAH-2, eNOS and PRMT1) were compared between HD patients with (n?=?161) and without (n?=?419) history of AVF malfunction. Subgroup analyses by gender were performed to evaluate the genetic effect in difference sexes. Results In overall population, statistically significant associations were not found between AVF malfunction and the genetic polymorphisms. In the male subgroup (n?=?313), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PRMT1, rs10415880 (IVS9-193 A/G), showed a significant association with AVF malfunction. Male patients with AA/AG genotype had inferior AVF outcomes compared to GG genotype, regarding primary patency (70.6% vs. 40.9%, p?=?0.001), assisted primary patency (81.0% vs. 58.4%, p?

  6. Nitric oxide signaling in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ho, J J David; Man, H S Jeffrey; Marsden, Philip A

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) is classically viewed as a regulator of vasomotor tone. NO plays an important role in regulating O(2) delivery through paracrine control of vasomotor tone locally and cardiovascular and respiratory responses centrally. Very soon after the cloning and functional characterization of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), studies on the interaction between O(2) and NO made the paradoxical finding that hypoxia led to decreases in eNOS expression and function. Why would decreases in O(2) content in tissues elicit a loss of a potent endothelial-derived vasodilator? We now know that restricting our view of NO as a regulator of vasomotor tone or blood pressure limited deeper levels of mechanistic insight. Exciting new studies indicate that functional interactions between NO and O(2) exhibit profound complexity and are relevant to diseases states, especially those associated with hypoxia in tissues. NOS isoforms catalytically require O(2). Hypoxia regulates steady-state expression of the mRNA and protein abundance of the NOS enzymes. Animals genetically deficient in NOS isoforms have perturbations in their ability to adapt to changes in O(2) supply or demand. Most interestingly, the intracellular pathways for O(2) sensing that evolved to ensure an appropriate balance of O(2) delivery and utilization intersect with NO signaling networks. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization and transcriptional activity is achieved through two parallel pathways: (1) a decrease in O(2)-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of HIF and (2) S-nitrosylation of HIF pathway components. Recent findings support a role for S-nitrosothiols as hypoxia-mimetics in certain biological and/or disease settings, such as living at high altitude, exposure to small molecules that can bind NO, or anemia. PMID:22349396

  7. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  8. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juvic M; Casart, Ysabel C; Camejo, Mara I

    2016-02-01

    Placental explant culture, and cellular cytolysis and cellular differentiation have been previously studied. However, oxidative stress and nitric oxide profiles have not been evaluated in these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the release of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide from placental explants cultured over a seven day period. Placental explants were maintained for seven days in culture and the medium was changed every 24 hours. The response was assessed in terms of syncytiotrophoblast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG), cellular cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), and nitric oxide (NO). Levels of hCG increased progressively from day two to attain its highest level on days four and five after which it decreased gradually. In contrast, the levels of LDH, TBARS, and NO were elevated in the early days of placental culture when new syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast were forming and also in the last days of culture when tissue was declining. In conclusion, the levels of NO and lipid peroxidation follow a pattern similar to LDH and contrary to hCG. Future placental explant studies to evaluate oxidative stress and NO should consider the physiological changes inherent during the time of culture. PMID:26366632

  9. Cogeneration of electric energy and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Vayenas, C G; Farr, R D

    1980-05-01

    A solid electrolyte fuel cell operating on ammonia fuel has been constructed and tested. The yield of nitric oxide can exceed 60 percent with simultaneous electric energy production. Two dimensionless numbers have been identified which govern the product selectivity and power output of this fuel cell. The cell appears to be a promising candidate for nitric acid and electric energy cogeneration. PMID:17732844

  10. Calculated Effects of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Karen E.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    1995-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. The study was conducted for standard facility conditions corresponding to Mach 6, 7, and 8 flight simulations. The analytically determined levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility are compared with experimentally measured levels. Results of the analysis indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, which corroborates the measured levels. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate how nitric oxide affects scramjet performance in terms of combustor pressure rise, heat release, and thrust performance. Results indicate minimal effects on engine performance for the test conditions of this investigation.

  11. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  12. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to...

  15. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  16. Nitric oxide production by Tunguska meteor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1978-01-01

    The nonequilibrium chemical processes of nitric oxide formation are computed for the wake of the Tunguska meteor of 1908. The wake characteristics are derived by carrying out an optically-thick radiation field analysis for ablation of the meteoroid. The wake flow field is approximated by a one-dimensional, well-stirred reactor model. Known characteristics of the Tunguska event are imposed as constraints, and three controlling parameters - chemical composition, density, and velocity - are varied over a range around the values derived by Korobeinikov et al. (1976) and Petrov and Stulov (1975). The calculation shows that at least 19 million tons of nitric oxide is produced between the altitudes of 10 and 50 km. The anomalous atmospheric phenomena following the event are attributed to the reactions involving nitric oxide thus produced and atmospheric ozone. It is speculated that the nitric oxide produced by the event fertilized the area near the fall, causing the observed rapid plant growth.

  17. C-nitroso donors of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Harinath; Bartberger, Michael D; Toone, Eric J

    2009-02-20

    A complete understanding of the biological activity of nitric oxide (NO) is complicated by the different reactivity profiles of its various species and by the often complex decomposition behavior of the NO progenitors in common use. Here, we report that appropriately substituted C-nitroso compounds act solely as donors of neutral nitric oxide through a first-order homolytic C-N bond scission to release up to 88% nitric oxide in DMSO at 25 degrees C. The reaction produces a carbon radical, and the yield of nitric oxide is dependent on the availability of radical traps. C-Nitroso compounds are sources of biologically active neutral NO and display potent NO bioactivity in a rabbit aortic ring assay. PMID:19146387

  18. Amplified laser absorption - Detection of nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Weisbach, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results are reported for the power loss of a carbon monoxide gas laser due to the absorption of small amounts of nitric oxide placed in an intra-laser-cavity absorption cell. It was found, for the particular experimental conditions employed, that the absorption coefficient of nitric oxide at 1900.04/cm is enhanced more than two orders of magnitude when it is in the intracavity cell. Finally, the experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase in ferret brain: localization and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell, J. A.; Schmidt, H. H.; Kohlhaas, K. L.; Warner, T. D.; Frstermann, U.; Murad, F.

    1992-01-01

    1. In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the ferret brain. Nitric oxide synthase was determined biochemically and immunochemically. 2. In the rat brain, the highest nitric oxide synthase activity has been detected in the cerebellum. However, in the ferret brain, the highest activity was found in the striatum and the lowest in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The enzymatic activity was localized predominantly in the cytosolic fractions, it was dependent on NADPH and Ca2+, and inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine or NG-methyl-L-arginine. 3. Western blot analysis revealed that all regions of the ferret brain contained a 160 kD protein crossreacting with an antibody to nitric oxide synthase purified from the rat cerebellum, and the levels of relative intensity of staining by the antibody correlated with the distribution of nitric oxide synthase activity. 4. These results indicate that the ferret brain contains a nitric oxide synthase similar to the rat brain, but the distribution of enzymatic activity in the ferret brain differs markedly from the rat brain. Images Figure 1 PMID:1282076

  20. Nitric Oxide Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has become prominent over the years. Increased activity of the enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes and imbalances in glutathione pools mediate and mark the neurodegenerative process. Much of the oxidative damage of proteins is brought about by the overproduction of nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and its subsequent reactivity with reactive oxygen species. Proteomic methods have advanced the field tremendously, by facilitating the quantitative assessment of differential expression patterns and oxidative modifications of proteins and alongside, mapping their non-canonical functions. As a signaling molecule involved in multiple biochemical pathways, the level of nitric oxide is subject to tight regulation. All three NOS isoforms display aberrant patterns of expression in Alzheimer's disease, altering intracellular signaling and routing oxidative stress in directions that are uncompounded. This review discusses the prime factors that control nitric oxide biosynthesis, reactivity footprints and ensuing effects in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26391043

  1. Electrochemical assay for the determination of nitric oxide metabolites using copper(II) chlorophyllin modified screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Murugesan; Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a novel electrochemical assay for the collective measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and its metabolites nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) in volume miniaturized sample at low cost using copper(II) chlorophyllin (CuCP) modified sensor electrode. Zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used as a host matrix for the immobilization of CuCP. The morphological changes of the ZnO and CuCP modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization of CuCP-ZnO-SPCE exhibited the characteristic quasi-reversible redox peaks at the potential +0.06 V versus Ag/AgCl. This biosensor electrode showed a wide linear range of response over NO concentrations from 200 nM to 500 ?M with a detection limit of 100 nM and sensitivity of 85.4 nA ?M(-1). Furthermore, NO2(-) measurement showed linearity of 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 100 nM for NO2(-) and sensitivity of 96.4 nA ?M(-1). Then, the concentration of NO3(-) was measured after its enzymatic conversion into NO2(-). Using this assay, the concentrations of NO, NO2(-), and NO3(-) present in human plasma samples before and after beetroot supplement were estimated using suitable membrane coated CuCP-ZnO-SPCE and validated with the standard Griess method. PMID:25700865

  2. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  3. The formation of a complex between calmodulin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase is determined by ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Shirran, Sally; Garnaud, Pierre; Daff, Simon; McMillan, Derek; Barran, Perdita

    2005-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an acidic ubiquitous calcium binding protein, involved in many intracellular processes, which often involve the formation of complexes with a variety of protein and peptide targets. One such system, activated by Ca2+ loaded CaM, is regulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, which in turn control the production of the signalling molecule and cytotoxin NO. A recent crystallographic study mapped the interaction of CaM with endothelial NOS (eNOS) using a 20 residue peptide comprising the binding site within eNOS. Here the interaction of CaM to the FMN domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The 46?kDa complex formed by CaMnNOS has been retained in the gas-phase, and is shown to be exclusively selective for CaM.4Ca2+. Further characterization of this important biological system has been afforded by examining a complex of CaM with a 22 residue synthetic peptide, which represents the linker region between the reductase and oxygenase domains of nNOS. This nNOS linker peptide, which is found to be random coil in aqueous solution by both circular dichroism and molecular modelling, also exhibits great discrimination for the form of CaM loaded with 4[Ca2+]. The peptide binding loop is presumed to be configured to an ?-helix on binding to CaM as was found for the related eNOS binding peptide. Our postulate is supported by gas-phase molecular dynamics calculations performed on the isolated nNOS peptide. Collision induced dissociation was employed to probe the strength of binding of the nNOS binding peptide to CaM.4Ca2+. The methodology taken here is a new approach in understanding the CaMnNOS binding site, which could be employed in future to inform the specificity of CaM binding to other NOS enzymes. PMID:16849206

  4. (-)-Epicatechin reduces blood pressure increase in high-fructose-fed rats: effects on the determinants of nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Litterio, Maria C; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A; Adamo, Ana M; Elesgaray, Rosana; Oteiza, Patricia I; Galleano, Monica; Fraga, Cesar G

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin in a model of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a regular chow diet without (Control) or with 10% (w/v) fructose in the drinking water (high fructose, HF) for 8 weeks. A subgroup of the HF-fed rats was supplemented with (-)-epicatechin 20 mg/kg body weight (HF-EC). Dietary (-)-epicatechin reverted the increase in BP caused by the fructose treatment. In aorta, superoxide anion production and the expression of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits p47(phox) and p22(phox) were enhanced in the HF-fed rats. The increase was prevented by (-)-epicatechin. Similar profile was observed for NOX4 expression. The activity of aorta nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was increased in the HF group and was even higher in the HF-EC rats. These effects were paralleled by increased endothelial NOS phosphorylation at the activation site Ser1177. Among the more relevant mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in vascular tissue, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was shown to be activated in the aorta of the HF-fed rats, and (-)-epicatechin supplementation mitigated this activation. Thus, the results suggest that dietary (-)-epicatechin supplementation prevented hypertension in HF-fed rats, decreasing superoxide anion production and elevating NOS activity, favoring an increase in NO bioavailability. PMID:25943039

  5. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  6. Nitric oxide is not the sole determinant of hypercapnic or metabolically driven vasodilation in the cerebral circulation.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J

    1994-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been suggested to play a major role in a number of circulatory responses both within and outside the central nervous system. It has been linked to hypercapnic vasodilatation, metabolically driven changes in cerebral blood flow and hypoxia-induced changes in brain blood flow. In the studies the question of role of NO in hypercapnic vasodilatation and metabolically driven changes in flow is examined in the cat. Animals were anaesthetised with halothane and alpha-chloralose and ventilated. Cardiorespiratory parameters were monitored and kept within normal limits. Cerebral blood flow was monitored with laser Doppler flowmetry (CBFLDF) in the parietal cortex which metabolic activity was contemporaneously and continuously monitored using electrophysiological techniques. Hypercapnia was induced by increasing the end-expiratory CO2 to 8.1 +/- 0.4% and this produced a brisk rise in CBFLDF of 153 +/- 23%. Metabolic activity was increased by superfusion of the cortical surface with bicuculline (10 pmol) which increased cell firing and CBFLDF. Local administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) did affect the metabolically driven change in CBFLDF and only attenuated by 20% overall the hypercapnic vasodilator response. These studies suggest that at least in the anaesthetised cat NO does not play the pivotal role in these important vasodilator functions. PMID:7836690

  7. Inhaled Nitric Oxide and Related Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Frederick E.; Macrae, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Children with congenital heart defects are at risk for perioperative pulmonary hypertension if they require corrective or palliative surgery in the first week of life or if they have defects associated with significant pulmonary over circulation. In addition children undergoing cavopulmonary connections for single ventricle lesions require low pulmonary vascular resistance for surgical success. Treatment of perioperative pulmonary hypertension with inhaled nitric oxide has become standard therapy in many centers. Related drugs that increase nitric oxide synthesis including arginine and citrulline have also been studied in the perioperative period. In this article, previous clinical trials of inhaled nitric oxide, intravenous arginine, and intravenous and oral citrulline in children with perioperative pulmonary hypertension or elevated pulmonary vascular resistance after a cavopulmonary connection are reviewed. In addition, recommendations are presented for each agent on the clinical use in the perioperative setting including clinical indications, assessment of clinical effect, and length of therapy. PMID:20216160

  8. Nitric oxide methods in seed biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous, free radical that is involved in many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Compelling evidence points to a central role for NO in the loss of seed dormancy. NO is highly reactive, toxic at high concentrations, and unstable. Methods f...

  9. Copper deficiency attenuates endothelial nitric oxide release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary copper deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to deter...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... A breath nitric oxide test system combines chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide with...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... A breath nitric oxide test system combines chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide with...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... A breath nitric oxide test system combines chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide with...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... A breath nitric oxide test system combines chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide with...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... A breath nitric oxide test system combines chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide with...

  16. Glutathione regulates nitric oxide synthase in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Harbrecht, B G; Di Silvio, M; Chough, V; Kim, Y M; Simmons, R L; Billiar, T R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determine the relationship between glutathione and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in cultured hepatocytes. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Glutathione is a cofactor for a number of enzymes, and its presence is essential for maximal enzyme activity by the inducible macrophage nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produces the reactive nitric oxide radical. Hepatocytes contain substantial quantities of glutathione, and this important tripeptide is decreased in hepatocytes stressed by ischemia/reperfusion or endotoxemia. Endotoxemia also induces the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines that result in the production of nitric oxide from hepatocytes by iNOS, suggesting that hepatocytes may be attempting to synthesize nitric oxide at times when intracellular glutathione is reduced. METHODS: Hepatocytes were cultured with buthionine sulfoximine and 1,3-bis(chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to inhibit glutathione. After exposure to cytokines, NO synthesis was assessed by supernatant nitrite levels, cytosolic iNOS enzyme activity, and iNOS mRNA levels. RESULTS: Inhibition of glutathione synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine or inhibition of glutathione reductase activity with BCNU inhibited nitrite synthesis. Both buthionine sulfoximine and BCNU inhibited the induction of iNOS mRNA, as detected by Northern blot analysis. Exogenous glutathione increased cytokine-stimulated iNOS induction, overcame the inhibitory effects of BCNU, and increased nitrite production by intact hepatocytes, induced hepatocyte cytosol, and partially purified hepatocyte iNOS. CONCLUSIONS: In cultured hepatocytes, adequate glutathione levels are required for optimal nitric oxide synthesis. This finding is predominantly due to an effect on iNOS mRNA levels, although glutathione also participates in the regulation of iNOS enzyme activity. Images Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8998123

  17. A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

  18. Modulatory role of nitric oxide in cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Smilji?, Sonja; Nestorovi?, Vojkan; Savi?, Sla?ana

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is produced by almost all cardiac cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and nerve fibers. It is synthesized by an enzyme, a nitric oxide synthase, which occurs in endothelial, neural and inducible form. The distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the heart is characterized by a pronounced non-uniformity. Nitric oxide exerts its effects in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The physiological effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide, which is released in the normal conditions under the influence of constituent enzymes, occur via cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The synthesized nitric oxide exhibits its effect in the cells where it is produced, in an autocrine manner, or by diffusing into the neighboring cells, in a paracrine manner. Nitric oxide acts by regulating the coronary vessel tonus, affecting the contractility of cardiomyocytes, generating an inotropic effect in a dose-dependent manner and controlling the cellular respiration. Other effects of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system include the hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, the inhibition of the monocyte adhesion, the inhibition of platelet migration, adhesion and aggregation and the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The anti-atherosclerotic effects of nitric oxide are based on these effects. Nitric oxide is a weak free radical in gaseous state, and the cytotoxic and/or the cytoprotective effects of the higher concentrations of nitric oxide are related to the chemical structure of nitric oxide as a free radical. The excessive production of nitric oxide by the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase can lead to major irregularities in the function of cardiomyocytes and cardiac insufficiency. Understanding the nitric oxide molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways in the heart can provide a new strategic approach to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25546983

  19. Nitric oxide, inflammation and acute burn injury.

    PubMed

    Rawlingson, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NOz.rad;) is a diatomic mediator liberated on oxidation of L-arginine by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. It has complex and wide ranging functions in vivo and has been implicated in the development of the profound inflammatory response that occurs as a result of cutaneous burn injury. In addition, dysregulation of NOS activity has been associated with multiple organ failure in human burn patients and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target in such circumstances. This review focuses on the role of NOz.rad; in inflammation, with particular emphasis on the acute post-burn inflammatory response. Specific areas of discussion include the maintenance of microvascular haemostasis, leukocyte recruitment and remote organ dysfunction following thermal injury. PMID:14556720

  20. Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernndez, Sal; Rodrguez-Monroy, Marco A; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Carrasco-Yepez, Marisela; Miliar-Garca, Angel; Campos-Rodrguez, Rafael

    2007-07-01

    Free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri produces an acute and fatal infectious disease called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), whose pathophysiological mechanism is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in PAM. Although NO has a cytotoxic effect on various parasites, it is produced by others as part of the pathology, as is the case with Entamoeba histolytica. To test for the production of NO, we analyzed whether antibodies against mammalian NO synthase isoforms (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial) presented immunoreactivity to N. fowleri proteins. We found that the trophozoites produced NO in vitro. The Western blot results, which showed N. fowleri trophozoites, contained proteins that share epitopes with the three described mammalian NOS, but have relative molecular weights different than those described in the literature, suggesting that N. fowleri may contain undescribed NOS isoforms. Moreover, we found that trophozoites reacted to the NOS2 antibody, in amebic cultures as well as in the mouse brain infected with N. fowleri, suggesting that nitric oxide may participate in the pathogenesis of PAM. Further research aimed at determining whether N. fowleri contains active novel NOS isoforms could lead to the design of new therapies against this parasite. PMID:17340143

  1. Activated Macrophages as a Novel Determinant of Tumor Cell Radioresponse: The Role of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition of Cellular Respiration and Oxygen Sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Heng; De Ridder, Mark; Verovski, Valeri N.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Law, Kalun; Monsaert, Christinne; Van den Berge, Dirk L.; Verellen, Dirk; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard; Storme, Guy A.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is known to inhibit metabolic oxygen consumption because of interference with mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study examined whether activation of iNOS (a) directly in tumor cells or (b) in bystander macrophages may improve radioresponse through sparing of oxygen. Methods and Materials: EMT-6 tumor cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma, and examined for iNOS expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzymatic activity. Tumor cells alone, or combined with macrophages were subjected to metabolic hypoxia and analyzed for radiosensitivity by clonogenic assay, and for oxygen consumption by electron paramagnetic resonance and a Clark-type electrode. Results: Both tumor cells and macrophages displayed a coherent picture of iNOS induction at transcriptional/translational levels and NO/nitrite production, whereas macrophages showed also co-induction of the inducible heme oxygenase-1, which is associated with carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin production. Activation of iNOS in tumor cells resulted in a profound oxygen sparing and a 2.3-fold radiosensitization. Bystander NO-producing, but not CO-producing, macrophages were able to block oxygen consumption by 1.9-fold and to radiosensitize tumor cells by 2.2-fold. Both effects could be neutralized by aminoguanidine, a metabolic iNOS inhibitor. An improved radioresponse was clearly observed at macrophages to tumor cells ratios ranging between 1:16 to 1:1. Conclusions: Our study is the first, as far as we are aware, to provide evidence that iNOS may induce radiosensitization through oxygen sparing, and illuminates NO-producing macrophages as a novel determinant of tumor cell radioresponse within the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  2. Paraxanthine: Connecting Caffeine to Nitric Oxide Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Marco; Guitart, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Recent results obtained in our laboratory indicate that paraxanthine, the main metabolite of caffeine in humans, produces a significantly stronger locomotor activation in rats than caffeine. Furthermore, paraxanthine also produced a very significant increase in striatal extracellular concentrations of dopamine. Searching for an additional mechanism other than adenosine antagonism responsible for these psychostimulant-like effects, it was found that paraxanthine, but not caffeine, inhibited cGMP-preferring phosphodiesterases. Furthermore, interrupting nitric oxide neurotransmision (inhibiting nitric oxide synthase) significantly decreased both the locomotor-activating and the dopamine-releasing effects of paraxanthine. These results open up some obvious questions about the role of paraxanthine in the pharmacological effects of caffeine. PMID:24761277

  3. Nitroreductase-activated nitric oxide (NO) prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Sengupta, Kundan; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2013-11-01

    Due to the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in numerous and diverse physiological processes, site-directed delivery of therapeutic NO in order to minimize unwanted side-effects is necessary. O(2)-(4-Nitrobenzyl) diazeniumdiolates are designed as substrates for Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR), an enzyme that is frequently used to facilitate directed delivery of cytotoxic species to cancers. O(2)-(4-Nitrobenzyl) diazeniumdiolates are found to be stable in aqueous buffer but are metabolized by NTR to produce NO. A cell viability assay revealed that cytotoxic effects of O(2)-(4-nitrobenzyl)1-(2-methylpiperidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (4b) towards two cancer cell lines is significantly enhanced in the presence of NTR suggesting the potential for use of this compound in nitric oxide-based directed prodrug therapy. PMID:24050886

  4. Is nitric oxide the retrograde messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-29

    Nitric oxide is one of the more bizarre messenger molecules used by cells. Dissolved in the aqueous cellular fluids, it slips right through membranes that would contain other molecules and is so reactive that it disappears within moments of its production. Yet it seems to play an important role in many parts of the body, including the brain. Four years ago it was shown to trigger blood vessel relaxation, and its discovery in the brain the following year left neuroscientists speculating about a number of roles it may play there. Now, in a collection of data comes evidence for a particularly exciting role: nitric oxide may be a key chemical player in the storage of memories in the brain.

  5. Analytical study of mechanisms for nitric oxide formation during combustion of methane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The role of chemical kinetics in the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of methane was examined analytically by means of a detailed chemical mechanism for the oxidation of methane, for the reaction between hydrocarbon fragments, and for the formation of nitric oxide. By comparing predicted nitric oxide levels with values reported in the literature from jet-stirred combuster experiments, it was determined that the nitric oxide levels observed in fuel-rich flames cannot be described by a mechanism in which the rate of nitric oxide formation is controlled solely by the kinetics of oxygen atom formation. A proposed mechanism for the formation of nitric oxide in methane-rich flames reproduces the observed levels. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide appears to be an important factor in nitric oxide formation.

  6. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition prevents new coronary capillary generation.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Daphn; Jover, Bernard; Moles, Jean-Pierre; Deblois, Denis; Moreau, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    L-NAME-induced hypertension has been shown to produce concentric (eutrophic) remodeling of the heart despite an enhanced afterload. We postulated that nitric oxide synthase inhibition could limit coronary capillary growth to explain the nature of remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we aimed at determining the effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on coronary neovascularization. Aortic and coronary rings from normotensive animals were incubated in a three-dimensional type I collagen matrix in the presence of L-NAME or the nitric oxide donor SNAP. L-NAME inhibited, while SNAP stimulated, neovascularization from aortic and coronary rings after 12 days of in vitro incubation. In arterial rings harvested from rats treated with L-NAME for 14 days and in which no further in vitro treatment was added, only coronary rings showed a reduction in new capillary generation. While confirming that chronic L-NAME-treated rats develop concentric remodeling, the evaluation of capillary density did not reveal any difference as compared with the controls in 3 areas of the myocardium. In conclusion, chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in vivo produces a long-lasting reduction in the capacity of coronary arteries to generate new capillaries in vitro. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that an inhibition of new capillary formation could prevent the development of compensatory ventricular hypertrophy, in favor of concentric remodeling. PMID:15475829

  7. Endogenous nitric oxide generation in protoplast chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Prommer, Judith; Watanabe, Masami

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : NO generation is studied in the protoplast chloroplasts. NO, ONOO ( - ) and ROS (O ( 2 ) ( - ) and H ( 2 ) O ( 2 ) ) are generated in chloroplasts. Nitric oxide synthase-like protein appears to be involved in NO generation. Nitric oxide stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast differentiation. The present study was conducted to better understand the process of NO generation in the leaf chloroplasts and protoplasts. NO, peroxynitrite and superoxide anion were investigated in the protoplasts and isolated chloroplasts using specific dyes, confocal laser scanning and light microscopy. The level of NO was highest after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Suppression of NO signal in the presence of PTIO, suggests that diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA) detected NO. Detection of peroxynitrite, a reaction product of NO and superoxide anion, further suggests NO generation. Moreover, generation of NO and peroxynitrite in the chloroplasts of wild-type Arabidopsis and their absence or weak signals in the leaf-derived protoplasts of Atnoa1 mutants confirmed the reactivity of DAF-2DA and aminophenyl fluorescein to NO and peroxynitrite, respectively. Isolated chloroplasts also showed signal of NO. Suppression of NO signal in the presence of 100 μM nitric oxide synthase inhibitors [L-NNA, Nω-nitro-L-arginine and PBIT, S,S'-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)-bis-isothiourea] revealed that nitric oxide synthase-like system is involved in NO synthesis. Suppression of NO signal in the protoplasts isolated in the presence of cycloheximide suggests de novo synthesis of NO generating protein during the process of protoplast isolation. Furthermore, the lack of inhibition of NO production by sodium tungstate (250 μM) and inhibition by L-NNA, and PBIT suggest involvement NOS-like protein, but not nitrate reductase, in NO generation in the leaf chloroplasts and protoplasts. PMID:22971939

  8. Electrochemical nitric oxide sensors for physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Privett, Benjamin J; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2010-06-01

    The important biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) have prompted the development of analytical techniques capable of sensitive and selective detection of NO. Electrochemical sensing, more than any other NO detection method, embodies the parameters necessary for quantifying NO in challenging physiological environments such as blood and the brain. In this tutorial review, we provide a broad overview of the field of electrochemical NO sensors, including design, fabrication, and analytical performance characteristics. Both electrochemical sensors and biological applications are detailed. PMID:20502795

  9. Rate of Nitric Oxide Scavenging by hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Ivan; He, Xiaojun; Jeffers, Anne; Basu, Swati; Ucer, Burak; Hantgan, Roy R.; Levy, Andrew; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-free hemoglobin, released from the red cell, may play a major role in regulating the bioavailability of nitric oxide. The abundant serum protein haptoglobin, rapidly binds to free hemoglobin forming a stable complex accelerating its clearance. The haptoglobin gene is polymorphic with two classes of alleles denoted 1 and 2. We have previously demonstrated that the haptoglobin 1 protein-hemoglobin complex is cleared twice as fast as the haptoglobin 2 protein-hemoglobin complex. In this report we explored whether haptoglobin binding to hemoglobin reduces the rate of nitric oxide scavenging using time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. We found that both the haptoglobin 1 and haptoglobin 2 protein complexes react with nitric oxide at the same rate as unbound cell-free hemoglobin. To confirm these results we developed a novel assay where free hemoglobin and hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin competed in the reaction with NO. The relative rate of the NO reaction was then determined by examining the amount of reacted species using analytical ultracentrifugation. Since complexation of hemoglobin with haptoglobin does not reduce NO scavenging, we propose that the haptoglobin genotype may influence nitric oxide bioavailability by determining the clearance rate of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. We provide computer simulations showing that a two-fold difference in the rate of uptake of the haptoglobin hemoglobin complex by macrophages significantly affects nitric oxide bioavailability thereby providing a plausible explanation for why there is more vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in individuals and transgenic mice homozygous for the Hp 2 allele. PMID:18364244

  10. Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Rauhala, Pekka . E-mail: pekka.rauhala@helsinki.fi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chiueh, C.C.

    2005-09-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis may play an important role in the neurodegeneration. The present paper outlines antioxidative and antiapototic mechanisms of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols, which could mediate neuroprotection. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthase or released from an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione may up-regulate antioxidative thioredoxin system and antiapototic Bcl-2 protein through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nitric oxide radicals have been shown to have direct antioxidant effect through their reaction with free radicals and iron-oxygen complexes. In addition to serving as a stabilizer and carrier of nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione may have protective effect through transnitrosylation reactions. Based on these new findings, a hypothesis arises that the homeostasis of nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, glutathione, and thioredoxin systems is important for protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and related neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Vascular nitric oxide: formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Richard C; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a structurally simple, highly versatile molecule that was originally discovered over 30 years ago as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. In addition to its vasorelaxing effects, NO is now recognized as a key determinant of vascular health, exerting antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties within the vasculature. This short-lived molecule exerts its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets largely through cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms, resulting in a multitude of molecular effects by which platelet activation and aggregation are prevented. The biosynthesis of NO occurs via the catalytic activity of NO synthase, an oxidoreductase found in many cell types. NO insufficiency can be attributed to limited substrate/cofactor availability as well as interactions with reactive oxygen species. Impaired NO bioavailability represents the central feature of endothelial dysfunction, a common abnormality found in many vascular diseases. In this review, we present an overview of NO synthesis and biochemistry, discuss the mechanisms of action of NO in regulating platelet and endothelial function, and review the effects of vascular disease states on NO bioavailability. PMID:21572574

  12. Oxidative desulfurization of askale coal by nitric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guru, M.

    2007-07-01

    Efficient use of fossil fuels is of utmost importance in a world that depends on these for the greatest part of its energy needs. Although lignite is a widely used fossil fuel, its sulfur content limits its consumption. This study aims to capture combustible sulfur in the ash by oxidizing it with solution of nitric acid solution. Thus, the combustible sulfur in the coal was converted to sulfate form in the ash. Parameters affecting the conversion of sulfur were determined to be nitric acid concentration, reaction time and mean particle size at constant (near room) temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 38.7% of the original combustible sulfur with 0.3 M nitric acid solution, 16 h of reaction time and 0.1 mm mean particle size.

  13. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  14. Detection of hydrazine compounds in gaseous samples by their conversion to nitric oxide-yielding derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rounbehler, D.P.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a method of detecting the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in a gaseous sample, essentially in real time. The method consists of the steps of: (a) contacting a gaseous sample with aldehyde or ketone vapors to convert hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the sample to hydrazine derivatives; (b) heating the sample in the presence of an oxidant to decompose derivatives produced in steps (a) to produce nitric oxide gas; and (c) determining the amount of nitric oxide gas produced in step (b), wherein any nitric oxide gas determined is indicative of the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the gaseous sample.

  15. Development of sensors for nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) in mammalian systems has recently been recognized. Interest in NO stems from the discovery of its role in several processes. Firstly, NO is found to be an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Release of NO by endothelial cells lining blood vessels causes the surrounding smooth muscle of the vessel walls to relax. Secondly, it is known to inhibit the aggregation and adhesion of platelets in blood vessels. Thirdly, NO is believed to be formed by activated macrophage cells to assist in killing foreign cells. Lastly, NO acts in the brain both as a feedback messenger from post- to presynaptic nerve cells and as a conventional neurotransmitter affecting cells other than presynaptic nerve cells. In addition to these roles, it is likely that NO is involved in other processes given its reactivity and potential presence in all mammalian cells. Measurement of NO flux within biological systems is a challenging problem as NO is generated in the nanomolar to micromolar range and is subject to rapid oxidation. The three most common assay techniques for NO in biological systems include: (a) electron paramagnetic resonance detection, (b) hemoglobin oxidation, and (c) chemiluminescence detection with ozone. The authors have initiated research on the construction of a hemoglobin-based, fiber-optic sensor for the detection of nitric oxide in biological systems and progress toward this goal will be presented.

  16. Splenic B lymphocyte programmed cell death is prevented by nitric oxide release through mechanisms involving sustained Bcl-2 levels.

    PubMed Central

    Genaro, A M; Hortelano, S; Alvarez, A; Martnez, C; Bosc, L

    1995-01-01

    Incubation of ex vivo cultured mature B cells in the presence of nitric oxide or nitric oxide-donor substances delays programmed cell death as determined by the appearance of DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis or by flow-cytometry analysis of DNA. Nitric oxide also rescues B cells from antigen-induced apoptosis but fails to provide a co-stimulatory signal that converts the signal elicited by the antigen into a proliferative response. The protective effects of nitric oxide against programmed cell death can be reproduced by treatment of the cells with permeant analogues of cyclic GMP. Regarding the mechanisms by which nitric oxide prevents apoptosis in B cells, we have observed that nitric oxide release prevents the drop in the expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, both at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the existence of an unknown pathway that links nitric oxide signaling with Bcl-2 expression. Images PMID:7706495

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen . Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  18. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

  19. Nitric oxide regulates vascular adaptive mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Knaub, Leslie A; Olivera-Fragoso, Luis F; Keller, Amy C; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Watson, Peter A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2013-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity, are all correlated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. NO-mediated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been established in many tissues, yet the role of eNOS in vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is unclear. We hypothesized that genetic eNOS deletion and 3-day nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents would result in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and defunct fission/fusion and autophagy profiles within the aorta. We observed a significant, eNOS expression-dependent decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein subunits from complexes I, II, III, and V in eNOS heterozygotes and eNOS null mice compared with age-matched controls. In response to NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment in Sprague Dawley rats, significant decreases were observed in ETC protein subunits from complexes I, III, and IV as well as voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Decreased protein content of upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, cAMP response element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, were observed in response to 3-day L-NAME treatment. Both genetic eNOS deletion and NOS inhibition resulted in decreased manganese superoxide dismutase protein. L-NAME treatment resulted in significant changes to mitochondrial dynamic protein profiles with decreased fusion, increased fission, and minimally perturbed autophagy. In addition, L-NAME treatment blocked mitochondrial adaptation to an exercise intervention in the aorta. These results suggest that eNOS/NO play a role in basal and adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis in the vasculature and regulation of mitochondrial turnover. PMID:23585138

  20. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Paul R. S.; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Groeger, Alison L.; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H.; Iles, Karen E.; Baker, Laura M. S.; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 52 and 302 369 nM, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 11 and 155 65 nM. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is ~50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 ?M. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR? expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPAR? showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nM, while PPAR? and PPAR? were activated at ~300 nM OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR?-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  1. Role of nitric oxide in parasitic infections.

    PubMed Central

    James, S L

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide is produced by a number of different cell types in response to cytokine stimulation and thus has been found to play a role in immunologically mediated protection against a growing list of protozoan and helminth parasites in vitro and in animal models. The biochemical basis of its effects on the parasite targets appears to involve primarily inactivation of enzymes crucial to energy metabolism and growth, although it has other biologic activities as well. NO is produced not only by macrophages and macrophage-like cells commonly associated with the effector arm of cell-mediated immune reactivity but also by cells commonly considered to lie outside the immunologic network, such as hepatocytes and endothelial cells, which are intimately involved in the life cycle of a number of parasites. NO production is stimulated by gamma interferon in combination with tumor necrosis factor alpha or other secondary activation signals and is regulated by a number of cytokines (especially interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor beta) and other mediators, as well as through its own inherent inhibitory activity. The potential for design of prevention and/or intervention approaches against parasitic infection (e.g., vaccination or combination chemo- and immunotherapy strategies) on the basis of induction of cell-mediated immunity and NO production appears to be great, but the possible pathogenic consequences of overproduction of NO must be taken into account. Moreover, more research on the role and regulation of NO in human parasitic infection is needed before its possible clinical relevance can be determined. PMID:8531884

  2. Analysis of the ultraviolet emissions of nitric oxide from mid-latitude rocket observations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, M.J.

    1990-06-01

    Ultraviolet emissions of the Earth's ionosphere in the wavelength range of 2000 A to 2500 A are analyzed. These data were obtained by a rocket-borne spectrograph flown on March 30, 1990 from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The gamma and epsilon bands of nitric oxide dominate this portion of the spectrum. Column densities of nitric oxide are determined by fitting eleven of the most prominent bands with synthetic spectra. Additionally, a temperature profile is found between the altitudes of 145 km and 195 km. From the data, corrections to the Franck-Condon factors are determined for three v (Z primes) progressions of the nitric oxide gamma bands.

  3. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingzi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-10-01

    As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP)] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:26499181

  4. Nitrones are able to release nitric oxide in aqueous environment under hydroxyl free radical attack.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Ibolya, Fülöp; Pop, Maria Cristiana; Dergez, Timea; Mitroi, Brânduşa; Dogaru, Maria Titica; Tokés, Béla

    2011-10-30

    Importance of a nitric oxide donor that can act as a spin trap might bring some new therapeutic possibilities regarding the treatment of ischemic diseases by reducing the intensity of free radical produced reperfusion lesions. These substances might be also used as a new type of photo protectors since they can absorb UV radiation, capture free radicals formed by interaction of UV radiation with tissue constituents, and tanning of the skin will be permitted due to nitric oxide release. The purpose of this work was to measure the ability of nitrones to release nitric oxide and how different factors (temperature, nitrone concentration, and free radicals) influence the releasing ability. Mostly, indirect determination of nitric oxide was carried out, by measuring nitrite and nitrate amounts (as decomposition products of nitric oxide), all nitrones proved to release significant amounts of nitric oxide. Nitrite measurements were made based on an HPLC-VIS method that uses pre-column derivatization of nitrite by forming an azo dye (limit of quantification: 5ng/ml). No good correlation was found between the amount of nitric oxide and temperature for most studied nitrones but between the formation of nitric oxide and nitrone concentration an asymptotic correlation was found. Fenton reagent also yielded formation of nitric oxide from nitrones and formed amounts were not different from those recorded for UV irradiation. Most of the nitrones effectively released about 0.5% of the maximum amount of nitric oxide that is chemically possible and estimated concentrations of 0.1μM were present in the solutions during decomposition. PMID:21645628

  5. Melatonin and its precursors scavenge nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Y.; Mori, A.; Liburdy, R.; Packer, L.

    1998-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of melatonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan was examined by the Griess reaction using flow injection analysis. 1-Hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene(NOC-7) was used as NO generator. The Griess reagent stoichiometrically reacts with NO2-, which was converted by a cadmium-copper reduction column from the stable end products of NO oxidation. Except for tryptophan, all the compounds examined scavenged NO in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested. Serotonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively, showed moderate scavenging activity compared to melatonin. Tryptophan, which has neither a methoxy nor a hydroxyl group in the 5-position, exhibited the least NO scavenging activity.

  6. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  7. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked…

  8. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked

  9. DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

  10. The Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-17

    To assess the importance of iron to hydrazine stability, the study of hydrazine oxidation by nitric acid has been extended to investigate the iron-catalyzed oxidation. This report describes those results.

  11. Therapeutic approaches using nitric oxide in infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality associated with many pediatric pulmonary and cardiac diseases. Nitric oxide, a gas molecule, is a unique pharmaceutical agent that can be inhaled and thus delivered directly to the lung. Inhaled nitric oxide was approved by the FDA in 1999 as a therapy for infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Since then, the use of inhaled nitric oxide has expanded to other neonatal and pediatric conditions, and our knowledge of its properties and mechanisms of action has increased tremendously. This review will discuss the physiology of nitric oxide signaling, the most common indications for its clinical use, and promising new investigations that may enhance endogenous production of nitric oxide and/or improve vascular response to it. PMID:21237265

  12. Reduction of nitric oxide emissions from a combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide emissions by employing successive combustion zones is described. After combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide emissions. Low nitric oxide emissions are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion to be accompanied by low nitric oxide emissions resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion (ignited by the emission products from the primary zone) in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low emission of nitric oxide.

  13. The latitudinal gradient of nitric oxide in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Gerard, J.-C.; Stewart, A. I.; Rusch, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of nitric oxide altitude profiles are made at five different latitudes by using neutral temperatures and composition primarily from the MSIS (mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter) model. The nitric oxide calculated for an altitude of 105 km remains nearly constant with increasing latitude. Observations made by the ultraviolet nitric oxide instrument on the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite show that at low magnetic activity (Ap value of approximately 4), the NO density at 105 km agrees with the theory; however, at moderate levels of activity it increases with latitude. This discrepancy between the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients of nitric oxide suggests the transport of NO from a high latitude source to lower latitudes. At 200 km the theoretical and observed latitudinal gradients are in reasonable agreement, an indication that the knowledge of the local composition and temperature is sufficient to model nitric oxide at this altitude.

  14. Pharmacology of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and nitrovasodilators.

    PubMed Central

    Ignarro, L. J.; Ross, G.; Tillisch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide is the active chemical species responsible for the vasodilator action of nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, and related nitrovasodilators. The most potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation known, nitric oxide was recently discovered to occur endogenously as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. The pharmacology of endothelium-derived nitric oxide is virtually identical to that of the clinically used nitrovasodilators. Although endothelium-derived relaxing factor or endothelium-derived nitric oxide seems to be important in animals, its significance in humans still needs to be shown. We review the recent discoveries in the identification, biosynthesis, metabolism, and biologic actions of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, its significance in humans, and its relation to the clinically used nitrovasodilators. PMID:1902612

  15. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite interactions with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Radi, Rafael; Cassina, Adriana; Hodara, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (*NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) avidly interact with mitochondrial components, leading to a range of biological responses spanning from the modulation of mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial dysfunction to the signaling of apoptotic cell death. Physiological levels of *NO primarily interact with cytochrome c oxidase, leading to a competitive and reversible inhibition of mitochondrial oxygen uptake. In turn, this leads to alterations in electrochemical gradients, which affect calcium uptake and may regulate processes such as mitochondrial transition pore (MTP) opening and the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. Large or persistent levels of *NO in mitochondria promote mitochondrial oxidant formation. Peroxynitrite formed either extra- or intra-mitochondrially leads to oxidative damage, most notably at complexes I and II of the electron transport chain, ATPase, aconitase and Mn-superoxide dismutase. Mitochondrial scavenging systems for peroxynitrite and peroxynitrite-derived radicals such as carbonate (CO3*-) and nitrogen dioxide radicals (*NO2) include cytochrome c oxidase, glutathione and ubiquinol and serve to partially attenuate the reactions of these oxidants with critical mitochondrial targets. Detection of nitrated mitochondrial proteins in vivo supports the concept that mitochondria constitute central loci of the toxic effects of excess reactive nitrogen species. In this review we will provide an overview of the biochemical mechanisms by which *NO and ONOO- regulate or alter mitochondrial functions. PMID:12033431

  16. Plant pathogenic Streptomyces species produce nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in response to host signals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking...

  17. Nitric oxide, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gyrgy; Clark, Joanna M; Buzs, Edit I; Gorman, Claire L; Cope, Andrew P

    2007-07-31

    Whilst many physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) have been revealed so far, recent evidence proposes an essential role for NO in T lymphocyte activation and signal transduction. NO acts as a second messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in signal transduction pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Several studies undertaken on patients with RA and SLE have documented increased endogenous NO synthesis, although the effects of NO may be distinct. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO contributes to T cell dysfunction in both SLE and RA by altering multiple signaling pathways in T cells. Although NO may play a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may perturb T cell activation, differentiation and effector responses, each of which may contribute in different ways to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17568690

  18. An intercomparison of nitric oxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Gregory, G. L.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Carroll, M. A.; Mcfarland, M.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Torres, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence system and two chemiluminescence instruments. The intercomparisons were performed with ambient air at NO mixing ratios ranging from 10 to 60 pptv and NO-enriched ambient air at mixing ratios from 20 to 170 pptv. All instruments sampled from a common manifold. The techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the NO mixing ratio. Agreement among the three techniques was placed at approximately + or - 30 percent. Within this level of agreement, no artifacts or species interferences were identified.

  19. Nitric oxide generating/releasing materials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hongying; Nacharaju, Parimala; Friedman, Adam; Friedman, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the impressive therapeutic potential of nitric oxide (NO) remains an ongoing challenge. This paper describes several of the current strategies both with respect to the underlying chemistry and physics and to the applications where they have shown promise. Included in this overview are molecular systems such as NONOates that release NO through chemical reactions and delivery vehicles such as nanoparticles that can generate, store, transport and deliver NO and related bioactive forms of NO such as nitrosothiols. Although there has been much positive movement, it is clear that we are only at the early stages of knowing how to precisely produce, transport and deliver to targeted sites therapeutic levels of NO and related molecules. PMID:26855790

  20. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  1. The emerging multifaceted roles of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, P C; Schroeder, R A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical with a multitude of organ specific regulatory functions. Since 1985, NO has been the subject of numerous research efforts and as a result, has been found to play a major role in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous systems. In addition, deranged NO synthesis is the basis for a number of pathophysiologic states, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, pyloric stenosis, and the hypertension associated with renal failure. Traditional NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside and new pharmacologic NO adducts such as S-nitrosothiols may serve as exogenous sources of NO for the treatment of NO-deficient pathologic states. This review is an attempt to acquaint the surgical community with the fundamentals of NO biochemistry and physiology. Increased knowledge of its functions in normal homeostasis and pathologic states will enable physicians to better understand these disease processes and utilize new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:7717775

  2. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  3. Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Buerk, Donald G.; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Jaron, Dov

    2013-01-01

    Several apparent paradoxes are evident when one compares mathematical predictions from models of nitric oxide (NO) diffusion and convection in vasculature structures with experimental measurements of NO (or related metabolites) in animal and human studies. Values for NO predicted from mathematical models are generally much lower than in vivo NO values reported in the literature for experiments, specifically with NO microelectrodes positioned at perivascular locations next to different sizes of blood vessels in the microcirculation and NO electrodes inserted into a wide range of tissues supplied by the microcirculation of each specific organ system under investigation. There continues to be uncertainty about the roles of NO scavenging by hemoglobin versus a storage function that may conserve NO, and other signaling targets for NO need to be considered. This review describes model predictions and relevant experimental data with respect to several signaling pathways in the microcirculation that involve NO. PMID:22196161

  4. Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.

    PubMed

    Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere. PMID:24797527

  5. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NOs pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  6. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  7. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NOs vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ch.Ch.; Yen, M.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery by Furchgott and Zawadzki in 1980 [18], endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) has been shown to play a central role in the cardiovascular system [10]. The endothelial product is chemically equivalent to nitric oxide (NO) [23, 40] or a biochemical congener thereof [48]. Fifteen years ago, this small, simple and highly toxic molecule was known as a lengthy list of environmental pollutants found in unsavory haunts such as smoke and smog, and even as destroyer of ozone, suspected carcinogen, and precursor of acid rain. In addition, NO seems an unlikely biological jack of all trades for most of the body's functions are regulated by extraordinarily large and complex proteins and compounds. But over the past decade, diverse lines of evidence have converged to show that this sometime poison is a fundamental player in the everyday business of the human body. PMID:12386387

  9. Nitric oxide in liver fibrosis: The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in hepatic cells in pathological conditions. Its induction is involved in the development of liver fibrosis, and thus iNOS could be a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes the role of iNOS in liver fibrosis, focusing on 1) iNOS biology, 2) iNOS-expressing liver cells, 3) iNOS-related therapeutic strategies, and 4) future directions. PMID:26770919

  10. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  11. Addition of Nitric Oxide Through Nitric Oxide-paracetamol Enhances Healing Rat Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Gongyao; Appleyard, Richard C.; del Soldato, Piero; Wang, Min-Xia

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide is an important messenger molecule in many physiological processes. The addition of NO via NO-flurbiprofen enhances the material properties of healing tendon, however, flurbiprofen has a detrimental effect on healing. We asked if NO delivered by a cyclooxygenase 3 inhibitor (paracetamol/acetaminophen) would enhance healing in a rat Achilles tendon healing model. Rats were injected subcutaneously daily with NO-paracetamol, paracetamol or vehicle from two days before surgery to the day of tissue harvesting. Paracetamol had no effect on tendon healing compared with vehicle alone. NO-paracetamol did not change the failure load, but did decrease the water content, enhance the collagen content, reduce the cross-sectional area and improve the ultimate stress of healing tendon compared with paracetamol and vehicle. The collagen organization of the healing tendon in the NO-paracetamol group, as determined by polarized light microscopy, was enhanced. Our data suggests NO-paracetamol increases the total collagen content and enhances organization while decreasing the cross-sectional area of healing rat Achilles tendon and is consistent with human clinical trials where NO has improved the symptoms and signs of tendinopathy. PMID:18463933

  12. Fast Ferrous Heme-NO Oxidation in Nitric Oxide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, Jess; Santolini, Jrme; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    During catalysis, the heme in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) binds NO before releasing it to the environment. Oxidation of the NOS ferrous heme-NO complex by O2 is key for catalytic cycling, but the mechanism is unclear. We utilized stopped-flow methods to study reaction of O2 with ferrous heme-NO complexes of the inducible and neuronal NOS enzymes. We found that the reaction does not involve heme-NO dissociation, but instead proceeds by a rapid, direct reaction of O2 with the ferrous heme-NO complex. This behavior is novel and may distinguish heme-thiolate enzymes like NOS from related heme proteins. PMID:19691141

  13. Nitric Oxide Signaling and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tao Li, Jessica; Somasundaram, Chandra; Bian, Ka; Xiong, Weijun; Mahmooduddin, Faiz; Nath, Rahul K.; Murad, Ferid

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to examine whether nitric oxide signaling plays a role in human embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural cells. This article reviews current literature on nitric oxide signaling and neural stem cell differentiation for potential therapeutic application to peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Human embryonic H9-stem cells were grown, maintained on mitomycin Ctreated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer, cultured on Matrigel to be feeder-free, and used for all the experiments. Fluorescent dual-immunolabeling and confocal image analysis were used to detect the presence of the neural precursor cell markers nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the percentage of expression. Results: We have shown the confocal image of stage 1 human embryonic stem cells coexpressing nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated 24.3% positive labeling of nitric oxide synthase-1. Adding retinoic acid (10?6 M) to the culture medium increased the percent of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 33.9%. Combining retinoic acid (10?6 M) with 8-brom cyclic guanosine monophosphate (10?5 M), the fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated a further increase of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 45.4%. Our current results demonstrate a prodifferentiation potency of nitric oxide synthase-1, stimulated by retinoic acid with and without cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time how nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling contributes to the development of neural precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells and enhances the differentiation of precursors toward functional neurons for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:20563304

  14. The global distribution of nitric oxide at 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide at 200 km by the ultraviolet nitric oxide experiment on Atmosphere Explorer D are used to demonstrate the dependence of NO on latitude, longitude, and magnetic activity. NO is more abundant in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere and is more abundant during magnetically active times than during quiet times. A simple photochemical theory is used to show that the knowledge of local composition and temperature is sufficient to explain the variations of nitric oxide at this altitude.

  15. Biomimetic and microbial reduction of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.T.; Le, U.; Ronda, S.

    1995-12-31

    The biomimetic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) by dithiothreitol in the presence of cyanocobalamin and cobalt-centered porphyrins has been investigated. Reactions were monitored directly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy vapor-phase spectra. Reaction rates were twofold faster for the corrin than for the cobalt-centered porphyrins. The stoichiometry showed the loss of two molecules of NO per molecule of N{sub 2}O produced. We have also demonstrated that the facultative anaerobe and chemoautotroph, Thiobacillus denitrificans, can be cultured anoxically in batch reactors using NO as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). We have proposed that the concentrated stream of NO{sub x}, as obtained from certain regenerable processes for the gas desulfurization and NO{sub x} removal, could be converted to N{sub 2} for disposal by contact with a culture of T. denitrificans. Four heterotrophic bacteria have also been identified that may be grown in batch cultures with succinate, yeast extract, or heat and alkali pretreated sewage sludge as carbon and energy sources and NO as a terminal electron acceptor. These are Paracoccus dentrificans, Pseudomonas denitrificans, Alcaligens denitrificans, and Thiophaera pantotropha.

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 10781099. PMID:22871241

  17. The oral microbiome and nitric oxide homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hezel, M P; Weitzberg, E

    2015-01-01

    The tiny radical nitric oxide (NO) participates in a vast number of physiological functions including vasodilation, nerve transmission, host defence and cellular energetics. Classically produced by a family of specific enzymes, NO synthases (NOSs), NO signals via reactions with other radicals or transition metals. An alternative pathway for the generation of NO is the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) are reduced to NO and other reactive nitrogen intermediates. Nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from NOS-dependent NO generation but also constituents in our diet, mainly in leafy green vegetables. Irrespective of origin, active uptake of circulating nitrate in the salivary glands, excretion in saliva and subsequent reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria are all necessary steps for further NO generation. This central role of the oral cavity in regulating NO generation from nitrate presents a new and intriguing aspect of the human microbiome in health and disease. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and specifically highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a hub for its function. PMID:23837897

  18. Diabetes, oxidative stress, nitric oxide and mitochondria function.

    PubMed

    Friederich, Malou; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2009-05-01

    The role of altered mitochondria function has recently emerged as an important mechanism for the development of diabetic complications. Altered mitochondria function has also been implicated in the ageing process, defective insulin secretion, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis. Normally, the mitochondria are associated with ATP production using primarily pyruvate as the substrate, but recent reports indicate that tissue specific preferences exist. Also, the mitochondria are a substantial source of superoxide production, preferentially during states of elevated intracellular glucose concentrations. The mitochondria function is regulated by several factors including nitric oxide, oxidative stress, mammalian target of rapamycin, ADP and P(i) availability, which result in a complex regulation of ATP production and oxygen consumption, but also superoxide generation. These factors seem to be tissue specific, which warrants a more diverse mechanistic model applying to that specific tissue or cell type. This review presents the basic functions of the mitochondria and focuses on the complex interplay between oxidative stress, nitric oxide and uncoupling proteins in regulating mitochondria function with special focus on diabetes-induced alterations occurring on the mitochondria level. PMID:19442097

  19. The Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-02

    Hydrazine nitrate-nitric acid solutions are used in the ion exchange process for separating Pu-238 and Np-237 and have been found to dissolve plutonium metal in a manner advantageous to SRP metal recovery operations. Laboratory tests on the stability of hydrazine in nitric acid solutions were performed to obtain accurate data, and the results of these tests are reported here. These tests provide sufficient information to specify temperature control for hydrazine-nitric acid solutions in plant processes.

  20. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function

    PubMed Central

    Förstermann, Ulrich; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known, is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). They all utilize l-arginine and molecular oxygen as substrates and require the cofactors reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). All NOS bind calmodulin and contain haem. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, NOS I) is constitutively expressed in central and peripheral neurons and some other cell types. Its functions include synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS), central regulation of blood pressure, smooth muscle relaxation, and vasodilatation via peripheral nitrergic nerves. Nitrergic nerves are of particular importance in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum and penile erection. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) require at least a residual nNOS activity for their action. Inducible NOS (NOS II) can be expressed in many cell types in response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, or other agents. Inducible NOS generates large amounts of NO that have cytostatic effects on parasitic target cells. Inducible NOS contributes to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and septic shock. Endothelial NOS (eNOS, NOS III) is mostly expressed in endothelial cells. It keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other vasoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Many cardiovascular risk factors lead to oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature. Pharmacologically, vascular oxidative stress can be reduced and eNOS functionality restored with renin- and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, with angiotensin receptor blockers, and with statins. PMID:21890489

  1. Investigation on binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase by absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Li; Zhu, Shuhua; Ma, Hongmei; Zhou, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been investigated by absorption spectrometry in 0.2 M anaerobic phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Based on this binding equilibrium, a model equation for evaluating the binding constant of nitric oxide to HRP is developed and the binding constant is calculated to be (1.55 0.06) 10 4 M -1, indicating that HRP can form a stable complex with nitric oxide. The type of inhibition by nitric oxide is validated on the basis of studying initial reaction rates of HRP-catalyzed oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. The inhibition mechanism is found to follow an apparent non-competitive inhibition by Lineweaver-Burk method. Based on this kinetic mechanism, the binding constant is also calculated to be (5.22 0.06) 10 4 M -1. The values of the binding constant determined by the two methods are almost identical. The non-competitive inhibition model is also applicable to studying the effect of nitric oxide on other metalloenzymes, which catalyze the two-substrate reaction with the "ping-pong" mechanism.

  2. Nitric oxide and quality and safety of muscle based foods.

    PubMed

    Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-05-31

    Preservation of meat with nitrite or nitrate has become important to mankind in controlling meat spoilage and in producing safe and palatable meat products with good keeping properties even at ambient temperature. Nitric oxide was early recognised as pivotal for colour and colour stability of such meat products. Later specific effects on microbial growth became evident, followed by an understanding of nitric oxide as an antioxidant in processed meat, while a future recognition of nitric oxide as modulator of transmetallisation reactions in meat seems possible. Central for all these functions of nitric oxide in meat is the heme cavity in the meat pigment myoglobin with its facile conversions among reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in certain cases assisted by curing additives such as ascorbate and with a possible involvement of nitroxyl. PMID:21605822

  3. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  4. Measurements of nitric oxide after a nuclear burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghan, M.; Shaw, A.; Megill, L. R.; Sedlacek, W.; Guthals, P. R.; Fowler, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of ozone and nitric oxide in a nuclear cloud 7 days after the explosion are reported. No measurable increase above ambient density of either ozone or nitric oxide was found. Results from a chemistry model of the cloud do not agree with the measurement unless 'nonstandard' assumptions are made with regard to the operating chemical processes. A number of possible explanations of the results are discussed.

  5. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used in a number of ways to study nitric oxide chemistry and biology. As an intrinsically stable and relatively unreactive diatomic free radical, the challenges for detecting this species by EPR are somewhat different than those for transient radical species. This review gives a basic introduction to EPR spectroscopy and discusses its uses to assess and quantify nitric oxide formation in biological systems. PMID:20304044

  6. Role of nitric oxide in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Al-Omran, A; Parvathy, S S

    2007-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. It gives an anti-inflammatory effect under normal physiological conditions. On the other hand, NO is considered as a pro-inflammatory mediator that induces inflammation due to over production in abnormal situations. NO is synthesized and released into the endothelial cells by the help of NOSs that convert arginine into citrulline producing NO in the process. Oxygen and NADPH are necessary co-factors in such conversion. NO is believed to induce vasodilatation in cardiovascular system and furthermore, it involves in immune responses by cytokine-activated macrophages, which release NO in high concentrations. In addition, NO is a potent neurotransmitter at the neuron synapses and contributes to the regulation of apoptosis. NO is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders of the joint, gut and lungs. Therefore, NO inhibitors represent important therapeutic advance in the management of inflammatory diseases. Selective NO biosynthesis inhibitors and synthetic arginine analogues are proved to be used for the treatment of NO-induced inflammation. Finally, the undesired effects of NO are due to its impaired production, including in short: vasoconstriction, inflammation and tissue damage. PMID:18236016

  7. Airborne intercomparison of nitric oxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Torres, Arnold L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted during missions flown in the fall of 1983 and spring of 1984. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system and two chemiluminescence instruments (CL). NO mixing ratios from below 5 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) to greater than 100 pptv were reported, with the majority less than 20 pptv. Good correlation was observed between the measurements reported by the CL and LIF techniques. The general level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements obtained during the two missions provides the basis from which one can conclude that equally 'valid' measurements of background levels of NO can be expected from either CL or LIF instruments. At the same time the periods of disagreement that were observed between the CL and LIF instruments as well as between the two CL instruments highlight the difficulty of obtaining reliable measurements with NO mixing ratios in the 5-20 pptv range and emphasize the vigilance that should be maintained in future NO measurements.

  8. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  9. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  10. Nitric oxide and teratogenesis: an update.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), generated by NO synthase (NOS) enzymes, is an important bioactive molecule involved in the regulation of several biological phenomena that are crucial for organogenesis, including gene expression, cell growth, matrix remolding, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of NOS isoforms in embryonic tissues is temporally and spatially regulated, and disruption of endogenous NO can lead to developmental defects. Maternal treatment with pan NOS inhibitors during early organogenesis caused severe malformations of the axial skeleton. In utero exposure during the fetal period induced limb reduction defects of vascular origin. Knock-out mice have been used to define the role of the various NOS isoforms on the origin of the abnormal development. Cardiovascular malformations, limb reduction defects, reduced growth and reduced survival have been observed in knock-out mice with targeted disruption of endothelial NOS (eNOS). Limited morphological changes were observed in mice lacking inducible NOS (iNOS) or neuronal NOS n(NOS). Results obtained with in vitro studies suggest that optimal levels of NO are required for neural tube closure. Disregulation of NO production was also recently proposed as a contributing mechanism in the origin of malformations associated with exposure to known environmental teratogens, such as valproic acid, thalidomide, copper deficiency, and diabetes. PMID:24502594

  11. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A.; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure–activity–relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme–inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  12. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure-activity-relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the myocard.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, I B; Schulze, W; Karczewski, P; Kostic, M M; Wallukat, G; Morwinski, R; Krause, E G; Mller, J; Paul, M; Slezak, J; Luft, F C; Haller, H

    2001-01-01

    Recognition of significance of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in cardiovascular regulations has led to intensive research and development of therapies focused on NOS as potential therapeutic targets. However, the NOS isoform profile of cardiac tissue and subcellular localization of NOS isoforms remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of an inducible NOS isoform (NOS2) in cardiomyocytes. Employing a novel immunocytochemical technique of a catalyzed reporter deposition system with tyramide and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry complemented with Western blotting and RT-PCR, we detected NOS2 both in rat neonatal and adult cultured cardiomyocytes and in the normal myocard of adult rats as well as in the human myocard of patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. NOS2 was targeted predominantly to a particulate component of the cardiomyocyte--along contractile fibers, in the plasma membrane including T-tubules, as well as in the nuclear envelope, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Our results point to an involvement of NOS2 in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and contradict to the notion that NOS2 is expressed in cardiac tissue only in response to various physiological and pathogenic factors. NOS2 targeting to mitochondria and contractile fibers suggests a relationship of NO with contractile function and energy production in the cardiac muscle. PMID:11269668

  14. Vascular nitric oxide may lessen Alzheimer's risk.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1998-12-01

    Estrogen deficiency, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, and a past history of elevated blood pressure may be associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Common to all of these risk factors is a diminished capacity of vascular endothelium to generate nitric oxide (NO). Vascular NO has the potential to enhance the membrane polarization of cerebral neurons by increasing the open probability of calcium-activated potassium channels; this may protect neurons from the excessive calcium influx, potentiated by beta-amyloid peptides that is thought to mediate neuronal damage in AD. The possibility that NO/cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-phosphate (cGMP) may modulate the synthesis or processing of the amyloid precursor protein, also merits evaluation. Practical measures for promoting vascular NO production may include increased intakes of arginine, potassium, antioxidants, and fish-oil, as well as lifestyle measures that typically lower elevated blood pressure; potential benefits of chromium, glucosamine, and silicon should also be explored. In hypertensives, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and sodium restriction may favorably influence endothelial function. Fish-oil should have the additional benefit of antagonizing the contribution of interleukin-1 to AD pathogenesis. Ancillary anti-excitotoxic measures such as magnesium, taurine, phenytoin, and vasodilators targeting ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels, may likewise reduce AD risk. Most of the nutritional measures suggested here would in any case be recommendable for preservation of vascular health. PMID:10052865

  15. Hemoglobin: a nitric-oxide dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  16. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology. PMID:23136136

  17. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes published information on levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24–48 hours with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma and/or red blood cells fell within three hours, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 hours, and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell associated nitrogen oxides were more than two hundred times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree showed by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors’ and the Tibetans’ high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic stress. PMID:22300645

  18. Electrophysiological responses of neurons in the rat spinal cord to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pehl, U; Schmid, H A

    1997-03-01

    The effects of nitric oxide-containing solution and different nitric oxide donors were investigated on spontaneously active neurons using extracellular recording technique in areas of rat spinal cord slices where high levels of nitric oxide synthase are present. In lamina X, 93% of all neurons investigated (n = 84) increased their firing rate and 2% decreased it by superfusion with the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, 49% of all neurons in laminae I and II (n = 90) were inhibited and only 28% were activated. Both effects were due to the postsynaptic action of sodium nitroprusside, because they could still be observed in medium containing 0.3 mM Ca2+ and 9 mM Mg2+, known to block synaptic transmission. Application of 8-bromo-cyclic-GMP caused an excitation of every neuron which was excited by sodium nitroprusside and an inhibition of every cell which was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside (n = 25). This effect was different from the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic-AMP, which mimicked only the excitatory, but not the inhibitory response of sodium nitroprusside. These results provide evidence that nitric oxide in the spinal cord can directly cause an excitation or an inhibition of the electrical activity of spinal neurons. Another, more general conclusion from our results is that the nitric oxide-induced production of cyclic-GMP alone does not allow any prediction about an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the neuronal activity, which has to be determined separately. PMID:9472412

  19. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction. PMID:16289993

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in Leishmania infantum-infected human macrophages stimulated with interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Panaro, M A; Acquafredda, A; Lisi, S; Lofrumento, D D; Trotta, T; Satalino, R; Saccia, M; Mitolo, V; Brandonisio, O

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide produced by an inducible nitric oxide synthase constitutes one of the main microbicidal mechanisms of murine macrophages and its importance is now being recognized for human macrophages. In this study we evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, nitric oxide release, and parasitocidal ability of Leishmania infantum-infected monocyte-derived human macrophages. The inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting and nitric oxide production was measured by the Griess reaction for nitrites. Parasite killing was microscopically evaluated by fluorescent dyes. Experiments were performed on macrophages with or without previous stimulation with recombinant human interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide release were higher in Leishmania-infected stimulated macrophages than in uninfected cells or infected cells without previous stimulation. Nitric oxide production and parasitocidal activity against Leishmania infantum were reduced in macrophages treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G) monomethylarginine. These results suggest a microbicidal role for nitric oxide in human leishmaniasis, with the possible practical application of immunological or pharmacological regulation of nitric oxide synthesis in the treatment of this infection. PMID:10592110

  1. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  2. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen has been studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principal result of the study was the determination of the rate constant k1 for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles. The data are fit closely by the expression k1 = 1.34 times 10 to the fourteenth power exp(-49 200/RT) cu cm/mole-sec. These data appear to be the first available for this rate constant.

  3. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  4. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  5. Implication of nitric oxide synthase in carcinogenesis: analysis of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Esumi, H; Ogura, T; Kurashima, Y; Adachi, H; Hokari, A; Weisz, A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly identified, multifunctional biological mediator. However, it also has deleterious effects on biological materials. For instance, nucleic acids, proteins, and some prosthetic groups of enzymes can be modified by NO or its reaction products with other reactive oxygen species. Endogenous nitrosamine formation through the reaction of NO or its oxidized products with amines might be involved in carcinogenesis. These deleterious effects of NO are often associated with inflammatory processes both in experimental animals and human. We analyzed the molecular mechanism of control of expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in mouse cells by cloning its putative promoter region. This promoter responded to various cytokines and endotoxin similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in mouse cells. No appreciable induction of NOS was observed in human peripheral blood cells, but induction was detected in a human glioblastoma cell line A-172. Therefore, the human inducible NOS cDNA was cloned from A-172 cells and its cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence found to have about 80% similarity to those of both mouse and rat inducible NOSs. The effects of various cytokines on the induction of the gene were somewhat different from those observed in mouse cells, but the mouse promoter responded to these cytokines similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in human cells, indicating functional similarity of cis-elements of the genes encoding both human and mouse inducible NOS. Structural analysis of the human inducible NOS gene by Southern blot analysis revealed putative genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism in intron 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7581489

  6. Development of anion- and nitric oxide-selective chemical sensors and biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Susan Lynn Ritenour

    1999-11-01

    The biological roles of chloride, nitrite, and nitric oxide create the need for techniques which can provide fast, sensitive, and selective detection of these analytes. Small sensor size is advantageous in biological applications, and the coupling of fluorescence transduction with optical fiber technology has allowed the preparation of micrometer and submicromter sized chemical sensors and biosensors with good selectivity, fast response times, and excellent signal to noise ratios, which are utilized for in vitro and cellular applications. Micrometer and submicrometer size fiber optic nitrite and chloride sensors have been prepared, based on immobilized metalloporphyrins, using the ion correlation principle, and characterized with respect to selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. The chloride sensors were applied in vitro to rat conceptuses. The hemoprotein cytochrome c' and the heme domain of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) have been labeled with a fluorescent dye and utilized for intensity and fluorescence lifetime-based nitric oxide sensing. Ratiometric fiber optic sensors have been prepared by attaching the dye-labeled cytochrome c' or heme domain of sGC to the fiber along with reference dye spheres. In addition, the fluorescence lifetime of the dye-labeled cytochrome c' in solution has been monitored. A second class of nitric oxide sensors has also been developed. These are dye-based chemical sensors with a response based on the interaction of nitric oxide with a fluorophore adsorbed on a gold surface. Such chemical sensors have the advantage of commercially available components and long-term stability. The nitric oxide bio- and chemical sensors have excellent signal to noise ratios and linear responses down to low micromolar nitric oxide. The various sensors show minimal interference from numerous other chemicals that are commonly found in the cellular environment. In addition, the sensors have low micromolar limits of detection, subsecond response times and complete reversibility, making these sensors applicable to dynamic measurements of cellular nitric oxide. Extra- and intracellular nitric oxide were measured in unactivated and activated macrophages. The macrophages were activated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), known stimulants of macrophage nitric oxide production. Both protein and dye-based fiber optic ratiometric sensors have been used to determine the macrophage produced extracellular nitric oxide concentration. For intracellular measurements, the dye- cytochrome c' complex was scrape- loaded into the cytoplasm of the macrophages.

  7. The Nitric Acid Oxidation of Selected Alcohols and Ketones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Shows that nitric acid can be used as a rapid, versatile, and economical oxidant for selected organic substances. The experiments (with background information, procedures, and results provided) require one three-hour laboratory period but could serve as open-ended projects since substrates not described could be oxidized. (JN)

  8. Nitric oxide synthase neurones and neuromuscular behaviour of the anorectum.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbing, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Intensive research into the biological roles of nitric oxide has shown that this tiny molecule is of vital physiological significance in numerous organ systems including the gastrointestinal tract, where nitric oxide has been proposed as an inhibitory enteric neurotransmitter. This paper outlines experiments using retrograde neuronal tracing and enzyme histochemistry in a guinea-pig model which provided the first direct anatomical evidence of a descending nitrergic rectoanal neuronal pathway appropriate to mediating relaxation of the internal anal sphincter during the rectoanal inhibitory reflex. Studies of human tissue showed that the in vitro responses of isolated strips of human rectum were typical of non-sphincter specialized gastrointestinal smooth muscle, that nitric oxide is involved in neurogenic relaxation of the rectum and that nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry identified a subpopulation of neurones in the myenteric ganglia and immunoreactive profiles within both layers of the muscularis propria of human rectum. Taken together, these data provide pharmacological and anatomical support for the hypothesis that nitric oxide acts as a functionally important mediator in the innervation of human anorectum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:9623382

  9. The nitric oxide signaling pathway in the penis.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Arthur L; Musicki, Biljana

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that nitric oxide plays an important role in the biology of the penis, serving most familiarly as the agent responsible for penile erection. Early investigation in the field led to the identification of the signaling function of the molecule in the penis which yields corporal smooth muscle relaxation fundamental for the erectile response. Ongoing study of this molecule and its signaling pathway in erectile tissue has served to revise and clarify its importance. Current information conveys the prerequisite of the nitric oxide signaling pathway for penile erection, the regulatory basis for the generation and actions of nitric oxide in the penis, the diverse roles of its synthetic enzyme isoforms in penile biology, and the interaction between nitric oxide and other molecular pathways operative in the broad context of erection physiology. Insight into these subject areas has therapeutic relevance for pathologic conditions of the penis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest areas of investigation related to the science of nitric oxide in the penis, as a gateway for considering novel therapeutic strategies for erectile disorders now and in the future. PMID:16378505

  10. Macrophage nitric oxide mediates immunosuppression in infectious inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, T K; Huang, D; Meissler, J J; al-Ramadi, B

    1994-10-01

    A vaccine strain of live, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium induces profound immunosuppression in inoculated mice 7 days after injection. Immunosuppression to mitogens and inability to mount plaque-forming responses to sheep red blood cells occurs in spite of many parameters of upregulated macrophage function and protection against challenge with virulent Salmonella. Studies show that macrophage nitric oxide mediates the immunosuppression and presumably also the early-onset protective capacity of the vaccine. A model of "bystander lymphocyte autotoxicity" is presented to explain the mechanism of immunosuppression. The model proposes that Salmonella-activated macrophages generate nitric oxide which inactivates lymphocytes in the vicinity, so they become dysfunctional. Inhibition of nitric oxide by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine reverses immunosuppression. Evidence is presented that supports a relationship between the microbial burden in the spleen, the degree of nitric oxide produced, and the extent of immunosuppression. It is proposed that this model of microbial immunosuppression mediated by nitric oxide is generalizable for understanding immunosuppression and loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity induced by other microbes, such as Mycobacteria and measles virus. The model could account for anergy during mycobacterial infections, particularly when the burden of acid-fast bacilli is high, as well as loss of skin test reactivity to tuberculin during measles infection. PMID:7713563

  11. Nitric oxide and exercise in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P C; Marlin, D J; Demoncheaux, E; Scott, C; Casas, I; Smith, N C; Higenbottam, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal opening was lower when collected at a high flow rate of 80 l min-1 than at a low flow rate of 20 l min-1: when trotting at 3.7 m s-1 the values were 0.78 +/- 0.15 and 1.23 +/- 9.14 p.p.b., respectively, and when cantering at 9 m s-1 the values were 1.69 +/- 0.31 and 2.25 +/- 0.32 p.p.b., respectively. 3. Nebulized methoxamine (40 mg ml-1 for 60 s), an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, further reduced [NO] during the 9 m s-1 canter to 1.05 +/- 0.14 and 1.99 +/- 0.41 p.p.b. when collected at 80 and 20 l min-1, respectively, and induced cyclical changes in the breathing pattern. 4. Exercise induced a linear increase in VNO with work intensity to a maximum (428.1 +/- 31.6 pmol min-1 kg-1) which coincided with the maximal oxygen uptake for the horses (138.3 +/- 11.7 ml min-1 kg-1), although a further increase in VNO (779.3 +/- 38.4 pmol min-1 kg-1) occurred immediately after exercise. The changes in VNO correlated well with the tidal volume (r = 0.968; P < 0.01) and the haematocrit (r = 0.855; P < 0.01). 5. In the first 2 min of high intensity exercise, inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pulmonary artery pressure: during the first minute, pulmonary artery pressure was 83.1 +/- 7.6 mmHg compared with a control value of 94.4 +/- 6.3 mmHg, and during the second minute, 84.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg compared with a control value of 98.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg. There were no other significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory indices, including cardiac output, measured during exercise between control and inhaled NO tests. 6. The results show that exhaled NO is released from the airways of the horse and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. PMID:8887788

  12. Transdermal delivery of nitric oxide from diazeniumdiolates.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Simmons, M L

    1998-02-12

    Adverse physiological effects can often interfere with the use of nitric oxide (NO) as a therapeutic agent, especially when it is systemically generated from prodrugs. NO which is generated and delivered site-specifically by transdermal donors may be useful in the treatment of parasitic, bacterial or viral skin infections without causing systemic side effects. Three diazeniumdiolates (formerly "NONOate"), including two water soluble compounds, (Z)-1-[N-2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]-diazen-1- ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NO) and (Z)-1-[N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-(3-ammoniopropyl)amino] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DPTA-NO), and one insoluble compound, DPTA-NO grafted to dextran microspheres (DPTA-NO-g-dextran) were used to transdermally deliver NO to rats. Dextran microspheres were obtained by simultaneously grafting DPTA-NO to dextran and cross-linking dextran with CNBr in an oil-water emulsion. Suspended in hydrogel, DETA-NO, DPTA-NO, and DPTA-NO-g-dextran were applied three times to depilated rats at 4 day intervals. Results show that metabolic urinary nitrate levels increase with time (24-48 h), reach a maximum, and return to baseline by the fourth day. DPTA-NO applications produced an average maximum nitrate level of 94.2 mumol/day +/- 34.2 mumol S.D. compared to the average maximum nitrate level of 39.8 mumol/day +/- 8.6 mumol S.D. obtained from treatment with DETA-NO. These results suggest that DPTA-NO delivered NO more efficiently than DETA-NO. When DPTA-NO-g-dextran microspheres were used as the NO donor, results comparable to DPTA-NO were observed with an average maximum nitrate level of 14.9 mumol/day +/- 3.0 mumol S.D. These and other conclusive data indicate that, via these diazeniumdiolates, NO can be delivered effectively through rat skin. PMID:9685912

  13. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nianzhen Li

    2002-06-27

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca{sup 2+} elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca{sup 2+} elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca{sup 2+} wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca{sup 2+}, possibly through store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca{sup 2+} change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca{sup 2+} using fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca{sup 2+} elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca{sup 2+} wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting that NO modulates glutamate release from astrocytes or glutamate receptor sensitivity of neurons.

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is responsible for nitric oxide release from murine pituicytes.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, T H; Rivier, C; Lee, S; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D; Moesby, L

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated whether pituicytes were able to produce and release nitric oxide (NO), and which type of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) would be responsible for this phenomenon. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 micro g/ml was used as inflammatory mediator. Because pituicytes are known to secrete interleukin (IL)-6 upon stimulation with LPS, this parameter was also investigated. Cultured pituicytes, from 4-week-old male mice, were stimulated with LPS for 6 h or 24 h. At 24 h, there was a significant increase in accumulated nitrite indicating NO formation. In contrast, IL-6 release was already significantly higher 6 h after stimulation and further increased at 24 h. The correlation between accumulated nitrite and secreted IL-6 was 0.84 after 24 h of incubation with LPS. The expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA in the pituicytes was significantly higher than the control level after 6 h and 24 h of exposure to LPS, with levels at 6 h being significantly higher than those at 24 h. There was no detected expression of endothelial NOS or neuronal NOS mRNA. Cultured pituicytes were also subjected to immunocytochemistry for iNOS protein at 6, 12, and 24 h after stimulation with LPS. Most cells were positive for iNOS, but there were no observable differences with the time points that we used. Collectively, these results show that pituicytes are able to produce NO, and that the inducible form of NOS is responsible for this production. Furthermore, there is a weak correlation between NO and IL-6 released from pituicytes after 24 h of stimulation with LPS. PMID:12588513

  15. Studies in nitric oxide mutagenesis in e. coli and s. typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Elespuru, R.K.; Mark, T.W.

    1995-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic and bio-regulatory molecule produced endogenously in response to varying stimuli. It has been shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations in Salmonella typhimurium as well as in mammalian systems. In exploring the mechanism of mutation generation by nitric oxide, several problems have become apparent. One arises from the evidence that different sources of nitric oxide, i.e. gaseous NO or No generated from drugs, behave differently both chemically and biologically. Hence, experiments with the two sources of NO are not comparable. In addition, an oxidation product of nitric oxide, No{sub 2}, is a DNA-strand breaking agent and may contribute to the genetic effects observed, especially from bubbled NO. While Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 is readily mutable by NO-delivering drugs, E. coli B strain WU3610 (wild type for DNA repair) has proved to be non-mutable. The experiments of Hartman and colleagues with sodium nitrite indicate a greatly enhanced sensitivity to mutation induction in UV repair-deficient strains and in certain target DNA sequences. We have sought to determine if the sodium nitrite model also fits nitric oxide. Contrary to expectations, however, the uvrA derivative of WU3610 is not mutable by SperNO, the most potent NO-delivering drug for Salmonella TA1535.

  16. Identification of gene variants related to the nitric oxide pathway in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umman, B; Cakmakoglu, B; Cincin, Z B; Kocaaga, M; Emet, S; Tamer, S; Gokkusu, C

    2015-12-10

    Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is known to have an essential role in the atherosclerotic process by releasing mediators including nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide maintains endothelial balance by controlling cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence suggests that variations in the NO pathway could include atherosclerotic events. The objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of genes on the nitric oxide pathway in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The blood samples of 100 patients with ACS and 100 controls were collected at Istanbul University, Department of Cardiology. DNA samples were genotyped by using Illumina Cyto-SNP-12 BeadChip. The additive model and Correlation/Trend Test were selected for association analysis. Afterwards, a Q-Q graphic was drawn to compare expected and obtained values. A Manhattan plot was produced to display p-values that were generated by -log10(P) function for each SNP. The p-values under 110(-4) were selected as statistically significant SNPs while p-values under 510(-2) were considered as suspicious biomarker candidates. Nitric oxide pathway analysis was then used to find the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to ACS. As a result, death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK) (rs10426955) was found to be most statistically significant SNP. The most suspicious biomarker candidates associated with the nitric oxide pathway analysis were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-1). Further studies with large sample groups are necessary to clarify the exact role of nitric oxide in the development of disease. PMID:26232608

  17. A high-altitude rocket measurement of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The nitric oxide density was measured from 110 to 300 km by a rocket photometer during the day. The small measured peak density, about 6.2 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm at 111 km, can probably be attributed to the period of very low solar magnetic activity preceding the rocket flight. This experiment was coordinated with a similar measurement made by the Ultraviolet Nitric Oxide Experiment aboard the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite; the measurements are in good agreement. The altitude resolution (less than 1 km) and sensitivity (1600 counts/R/s) greatly exceed those of previous measurements. Comparison to a model shows agreement above 200 km but less nitric oxide and more structure below that.

  18. Global morphology of nitric oxide in the lower E region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Stewart, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide at 105 km by the ultraviolet nitric oxide experiment on Atmosphere Explorer C are presented. The amount of nitric oxide in the lower E region is shown to depend on latitude, longitude, and magnetic activity. Near the equator the density at the peak of the NO layer is typically about 2 x 10 to the 7th power/cu cm and varies little with longitude or magnetic activity, except during major storms. At high latitudes (up to 68 deg geographic latitude), peak densities are typically 2 or 3 times larger and much more variable. A longitudinal dependence is found in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates, with minimum densities found near 45 deg E geomagnetic longitude and maxima near 135 deg W geomagnetic longitude. At 40 deg dip latitude the half amplitude is about 30%.

  19. Pulsating Auroral Nitric Oxide Production in the Lower Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Lessard, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Pulsating Auroral Nitric Oxide Production in the Lower Ionosphere (PANOPLI) mission addresses a science problem that has strong implications regarding the question of how solar variability may be related to climate change and terrestrial weather. PANOPLI will transit a region of pulsating aurora, outfitted with instruments that provide a characterization of the electron precipitation causing pulsating aurora and determine the effects of pulsating aurora on the mesospheric NO reservoir. The NO can then transport downward to the stratosphere and chemically react with ozone causing depletion; therefore, PANOPLI is a vital first step in quantifying the auroral contribution to ozone depletion. The auroral contribution to atmospheric chemistry is significant, with up to 60% of ozone depletion enhancements (above background levels) at 35-40 km altitude due to energetic electron precipitation (Randall et al., 2005). This sounding rocket project for investigating NO production is proposed to the ROSES-2013 HTIDeS for an FY16 launch from Poker Flat Research Range.

  20. Kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, W. L.; Hanson, R. K.; Kruger, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Mixtures of NO and H2 diluted in argon or krypton were heated by incident shock waves, and the infrared emission from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO at 5.3 microns was used to monitor the time-varying NO concentration. The reaction kinetics were studied in the temperature range 2400-4500 K using a shock-tube technique. The decomposition of nitric oxide behind the shock was found to be modeled well by a fifteen-reaction system. A principle result of the study was the determination of the rate constant for the reaction H + NO yields N + OH, which may be the rate-limiting step for NO removal in some combustion systems. Experimental values of k sub 1 were obtained for each test through comparisons of measured and numerically predicted NO profiles.

  1. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  2. Nitric oxide synthase in macula densa regulates glomerular capillary pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C S; Welch, W J; Murad, F; Gross, S S; Taylor, G; Levi, R; Schmidt, H H

    1992-01-01

    Tubular-fluid reabsorption by specialized cells of the nephron at the junction of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule, termed the macula densa, releases compounds causing vasoconstriction of the adjacent afferent arteriole. Activation of this tubuloglomerular feedback response reduces glomerular capillary pressure of the nephron and, hence, the glomerular filtration rate. The tubuloglomerular feedback response functions in a negative-feedback mode to relate glomerular capillary pressure to tubular-fluid delivery and reabsorption. This system has been implicated in renal autoregulation, renin release, and longterm body fluid and blood-pressure homeostasis. Here we report that arginine-derived nitric oxide, generated in the macula densa, is an additional intercellular signaling molecule that is released during tubular-fluid reabsorption and counters the vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Antibody to rat cerebellar constitutive nitric oxide synthase stained rat macula densa cells specifically. Microperfusion of the macula densa segment of single nephrons with N omega-methyl-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) or with pyocyanin (a lipid-soluble inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxation factor) showed that generation of nitric oxide can vasodilate the afferent arteriole and increase glomerular capillary pressure; this effect was blocked by drugs that prevent tubular-fluid reabsorption. We conclude that nitric oxide synthase in macula densa cells is activated by tubular-fluid reabsorption and mediates a vasodilating component to the tubuloglomerular feedback response. These findings imply a role for arginine-derived nitric oxide in body fluid-volume and blood-pressure homeostasis, in addition to its established roles in modulation of vascular tone by the endothelium and in neurotransmission. Images PMID:1281548

  3. Role of nitric oxide synthases in elastase-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; Plantier, Laurent; Dagouassat, Maylis; Lanone, Sophie; Goven, Delphine; Caramelle, Philippe; Berrehar, Franois; Kerbrat, Stephane; Dinh-Xuan, Anh-Tuan; Crestani, Bruno; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Boczkowski, Jorge

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in combination with superoxide produces peroxynitrites and induces protein nitration, which participates in a number of chronic degenerative diseases. NO is produced at high levels in the human emphysematous lung, but its role in this disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the NO synthases contribute to the development of elastase-induced emphysema in mice. nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS were quantified and immunolocalized in the lung after a tracheal instillation of elastase in mice. To determine whether eNOS or iNOS had a role in the development of emphysema, mice bearing a germline deletion of the eNOS and iNOS genes and mice treated with a pharmacological iNOS inhibitor were exposed to elastase. Protein nitration was determined by immunofluorescence, protein oxidation was determined by ELISA. Inflammation and MMP activity were quantified by cell counts, RT-PCR and zymography in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Cell proliferation was determined by Ki67 immunostaining. Emphysema was quantified morphometrically. iNOS and eNOS were diffusely upregulated in the lung of elastase-treated mice and a 12-fold increase in the number of 3-nitrotyrosine-expressing cells was observed. Over 80% of these cells were alveolar type 2 cells. In elastase-instilled mice, iNOS inactivation reduced protein nitration and increased protein oxidation but had no effect on inflammation, MMP activity, cell proliferation or the subsequent development of emphysema. eNOS inactivation had no effect. In conclusion, in the elastase-injured lung, iNOS mediates protein nitration in alveolar type 2 cells and alleviates oxidative injury. Neither eNOS nor iNOS are required for the development of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:20956973

  4. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule with multiple regulatory effects throughout the body, is an important tool for the treatment of full-term and late-preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated its role in the management of preterm infants ? 34 weeks' gestational age with varying results. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the existing evidence for the use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants and provide guidance regarding its use in this population. PMID:24379225

  5. The co-immobilization of P450-type nitric oxide reductase and glucose dehydrogenase for the continuous reduction of nitric oxide via cofactor recycling.

    PubMed

    Garny, Seike; Beeton-Kempen, Natasha; Gerber, Isak; Verschoor, Jan; Jordaan, Justin

    2016-04-01

    The co-immobilization of enzymes on target surfaces facilitates the development of self-contained, multi-enzyme biocatalytic platforms. This generally entails the co-immobilization of an enzyme with catalytic value in combination with another enzyme that performs a complementary function, such as the recycling of a critical cofactor. In this study, we co-immobilized two enzymes from different biological sources for the continuous reduction of nitric oxide, using epoxide- and carboxyl-functionalized hyper-porous microspheres. Successful co-immobilization of a fungal nitric oxide reductase (a member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family) and a bacterial glucose dehydrogenase was obtained with the carboxyl-functionalized microspheres, with enzyme activity maintenance of 158% for nitric oxide reductase and 104% for glucose dehydrogenase. The optimal stoichiometric ratio of these two enzymes was subsequently determined to enable the two independent chemical reactions to be catalyzed concomitantly, allowing for near-synchronous cofactor conversion rates. This dual-enzyme system provides a novel research tool with potential for in vitro investigations of nitric oxide, and further demonstrates the successful immobilization of a P450 enzyme with potential application towards the immobilization of other cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:26920484

  6. Diffusion of nitric oxide into low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Denicola, Ana; Batthyny, Carlos; Lissi, Eduardo; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero; Radi, Rafael

    2002-01-11

    A key early event in the development of atherosclerosis is the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via different mechanisms including free radical reactions with both protein and lipid components. Nitric oxide (( small middle dot)NO) is capable of inhibiting LDL oxidation by scavenging radical species involved in oxidative chain propagation reactions. Herein, the diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO into LDL is studied by fluorescence quenching of pyrene derivatives. Selected probes 1-(pyrenyl)methyltrimethylammonium (PMTMA) and 1-(pyrenyl)-methyl-3-(9-octadecenoyloxy)-22,23-bisnor-5-cholenate (PMChO) were chosen so that they could be incorporated at different depths of the LDL particle. Indeed, PMTMA and PMChO were located in the surface and core of LDL, respectively, as indicated by changes in fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quenching studies with water-soluble quenchers and the lifetime values (tau(o)) of the excited probes. The apparent second order rate quenching constants of ( small middle dot)NO (k(NO)) for both probes were 2.6-3.8 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) and 1.2 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) in solution and native LDL, respectively, indicating that there is no significant barrier to the diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO to the surface and core of LDL. Nitric oxide was also capable of diffusing through oxidized LDL. Considering the preferential partitioning of ( small middle dot)NO in apolar milieu (6-8 for n-octanol:water) and therefore a larger ( small middle dot)NO concentration in LDL with respect to the aqueous phase, a corrected k(NO) value of approximately 0.2 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) can be determined, which still is sufficiently large and consistent with a facile diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO through LDL. Applying the Einstein-Smoluchowsky treatment, the apparent diffusion coefficient (D(')NO) of ( small middle dot)NO in native LDL is on average 2 x 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), six times larger than that previously reported for erythrocyte plasma membrane. Thus, our observations support that ( small middle dot)NO readily traverses the LDL surface accessing the hydrophobic lipid core of the particle and affirm a role for ( small middle dot)NO as a major lipophilic antioxidant in LDL. PMID:11689557

  7. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Marilee C; Donohue, Pamela; Gilmore, Maureen; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Wilson, Renee F; Weiner, Jonathan Z; Robinson, Karen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To systematically review the evidence on the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in preterm infants born at or before 34 weeks gestation age who receive respiratory support. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Studies (CENTRAL) and PsycInfo in June 2010. We also searched the proceedings of the 2009 and 2010 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting and ClinicalTrials.gov. We identified additional studies from reference lists of eligible articles and relevant reviews, as well as from technical experts. REVIEW METHODS Questions were developed in collaboration with technical experts, including the chair of the upcoming National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research Consensus Development Conference. We limited our review to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the question of survival or occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and for the question on short-term risks. All study designs were considered for long-term pulmonary or neurodevelopmental outcomes, and for questions about whether outcomes varied by subpopulation or by intervention characteristics. Two investigators independently screened search results, and abstracted data from eligible articles. RESULTS We identified a total of 14 RCTs, reported in 23 articles, and eight observational studies. Mortality rates in the NICU did not differ for infants treated with iNO versus those not treated with iNO (RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15)). BPD at 36 weeks for iNO and control groups also did not differ (RR 0.93 (0.86, 1.003) for survivors). A small difference was found between iNO and control infants in the composite outcome of death or BPD (RR 0.93 (0.87, 0.99)). There was inconsistent evidence about the risk of brain injury from individual RCTs, but meta-analyses showed no difference between iNO and control groups. We found no evidence of differences in other short term risks. There was no evidence to suggest a difference in the incidence of cerebral palsy (RR 1.36 (0.88, 2.10)), neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 0.91 (0.77, 1.12)), or cognitive impairment (RR 0.72 (0.35, 1.45)). Evidence was limited on whether the effect of iNO varies by subpopulation or by characteristics of the therapy (timing, dose and duration, mode of delivery, or concurrent therapies). CONCLUSIONS There was a seven percent reduction in the risk of the composite outcome of death or BPD at 36 weeks PMA for infants treated with iNO compared to controls, but no reduction in death or BPD alone. Further studies are needed to explore particular subgroups of infants and to assess long term outcomes including function in childhood. There is currently no evidence to support the use of iNO in preterm infants with respiratory failure outside the context of rigorously conducted randomized clinical trials. PMID:23126546

  8. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling. Nitrolinoleic acid is a hydrophobically stabilized nitric oxide donor.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Francisco J; Baker, Paul R S; Giles, Gregory; Chumley, Phil; Batthyany, Carlos; Crawford, Jack; Patel, Rakesh P; Hogg, Neil; Branchaud, Bruce P; Lancaster, Jack R; Freeman, Bruce A

    2005-05-13

    The aqueous decay and concomitant release of nitric oxide (*NO) by nitrolinoleic acid (10-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid and 12-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid; LNO2) are reported. Mass spectrometric analysis of reaction products supports a modified Nef reaction as the mechanism accounting for the generation of *NO by the aqueous reactions of fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives. Nitrolinoleic acid is stabilized by an aprotic milieu, with LNO2 decay and *NO release strongly inhibited by phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposome membranes and detergents when present at levels above their critical micellar concentrations. The release of *NO from LNO2 was induced by UV photolysis and triiodide-based ozone chemiluminescence reactions currently used to quantify putative protein nitrosothiol and N-nitrosamine derivatives. This reactivity of LNO2 complicates the qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological oxides of nitrogen when applying UV photolysis and triiodide-based analytical systems to biological preparations typically abundant in nitrated fatty acids. The results reveal that nitroalkene derivatives of linoleic acid are pluripotent signaling mediators that act not only via receptor-dependent mechanisms, but also by transducing the signaling actions of *NO via pathways subject to regulation by the relative distribution of LNO2 to hydrophobic versus aqueous microenvironments. PMID:15764811

  9. Alveolar nitric oxide and its role in pediatric asthma control assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide can be measured at multiple flow rates to determine proximal (maximum airway nitric oxide flux; JawNO) and distal inflammation (alveolar nitric oxide concentration; CANO). The main aim was to study the association among symptoms, lung function, proximal (maximum airway nitric oxide flux) and distal (alveolar nitric oxide concentration) airway inflammation in asthmatic children treated and not treated with inhaled glucocorticoids. Methods A cross-sectional study with prospective data collection was carried out in a consecutive sample of girls and boys aged between 6 and 16years with a medical diagnosis of asthma. Maximum airway nitric oxide flux and alveolar nitric oxide concentration were calculated according to the two-compartment model. In asthmatic patients, the asthma control questionnaire (CAN) was completed and forced spirometry was performed. In controls, differences between the sexes in alveolar nitric oxide concentration and maximum airway nitric oxide flux and their correlation with height were studied. The correlation among the fraction of exhaled NO at 50ml/s (FENO50), CANO, JawNO, forced expiratory volume in 1second (FEV1) and the CAN questionnaire was measured and the degree of agreement regarding asthma control assessment was studied using Cohens kappa. Results We studied 162 children; 49 healthy (group 1), 23 asthmatic participants without treatment (group 2) and 80 asthmatic patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids (group 3). CANO (ppb) was 2.2 (0.1-4.5), 3 (0.2-9.2) and 2.45 (0.1-24), respectively. JawNO (pl/s) was 516 (98.3-1470), 2356.67 (1206110) and 1426 (15611805), respectively. There was a strong association (r?=?0.97) between FENO50 and JawNO and the degree of agreement was very good in group 2 and was good in group 3. There was no agreement or only slight agreement between the measures used to monitor asthma control (FEV1, CAN questionnaire, CANO and JawNO). Conclusions The results for CANO and JawNO in controls were similar to those found in other reports. There was no agreement or only slight agreement among the three measure instruments analyzed to assess asthma control. In our sample, no additional information was provided by CANO and JawNO. PMID:25090994

  10. Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

  11. Crystal structure of nitric oxide inhibited cytochrome c peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, S.L.; Kraut, J. ); Poulos, T.L. )

    1988-10-18

    The authors have collected X-ray diffraction data from a crystal of cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) complexed with the inhibitor nitric oxide to a resolution of 2.55 {angstrom}. A difference Fourier map shows density indicating the NO ligand is bound to the heme iron at the sixth coordination site in a bent configuration. Structural adjustments were determined by least-squares refinement that yielded an agreement residual of R = 0.18. The orientation of the ligand, tilting toward Arg-48, causes adjustment in the position of this nearby polar side chain. As a model for the substrate hydrogen peroxide, this geometry is consistent with the suggestion that Arg-48 serves to polarize the O-O peroxide bond to promote heterolytic cleavage of the bond. Strong difference density is also observed near residues 190-194, especially around the indole ring of Trp-191. The density indicates movement of the indole ring away from the proximal His-175 imidazole ring by about 0.25 {angstrom}, which appears to cause perturbation of the neighboring residues. The response of Trp-191 on the proximal side of the heme to binding nitric oxide on the distal side probably results from delocalization of the electron density of the ligand. Relevant to this is the recent finding that a mutant in which Trp-191 is replaced by phenylalanine has dramatically reduced activity, less than 0.05% of the parent activity. Characterization of this mutant showed in particular that electron transfer from cytochrome c was severely hindered. This mutagenesis result combined with the sensitivity of the position of Trp-191 to the electronic character of the sixth coordination site ligand leads us to speculate on the role of Trp-191 in electron transfer.

  12. Anmindenols A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

    2014-06-27

    Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 μM, respectively. PMID:24878306

  13. Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Godber, B L; Doel, J J; Sapkota, G P; Blake, D R; Stevens, C R; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R

    2000-03-17

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) was shown to catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of either NADH or xanthine as reducing substrate. NO production was directly demonstrated by ozone chemiluminescence and showed stoichiometry of approximately 2:1 versus NADH depletion. With xanthine as reducing substrate, the kinetics of NO production were complicated by enzyme inactivation, resulting from NO-induced conversion of XO to its relatively inactive desulfo-form. Steady-state kinetic parameters were determined spectrophotometrically for urate production and NADH oxidation catalyzed by XO and xanthine dehydrogenase in the presence of nitrite under anaerobic conditions. pH optima for anaerobic NO production catalyzed by XO in the presence of nitrite were 7.0 for NADH and oxidation competitively with nitrite. Strong preference for Mo=S over Mo=O was shown by the relatively very low NADH-nitrite reductase activity shown by desulfo-enzyme. The FAD site of XO was shown not to influence nitrite reduction in the presence of xanthine, although it was clearly involved when NADH was the reducing substrate. Apparent production of NO decreased with increasing oxygen tensions, consistent with reaction of NO with XO-generated superoxide. It is proposed that XO-derived NO fulfills a bactericidal role in the digestive tract. PMID:10713088

  14. Dynamic regulation of metabolism and respiration by endogenously produced nitric oxide protects against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Paxinou, Evgenia; Weisse, Marie; Chen, Qiping; Souza, Jose M.; Hertkorn, Caryn; Selak, Mary; Daikhin, Evgueni; Yudkoff, Marc; Sowa, Grzegorz; Sessa, William C.; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2001-01-01

    One of the many biological functions of nitric oxide is the ability to protect cells from oxidative stress. To investigate the potential contribution of low steady state levels of nitric oxide generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mechanisms of protection against H2O2, spontaneously transformed human ECV304 cells, which normally do not express eNOS, were stably transfected with a green fluorescent-tagged eNOS cDNA. The eNOS-transfected cells were found to be resistant to injury and delayed death following a 2-h exposure to H2O2 (50150 ?M). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis abolished the protective effect against H2O2 exposure. The ability of nitric oxide to protect cells depended on the presence of respiring mitochondria as ECV304+eNOS cells with diminished mitochondria respiration (??) are injured to the same extent as nontransfected ECV304 cells and recovery of mitochondrial respiration restores the ability of nitric oxide to protect against H2O2-induced death. Nitric oxide also found to have a profound effect in cell metabolism, because ECV304+eNOS cells had lower steady state levels of ATP and higher utilization of glucose via the glycolytic pathway than ECV304 cells. However, the protective effect of nitric oxide against H2O2 exposure is not reproduced in ECV304 cells after treatment with azide and oligomycin suggesting that the dynamic regulation of respiration by nitric oxide represent a critical and unrecognized primary line of defense against oxidative stress. PMID:11562476

  15. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  16. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  17. Estimates of nitric oxide production for lifting spacecraft reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1971-01-01

    The amount of nitric oxide which may be produced by heating of air during an atmospheric reentry of a lifting spacecraft is estimated by three different methods. Two assume nitrogen fixation by the process of sudden freezing, and the third is a computer calculation using chemical rate equations.

  18. Nitric oxide emissions from a central California dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were monitored downwind from a central California dairy facility during 2011 and 2012. NO concentrations at the dairy were significantly higher than the background levels during August 2011, but were indistinguishable from upwind concentrations during January, Apr...

  19. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  20. Hypertension, nitric oxide, oxidants, and dietary plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Pechanova, Olga; Fraga, Cesar G

    2010-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables are key foods whose high ingestion is associated with the improvement of numerous pathological conditions, including hypertension. Such health promoting actions have been increasingly ascribed to the antioxidant characteristics of different polyphenols in fruits and vegetables. Consequently, based on this assumption, many beverages and foods rich in polyphenols, grape, tea, cocoa, and soy products and many of their chemical constituents purified, are being studied both, as antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. This paper reviews the current evidence linking high polyphenol consumption with reductions in blood pressure. Basic chemical aspects of flavanols, flavonols, isoflavones and stilbenes, as possible responsible for the observed effects of those foods on blood pressure are included. Human interventions studies by using grapes and wine, cocoa and chocolate, black and green tea, soy products, and purified compounds ((+)-catequin, quercetin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate) are summarized. The discussed hypothesis, strongly supported by experimental data in animals, is that by regulating nitric oxide bioavailability, polyphenols present in fruits and vegetables affect endothelial function and as a consequence, blood pressure. Even when data are not definitive and many questions remain open, the whole evidence is encouraging to start considering diets that can provide a benefit to hypertensive subjects, and those benefits will be more significant in people that do not have controlled his/her elevated blood pressure. PMID:20874688

  1. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05??0.8??g??l?1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-?B DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242

  2. [Endogenous content of the nitric oxide in the cell layers of the eye retina].

    PubMed

    Kalamkarov, G P; Bugrova, A E; Konstantinova, T S; Shevchenko, T F

    2014-07-01

    Nitric oxide is a universal molecule that regulates many different functions in an organism. In the eye retina nitric oxide plays both a regulatory role by modulation of the synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells and a toxic role in apoptosis induction in the outer nuclear layer and in the layer of ganglion cells. In this paper there has been made the first attempt to estimate the endogenous NO concentration in retina layers in vivo. The concentration of the nitric oxide was determined by two indepen- dent techniques: ESR spectrometry using spin trap for in vivo determination and NO-sensitive microelectrode for in situ determination in the survival isolated frog retina. The distinct NO con- centration was detected only in the ganglion cells layer (~0.25 ?M) and in the inner segments layer of the photoreceptors (~0.6 ?M). The activity and the kinetic characteristic of the NO-synthase localized in the same layers were also determined. Key words: retina cells layers, nitric oxide, ESR, NO-sensitive microelectrodes. PMID:25669110

  3. NITRIC OXIDE DESTRUCTION IN THE FUEL-BED BURNING REGIME OF SPREADER STOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an experimental study of nitric oxide (NO) destruction in the fuel-bed of a coal-fired spreader stoker. NO was injected into the coal bed and freeboard flame zone under varying local stoichiometries to determine the fate of NO in the primary combustio...

  4. Endothelial Cell-Derived Nitric Oxide Mobilization is Attenuated in Copper-Deficient Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary Cu deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to determine...

  5. Air contamination with nitric oxide: effect on exhaled nitric oxide response.

    PubMed

    Therminarias, A; Flore, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Oddou, M F; Delaire, M; Grimbert, F

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the response of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration (ECNO) and quantity of exhaled NO over time (EVNO) in 10 healthy subjects breathing into five polyethylene bags, one in which synthetic air was free of NO and four in which NO was diluted to concentrations of 20 +/- 0.6, 49 +/- 0.8, 98 +/- 2, and 148 +/- 2 ppb, respectively. Each subject was connected to each bag for 10 min at random. Minute ventilation and ECNO were measured continuously, and EVNO was calculated continuously. ECNO and EVNO values were significantly higher for an inhaled NO concentration of 20 ppb than for NO-free air. Above 20 ppb, ECNO and EVNO increased linearly with inhaled NO concentration. It is reasonable to assume that a share of the quantity of inspired NO over time (InspVNO) because of air contamination by pollution is rejected by the ventilatory pathway. Insofar as InspVNO does not affect endogenous production or the metabolic fate of NO in the airway, this share may be estimated as being approximately one third of InspVNO, the remainder being taken by the endogenous pathway. Thus, air contamination by the NO resulting from pollution greatly increases the NO response in exhaled air. PMID:9517592

  6. Non-Asthmatic Patients Show Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Machado, Fabio S.; Almeida, Francine M.; Nunes, Maria do Patrocnio T.; Martins, Milton A.; Vieira, Joaquim E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group), 12 asthmatics (Asthma group) and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group). All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion), spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunns test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05). The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.456.83)] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (01.26)] or the Control group [0.0 (0)] (p <0.05); exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.686.85)], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.062.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.024.7)] (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide. PMID:19142544

  7. HBOC Vasoactivity: Interplay Between Nitric Oxide Scavenging and Capacity to Generate Bioactive Nitric Oxide Species

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. Recent Advances: HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Critical Issues: Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Future Directions: Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 22842297. PMID:23249305

  8. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-11-03

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

  9. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing . E-mail: jing.pope@okstate.edu; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Goad, John T.; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

    2007-03-15

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation.

  10. Relation between Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotypes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Larynx Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yanar, K; akatay, U; Ayd?n, S; Verim, A; Atukeren, P; zkan, N E; Karatoprak, K; Cebe, T; Turan, S; Ozkk, E; Korkmaz, G; Cac?na, C; Kkhseyin, O; Yayl?m, I

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) is responsible for the endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO()). G894T polymorphism leads to the amino acid substitution from Glu298Asp that causes lower NOS3 activity and basal NO() production in NOS3 894T (298Asp) allele carriers compared with the GG homozygotes. NO() acts as an antioxidant protecting against Fenton's reaction which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Allelic variation of NOS3 may influence an individual's risk of laryngeal cancer (LC). In the current study we have examined the possible relationship between NOS3 G894T genotypes and various systemic oxidative damage markers such as protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, thiol group fractions, and lipid hydroperoxides in LC patients. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. In LC patients with TT genotype, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase activities and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly higher than the controls. In patients with GT and GG genotype, high levels of lipid hydroperoxides showed statistical significance when compared to controls. Our results indicate a potential relationship among G894T polymorphism of NOS3, and impaired redox homeostasis. Further studies are required to determine the role of NOS3 gene polymorphism and impaired plasma redox homeostasis. PMID:26682008

  11. Relation between Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotypes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yanar, K.; Çakatay, U.; Aydın, S.; Verim, A.; Atukeren, P.; Özkan, N. E.; Karatoprak, K.; Cebe, T.; Turan, S.; Ozkök, E.; Korkmaz, G.; Cacına, C.; Küçükhüseyin, O.; Yaylım, İ.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) is responsible for the endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO•). G894T polymorphism leads to the amino acid substitution from Glu298Asp that causes lower NOS3 activity and basal NO• production in NOS3 894T (298Asp) allele carriers compared with the GG homozygotes. NO• acts as an antioxidant protecting against Fenton's reaction which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Allelic variation of NOS3 may influence an individual's risk of laryngeal cancer (LC). In the current study we have examined the possible relationship between NOS3 G894T genotypes and various systemic oxidative damage markers such as protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, thiol group fractions, and lipid hydroperoxides in LC patients. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. In LC patients with TT genotype, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase activities and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly higher than the controls. In patients with GT and GG genotype, high levels of lipid hydroperoxides showed statistical significance when compared to controls. Our results indicate a potential relationship among G894T polymorphism of NOS3, and impaired redox homeostasis. Further studies are required to determine the role of NOS3 gene polymorphism and impaired plasma redox homeostasis. PMID:26682008

  12. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  13. Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Oxidant Lung Injury Due to Paraquat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Hasan I.; Pakbaz, Hedayatollah; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1994-08-01

    At low concentrations, nitric oxide is a physiological transmitter, but in excessive concentrations it may cause cell and tissue injury. We report that in acute oxidant injury induced by the herbicide paraquat in isolated guinea pig lungs, nitric oxide synthesis was markedly stimulated, as evidenced by increased levels of cyclic GMP in lung perfusate and of nitrite and L-citrulline production in lung tissue. All signs of injury, including increased airway and perfusion pressures, pulmonary edema, and protein leakage into the airspaces, were dose-dependently attenuated or totally prevented by either N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N^ω-nitro-L-arginine, selective and competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Protection was reversed by excess L-arginine but not by its enantiomer D-arginine. When blood was added to the lung perfusate, the paraquat injury was moderated or delayed as it was when paraquat was given to anesthetized guinea pigs. The rapid onset of injury and its failure to occur in the absence of Ca2+ suggest that constitutive rather than inducible nitric oxide synthase was responsible for the stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. The findings indicate that nitric oxide plays a critical role in the production of lung tissue injury due to paraquat, and it may be a pathogenetic factor in other forms of oxidant tissue injury.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia decreases nitric oxide production by promoting the interaction of caveolin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Feron, Olivier; Dessy, Chantal; Moniotte, Stephane; Desager, Jean-Pierre; Balligand, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a central pathogenic factor of endothelial dysfunction caused in part by an impairment of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production through mechanisms that remain poorly characterized. The activity of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) was recently shown to be modulated by its reciprocal interactions with the stimulatory Ca2+calmodulin complex and the inhibitory protein caveolin. We examined whether hypercholesterolemia may reduce NO production through alteration of this regulatory equilibrium. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of serum obtained from normocholesterolemic (NC) or hypercholesterolemic (HC) human volunteers. Exposure of endothelial cells to the HC serum upregulated caveolin abundance without any measurable effect on eNOS protein levels. This effect of HC serum was associated with an impairment of basal NO release paralleled by an increase in inhibitory caveolineNOS complex formation. Similar treatment with HC serum significantly attenuated the NO production stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. Accordingly, higher calmodulin levels were required to disrupt the enhanced caveolineNOS heterocomplex from HC serumtreated cells. Finally, cell exposure to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction alone dose-dependently reproduced the inhibition of basal and stimulated NO release, as well as the upregulation of caveolin expression and its heterocomplex formation with eNOS, which were unaffected by cotreatment with antioxidants. Together, our data establish a new mechanism for the cholesterol-induced impairment of NO production through the modulation of caveolin abundance in endothelial cells, a mechanism that may participate in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and the proatherogenic effects of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:10079111

  15. Nitric Oxide Administration Using an Oxygen Hood: A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; El-Ferzli, George T.; Roane, Claire; Johnson, Robert; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We have shown earlier that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) administered by oxygen hood reduces pulmonary hypertension in an animal model (J Perinatol 2002; 22:50-6). Our objective in this study was to determine feasibility of iNO by oxygen hood in neonates with elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradients (A-aDO2). Methods/Principal Findings Masked randomized controlled pilot trial. Inclusion criteria were: gestation?34 weeks, age<7 days, with post-ductal arterial line, and A-aDO2 400600. Infants were randomized to study gas (iNO 20 ppm or equivalent O2 flow) for 1 hr which was then weaned over the next 4 hours. Primary outcome was PaO2 one hour post-randomization. Four infants each were randomized to iNO or O2 (controls). Two of the four infants given iNO had an increase in PaO2 of >100 torr, while oxygenation was unchanged in the controls. Methemoglobinemia and other adverse effects were not noted in any infant. Environmental levels of NO and NO2 were minimal (<1 ppm) at >0.3 m from the hood. Conclusions Administration of iNO by oxygen hood is feasible. Larger randomized controlled trials are required to measure the efficacy and determine an appropriate target population for this technique. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00041548 PMID:19183804

  16. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-07-01

    Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

  17. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

    Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

  18. Reactivity of peroxynitrite and nitric oxide with LDL.

    PubMed

    Botti, Horacio; Trostchansky, Andrs; Batthyny, Carlos; Rubbo, Homero

    2005-06-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by peroxynitrite is a complex process, finely modulated by control of peroxynitrite formation, LDL availability and free-radical scavenging by nitric oxide (*NO), ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol (alpha -TOH). In the presence of CO2, lipid targets are spared at the expense of surface constituents. Since surface damage may lead to oxidation-induced LDL aggregation and particle recognition by scavenger receptors, CO2 cannot be considered an inhibitor of peroxynitrite-dependent LDL modifications. Chromanols, urate and ascorbate cannot scavenge peroxynitrite in the vasculature, although intermediates of urate oxidation and high ascorbate concentrations may do soin vitro. Most if not all of the protection against peroxynitrite-induced LDL oxidation afforded by urate, ascorbate, chromanols and also*NO should be considered to depend on their free radical scavenging abilities, including inactivation of lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO),*NO2, and CO3*-; as well as their capacity to reduce high oxidation states of metal centers. Peroxynitrite direct interception by reduced manganese (II) porphyrins is possibly the most powerful although unspecific strategy to inhibit peroxynitrite reactions. In light of the recent demonstration of nitrated bioactive lipids in vivo, renewed interest in the mechanisms of peroxynitrite- and nitric oxide-mediated lipid nitration and nitrosation is guaranteed. PMID:16012049

  19. Site-directed delivery of nitric oxide to cancers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gaseous free radical which mediates numerous biological processes. At elevated levels, NO is found to be toxic to cancers and hence, a number of strategies for site-directed delivery of NO to cancers are in development during the past two decades. More recently, the focus of research has been to, in conjunction with other cancer drugs deliver NO to cancers for its secondary effects including inhibition of cellular drug efflux pumps. Among the various approaches toward site-selective delivery of exogenous NO sources, enzyme activated nitric oxide donors belonging to the diazeniumdiolate category afford unique advantages including exquisite control of rates of NO generation and selectivity of NO production. For this prodrug approach, enzymes including esterase, glutathione/glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, and nitroreductase are utilized. Here, we review the design and development of various approaches to enzymatic site-directed delivery of NO to cancers and their potential. PMID:25124221

  20. ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, A.; Catravas, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous lipophilic free radical generated by three distinct isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), type 1 or neuronal (nNOS), type 2 or inducible (iNOS) and type 3 or endothelial NOS (eNOS). Expression of eNOS is altered in many types of cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. The ubiquitous chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) associates with NOS and is important for its proper folding and function. Current studies point toward a therapeutic potential by modulating hsp90-NOS association in various vascular diseases. Here we review the transcriptional regulation of endothelial NOS and factors affecting eNOS activity and function, as well as the important vascular pathologies associated with altered NOS function, focusing on the regulatory role of hsp90 and other factors in NO-associated pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:18692595

  1. Existence of nitric oxide synthase in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, B; Schweizer, F E; Ryan, T A; Nakane, M; Murad, F; Scheller, R H; Tsien, R W

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a key retrograde messenger during long-term potentiation at hippocampal synapses, linking induction of long-term potentiation in postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal cells to expression of long-term potentiation in presynaptic nerve terminals. However, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the proposed NO-generating enzyme, has not yet been detected in the appropriate postsynaptic cells. We here demonstrate specific NOS immunoreactivity in the CA1 region of hippocampal sections by using an antibody specific for NOS type I and relatively gentle methods of fixation. NOS immunoreactivity was found in dendrites and cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells also displayed specific immunostaining. Control experiments showed no staining with preimmune serum or immune serum that was blocked with purified NOS. These results demonstrate that CA1 pyramidal cells contain NOS, as required were NO involved in retrograde signaling during hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Images PMID:7510887

  2. Bactericidal efficacy of nitric oxide-releasing silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.; Shin, Jae Ho; Stasko, Nathan A.; Johnson, C. Bryce; Wespe, Daniel A.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    The utility of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial is demonstrated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles were prepared via co-condensation of tetraalkoxysilane with aminoalkoxysilane modified with diazeniumdiolate NO donors, allowing for the storage of large NO payloads. Comparison of the bactericidal efficacy of the NO-releasing nanoparticles to 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO), a small molecule NO donor, demonstrated enhanced bactericidal efficacy of nanoparticle-derived NO and reduced cytotoxicity to healthy cells (mammalian fibroblasts). Confocal microscopy revealed that fluorescently-labeled NO-releasing nanoparticles associated with the bacteria, providing rationale for the enhanced bactericidal efficacy of the nanoparticles. Intracellular NO concentrations were measurable when the NO was delivered from nanoparticles as opposed to PROLI/NO. Collectively, these results demonstrate the advantage of delivering NO via nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications. PMID:19206623

  3. Nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere - Measurements and geophysical interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvath, J. J.; Frederick, J. E.; Orsini, N.; Douglass, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket-borne parachute-deployed chemiluminescence instrument has obtained seven new measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide for altitudes between 30 and 50 km at mid-latitudes. These results, when combined with profiles measured by an earlier version of the instrument, cover all four seasons and provide a more comprehensive picture of upper stratospheric nitric oxide than has been available previously. At the highest altitudes studied, the vertical gradient in mixing ratio displays positive and negative values during different observations, with the largest values tending to appear at the greatest heights in summer. Examination of the differences among the profiles, which exceed a factor of 3 near the stratopause, suggests that they arise from the action of transport processes which carry air into the mid-latitude upper stratosphere from regions of the atmosphere that contain widely different odd-nitrogen abundances.

  4. Application of a Nitric Oxide Sensor in Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Carlota; Lopes de Almeida, Jos Pedro; Silva-Herdade, Ana Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the biochemical properties and effects of nitric oxide (NO) in intact and dysfunctional arterial and venous endothelium. Application of the NO electrochemical sensor in vivo and in vitro in erythrocytes of healthy subjects and patients with vascular disease are reviewed. The electrochemical NO sensor device applied to human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the description of others NO types of sensors are also mentioned. PMID:25587407

  5. Microwave torch as a plasmachemical generator of nitric oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Knyazev, V. Yu.; Kossyi, I. A.; Popov, N. A.

    2006-06-15

    The possibility of using a microwave coaxial plasmatron (a microwave torch) as an efficient plasmachemical generator of nitric oxides in an air jet has been studied experimentally. A plasmachemical model of the generator is developed. Results of calculations by this model do not contradict experimental results. A conclusion about the mechanisms governing NO{sub x} production in a plasma torch is drawn by comparing the experimental and calculated results.

  6. Tutorial Review: Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors for Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Privett, Benjamin J.; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The important biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) have prompted the development of analytical techniques capable of sensitive and selective detection of NO. Electrochemical sensing, more than any other NO-detection method, embodies the parameters necessary for quantifying NO in challenging physiological environments such as blood and the brain. Herein, we provide a broad overview of the field of electrochemical NO sensors, including design, fabrication, and analytical performance characteristics. Both electrochemical sensors and biological applications are detailed. PMID:20502795

  7. Decreased Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Ricardo A.; Samuels, Cheryl L.; Harris, Tomika S.; Yadav, Aravind; Hashmi, S. Shahrukh; Knight, Melissa S.; Koenig, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may occur in mitochondrial disorders (MD) and can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. It is difficult and invasive to measure systemic nitric oxide. NO is formed in the lungs and can be detected in expired air. Currently, hand-held fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement devices are available enabling a fast in-office analysis of this non-invasive test. It was postulated that FeNO levels might be reduced in MD. Methods: Sixteen subjects with definite MD by modified Walker criteria (4 to 30 years of age) and sixteen healthy control subjects of similar age, race and body mass index (BMI) underwent measurement of FeNO in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Results: Sixteen patient-control pairs were recruited. The median FeNO level was 6.5 ppm (IQR: 4-9.5) and 10.5 ppm (IQR: 8-20.5) in the MD and control groups, respectively. In 13 pairs (81%), the FeNO levels were lower in the MD cases than in the matched controls (p=0.021). Eleven (69%) cases had very low FeNO levels (≤7ppm) compared to only 1 control (p=0.001). All cases with enzymatic deficiencies in complex I had FeNO ≤7ppm. Conclusions: Single-breath exhaled nitric oxide recordings were decreased in patients with MD. This pilot study suggests that hand-held FeNO measurements could be an attractive non-invasive indicator of MD. In addition, measurement of FeNO could be used as a parameter to monitor therapeutic response in this population. PMID:23935767

  8. Sensor materials for an intravascular fiber optic nitric oxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Parikh, Bhairavi R.; Stahl, Russell F.

    1996-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulatory molecule in physiological processes including neurotransmission and the control of blood pressure. It is produced in excess during septic shock, the profound hypotensive state which accompanies severe infections. In-vivo measurement of NO would enhance the understanding of its varied biological roles. Our goal is the development of an intravascular fiber-optic sensor for the continuous measurement of NO. This study evaluated nitric oxide sensitive compounds as potential sensing materials in the presence and absence of oxygen. Using absorption spectroscopy we studied both the Fe II and Fe III forms of three biologically active hemes known to rapidly react with NO: hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c. The Fe II forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin and the Fe III form of cytochrome-c were found to have the highest sensitivity to NO. Cytochrome c (Fe III) is selective for NO even at high oxygen levels, while myoglobin is selective only under normal oxygen levels. NO concentrations as low as 1 (mu) M can be detected with our fiber-optic spectrometer using cytochrome c, and as low as 300 nM using myoglobin. Either of these materials would be adequate to monitor the increase in nitric oxide production during the onset of septic shock.

  9. High-latitude nitric oxide in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Barth, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    High-latitude observations of fluorescent nitric oxide gamma bands were made before and during a strong magnetic storm with the Ogo 4 ultraviolet spectrometer. Brightness measurements of the (1-0) gamma band of nitric oxide indicate a slow buildup of NO during the disturbed period. The NO column density reaches a value as high as a factor of 8 greater than the midlatitude value and shows no correlation with the brightness of the instantaneous aurora. A time-dependent model calculation indicates that the ionization and dissociation of N2 by auroral electrons can increase the NO and N(4-S) densities. This increase is dependent on the intensity and duration of the auroral precipitation and on the branching ratio of N(2-D) production by dissociation of N2. A steady state is not reached for NO until 100,000 sec in an aurora characterized by an energy flux of 10 ergs per sq cm sec. Dissociation by the solar ultraviolet radiation competes with horizontal and vertical transport as a loss process for the nitric oxide produced by the aurora. A high NO(plus)/O2(plus) ratio is to be expected in the period following a strong auroral precipitation.

  10. The role of nitric oxide in neurovascular coupling.

    PubMed

    Dormanns, K; Brown, R G; David, T

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter known to act as a potent cerebral vasodilator. Its role in neurovascular coupling (NVC) is discussed controversially and one of the main unanswered questions is which cell type provides the governing source of NO for the regulation of vasodynamics. Mathematical modelling can be an appropriate tool to investigate the contribution of NO towards the key components of NVC and analyse underlying mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit, including neurons (NE), astrocytes (AC), smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC), was extended to model the NO signalling pathway. Results show that NO leads to a general shift of the resting regional blood flow by dilating the arteriolar radius. Furthermore, dilation during neuronal activation is enhanced. Simulations show that potassium release is responsible for the fast onset of vascular response, whereas NO-modulated mechanisms maintain dilation. Wall shear stress-activated NO release from the EC leads to a delayed return to the basal state of the arteriolar radius. The governing source of vasodilating NO that diffuses into the SMC, which determine the arteriolar radius, depends on neuronal activation. In the resting state the EC provides the major contribution towards vasorelaxation, whereas during neuronal stimulation NO produced by the NE dominates. PMID:26796228

  11. Decoding Nitric Oxide Release Rates of Amine-Based Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J.; Keefer, Larry K.; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)=NO?], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates. PMID:23834533

  12. Photochemical production and consumption mechanisms of nitric oxide in seawater.

    PubMed

    Olasehinde, Emmanuel F; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an active odd-nitrogen species that plays a critical role in determining the levels of ozone (O?) and other nitrogen species in the troposphere. Here, we provide experimental evidence for photochemical formation of NO in seawater. Photoproduction rates and overall scavenging rate constants were measured by irradiation of surface seawater samples collected from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Photoproduction rates of NO ranged from 8.7 10? M s? to 38.8 10? M s? and scavenging rate constants were 0.05-0.33 s?. The steady state concentrations of NO in seawater, which were calculated from the photoproduction rates and scavenging rate constants were in the range 2.4-32 10? M. Estimation from the scavenging rate constant showed that the NO lifetime in seawater was a few seconds. Our results indicate that nitrite photolysis plays a crucial role in the formation of NO, even though we cannot exclude minor contributions from other sources. Analysis of filtered and unfiltered seawater samples showed no significant difference in NO photoformation rates, which suggests a negligible contribution of NO produced by photobiological processes. Using an estimated value of the Henry's law constant (kH ? 0.0019 M atm?), a supersaturation of surface seawater of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude was estimated. On the basis of the average values of the surface seawater concentration and the atmospheric NO concentration, a sea-to-air NO flux was estimated. PMID:20954706

  13. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by cobalamins and cobinamides.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J Brice; Chen, Youwei; Jiang, Ning; Beasley, Bethany E; Salerno, John C; Ghosh, Dipak K

    2009-06-15

    Cobalamins are important cofactors for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Certain corrins also bind nitric oxide (NO), quenching its bioactivity. To determine if corrins would inhibit NO synthase (NOS), we measured their effects on -L-[(14)C]arginine-to-L-[(14)C]citrulline conversion by NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3. Hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), cobinamide, and dicyanocobinamide (CN(2)-Cbi) potently inhibited all isoforms, whereas cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin had much less effect. OH-Cbl and CN(2)-Cbi prevented binding of the oxygen analog carbon monoxide (CO) to the reduced NOS1 and NOS2 heme active site. CN(2)-Cbi did not react directly with NO or CO. Spectral perturbation analysis showed that CN(2)-Cbi interacted directly with the purified NOS1 oxygenase domain. NOS inhibition by corrins was rapid and not reversed by dialysis with L-arginine or tetrahydrobiopterin. Molecular modeling indicated that corrins could access the unusually large heme- and substrate-binding pocket of NOS. Best fits were obtained in the "base-off" conformation of the lower axial dimethylbenzimidazole ligand. CN(2)-Cbi inhibited interferon-gamma-activated Raw264.7 mouse macrophage NO production. We show for the first time that certain corrins directly inhibit NOS, suggesting that these agents (or their derivatives) may have pharmacological utility. Endogenous cobalamins and cobinamides might play important roles in regulating NOS activity under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:19328848

  14. Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate) in several clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Hopps, E; Montana, M; Carollo, C; Calandrino, V; Incalcaterra, E; Canino, B; Lo Presti, R

    2014-01-01

    We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration. PMID:24004551

  15. Nasal Nitric Oxide and Lifestyle Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haibo; Zou, Baiming; Hazucha, Milan; Carson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas generated by inflammatory cells and mucosal epithelial cells of the nose and paranasal sinuses and is an important mediator in nonspecific host defense against infectious agents. However, NO also mediates physiologic events such as vasodilation, mucus hypersecretion, and mucosal disruption that are associated with inflammatory conditions, and it is a regulator of ciliary beat frequency. In the present study, we hypothesized that lifestyle exposure to tobacco smoke, whether through active smoking or by inadvertent exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, would result in higher detectable levels of nasal NO (nNO) than are found in well-documented nonsmokers. Methods Nasal NO measurements were obtained concomitant with assays of urine cotinine from well-documented nonsmokers, active smokers, and individuals exposed by lifestyle to secondhand smoke. These parameters were statistically analyzed to determine whether increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure yield higher concentrations of nNO. Results Our results and subsequent statistical analyses imply that active smokers who exhibit high urine cotinine levels exhibit significant increases in nNO levels in comparison to both nonsmokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Conclusions There is an increased level of nNO associated with tobacco smoke exposure that may contribute to the inflammatory processes characteristic of disease pathogenesis in smokers. PMID:21859054

  16. Cardiac nitric oxide synthases are elevated in dietary copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saari, Jack T; Wold, Loren E; Duan, Jinhong; Ren, Jun; Carlson, Hanqian L; Bode, Ann M; Lentsch, Alex B; Zeng, Huawei; Schuschke, Dale A

    2007-07-01

    Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency leads to cardiac morphological and functional defects suggestive of heart failure. However, simultaneous cytoprotective events also appear to occur. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this complex alteration of cardiac function by Cu deficiency have not been elucidated. Because prior work has implicated altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in this altered function, we have examined this pathway in further detail. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets that were either Cu adequate (6 mg Cu/kg diet) or Cu deficient (<0.5 mg Cu/kg diet) for 5 weeks. Endothelial NO synthase (NOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expressions, as measured by Western blot analysis, were 58% and 40% higher, respectively, in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rat hearts. Cardiac NOS activity, as measured by conversion of (3)H-arginine to (3)H-citrulline, was 130% higher in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rats. NFkappaB is a known transcription factor for iNOS. Activation of NFkappaB, determined by an ELISA for the p65 subunit, was found to be 33% higher in Cu-deficient than in Cu-adequate rats. Coupled with prior evidence of elevated cardiac nitrate/nitrite production in Cu-deficient rats, these data suggest multiple pathways for enhanced NO production that may contribute to altered cardiac function under dietary Cu deficiency. PMID:16997540

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide donors modulate the biosynthesis of thaxtomin A, a nitrated phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael J; Kers, Johan A; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Evidence for the involvement of a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the biosynthesis of a phytotoxin is presented. Several species of Streptomyces bacteria produce secondary metabolites with unusual nitrogen groups, such as thaxtomin A (ThxA), which contains a nitroindole moiety. ThxA is a phytotoxin made by three pathogenic Streptomyces species that cause common scab of potato. All three species possess a gene homologous to the oxygenase domain of murine inducible NOS, and this gene, nos, is essential for normal levels of ThxA production. We grew Streptomyces turgidiscabies in the presence of several known NOS inhibitors and a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger to determine their effect on ThxA production. The NO scavenger (CPTIO) and four NOS inhibitors (NAME, NMMA, AG, and 7-NI) reduced ThxA production without affecting bacterial growth. A strain of S. turgidiscabies from which the nos gene had been deleted was grown in the presence of three NO donors (DEANO, SIN, and SNAP), and all three partially restored ThxA production. Our data suggest that bacterial nitric oxide synthases may, at least in part, produce NO for biosynthetic purposes, rather than for cellular signaling, as they do in mammals. PMID:15631947

  18. A pulsing electric field (PEF) increases human chondrocyte proliferation through a transduction pathway involving nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Robert J; Gordon, Stephen L; Kronberg, James; Ganey, Timothy; Pilla, Arthur A

    2008-06-01

    A potential treatment modality for joint pain due to cartilage degradation is electromagnetic fields (EMF) that can be delivered, noninvasively, to chondrocytes buried within cartilage. A pulsed EMF in clinical use for recalcitrant bone fracture healing has been modified to be delivered as a pulsed electric field (PEF) through capacitive coupling. It was the objective of this study to determine whether the PEF signal could have a direct effect on chondrocytes in vitro. This study shows that a 30-min PEF treatment can increase DNA content of chondrocyte monolayer by approximately 150% at 72 h poststimulus. Studies intended to explore the biological mechanism showed this PEF signal increased nitric oxide measured in culture medium and cGMP measured in cell extract within the 30-min exposure period. Increasing calcium in the culture media or adding the calcium ionophore A23187, without PEF treatment, also significantly increased short-term nitric oxide production. The inhibitor W7, which blocks calcium/calmodulin, prevented the PEF-stimulated increase in both nitric oxide and cGMP. The inhibitor L-NAME, which blocks nitric oxide synthase, prevented the PEF-stimulated increase in nitric oxide, cGMP, and DNA content. An inhibitor of guanylate cyclase (LY83583) blocked the PEF-stimulated increase in cGMP and DNA content. A nitric oxide donor, when present for only 30 min, increased DNA content 72 h later. Taken together, these results suggest the transduction pathway for PEF-stimulated chondrocyte proliferation involves nitric oxide and the production of nitric oxide may be the result of a cascade that involves calcium, calmodulin, and cGMP production. PMID:18240331

  19. Nitric oxide regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide gene expression in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Jamie; Bowen, Elizabeth J.; Russo, Andrew F.; Durham, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide are involved in the underlying pathophysiology of migraine and other diseases involving neurogenic inflammation. We have tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide might trigger signaling mechanisms within the trigeminal ganglia neurons that would coordinately stimulate CGRP synthesis and release. Treatment of primary trigeminal ganglia cultures with nitric oxide donors caused a greater than four-fold increase in CGRP release compared with unstimulated cultures. Similarly, CGRP promoter activity was also stimulated by nitric oxide donors and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Cotreatment with the antimigraine drug sumatriptan greatly repressed nitric oxide stimulation of CGRP promoter activity and secretion. Somewhat surprisingly, the mechanisms of nitric oxide stimulation of CGRP secretion did not require cGMP or PI3-kinase signaling pathways, but rather, nitric oxide action required extracellular calcium and likely involves T-type calcium channels. Furthermore, nitric oxide was shown to increase expression of the active forms of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Jun amino-terminal kinase and p38 but not extracellular signal-related kinase in trigeminal neurons. In summary, our results provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms by which nitric oxide induces CGRP synthesis and secretion from trigeminal neurons. PMID:16630053

  20. L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, G. P. T.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Holstein, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody against L-citrulline or polyclonal anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase sera, and double immunofluorescence to detect neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-citrulline co-localization. The results demonstrate that the same CNS regions and cell types are labeled by neuronal nitric oxide synthase polyclonal antisera and L-citrulline monoclonal antibodies, using both immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Short-term pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor reduces L-citrulline immunostaining, but does not affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In the vestibular brainstem, double immunofluorescence studies show that many, but not all, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells co-express L-citrulline, and that local intracellular patches of intense L-citrulline accumulation are present in some neurons. Conversely, all L-citrulline-labeled neurons co-express neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cells expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase alone are interpreted as neurons with the potential to produce nitric oxide under other stimulus conditions, and the subcellular foci of enhanced L-citrulline staining are viewed as intracellular sites of nitric oxide production. This interpretation is supported by ultrastructural observations of subcellular foci with enhanced L-citrulline and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining that are located primarily at postsynaptic densities and portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. Copyright 2002 IBRO.

  1. Study on relationship of nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic chole-cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Fu; Cai, Dong; Zhu, You-Gen; Yang, Jin-Lu; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Yu, Yang-Hai

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study relationship of injury induced by nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: The values of plasma nitric oxide (P-NO), plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma ?-carotene (P-?-CAR), plasma lipoperoxides (P-LPO), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD), erythrocyte catalase (E-CAT), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSH-Px) activities and erythrocyte lipoperoxides (E-LPO) level in 77 patients with chro nic cholecystitis and 80 healthy control subjects were determined, differences of the above average values between t he patient group and the control group and differences of the average values bet ween preoperative and postoperative patients were analyzed and compared, linear regression and correlation of the disease course with the above determination values as well as the stepwise regression and correlation of the course with th e values were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO, E-LPO were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and of P-VC, P-VE, P-?-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px decreased (P < 0.01) in the patient group. The analysis of the lin ear regression and correlation s howed that with prolonging of the course, the values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO in the patients were gradually ascended and the values of P-VC, P-VE, P-?-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px descended (P < 0.01). The analysis of the stepwise regression and correlation indicated that the correlation of the course with P-NO, P-VE and P-?-CAR values was the closest. Compared with the preoperative patients, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO were significantly decre ased (P < 0.01) and the average values of P-VC, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px in postoperative pa tients increased (P < 0.01) in postoperative patients. But there was no signif icant difference in the average values of P-VE, P-?-CAR preope rative and postoperative patients. CONCLUSION: Chronic cholecystitis could induce the increase of nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation and lipoperoxidation. PMID:11819637

  2. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  3. Choosing the right chondrocyte cell line: Focus on nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Anna; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Abella, Vanessa; Lpez, Vernica; Pino, Jess; Gmez, Rodolfo; Gmez-Reino, Juan Jess; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a catabolic factor that contributes to OA pathology by inducing chondrocytes apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases synthesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Thus, the research on NO regulation in chondrocytes represents a relevant field which needs to be explored in depth. However, to date, only the murine ATDC-5 cell line and primary chondrocytes are well-established cells to study NO production in cartilage tissues. The goal of this study is to determine whether two commonly used human chondrocytic cell lines: SW-1353 and T/C-28a2 cell lines are good models to examine lipopolysaccharide and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven NO release and iNOS expression. To this aim, we carefully examined NO production and iNOS protein expression in human T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 chondrocytes stimulated with LPS and interleukin (IL)-1 alone or in combination. We also use ATDC-5 cells as a positive control for NO production. NO accumulation has been determined by colorimetric Griess reaction, whereas NOS type II expression was determined by Western Blot analysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that neither human T/C-28a2 nor SW-1353 chondrocytes showed a detectable increase in NO production or iNOS expression after bacterial endotoxin or cytokines challenge with IL-1. Our study demonstrated that T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 human cell lines are not suitable for studying NO release and iNOS expression confirming that ATDC5 and human primary cultured chondrocytes are the best in vitro cell system to study the actions derived from this mediator. PMID:26016689

  4. Nitric oxide reduces sickle hemoglobin polymerization: Potential role of nitric oxide-induced charge alteration in depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Tohru; Thatte, Hemant S.; Tang, Jay X.; Mukerji, Ishita; Knee, Kelly; Bridges, Kenneth R.; Wang, Sabina; Montero-Huerta, Pedro; Joshi, Ratan Mani; Head, C. Alvin

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that inhaling nitric oxide (NO) increases the oxygen affinity of sickle red blood cells (RBCs) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our recent studies found that NO lowered the P50 values of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) hemolysates but did not increase methemoglobin (metHb) levels, supporting the role of NO, but not metHb, in the oxygen affinity of HbS. Here we examine the mechanism by which NO increases HbS oxygen affinity. Because anti-sickling agents increase sickle RBC oxygen affinity, we first determined whether NO exhibits anti-sickling properties. The viscosity of HbS hemolysates, measured by falling ball assays, increased upon deoxygenation; NO treatment reduced the increment. Multiphoton microscopic analyses showed smaller HbS polymers in deoxygenated sickle RBCs and HbS hemolysates exposed to NO. These results suggest that NO inhibits HbS polymer formation and has anti-sickling properties. Furthermore, we found that HbS treated with NO exhibits an isoelectric point similar to that of HbA, suggesting that NO alters the electric charge of HbS. NOHbS adducts had the same elution time as HbA upon high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This study demonstrates that NO may disrupt HbS polymers by abolishing the excess positive charge of HbS, resulting in increased oxygen affinity. PMID:21457702

  5. Study of the nitric oxide system in the rat cerebellum during aging

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cerebellum is the neural structure with the highest levels of nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter that has been proposed to play a key role in the brain aging, although knowledge concerning its contribution to cerebellar senescence is still unclear, due mainly to absence of integrative studies that jointly evaluate the main factors involved in its cell production and function. Consequently, in the present study, we investigate the expression, location, and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes; the protein nitration; and the production of nitric oxide in the cerebellum of adult and old rats. Results Our results show no variation in the expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms with aging, although, we have detected some changes in the cellular distribution pattern of the inducible isoform particularly in the cerebellar nuclei. There is also an increase in nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as greater protein-nitration levels, and maintenance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels in the senescent cerebellum. Conclusions The nitric oxide/nitric oxide syntahses system suffers from a number of changes, mainly in the inducible nitric oxide synthase distribution and in overall nitric oxide synthases activity in the senescent cerebellum, which result in an increase of the protein nitration. These changes might be related to the oxidative damage detected with aging in the cerebellum. PMID:20576087

  6. Gene variations of nitric oxide synthase regulate the effects of a saturated fat rich meal on endothelial function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene variations have been linked to a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases by unknown mechanisms. Our aim was to determine if two SNPs located in NOS3 (E298D and i19342) interfere with microvascular endothelial function (MEF) and/or oxidative stress du...

  7. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Gugliandolo, Agnese; Calabrò, Carlo; Currò, Monica; Ientile, Riccardo; Raskovic, Desanka; Korkina, Ludmila; Caccamo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)n as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS), 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 −786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT)16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT)8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT) repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 −786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT)n polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI. PMID:25878398

  8. Role of exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive and safe measure of airways inflammation that may complement the assessment of asthma. Elevations of FeNO have recently been found to correlate with allergic sensitization. Therefore, FeNO may be a useful predictor of atopy in the general population. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO in predicting atopy in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in an age- and sex- stratified random sample of 13 to 15 year-olds in two communities in Peru. We asked participants about asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics, and underwent spirometry, assessment of FeNO and an allergy skin test. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of atopy as a function of FeNO, and calculated area-under-the-curves (AUC) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO as a predictor of atopy. Results Of 1441 recruited participants, 1119 (83%) completed all evaluations. Mean FeNO was 17.6 ppb (SD=0.6) in atopics and 11.6 ppb (SD=0.8) in non-atopics (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, a FeNO>20 ppb was associated with an increase in the odds of atopy in non-asthmatics (OR=5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.5) and asthmatics (OR=16.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 77.5). A FeNO>20 ppb was the best predictor for atopy with an AUC of 68% (95% CI 64% to 69%). Stratified by asthma, the AUC was 65% (95% CI 61% to 69%) in non-asthmatics and 82% (95% CI 71% to 91%) in asthmatics. Conclusions FeNO had limited accuracy to identify atopy among the general population; however, it may be a useful indicator of atopic phenotype among asthmatics. PMID:23639047

  9. Nitric oxide-releasing polymer incorporated ointment for cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngnam; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Yeong Mi; Im, Sooseok; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-12-28

    This work demonstrates the development of nitric oxide-releasing ointment and its potential on efficient wound healing. Nitric oxide-releasing polymer was successfully synthesized, which is composed of biocompatible Pluronic F127, branched polyethylenimine and 1-substituted diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolates. The synthesized nitric oxide-releasing polymer was incorporated into the PEG-based ointment which not only facilitated nitric oxide release in a slow manner, but also served as a moisturizer to enhance the wound healing. As compared to control groups, the nitric oxide-releasing ointment showed the accelerated wound closure with enhanced re-epithelialization, collagen deposition, and blood vessel formation in vivo. Therefore, this nitric oxide-based ointment presents the promising potential for the efficient strategy to heal the cutaneous wound. PMID:26348389

  10. Real-time electrical detection of nitric oxide in biological systems with sub-nanomolar sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Xue, Teng; Liu, Yuan; Nel, Andre; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems and immune responses. Here we report a new design of nitric oxide sensors based on hemin-functionalized graphene field-effect transistors. With its single atom thickness and the highest carrier mobility among all materials, graphene holds the promise for unprecedented sensitivity for molecular sensing. The non-covalent functionalization through ?-? stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with a sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their practical functionality in complex biological systems.

  11. Inhibitor Bound Crystal Structures of Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Dejam, Dillon; Lewis, Matthew C; Huang, He; Kang, Soosung; Jing, Qing; Xue, Fengtian; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-07-01

    Nitric oxide generated by bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) increases the susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis to oxidative stress, including antibiotic-induced oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, NOS inhibitors also improve the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Development of potent and selective bacterial NOS inhibitors is complicated by the high active site sequence and structural conservation shared with the mammalian NOS isoforms. To exploit bacterial NOS for the development of new therapeutics, recognition of alternative NOS surfaces and pharmacophores suitable for drug binding is required. Here, we report on a wide number of inhibitor-bound bacterial NOS crystal structures to identify several compounds that interact with surfaces unique to the bacterial NOS. Although binding studies indicate that these inhibitors weakly interact with the NOS active site, many of the inhibitors reported here provide a revised structural framework for the development of new antimicrobials that target bacterial NOS. In addition, mutagenesis studies reveal several key residues that unlock access to bacterial NOS surfaces that could provide the selectivity required to develop potent bacterial NOS inhibitors. PMID:26062720

  12. Nitric oxide for the evaluation and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchin, J P; Mott, A R; Rosen, K L; Feltes, T F

    1997-01-01

    The use of inhaled nitric oxide as a selective pulmonary vasodilator has expanded to include patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. The therapeutic and diagnostic roles of inhaled nitric oxide offer additional alternatives and benefits to these patients with pulmonary hypertension, particularly in the postoperative setting. This article reviews the background, mechanism of action, toxicities, and current clinical applications of inhaled nitric oxide in the child with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:9456484

  13. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25819134

  14. Apigenin attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats via suppressing oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Jing; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Our present investigation aimed to determine the neuroprotection of apigenin (API) against diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) a diabetic rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. All experiment animals treated with vehicle or API by doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for seven weeks. Firstly, the body weight and blood glucose levels were detected. We used Morris water maze test to evaluate learning and memory function. The oxidative indicators (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)), cNOS, iNOS, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. API can increase body weight, reduce the blood glucose levels, and improve the cognitive function in rats induced by diabetes. API decrease the MDA content, and increase SOD activity and GSH level of diabetic animals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. Meanwhile, constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3/9 were markedly exhibited in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. In summary, our current work discloses that API attenuates DACD in rats via suppressing oxidative stress, nitric oxide and apoptotic cascades synthase pathway. PMID:26629041

  15. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, W; Cai, B; Liew, F Y

    2006-11-01

    There is a close relation between T helper (Th) 1 cells and nitric oxide in disease. Thus it is possible that a reciprocal regulatory mechanism exists between them. This paper briefly describes the experimental studies which have helped elucidate the mechanism by which nitric oxide selectively enhances Th 1 cell proliferation and the potential effect of nitric oxide on regulatory T (Treg) cells. On the basis of the results the authors propose that nitric oxide represents an additional signal for the induction of T cell subset response, contributing to the increasingly complex network of immune regulation essential for health and disease. PMID:17038470

  16. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, W; Cai, B; Liew, F Y

    2006-01-01

    There is a close relation between T helper (Th)?1 cells and nitric oxide in disease. Thus it is possible that a reciprocal regulatory mechanism exists between them. This paper briefly describes the experimental studies which have helped elucidate the mechanism by which nitric oxide selectively enhances Th?1 cell proliferation and the potential effect of nitric oxide on regulatory T (Treg) cells. On the basis of the results the authors propose that nitric oxide represents an additional signal for the induction of T cell subset response, contributing to the increasingly complex network of immune regulation essential for health and disease. PMID:17038470

  17. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  18. Nitric oxide and cytochrome oxidase: substrate, inhibitor or effector?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chris E

    2002-01-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) controls oxygen consumption by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The oxygen-binding site of the enzyme is an iron/copper (haem a3/CuB) binuclear centre. At high substrate (ferrocytochrome c) concentrations, NO binds reversibly to the reduced iron in competition with oxygen. At low substrate concentrations, NO binds to the oxidized copper. Inhibition at the haem iron site is relieved by dissociation of the NO from the reduced iron. Inhibition at the copper site is relieved by oxidation of the bound NO and subsequent dissociation of nitrite from the enzyme. Therefore, NO can be a substrate, inhibitor or effector of cytochrome oxidase, depending on cellular conditions. PMID:11796222

  19. Nitric oxide involvement in pancreatic beta cell apoptosis by glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Malek Moien; Ansari, Mohammad

    2006-02-01

    Glibenclamide as a second-generation compound of sulfonylurea has widely been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients. It has been shown that it induces apoptosis in beta cells, which is partially mediated by Ca(2+) influx. Here, we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms on glibenclamide-induced apoptosis in rat insulinoma cells. Our results showed that glibenclamide induces NO generation (measured as nitrite) that is accompanied with decrease of cell viability in a defined concentration of glibenclamide. The effects of glibenclamide on cell viability were partially inhibited after treatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inhibitor more selective for constitutive nitric oxide synthase, and in the presence of D600--a blocker of voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels inhibited Ca(2+) influx into beta cells, whereas aminoguanidine (AG), a preferential inhibitor of inducible NOS, was significantly less effective. Analysis of DNA fragmentation by electrophoresis and staining with Hoechest 33342 and propidium iodide showed that L-NAME, but not AG, prevented DNA fragmentation and decreased the number of cells with condensed and fragmented nuclei. It revealed that the effects of glibenclamide on apoptosis were partially inhibited by treatment with L-NAME. In conclusion, we have shown that NO production in glibenclamide treated cells may be involved in the induction of apoptotic cell death in pure beta cell line and it may be due to Ca(2+) dependent activation of constitutive NOS isoforms. PMID:16256381

  20. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  1. Nitric oxide production increases during Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with the potential of causing severe encephalitis among immunocompromised human and animals. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and immunopathological role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous systems and to identify any correlation between toxoplasmosis neuropathology and investigate the consequences of the cellular responses protect against T. gondii. Mice were infected with ME49 strain T. gondii and levels of endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) were examined in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry, during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 10 30 and 60 days post infection. Results of the study revealed that the levels of eNOS (p<0.05), nNOS (p<0.05), iNOS (p<0.005), GFAP (p<0.005) and NF (p<0.005) were remarkably higher in T. gondii-infected mice than in uninfected control. The most prominent finding from our study was 10 and 30 days after inoculation data indicating that increased levels of NO not only a potential neuroprotective role for immunoregulatory and immunopathological but also might be a molecular trigger of bradyzoite development. Furthermore, this findings were shown that high expressed NO origin was not only inducible nitric oxide synthase but also endothelial and neuronal. We demonstrated that activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages is a significant event in toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). The results also clearly indicated that increased levels of NO might contribute to neuropathology related with TE. Furthermore, expression of NF might gives an idea of the progress and critical for diagnostic significance of this disease. PMID:26115941

  2. Bubble CPAP elicits decreases in exhaled nitric oxide in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yi-Ming; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Lee, Chuen-ming; Lien, Shao-Hung; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has a key role in pulmonary function, and the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase exhaled NO (FE(NO)) in anesthetized animals and isolated lungs. The influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which is similar to PEEP, on the FE(NO) level has not been investigated in humans or in animals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether and how the application of CPAP in spontaneously breathing rabbits influences levels of FE(NO). We performed a randomized crossover study to measure FE(NO) levels in 12 ketamine-anesthetized rabbits that were intubated via tracheostomy for bubble CPAP (B-CPAP) or ventilator-derived CPAP (V-CPAP), which are two of the most popular CPAP modes and which have different pressure sources. The baseline FE(NO) level was 23.8 +/- 2.6 ppb, which increased to 27.1 +/- 2.9 ppb (P < 0.001) during V-CPAP and decreased to 18.6 +/- 2.2 ppb (P < 0.001) during B-CPAP. We used one high-frequency oscillatory ventilator to repeat the experiment, in which the conventional ventilation function of the ventilator was used in the baseline and V-CPAP periods, and the high-frequency function was used to replace B-CPAP. Changes in FE(NO) were similar to our previous findings. This study demonstrated that the application of CPAP did influence levels of FE(NO). We speculate that the decrease in FE(NO) during B-CPAP may have been related to the bubble-associated high-frequency oscillation. PMID:16779837

  3. Nitric oxide produced during murine listeriosis is protective.

    PubMed Central

    Boockvar, K S; Granger, D L; Poston, R M; Maybodi, M; Washington, M K; Hibbs, J B; Kurlander, R L

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be important for intracellular microbiostasis in vitro. To determine the role of NO in immune function in vivo, groups of C57BL/6 mice were given a sublethal intravenous inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes EGD, and their urine was monitored daily for nitrate, the mammalian end product of NO metabolism. Urinary nitrate levels peaked at 5 to 10 times the basal level on days 5 to 6, when spleen and liver Listeria counts declined most steeply, and decreased thereafter, when spleens and livers were nearly sterile. Peritoneal macrophages explanted from Listeria-infected mice produced nitrite spontaneously, whereas macrophages from uninfected mice did not. The inducible NO synthase mRNA was detectable in the spleens of infected mice on days 1 to 4 of infection. When Listeria-infected mice were treated orally throughout the infection with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a specific NO synthase inhibitor they showed no detectable rise in urinary nitrate excretion. Mean Listeria counts in the livers and spleens NMMA-treated mice were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than counts in control mice on days 4 through 8 of infection. Compared with control mice, NMMA-treated mice also showed worse clinical signs of infection, namely, weight loss, hypothermia, decreased food and water intake, and decreased urine output. Histologically NMMA-treated mice had many more inflammatory foci in their livers and spleens than control mice. The histologic observation that mononuclear cells are present at sites of infection suggests that inhibiting NO production did not block the flux of macrophages into infected viscera. As controls for possible drug toxicity, a group of uninfected mice given NMMA orally showed no detrimental effects on weight, temperature, and food and water intake. These experiments demonstrate that inhibition of NO production in Listeria-infected mice results in an exacerbated infection and thus that NO synthesis is important for immune defense against Listeria infection in mice. Images PMID:7509315

  4. Xiaokening stimulates endothelial nitric oxide release in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Lei; Wei, Qunli; Cui, Jie; Yan, Changdong; Wang, Xin; Wu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus induces microangiopathic changes that lead to endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated the effect of Xiaokening, a type of Chinese compound medicine, on the mesenteric arteriolar endothelial cell function of diabetic rats and its underlying mechanism. METHODS Diabetes mellitus was induced in rat models via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin and observed over three weeks. Mesenteric arterioles, which were isolated in a cannulated and pressurised state, were incubated with intravascular injections of 1, 3 or 5 g/L Xiaokening for 24, 48 or 72 hours. The effects of Xiaokening on the release of nitric oxide (NO) on the mesenteric arterioles were detected under shear stress of 1, 10 and 20 dyn/cm2. Biochemical methods were used to determine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), SOD and XO in the mesenteric arterioles were assessed using Western blot. RESULTS Compared to normal rat arterioles, less NO was released in the mesenteric arterioles of diabetic rats. Xiaokening was found to have a concentration- and time-dependent effect on NO release; when the shear stress was increased, there was a gradual increase in the release of NO. Compared to normal arterioles, the expression of eNOS in the mesenteric arterioles of diabetic rats was lower. Incubation with Xiaokening increased SOD activity and expression, and decreased XO activity and expression in the mesenteric arterioles of the diabetic rats. CONCLUSION Xiaokening was able to significantly increase NO release and improve the endothelial function of mesenteric arterioles through antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:26243977

  5. Dexamethasone, tetrahydrobiopterin and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Silke; Habermeier, Alice; Siuda, Daniel; Reifenberg, Gisela; Xia, Ning; Closs, Ellen I; Frstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out whether dexamethasone induces an uncoupling of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Methods & Results A major cause of eNOS uncoupling is a deficiency of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Treatment of human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells with dexamethasone decreased mRNA and protein expression of both BH4-synthesizing enzymes: GTP cyclohydrolase I and dihydrofolate reductase. Consistently, a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of BH4, dihydrobiopterin (BH2) as well as BH4: BH2 ratio was observed in dexamethasone-treated cells. Surprisingly, no evidence for eNOS uncoupling was found. We then analyzed the expression and phosphorylation of the eNOS enzyme. Dexamethasone treatment led to a down-regulation of eNOS protein and a reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177. A reduction of eNOS expression may lead to a relatively normal BH4: eNOS molar ratio in dexamethasone-treated cells. Because the BH4-eNOS stoichiometry rather than the absolute BH4 amount is the key determinant of eNOS functionality (i.e., coupled or uncoupled), the down-regulation of eNOS may represent an explanation for the absence of eNOS uncoupling. Phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177 is needed for both the NO-producing activity of the coupled eNOS and the superoxide-producing activity of the uncoupled eNOS. Thus, a reduction of serine 1177 phosphorylation may render a potentially uncoupled eNOS hardly detectable. Conclusions Although dexamethasone reduces BH4 levels in endothelial cells, eNOS uncoupling is not evident. The reduction of NO production in dexamethasone-treated endothelial cells is mainly attributable to reduced eNOS expression and decreased eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177. PMID:26512245

  6. Repeatability of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rouhos, Annamari; Kainu, Annette; Piiril, Pivi; Sarna, Seppo; Lindqvist, Ari; Karjalainen, Jouko; Sovijrvi, Anssi R A

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation may help in predicting the steroid response in subjects with respiratory symptoms. Unlike patients with asthma, only a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) benefits from steroid treatment. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a useful surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation, but data on the repeatability of FENO measurements in COPD needed for the assessment of significant change are insufficient. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term repeatability of FENO measurement in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic airway obstruction compared to that in healthy subjects. We studied 20 patients with stable COPD and 20 healthy subjects, and determined FENO (flow rate 50 ml s?1) three times: at baseline, 10 min and 24 h after baseline. Spirometry was performed on the first study day after the FENO measurements. The median FENO concentration in patients with COPD was 156 ppb, and in healthy subjects, 152 ppb. The coefficient of variation (CoV) for 24-h measurements was 124% in COPD patients, and 159% in healthy subjects. Among COPD patients with global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease stage 2 disease, the CoV was 137%, and among those with stage 34 disease, 105%. The findings indicate that the short-term repeatability of FENO measurement in patients with moderate to very severe COPD is equally good as in healthy subjects. A change in FENO exceeding 24% is likely to reflect a minimum measurable change in COPD. PMID:21143751

  7. Increased angiogenesis in portal hypertensive rats: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Sumanovski, L T; Battegay, E; Stumm, M; van der Kooij, M; Sieber, C C

    1999-04-01

    Systemic and especially splanchnic arterial vasodilation accompany chronic portal hypertension. Different soluble mediators causing this vasodilation have been proposed, the strongest evidence being for nitric oxide (NO). No data exist if structural vascular changes may partly account for this vasodilatory state. Here, we developed a new in vivo quantitative angiogenesis assay in the abdominal cavity and determined if: 1) portal hypertensive rats show increased angiogenesis; and 2) angiogenesis is altered by inhibiting NO formation. Portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL). Sham-operated rats served as controls (CON). During the index operation (day 0), a teflon ring filled with collagen I (Vitrogen 100) was sutured in the mesenteric cavity. After 16 days, rings were explanted, embedded in paraffin, and ingrown vessels counted using a morphometry system. The role of NO was tested by adding an antagonist of NO formation (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine [NNA], 3.3 mg/kg/d) into the drinking water. The mean number of ingrown vessels per implant was significantly higher in PVL rats compared with CON rats, i.e., 1,453 +/- 187 versus 888 +/- 116, respectively (P <.05; N = 5 per group). NNA significantly (P <.01) inhibited angiogenesis in PVL (202 +/- 124; N = 5) and in CON (174 +/- 25; N = 6) rats, respectively. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol, did not prevent angiogenesis either in PVL or CON rats in a separate set of experiments (data not shown). The conclusions drawn from this study are that: 1) rats with portal hypertension show increased angiogenesis; and 2) inhibition of NO formation significantly prevents angiogenesis in both PVL and CON rats. Therefore, splanchnic vasodilation in chronic portal hypertension may also be a result of structural changes. PMID:10094944

  8. Release and Elementary Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide in Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ping; Rodriguez-Contreras, Adrian; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Dongguang; Choong-Ryoul, Sihn; Eastwood, Emily; Mu, Karen; Levic, Snezana; Song, Haitao; Yevgeniy, Petrov Y.; Smith, Peter J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme nitric oxide (NO) synthase, that produces the signaling molecule NO, has been identified in several cell types in the inner ear. However, it is unclear whether a measurable quantity of NO is released in the inner ear to confer specific functions. Indeed, the functional significance of NO and the elementary cellular mechanism thereof are most uncertain. Here, we demonstrate that the sensory epithelia of the frog saccule release NO and explore its release mechanisms by using self-referencing NO-selective electrodes. Additionally, we investigated the functional effects of NO on electrical properties of hair cells and determined their underlying cellular mechanism. We show detectable amounts of NO are released by hair cells (>50 nM). Furthermore, a hair-cell efferent modulator acetylcholine produces at least a threefold increase in NO release. NO not only attenuated the baseline membrane oscillations but it also increased the magnitude of current required to generate the characteristic membrane potential oscillations. This resulted in a rightward shift in the frequencycurrent relationship and altered the excitability of hair cells. Our data suggest that these effects ensue because NO reduces whole cell Ca2+ current and drastically decreases the open probability of single-channel events of the L-type and non L-type Ca2+ channels in hair cells, an effect that is mediated through direct nitrosylation of the channel and activation of protein kinase G. Finally, NO increases the magnitude of Ca2+-activated K+ currents via direct NO nitrosylation. We conclude that NO-mediated inhibition serves as a component of efferent nerve modulation of hair cells. PMID:20220083

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates nitric oxide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    TAKADA, KOJI; HIROSE, JUN; YAMABE, SOICHIRO; UEHARA, YUSHUKE; MIZUTA, HIROSHI

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important mediators of chondrocyte apoptosis, which is a notable feature of cartilage degeneration. While apoptosis of chondrocytes is induced by p53, NO can also induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which may be involved in the process of NO-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine whether NO-induced ER stress (ERS) leads to apoptosis of chondrocytes and to investigate the temporal relationship between the expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), an ERS-associated apoptotic molecule, and the expression of p53 during apoptosis in NO-stimulated chondrocytes. Rat chondrocytes were stimulated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of CHOP, glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and p53. Apoptosis of chondrocytes was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SNP-treated chondrocytes showed an increase in CHOP and GRP78 mRNA expression and underwent apoptosis. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), an ERS inhibitor, reduced CHOP and GRP78, as well as SNP-stimulated apoptosis of chondrocytes, without affecting the SNP-dependent generation of NO. In addition, the blockade of CHOP following siRNA transfection reduced SNP-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes. The CHOP expression increased after apoptosis was detected in the SNP-treated chondrocytes, whereas the p53 expression increased prior to apoptosis. These data demonstrated that NO-induced ERS leads chondrocytes to apoptosis, although this effect appears to be limited to persistent impairment of NO stimulation. These findings may provide insight into the pathology of cartilage degeneration. PMID:24648941

  10. Elucidating nitric oxide synthase domain interactions by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Holden, Jeffrey K; Li, Huiying; Poulos, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) by oxidizing l-Arg to NO and L-citrulline. NO production requires multiple interdomain electron transfer steps between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and heme domain. Specifically, NADPH-derived electrons are transferred to the heme-containing oxygenase domain via the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and FMN containing reductase domains. While crystal structures are available for both the reductase and oxygenase domains of NOS, to date there is no atomic level structural information on domain interactions required for the final FMN-to-heme electron transfer step. Here, we evaluate a model of this final electron transfer step for the heme-FMN-calmodulin NOS complex based on the recent biophysical studies using a 105-ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The resulting equilibrated complex structure is very stable and provides a detailed prediction of interdomain contacts required for stabilizing the NOS output state. The resulting equilibrated complex model agrees well with previous experimental work and provides a detailed working model of the final NOS electron transfer step required for NO biosynthesis. PMID:26448477

  11. Pterins inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; van Overveld, F. J.; Bult, H.; Vermeire, P. A.; Herman, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The synthesis of nitrite and citrulline from L-arginine by immune-stimulated rat alveolar macrophages and the modulation of this synthesis were studied. 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) and L-sepiapterin were potent inhibitors of the recombinant interferon-gamma induced production of nitrogen oxides in intact cultured cells with I50 values for BH4 and L-sepiapterin of approximately 10 microM. They were equally effective in inhibiting the induced production of citrulline. This inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent for all three modulators investigated. 2. The inhibitory effects were not dependent on incubation times of either 24 or 48 h, on the immune-stimulus used (lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma), or whether these stimuli were added during or after the induction period. 3. Pterin-6-carboxylic acid (PCA), which cannot be converted into BH4, and methotrexate (MTX), which inhibits dihydrofolatereductase but not de novo biosynthesis of BH4, did not change the production of nitrite. 4. The data indicate that DAHP, an inhibitor of the de novo biosynthesis of the co-factor BH4, blocks the nitric oxide synthase activity in intact cells. Since the pterins BH4 and L-sepiapterin blocked the L-arginine dependent production of nitrite and citrulline, the activity of nitric oxide synthase in phagocytic cells may be regulated by metabolic endproducts of the de novo biosynthesis of BH4. PMID:1281717

  12. The measurement of nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hart, C Michael; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Dikalov, Sergey I; Boulden, Beth M; Dudley, Samuel C

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by vascular endothelial cells (ECs) plays a critical role in normal vascular physiology. Important insights into mechanisms regulating the production of endothelial NO have been derived from in vitro studies employing cultured ECs. Although many techniques for the detection of NO have been described, many of these methods lack adequate sensitivity to detect the small amount of NO produced by cultured ECs. In this chapter, we describe three protocols that employ chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, or electrochemical techniques to permit the reliable detection of EC NO production. PMID:16291257

  13. Production of nitric oxide in host-virus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Majumdar, Uddalak; Roy, Anirban; Maiti, Debasis; Goswamy, Achintya Mohan; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in plant diseases resistance. Here we have first time demonstrated that begomovirus infection in susceptible H. cannabinus plants, results in elevated NO and reactive nitrogen species production during early infection stage not only in infected leaf but also in root and shoot. Production of NO was further confirmed by oxyhemoglobin assay. Furthermore, we used Phenyl alanine ammonia lyase as marker of pathogenesis related enzyme. In addition evidence for protein tyrosine nitration during the early stage of viral infection clearly showed the involvement of nitrosative stress. PMID:20215875

  14. Direct Reaction of Amides with Nitric Oxide To Form Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the apparently unprecedented direct reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with amides to generate ions of structure R(C=O)NH–N(O)=NO–, with examples including R = Me (1a) or 3-pyridyl (1b). The sodium salts of both released NO in pH 7.4 buffer, with 37 °C half-lives of 1–3 min. As NO-releasing drug candidates, diazeniumdiolated amides would have the advantage of generating only 1 equiv of base on hydrolyzing exhaustively to NO, in contrast to their amine counterparts, which generate 2 equiv of base. PMID:25210948

  15. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  16. Interactions between nitric oxide and plant hormones in aluminum tolerance

    PubMed Central

    He, Huyi; He, Longfei; Gu, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved, together with plant hormones, in the adaptation to Al stress in plants. However, the mechanism by which NO and plant hormones interplay to improve Al tolerance are still unclear. We have recently shown that patterns of plant hormones alteration differ between rye and wheat under Al stress. NO may enhance Al tolerance by regulating hormonal equilibrium in plants, as a regulator of plant hormones signaling. In this paper, some unsolved issues are discussed based on recent studies and the complex network of NO and plant hormones in inducing Al tolerance of plants are proposed. PMID:22499184

  17. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheler, Claudia; Durner, Jrg; Astier, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants. Recent progress has been made in defining their role during plant biotic interactions. Over the last decade, their function in disease resistance has been highlighted and focused a lot of investigations. Moreover, NO and ROS have recently emerged as important players of defense responses after herbivore attacks. Besides their role in plant adaptive response development, NO and ROS have been demonstrated to be involved in symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms. Here we review recent data concerning these three sides of NO and ROS functions in plant biotic interactions. PMID:23880111

  18. Application of nitric oxide measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Tufvesson, Ellen; Rolla, Giovanni; Bjermer, Leif; Alving, Kjell; Diamant, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, non-invasive method for the assessment of active, mainly Th2-driven, airway inflammation, which is sensitive to treatment with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Consequently, FeNO serves as a valued tool to aid diagnosis and monitoring in several asthma phenotypes. More recently, FeNO has been evaluated in several other respiratory, infectious, and/or immunological conditions. In this short review, we provide an overview of several clinical studies and discuss the status of potential applications of NO measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma. PMID:26672962

  19. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-08-01

    The discovery and early use of NO is recalled followed by some of its chemical reactions to give useful products such as nitric acid and fertilizers. However NO produced from the internal combustion engine results in photochemical smog production and ozone depletion. A rebirth of interest in NO has occurred because of its unexpected roles in physiology and neurobiology. Its production can lead to biological responses such as vasodilation, cell adhesion, neurotransmission and immune regulation. Finally the ways denitrifying bacteria convert NO and other oxides of nitrogen to dinitrogen are discussed.

  20. Evidence that nitric oxide modulates food intake in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, J.E.; Flood, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be an intracellular modulator within the central nervous system. L-arginine, which results in NO synthesis, increased food intake in mice while the inhibitor of NO synthesis, L-N{sup G}-nitro arginine (L-NO Arg) inhibited food intake in food deprived mice. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, partially reverse the inhibitory effect of L-NO Arg on food intake. These findings suggest the possibility that NO may be a physiological modulator of food intake and that the possibility of exploring the utility of L-NO arg in the treatment of obesity should be explored.

  1. Nitric oxide-oxygen radicals interactions in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rubbo, H; Batthyany, C; Radi, R

    2000-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most common diseases and the principal cause of death in western civilization. The pathogenesis of this disease can be explained on the basis of the 'oxidative-modification hypothesis,' which proposes that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation represents a key early event. Nitric oxide (*NO) regulates critical lipid membrane and lipoprotein oxidation events by a) contributing to the formation of more potent secondary oxidants from superoxide (i.e.: peroxynitrite), and b) its antioxidant properties through termination reactions with lipid radicals to possibly less reactive secondary nitrogen-containing products (LONO, LOONO). Relative rates of production and steady state concentrations of superoxide and *NO and cellular sites of production will profoundly influence the expression of differential oxidant injury-enhancing and protective effects of *NO. Full understanding of the physiological roles of *NO, coupled with detailed insight into *NO regulation of oxygen radical-dependent reactions, will yield a more rational basis for intervention strategies directed toward oxidant-dependent atherogenic processes. PMID:15693284

  2. Interactions of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite with low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andrs; Botti, Horacio; Batthyny, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (*NO) is a free radical species that diffuses and concentrates in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to serve as a potent inhibitor of lipid oxidation processes. Peroxynitrite (PN), the product of the diffusion-limited reaction between *NO and superoxide (O2*-) represents a relevant mediator of oxidative modifications in LDL. The focus of this review is the analysis of interactions between *NO and PN and its secondary reactions with oxygen radicals on LDL oxidation, which are relevant in the development of the early steps as well as progression of atherosclerosis. We propose that the balance between rates of PN and *NO production, which greatly depends on oxidative stress processes within the vascular wall, will critically determine the final extent of oxidative LDL modifications leading or not to scavenger receptor-mediated LDL uptake and foam cell formation. PMID:12033442

  3. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  4. Association of inducible nitric oxide synthase with asthma severity, total serum immunoglobulin E and blood eosinophil levels

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyotsna; Singh, Tej Pratap; Mabalirajan, Ulanganathan; Sinha, Aditi; Prasad, Rajendra; Ghosh, Balaram

    2007-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide is released by immune, epithelial and endothelial cells, and plays an important part in the pathophysiology of asthma. Objective To investigate the association of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) gene repeat polymorphisms with asthma. Methods 230 families with asthma (842 individuals) were recruited to identify and establish the genetic association of iNOS repeats with asthma and associated phenotypes. Serum nitric oxide levels in selected individuals were measured and correlated with specific genotypes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and sex. Results A total of four repeats—a (CCTTT)n promoter repeat, a novel intron 2 (GT)n repeat (BV680047), an intron 4 (GT)n repeat (AFM311ZB1) and an intron 5 (CA)n repeat (D17S1878)—were identified and genotyped. A significant transmission distortion to the probands with asthma was seen for allele 3 of the AFM311ZB1 gene (p = 0.006). This allele was also found to be significantly associated with percentage blood eosinophils (p<0.001) and asthma severity (p = 0.04). Moreover, it was functionally correlated with high serum nitric oxide levels (p = 0.006). Similarly, the promoter repeat was found to be associated with serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E (p = 0.028). Individuals carrying allele 4 of this repeat have high serum IgE (p<0.001) and nitric oxide levels (p = 0.03). Conclusion This is the first study to identify the repeat polymorphisms in the iNOS gene that are associated with severity of asthma and eosinophils. The functional relevance of the associated alleles with serum nitric oxide levels was also shown. Therefore, these results could be valuable in elucidating the role of nitric oxide in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:17189532

  5. Mid-Ir Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer for Biological Trace Nitric Oxide Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Vincent; Ragab, Ahemd; Stsiapura, Vitali; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2011-06-01

    S-nitrosothiols have received much attention in biochemistry and medicine as donors of nitrosonium ion (NO^+) and nitric oxide (NO) - physiologically active molecules involved in vasodilation and signal transduction. Determination of S-nitrosothiols content in cells and tissues is of great importance for fundamental research and medical applications. We will report on our ongoing development of a instrument to measure trace levels of nitric oxide gas (NO), released from S-nitrosothiols after exposure to UV light (340 nm) or reaction with L-Cysteine+CuCl mixture. The instrument uses the method of cavity ring-down spectroscopy, probing rotationally resolved lines in the vibrational fundamental transition near 5.2 ?m. The laser source is a continuous-wave, room temperature external cavity quantum cascade laser. An acousto-optic modulator is used to abruptly turn off the optical power incident on the cavity when the laser and cavity pass through resonance.

  6. Nitric oxide reduction in the freeboard of a fluidized bed coal combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P.M.; Chaung, T.Z.; Dutta, A.; Beer, J.M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Nitric oxide mole fractions of 650 to 1250 ppM were observed in the combustion products near the bed surface during fluidized combustion of bituminous coal. Reduction of NO to N/sub 2/ in the freeboard above the bed decreased NO to the characteristically low levels (80 to 400 mol ppM) observed in the exhaust from fluidized bed combustors. The experimentally measured variations of NO with height in the freeboard are compared with the predictions of a semi-empirical model in which NO reduction is assumed to occur by reaction with entrained coal char. The concentration of char particles is determined from measured bed properties using mechanistic models for the initial particle flux at the bed surface and the motion of particles in the freeboard. The nitric oxide reduction predicted by the model is in good agreement with the reduction observed in five of the six sets of measurements.

  7. Relevance of Chemical Kinetics for Medicine: The Case of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, Alexandru T.; Seitz, William

    2003-06-01

    Nitric oxide, NO, is central to many physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure and nerve signal transmission. Enzymes in endothelial cells and in the brain of mammals continuously synthesize itgenerally in low and carefully regulated concentrations. The well known reaction of NO with oxygen to produce toxic nitrogen dioxide, NO2, has a rate which is bimolecular in NO. High concentrations of NO, as are found often in industrial plants or cigarettes, react rapidly with oxygen to produce toxic NO2. However, the half-life of NO at low NO concentrations as found in solutions and gases occurring in blood vessels, brains, and lungs is sufficiently long for biochemical purposes. Kinetics, then, determines the harmful versus helpful aspects of nitric oxide. At concentrations below 80 ppm NO is used in hospitals for lung vasodilation of preterm newborns and patients with pulmonary distress.

  8. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

  9. Chronic Ethanol Ingestion Increases Aortic Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Sutliff, Roy L.; Polikandriotis, John A.; Walp, Erik R.; Dikalov, Sergey I.; Guidot, David M.; Hart, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs cellular function in a variety of organ systems. Previous studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption reduces vascular disease, whereas heavier alcohol consumption may worsen it. The mechanisms for these vascular effects of chronic alcohol ingestion continue to be defined and constitute the focus of this study. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed an isocaloric, Lieber-Decarli liquid diet containing either ethanol (36% calories) or MaltoseDextrin (substituted for ethanol) for 6 weeks. Telemetric blood pressure measurements were taken before and after ethanol feeding. After the rats were killed, the aortas were analyzed for endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and NO production. Results Chronic ethanol ingestion decreased mean arterial pressure and increased aortic NO production as demonstrated by direct ex vivo measurements using iron diethyldithio-carbamic acid as well as analysis of nitrosyl-hemoglobin (NO-Hb) levels. Consistent with these assays of vascular NO production, endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to acetycholine (Ach) were enhanced in ethanol-fed animals. Aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was also increased by chronic ethanol ingestion. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that a regimen of chronic alcohol ingestion in the rat produced generally salutary effects in the systemic vasculature following a 6-week treatment regimen. These findings extend previous in vitro studies to demonstrate that alcohol has potent effects on vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, NO production, and vascular function. Consistent with previous reports, these findings confirm that alcohol-induced alterations in the production of reactive nitrogen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-mediated tissue effects. PMID:18028525

  10. Dual inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin production contributes to the antiinflammatory properties of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, D; Manning, P T; Zweifel, B S; Seibert, K; Connor, J; Currie, M G; Needleman, P; Masferrer, J L

    1995-01-01

    We have recently put forward the hypothesis that the dual inhibition of proinflammatory nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) may contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. This hypothesis was tested in the present study. A rapid inflammatory response characterized by edema, high levels of nitrites (NO2-, a breakdown product of NO), PG, and cellular infiltration into a fluid exudate was induced by the administration of carrageenan into the subcutaneous rat air pouch. The time course of the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in the pouch tissue was found to coincide with the production of NO2-. Dexamethasone inhibited both iNOS protein expression and NO2- synthesis in the fluid exudate (IC50 = 0.16 mg/kg). Oral administration of N-iminoethyl-L-lysine (L-NIL) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NO2Arg) not only blocked nitrite accumulation in the pouch fluid in a dose-dependent fashion but also attenuated the elevated release of PG. Finally, carrageenan administration produced a time-dependent increase in cellular infiltration into the pouch exudate that was inhibited by dexamethasone and NOS inhibitors. At early times, i.e., 6 h, the cellular infiltrate is composed primarily of neutrophils (98%). Pretreatment with colchicine reduced both neutrophil infiltration and leukotriene B4 accumulation in the air pouch by 98% but did not affect either NO2- or PG levels. In conclusion, the major findings of this paper are that (a) selective inhibitors of iNOS are clearly antiinflammatory agents by inhibiting not only NO but also PG and cellular infiltration and (b) that neutrophils are not responsible for high levels of NO and PG produced. Images PMID:7542281

  11. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric oxide donors in vitro and in vivo has variable effects on vasopressin secretion, but the most common one is inhibition. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis has been reported to increase vasopressin secretion, but again variable results have been obtained. An attractive working hypothesis is that nitric oxide serves a neuromodulatory role as an inhibitor of vasopressin secretion.

  12. Nitric Oxide Alters GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zanelli, Santina; Naylor, Martha; Kapur, Jaideep

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production increases during hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion in the immature brain and is associated with neurotoxicity. NO at physiologic concentrations has been shown to modulate GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) synaptic transmission in the adult brain. However, the effects of neurotoxic concentrations of NO (relevant to hypoxia-ischemia) on GABAergic synaptic transmission remain unknown. The present study tests the hypothesis that nNOS is expressed at GABAergic synapses and that exposure to neurotoxic concentrations of NO results in enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons (days-in-vitro 10-14) prepared from fetal rats. Using double immunocytochemistry techniques, we were able to demonstrate that nNOS is co-localized to both presynaptic and postsynaptic markers of GABAergic synapses. The effects of NO on GABAergic synaptic transmission were then studied using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCS and mIPSCs) were recorded prior to and after exposure to 250 ?M of the NO donor diethyleneamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO). Exposure to DETA-NO resulted in increased sIPSCs and mIPSCs frequency, indicating that neurotoxic concentrations of NO enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons. Because GABA synapses appear to be excitatory in the immature brain, this effect may contribute to overall enhanced synaptic transmission and hyperexcitability. We speculate that NO represents one of the mechanisms by which hypoxia-ischemia increases seizure susceptibility in the immature brain. PMID:19699726

  13. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sophie A; Steinert, Joern R

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD) which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's. PMID:26635909

  14. Nitric oxide synthase derangements and hypertension in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs by multiple mechanisms and contributes to the pathogenesis of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its cardiovascular complications. This article concentrates on recent developments on the regulation of the endogenous NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in chronic kidney disease and on the importance of the NO synthases in kidney disease progression, particularly in diabetic nephropathy. Recent Findings The increased plasma ADMA seen in renal disease is generally predictive of severity of CKD progression and cardiovascular risk. However, some assumptions about the control of ADMA have been challenged; the primacy of the kidney as a metabolic organ for plasma ADMA regulation coming under scrutiny and the relative importance of the 2 isoforms of the ADMA-metabolizing enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) is being reevaluated. Alterations in nitric oxide synthases also contribute to CKD progression with the endothelial isoform playing a major role in diabetic nephropathy. Summary Improving our understanding of ADMA regulation is important since pharmacologic targeting of DDAH is underway. The major role of eNOS-derived NO in diabetic nephropathy should lead to novel therapies. The beneficial actions of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and kidney disease are of considerable clinical relevance. PMID:22048724

  15. Effects of nitric oxide on stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wuchen; Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    2015-12-01

    The use of stem cells as a research tool and a therapeutic vehicle has demonstrated their great potential in the treatment of various diseases. With unveiling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) universally present at various levels in nearly all types of body tissues, the potential therapeutic implication of nitric oxide (NO) has been magnified, and thus scientists have explored new treatment strategies involved with stem cells and NO against various diseases. As the functionality of NO encompasses cardiovascular, neuronal and immune systems, NO is involved in stem cell differentiation, epigenetic regulation and immune suppression. Stem cells trigger cellular responses to external signals on the basis of both NO specific pathways and concerted action with endogenous compounds including stem cell regulators. As potency and interaction of NO with stem cells generally depend on the concentrations of NO and the presence of the cofactors at the active site, the suitable carriers for NO delivery is integral for exerting maximal efficacy of stem cells. The innovative utilization of NO functionality and involved mechanisms would invariably alter the paradigm of therapeutic application of stem cells. Future prospects in NO-involved stem cell research which promises to enhance drug discovery efforts by opening new era to improve drug efficacy, reduce drug toxicity and understand disease mechanisms and pathways, were also addressed. PMID:26394194

  16. Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Knight, Britta; Tariq, Asma; Jeon, Hyojin; Shang, Xueyuan; Marsden, Philip Anthony; Loch Macdonald, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We studied whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is upregulated and uncoupled in large cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and also whether this causes cerebral vasospasm in a mouse model of anterior circulation SAH. Control animals underwent injection of saline instead of blood (n=16 SAH and n=16 controls). There was significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery 2 days after SAH (lumen radius/wall thickness ratio 4.31.3 for SAH, 23.22.1 for saline, P<0.001). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, cleaved caspase-3, and Fluoro-Jade-positive neurons in the cortex and with CA1 and dentate regions in the hippocampus. There were multiple fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli in the cortex and hippocampus after SAH. Transgenic mice expressing lacZ under control of the eNOS promoter had increased X-gal staining in large arteries after SAH, and this was confirmed by the increased eNOS protein on western blotting. Evidence that eNOS was uncoupled was found in that nitric oxide availability was decreased, and superoxide and peroxynitrite concentrations were increased in the brains of mice with SAH. This study suggests that artery constriction by SAH upregulates eNOS but that it is uncoupled and produces peroxynitrite that may generate microemboli that travel distally and contribute to brain injury. PMID:20517322

  17. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  18. Interaction of Nitric Oxide with Catalase: Structural and Kinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present the structures of bovine catalase in its native form and complexed with ammonia and nitric oxide, obtained by X-ray crystallography. Using the NO generator 1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, we were able to generate sufficiently high NO concentrations within the catalase crystals that substantial occupation was observed despite a high dissociation rate. Nitric oxide seems to be slightly bent from the heme normal that may indicate some iron(II) character in the formally ferric catalase. Microspectrophotometric investigations inline with the synchrotron X-ray beam reveal photoreduction of the central heme iron. In the cases of the native and ammonia-complexed catalase, reduction is accompanied by a relaxation phase. This is likely not the case for the catalase NO complex. The kinetics of binding of NO to catalase were investigated using NO photolyzed from N,N?-bis(carboxymethyl)-N,N?-dinitroso-p-phenylenediamine using an assay that combines catalase with myoglobin binding kinetics. The off rate is 1.5 s1. Implications for catalase function are discussed. PMID:21524057

  19. Environmental effects on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in allergic children.

    PubMed

    La Grutta, Stefania; Ferrante, Giuliana; Malizia, Velia; Cibella, Fabio; Viegi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and respiratory allergy. Environmental factors, especially indoor and outdoor air quality, may play an important role in triggering acute exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. The authors have reviewed the literature reporting effects of outdoor and indoor pollutants on FeNO in children. Although the findings are not consistent, urban and industrial pollution-mainly particles (PM(2.5) and PM(10)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2))-as well as formaldehyde and electric baseboard heating have been shown to increase FeNO, whilst ozone (O(3)) tends to decrease it. Among children exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS), a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed in order to better investigate the effect of gene and environment interactions which may affect the interpretation of FeNO values in the management of children with asthma, clinicians are recommended to consider environmental exposures when taking medical histories for asthma and respiratory allergy. Further research is also needed to assess the effects of remedial interventions aimed at reducing/abating environmental exposures in asthmatic/allergic patients. PMID:22162708

  20. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sophie A.; Steinert, Joern R.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD) which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's. PMID:26635909

  1. Implications of glial nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Jose Enrique; Tarragon, Ernesto; Campuzano, Carmen María; Ros-Bernal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26347610

  2. Diurnal variation of nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Pirre, M.; Ramaroson, R.; Matthews, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km are reported. The observations were made at float altitude with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector together with in situ ozone measurements. The first measurement was made at 44 N on September 17, 1987, at an altitude of 40 km from before sunrise until 1000 LT. The second observation was made at the same latitude on June 18, 1988, at 39 km from 0800 to 1230 LT. At an altitude of 40 km, nitric oxide was observed to start increasing very rapidly at sunrise when the solar zenith angle reached about 95 deg. After the rapid initial buildup, the rate of NO increase stabilized for 3 hours at about 1.2 ppbv/hour. Near 1100 LT at 39 km in summer, the NO mixing ratio was observed to become nearly constant. These features of the diurnal variation of NO are in accord with the temporal variation expected from a time-dependent zero-dimensional photochemical model.

  3. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  4. The role of nitric oxide in ocular surface cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Gun Sic; Kim, Jin Kook; Kim, Young Myeong

    2002-06-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ocular surface remains unknown. We investigated the conditions leading to an increase of NO generation in tear and the main sources of NO in ocular surface tissue. We evaluated the dual action (cell survival or cell death) of NO depending on its amount. We measured the concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in the tears of ocular surface diseases and examined the main source of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). When cultured human corneal fibroblast were treated with NO producing donor with or without serum, the viabilities of cells was studied. We found that the main sources of NO in ocular surface tissue were corneal epithelium, fibroblast, endothelium, and inflammatory cells. Three forms of NOS (eNOS, bNOS, and iNOS) were expressed in experimentally induced inflammation. In the fibroblast culture system, the NO donor (SNAP, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine) prevented the death of corneal fibroblast cells caused by serum deprivation in a dose dependent manner up to 500 micrometer SNAP, but a higher dose decreased cell viability. This study suggested that NO might act as a double-edged sword in ocular surface diseases depending on the degree of inflammation related with NO concentration. PMID:12068145

  5. Nitration of a peptide phytotoxin by bacterial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kers, Johan A; Wach, Michael J; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Widom, Joanne; Cameron, Kimberly D; Bukhalid, Raghida A; Gibson, Donna M; Crane, Brian R; Loria, Rosemary

    2004-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal in mammals that mediates key aspects of blood pressure, hormone release, nerve transmission and the immune response of higher organisms. Proteins homologous to full-length mammalian nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are found in lower multicellular organisms. Recently, genome sequencing has shown that some bacteria contain genes coding for truncated NOS proteins; this is consistent with reports of NOS-like activities in bacterial extracts. Biological functions for bacterial NOSs are unknown, but have been presumed to be analogous to their role in mammals. Here we describe a gene in the plant pathogen Streptomyces turgidiscabies that encodes a NOS homologue, and we reveal its role in nitrating a dipeptide phytotoxin required for plant pathogenicity. High similarity between bacterial NOSs indicates a general function in biosynthetic nitration; thus, bacterial NOSs constitute a new class of enzymes. Here we show that the primary function of Streptomyces NOS is radically different from that of mammalian NOS. Surprisingly, mammalian NO signalling and bacterial biosynthetic nitration share an evolutionary origin. PMID:15129284

  6. SAMPLING AND DETERMINATION OF GAS-PHASE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF OZONE BY GAS-PHASE REACTION WITH NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the ambient atmosphere is described, using impinger or diffusion scrubber collection of hydrogen peroxide with aqueous-phase analysis by an enzyme-catalyzed fluorescence technique. Interference from ozone at ambient levels is rem...

  7. Chronic Ethanol Ingestion Increases Nitric Oxide Production in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Polikandriotis, John A.; Rupnow, Heidi L.; Brown, Lou Ann; Hart, C. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion increases the incidence of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The mechanisms underlying EtOH-induced susceptibility to lung injury continue to be defined. This study examines the hypothesis that EtOH increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity in the lungs of a rat model of chronic EtOH ingestion. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed liquid diets containing EtOH (36% of calories) or Maltose-dextrin as an isocaloric substitution for EtOH (Control) for 6 weeks. Selected animals were also treated with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, lisinopril (3 mg/L in diet) for 6 weeks. At study completion, animals were sacrificed, and lung tissue was collected for assays of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism or pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) were isolated for analysis of NO release. Results: Compared to the Control diet, chronic EtOH ingestion increased lung H2O2 production, eNOS expression and activity, lung cGMP content and levels of protein nitration and oxidation. MVEC from animals with chronic EtOH ingestion released greater amounts of NO. EtOH-induced increases in lung H2O2 production, eNOS expression and activity, cGMP content, protein nitration and oxidation, and MVEC NO production were all attenuated by treatment with lisinopril. Conclusions: Chronic EtOH ingestion stimulates ACE-dependent increases in NO production in the lung. These novel findings indicate that chronic EtOH ingestion increases reactive species production in the lung parenchyma and provide new insights into mechanisms by which EtOH causes phenotypic alterations in the lung and its response to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:17889307

  8. Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshi, S. R.; Agarwal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nitric Oxide (NO), the L-arginine derivative, is tonically synthesised by the endothelium within the kidney and it plays a crucial role in the regulation of the blood pressure and the renal blood flow. NO regulates the renal function through the modulation of the vascular tone and sodium handling. With the progressive development of the renal insufficiency, it remains unclear whether the endogenous NO production is increased or decreased in the kidney. This study was carried out to determine whether there were any changes in the levels of NO and teir correlation with the routine parameters of the renal dysfunction in the patients of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), as the disease progresses in conjunction with poor renal functions. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic renal disease which was caused by chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension, who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis (MHD) with serum creatinine levels of > 2.5 mg/dl, were included in this study. Thirty healthy voluntary blood donors were taken as the controls. NO was estimated by a spectrophotometric method by using cadmium reduction. The routine renal function tests, BUN and Creatinine were performed by the standard clinical chemistry procedures. Results: The serum NO levels were found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the CRF on MHD (98.77 35.40 ?mol/l) as compared to the controls (22.03 7.23 ?mol/l). The NO output correlated with the serum creatinine (r = 0.8123, p < 0.01) and the urea concentration (r = 0.5166, p = <0.01) in the CRF group. Conclusion: The NO levels were markedly enhanced in the CRF patients who were on MHD. This was due to the dialysis procedure itself, which led to the stimulation of cytokine induced NO synthase and also due to the platelets which generated more NO due to uraemia. At high concentrations, NO is a cytotoxic molecule which is responsible for the complications of dialysis and it results in Nitrosative Stress in these patients, as it is a highly reactive free radical. Since the no output correlated with the serum creatinine and urea concentrations, a higher no production probably indicated insufficient blood purification, due to the common effect on their elimination pathways via the renal tract. Therefore, the alterations of the renal function, that are reflected in the changes of the creatinine concentration, will be accompanied by the changes in the serum NO. Thus, the determination of the NO levels in the peripheral blood may be useful in the assessment of the dialysis and they can also be used as markers in the follow up and the prognosis in these type of patients. PMID:23998047

  9. Imaging Pulmonary Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression with PET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Howard J.; Isakow, Warren; Byers, Derek E.; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Debra; Brody, Steven L.; Gropler, Robert J.; Miller, J. Philip; Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Pierce, Richard A.; Castro, Mario; Mach, Robert H.; Chen, Delphine L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity increases in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Imaging iNOS expression may be useful as an inflammation biomarker for monitoring lung disease activity. We developed a novel tracer for PET that binds to iNOS in vivo, 18F-NOS. In this study, we tested whether 18F-NOS could quantify iNOS expression from endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers were screened to exclude cardiopulmonary disease. Qualifying volunteers underwent a baseline, 1-h dynamic 18F-NOS PET/CT scan. Endotoxin (4 ng/kg) was then instilled bronchoscopically in the right middle lobe. 18F-NOS imaging was performed again approximately 16 h after endotoxin instillation. Radiolabeled metabolites were determined from blood samples. Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after imaging were stained immunohistochemically for iNOS. 18F-NOS uptake was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) determined by Logan plot graphical analysis in volumes of interest placed over the area of endotoxin instillation and in an equivalent lung region on the left. The mean Hounsfield units (HUs) were also computed using the same volumes of interest to measure density changes. Results Seven healthy volunteers with normal pulmonary function completed the study with evaluable data. The DVR increased by approximately 30%, from a baseline mean of 0.42 0.07 to 0.54 0.12, and the mean HUs by 11% after endotoxin in 6 volunteers who had positive iNOS staining in BAL cells. The DVR did not change in the left lung after endotoxin. In 1 volunteer with low-level iNOS staining in BAL cells, the mean HUs increased by 7% without an increase in DVR. Metabolism was rapid, with approximately 50% of the parent compound at 5 min and 17% at 60 min after injection. Conclusion 18F-NOS can be used to image iNOS activity in acute lung inflammation in humans and may be a useful PET tracer for imaging iNOS expression in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:25525182

  10. Hemoglobin Effects on Nitric Oxide Mediated Hypoxic Vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zimei; Cooper, Chris E

    2016-01-01

    The brain responds to hypoxia with an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, such an increase is generally believed to start only after the oxygen tension decreases to a certain threshold level. Although many mechanisms (different vasodilator and different generation and metabolism mechanisms of the vasodilator) have been proposed at the molecular level, none of them has gained universal acceptance. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to play a central role in the regulation of oxygen supply since it is a vasodilator whose production and metabolism are both oxygen dependent. We have used a computational model that simulates blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the brain (BRAINSIGNALS) to test mechanism by which NO may elucidate hypoxic vasodilation. The first model proposed that NO was produced by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and metabolized by the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). NO production declined with decreasing oxygen concentration given that oxygen is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, this was balanced by NO metabolism by CCO, which also declined with decreasing oxygen concentration. However, the NOS effect was dominant; the resulting model profiles of hypoxic vasodilation only approximated the experimental curves when an unfeasibly low K m for oxygen for NOS was input into the model. We therefore modified the model such that NO generation was via the nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin instead of NOS, whilst keeping the metabolism of NO by CCO the same. NO production increased with decreasing oxygen concentration, leading to an improved reproduction of the experimental CBF versus PaO2 curve. However, the threshold phenomenon was not perfectly reproduced. In this present work, we incorporated a wider variety of oxygen dependent and independent NO production and removal mechanisms. We found that the addition of NO removal via oxidation to nitrate mediated by oxyhemoglobin resulted in the optimum fit of the threshold phenomenon by the model. Our revised model suggests, but does not prove, that changes in NO concentration can be the primary cause of the relationship between pO2 and cerebral blood flow. PMID:26782203

  11. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Stress Response Induced by Diatom Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  12. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on the carrageenan-induced paw edema.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carly Faria; Vieira, Rodolfo P; Lopes-Martins, Patrcia Sardinha Leonardo; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Borbely, Alexandre Urban; Gouvea, Irene Maria; Frigo, Lucio; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo lvaro Brando

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide therapy reaches not only pulmonary vessels, but also other vasculatures, presenting anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of inhaled nitric oxide on a mice model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Paw edema was induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.05 ml of a 1% suspension in 0.9% saline). The evaluation of time-course edema (mililiter) was measured by plethysmometry until 12 h following carrageenan administration. Thirty minutes after carrageenan injection, some groups received inhaled nitric oxide (300 ppm at variable doses and times) or Indometacin (INDO 5 mg/Kg, v.o), while others received sildenafil (1 mg/Kg, i.p) or rolipram (3 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without inhaled nitric oxide. Paws were assessed for edema levels by plethysmometry, mieloperoxidase activity and histological analysis. Inhaled nitric oxide significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, mieloperoxidase activity and inflammatory infiltrate, although similar results were also observed in sildenafil and rolipram treated groups. In addition, significant effects between inhaled nitric oxide with pharmacological therapy was observed. Inhaled nitric oxide presents anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induce paw edema, as observed through reduced edema, mieloperoxidase activity and neutrophil infiltration, indicating that inhaled nitric oxide therapy goes beyond lung vascular effects. PMID:25070733

  13. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  14. SALICYLIC ACID- AND NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current advances in plant defense signaling is discussed, with emphasis on the role of nitric oxide and salicylic acid in the development of disease resistance. Nitric Oxide has recently been shown to have an important role in plant disease resistance. We show an increase in NOS-like activity in TMV...

  15. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  16. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Min; Zhang, Liefeng; Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation. PMID:21614205

  17. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 μM. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 μM). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  18. Levels of selected minerals, nitric oxide, and vitamins in aborted Sakis sheep raised under semitropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Serap Unubol

    2010-01-01

    The serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron and of nitric oxide, retinol, and ?-carotene were determined in Sakiz ewes that had experienced an abortion and in healthy controls. Ten healthy and 25 aborted Sakiz sheep were selected from Afyon zone in western Turkey. Their ages ranged between 2 and 4years weighing between 40 and 60kg at the time of experiment. All of the abortions occurred in October. The concentrations of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus, and zinc were significantly lower and those of calcium and nitric oxide were increased in aborted ewes relative to healthy controls. The serum levels of iron, copper, and magnesium were not significantly different among the two groups. In conclusion, abortion is an important problem in commercially important species of ruminants in many regions in the tropics including of western Turkey. Deficiencies of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus and zinc, and the increase of calcium and nitric oxide concentration may play an important role in the etiology of abortion in ewes. Prophylactic measures such as vitamin and mineral supplementation may be of help to prevent or reduce the incidence of abortion in sheep. PMID:21076941

  19. Insights into the nitric oxide reductase mechanism of flavodiiron proteins from a flavin-free enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Caranto, Jonathan D.; Wampler, David A.; Kurtz, Donald M.; Monne-Loccoz, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) catalyze reductive scavenging of dioxygen and nitric oxide in air sensitive microorganisms. FDPs contain a distinctive non-heme diiron/flavin mononucleotide (FMN) active site. Alternative mechanisms for the nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activity have been proposed consisting of either protonation of a diiron-bridging hyponitrite or super-reduction of a diferrous-dinitrosyl by the proximal FMNH2 in the rate-determining step. In order to test these alternative mechanisms, we examined a deflavinated FDP (deflavo-FDP) from Thermotoga maritima. The deflavo-FDP retains an intact diiron site but does not show multi-turnover NOR or O2 reductase (O2R) activity. Reactions of the reduced (diferrous) deflavo-FDP with nitric oxide were examined by UV-vis absorption, EPR, resonance Raman, and FTIR spectroscopies. Anaerobic addition of nitric oxide up to 1 NO:diferrous deflavo-FDP results in formation of a diiron-mononitrosyl complex characterized by a broad S = 1/2 EPR signal arising from antiferromagnetic coupling of an S = 3/2 {FeNO}7 with an S = 2 Fe(II). Further addition of NO results in two reaction pathways, one of which produces N2O and the diferric site and the other of which produces a stable diiron-dinitrosyl complex. Both NO-treated and as-isolated deflavo-FDPs regain full NOR and O2R activities upon simple addition of FMN. The production of N2O upon addition of NO to the mononitrosyl deflavo-FDP supports the hyponitrite mechanism, but the concomitant formation of a stable diiron-dinitrosyl complex in the deflavo-FDP is consistent with a super-reduction pathway in the flavinated enzyme. We conclude that a diiron-mononitrosyl complex is an intermediate in the NOR catalytic cycle of FDPs. PMID:20669924

  20. Indirect determination of nitric oxide production by reduction of nitrate with a freeze-thawing-resistant nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli MC1061.

    PubMed

    Arias-Negrete, Sergio; Jimnez-Romero, Luis A; Sols-Martnez, Martha O; Ramrez-Emiliano, Joel; Avila, Eva E; Cullar-Mata, Patricia

    2004-05-01

    Preparation of a nitrate reductase lysate of Escherichia coli MC1061 to measure nitrate and nitrite in biologic fluids is described. To obtain the crude bacterial lysate containing nitrate reductase activity, E. coli MC1061 was subjected to 16-20 freeze-thawing cycles, from -70 to 60 degrees C, until nitrite reductase activity was < or = 25%. Nitrate reductase activity was detected mainly in the crude preparation. To validate the nitrate reduction procedure, standard nitrate solutions (1.6-100 microM) were incubated with the nitrate reductase preparation for 3 h at 37 degrees C, and nitrite was estimated by the Griess reaction in a microassay. Nitrate solutions were reduced to nitrite in a range of 60-70%. Importantly, no cofactors were necessary to perform nitrate reduction. The biological samples were first reduced with the nitrate reductase preparation. After centrifugation, samples were deproteinized with either methanol/ether or zinc sulfate and nitrite was quantified. The utility of the nitrate reductase preparation was assessed by nitrate+nitrite determination in serum of animals infected with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica or the bacteria E. coli and in the supernatant of cultured lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Our results indicate that the nitrate reductase-containing lysate provides a convenient tool for the reduction of nitrate to determine nitrate+nitrite in biological fluids by spectrophotometric methods. PMID:15081902

  1. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    PubMed

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet. PMID:24695088

  2. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by "Biotin-switch" method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. PMID:25680459

  3. Gonococcal nitric oxide reductase is encoded by a single gene, norB, which is required for anaerobic growth and is induced by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Householder, T C; Fozo, E M; Cardinale, J A; Clark, V L

    2000-09-01

    The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the absence of norB did not dramatically decrease anaerobic survival. In a wild-type background, induction of norB expression was seen anaerobically in the presence of nitrite but not anaerobically without nitrite or aerobically. norB expression is not regulated by FNR or NarP, but a functional aniA gene (which encodes an anaerobically induced outer membrane nitrite reductase) is necessary for expression. When aniA is constitutively expressed, norB expression can be induced both anaerobically and aerobically, but only in the presence of nitrite, suggesting that nitric oxide, which is likely to be produced by AniA as a product of nitrite reduction, is the inducing agent. This was confirmed with the use of the nitric oxide donor, spermine-nitric oxide complex, in an aniA null background both anaerobically and aerobically. NorB is important for gonococcal adaptation to an anaerobic environment, a physiologically relevant state during gonococcal infection. The presence of this enzyme, which is induced by nitric oxide, may also have implications in immune evasion and immunomodulation in the human host. PMID:10948150

  4. Nitrones: not only extraordinary spin traps, but also good nitric oxide sources in vivo.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Petkes, Hermina Iulia; Flp, Ibolya; Cotrlan, Remus; ?erban, Oana Elena; Dogaru, Titica Maria; Gz Florea, ?erban Andrei; T?ks, Bla; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-01

    Free radicals are involved in the development of reperfusion injuries. Using a spin trap, the intensity of such lesions can be reduced. Nitrones (effective in vivo spin traps) were tried in this work as in vivo nitric oxide donors. Nitrite and nitrate concentration values (rabbit blood) were used as biomarkers of nitric oxide production. Most nitrones did not increase plasma concentrations of nitrite and nitrate; on the contrary, reduced plasma concentrations of these indicators were noted. However, glyoxal isopropyldinitrone, in a dose of 50 mg kg-1, was highly effective in increasing nitric oxide production. At the same time, nitrones do not react with hepatic homogenates, proving that the release of nitric oxide takes place in the tissues and is not related to hepatic metabolism. Before using nitrones in vivo, they were tested in vitro for the ability to release nitric oxide following a reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:26677898

  5. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Jereme G.; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Lee, Johnny K.; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 68 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-?B, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ??CT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum [1].

  6. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Lee, Johnny K; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-03-01

    This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ΔΔCT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled 'Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum' [1]. PMID:26909371

  7. neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Eung Tae; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Jang, Hari; Lee, Dongho; Ahn, Jong Seog; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-25

    Three new neo-clerodane diterpenoids (1-3) along with 12 known compounds (4-15) were isolated from a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria barbata. The structures of 1-3 were determined by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS values. All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-4, 7, and 10-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging from 20.2 to 35.6 ?M. PMID:26331882

  8. Modeling nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Vukovich, Jeff; Peirce, Jeffrey

    Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory in conjunction with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, nitric oxide concentrations [NO] were measured and NO fluxes were calculated during the summer, winter and spring of 1999/2000. The field site where these measurements were conducted was an agricultural soil amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. These NO flux values were then used to assess the impact of including biosolid amended soils as a land-use class in an air quality model. The average NO flux from this biosolid amended soil was found to be exponentially dependent on soil temperature [NO Flux ( ng N m-2 s-1)=1.07 exp(0.14 T soil) ; R2=0.81NO Flux=71.3 ng N m -2 s-1 at 30C]. Comparing this relationship to results of the widely applied biogenic emissions inventory system (BEIS2) model revealed that for this field site, if the BEIS2 model was used, the NO emissions would have been underestimated by a factor of 26. Using this newly developed NO flux algorithm, combined with North Carolina Division of Water Quality statistics on how many biosolid amended acres are permitted per county, county-based NO inventories from these biosolid amended soils were calculated. Results from this study indicate that county-level biogenic NO emissions can increase by as much as 18% when biosolid amended soils are included as a land-use class. The multiscale air quality simulation platform (MAQSIP) was then used to determine differences in ozone (O 3) and odd-reactive nitrogen compounds (NO y) between models run with and without the biosolid amended acreages included in the inventory. Results showed that during the daytime, when atmospheric mixing heights are typically at their greatest, any increase in O 3 or NO y concentrations predicted by the model were small (<3%). In some locations during late evening/early morning hours, ozone was found to be consumed by as much as 11%.

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide in cardiac surgery: Evidence or tradition?

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Maria; Romano, Rosalba; Baca, Georgiana; Sarridou, Despoina; Fischer, Andreas; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor

    2015-09-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in cardiac surgery has been one of the most significant pharmacological advances in managing pulmonary hemodynamics and life threatening right ventricular dysfunction and failure. However, this remarkable story has experienced a roller-coaster ride with high hopes and nearly universal demonstration of physiological benefits but disappointing translation of these benefits to harder clinical outcomes. Most of our understanding on the iNO field in cardiac surgery stems from small observational or single centre randomised trials and even the very few multicentre trials fail to ascertain strong evidence base. As a consequence, there are only weak clinical practice guidelines on the field and only European expert opinion for the use of iNO in routine and more specialised cardiac surgery such as heart and lung transplantation and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) insertion. In this review the authors from a specialised cardiac centre in the UK with a very high volume of iNO usage provide detailed information on the early observations leading to the European expert recommendations and reflect on the nature and background of these recommendations. We also provide a summary of the progress in each of the cardiac subspecialties for the last decade and initial survey data on the views of senior anaesthetic and intensive care colleagues on these recommendations. We conclude that the combination of high price tag associated with iNO therapy and lack of substantial clinical evidence is not sustainable on the current field and we are risking loosing this promising therapy from our daily practice. Overcoming the status quo will not be easy as there is not much room for controlled trials in heart transplantation or in the current atmosphere of LVAD implantation. However, we call for international cooperation to conduct definite studies to determine the place of iNO therapy in lung transplantation and high risk mitral surgery. This will require new collaboration between the pharmaceutical companies, national grant agencies and the clinical community. Until these trials are realized we should gather multi-institutional experience from large retrospective studies and prospective data from a new international registry. We must step up international efforts if we wish to maintain the iNO modality in the armamentarium of hemodynamic tools for the perioperative management of our high risk cardiac surgical patients. PMID:26186889

  10. Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and p66Shc Interplay in Diabetic Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Simona; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Gaetano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability play a causal role in endothelial cell dysfunction occurring in the vasculature of diabetic patients. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms underpinning diabetic endothelial and vascular dysfunction. In particular, we focused our attention on the complex interplay existing among NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and one crucial regulator of intracellular ROS production, p66Shc protein. PMID:24734227

  11. Antibacterial Efficacy of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, C.J.; Sergesketter, A.R.; Offenbacher, S.; Schoenfisch, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Current treatments for periodontitis (e.g., scaling/root planing and chlorhexidine) have limited efficacy since they fail to suppress microbial biofilms satisfactorily over time, and the use of adjunctive antimicrobials can promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Herein, we report the novel application of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing scaffolds (i.e., dendrimers and silica particles) as anti-periodontopathogenic agents. The effectiveness of macromolecular NO release was demonstrated by a 3-log reduction in periodontopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis viability. In contrast, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis, caries-associated organisms, were substantially less sensitive to NO treatment. Both dendrimer- and silica-based NO release exhibited substantially less toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts at concentrations necessary to eradicate periodontopathogens than did clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine. These results suggest the potential utility of macromolecular NO-release scaffolds as a novel platform for the development of periodontal disease therapeutics. PMID:25139363

  12. Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fraga, César G; Litterio, María C; Prince, Paula D; Calabró, Valeria; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Galleano, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with benefits for human health. Those effects have been partially ascribed to their content in flavonoids, compounds that are present in many edible plants and its derived foods. In humans, a significant number of studies has been developed analyzing the effect of foods and beverages rich in flavonoids on the presence and progression of risk factors associated to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Cocoa derived products, rich in flavanols, have been thoroughly studied and demonstrated to be efficient improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure in humans and animals. However, the final chemical species and the mechanism/s responsible for these effects have not been completely defined. In this paper we present data supporting the hypothesis that flavanols could define superoxide anion production and then, establish optimal nitric oxide levels and blood pressure. PMID:21297914

  13. Strategies to increase nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jon O; Gladwin, Mark T; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signalling molecule in the cardiovascular, immune and central nervous systems, and crucial steps in the regulation of NO bioavailability in health and disease are well characterized. Although early approaches to therapeutically modulate NO bioavailability failed in clinical trials, an enhanced understanding of fundamental subcellular signalling has enabled a range of novel therapeutic approaches to be identified. These include the identification of: new pathways for enhancing NO synthase activity; ways to amplify the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway; novel classes of NO-donating drugs; drugs that limit NO metabolism through effects on reactive oxygen species; and ways to modulate downstream phosphodiesterases and soluble guanylyl cyclases. In this Review, we discuss these latest developments, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. PMID:26265312

  14. Reaction between nitric oxide and ozone in solid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, D.; Pimentel, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is produced when nitric oxide, NO, and ozone, O3, are suspended in a nitrogen matrix at 11-20 K. The NO2 is formed with first-order kinetics, a 12 K rate constant of (1.4 + or - 0.2) x 0.00001/sec, and an apparent activation energy of 106 + or - 10 cal/mol. Isotopic labeling, variation of concentrations, and cold shield experiments show that the growth of NO2 is due to reaction between ozone molecules and NO monomers, and that the reaction is neither infrared-induced nor does it seem to be a heavy atom tunneling process. Reaction is attributed to nearest-neighbor NO.O3 pairs probably held in a specific orientational relationship that affects the kinetic behavior. When the temperature is raised, more such reactive pairs are generated, presumably by local diffusion. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Deciphering Nitric Oxide Stress in Bacteria with Quantitative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jonathan L.; Adolfsen, Kristin J.; Brynildsen, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens depend on nitric oxide (NO) detoxification and repair to establish an infection, and inhibitors of these systems are under investigation as next-generation antibiotics. Due to the broad reactivity of NO and its derivatives with biomolecules, a deep understanding of how pathogens sense and respond to NO, as an integrated system, has been elusive. Quantitative kinetic modeling has been proposed as a method to enhance analysis and understanding of NO stress at the systems-level. Here we review the motivation for, current state of, and future prospects of quantitative modeling of NO stress in bacteria, and suggest that such mathematical approaches would prove equally useful in the study of other broadly reactive antimicrobials, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:24983704

  16. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  17. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Arajo, Ins M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  18. Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) pathway mediates important physiological functions associated with various integrative body systems including the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Furthermore, NO regulates cell growth, survival, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation at the cellular level. To understand the significance of the NO-cGMP pathway in development and differentiation, studies have been conducted both in developing embryos and stem cells. Manipulation of the NO-cGMP pathway by employing activators and inhibitors as pharmacological probes and/or genetic manipulation of NO signaling components has implicated the involvement of this pathway in regulation of stem cell differentiation. This review will focus on some of the work pertaining to the role of NO-cGMP in differentiation of stem cells into cells of various lineages particularly into myocardial cells and stem cell based therapy. PMID:22019632

  19. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  20. Optical methods for the detection of nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Juan G.; Feelisch, Martin

    2004-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive molecule that is synthesized by a variety of biological tissues. It plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, in nerve cell communication, in the destruction of pathogens, and it has been implicated in numerous other physiological process in ways yet to be elucidated. The need to understand how or when this molecule participates in a chemical pathway in vivo, has made it necessary to develop methods for its detection in biological matrices and fluids. In this lecture we review some of the optical methods that have gained acceptance in the biological community, the controversies that they have engendered, and some of the technical challenges that lie ahead for this area of research.

  1. Fabrication of nitric oxide-releasing polyurethane glucose sensor membranes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ahyeon; Riccio, Daniel A.; Sun, Bin; Carpenter, Alexis W.; Nichols, Scott P.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite clear evidence that polymeric nitric oxide (NO) release coatings reduce the foreign body response (FBR) and may thus improve the analytical performance of in vivo continuous glucose monitoring devices when used as sensor membranes, the compatibility of the NO release chemistry with that required for enzymatic glucose sensing remains unclear. Herein, we describe the fabrication and characterization of NO-releasing polyurethane sensor membranes using NO donor-modified silica vehicles embedded within the polymer. In addition to demonstrating tunable NO release as a function of the NO donor silica scaffold and polymer compositions and concentrations, we describe the impact of the NO release vehicle and its release kinetics on glucose sensor performance. PMID:21795038

  2. Inhaled nitric oxide induces cerebrovascular effects in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, W M; Kisch-Wedel, H; Kemming, G I; Meisner, F; Bruhn, S; Koehler, C; Flondor, M; Messmer, K; Zwissler, B

    2003-09-11

    Although inhaled nitric oxide (NO(i)) is considered to act selectively on pulmonary vessels, EEG abnormalities and even occasional neurotoxic effects of NO(i) have been proposed. Here, we investigated cerebrovascular effects of increasing concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 ppm NO(i) in seven anesthetized pigs. Cerebral hemodynamics were assessed non-invasively by use of near-infared spectroscopy and indicator dilution techniques. NO(i) increased cerebral blood volume significantly and reversibly. This effect was not attributable to changes of macrohemodynamic parameters or arterial blood gases. Simultaneously, cerebral transit time increased while cerebral blood flow remained unchanged. These data demonstrate a vasodilatory action of NO(i) in the cerebral vasculature, which may occur preferentially in the venous compartment. PMID:12902024

  3. Solar cycle variation of thermospheric nitric oxide at solstice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Fesen, C. G.; Rusch, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A coupled, two-dimensional, chemical-diffusive model of the thermosphere is used to study the role of solar activity in the global distribution of nitric oxide. The model calculates self-consistently the zonally averaged temperature, circulation, and composition for solstice under solar maximum and solar minimum conditions. A decrease of the NO density by a factor of three to four in the E region is predicted from solar maximum to solar minimum. It is found that the main features of the overall morphology and the changes induced by the solar cycle are well reproduced in the model, although some details are not satisfactorily predicted. The sensitivity of the NO distribution to eddy transport and to the quenching of metastable N(2D) atoms by atomic oxygen is also described.

  4. Nitric oxide in the middle to upper thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siskind, David E.; Rusch, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The results of six rocket observations of thermospheric nitric oxide are reviewed and reconciled with the available laboratory photochemical data. The impact of the recently revised recommendation for the N (S-4) + O2 rate coefficient on photochemical models is assessed. Use of the new rate coefficient leads to significantly enhanced production of NO, particularly at F-region altitudes during solar maximum conditions. A comparison of photochemical calculations with the rocket profiles indicates that the new rate coefficient introduces a significant discrepancy which can be resolved if the recombination reaction of N + NO is temperature dependent. Calculations using the preposed rate coefficient predict the NO solar cycle variation at 180 km to be less than at 140 km, which is also in agreement with the observations.

  5. Working with nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are gasotransmitter molecules important in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Although these molecules were first known as environmental toxicants, it is now evident that that they are intricately involved in diverse cellular functions with impact on numerous physiological and pathogenic processes. NO and H2S share some common characteristics but also have unique chemical properties that suggest potential complementary interactions between the two in affecting cellular biochemistry and metabolism. Central among these is the interactions between NO, H2S, and thiols that constitute new ways to regulate protein function, signaling, and cellular responses. In this review, we discuss fundamental biochemical principals, molecular functions, measurement methods, and the pathophysiological relevance of NO and H2S. PMID:25550314

  6. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  7. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  8. Photoinduced Release of Nitroxyl and Nitric Oxide from Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Lymar, Sergei V.; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous photochemistry of diazen-1-ium-1,2,2-triolate (Angelis anion) and (Z)-1[N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-(3-aminopropyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DPTA NONOate) has been investigated by laser kinetic spectroscopy. In neutral aqueous solutions, a 266 nm photolysis of these diazeniumdiolates generates a unique spectrum of primary products including the ground state triplet (3NO-) and singlet (1HNO) nitroxyl species, and nitric oxide (NO). Formation of these spectrophotometrically invisible products is revealed and quantitatively assayed by analyzing a complex set of their cross-reactions leading to the formation of colored intermediates, the N2O2- radical and N3O3- anion. The experimental design employed takes advantage of the extremely slow spin-forbidden protic equilibration between 3NO- and 1HNO and the vast difference in their reactivity toward NO. To account for the kinetic data, a novel combination reaction, 3NO- + 1HNO, is introduced and its rate constant of 6.6 109 M-1 s-1 is measured by competition with the reduction of methylviologen by 3NO-. The latter reaction occurring with 2.1 109 M-1 s-1 rate constant and leading to the stable, colored methylviologen radical cation is useful for detection of 3NO-. The distributions of the primary photolysis products (Angelis anion: 22% 3NO-, 58% 1HNO, and 20% NO; DPTA NONOate: 3% 3NO-, 12% 1HNO,and 85% NO) show that neither diazeniumdiolate is a highly selective photochemical generator of nitroxyl species or nitric oxide, although the selectivity of DPTA NONOate for NO generation is clearly greater. PMID:17488001

  9. Nitric oxide-mediated immunosuppression following murine Echinococcus multilocularis infection

    PubMed Central

    DAI, W J; GOTTSTEIN, B

    1999-01-01

    In some parasitic infections immunosuppression is a prominent characteristic of the hostparasite interplay. We have used a murine alveolar echinococcosis (AE) model in susceptible C57BL/6 mice to document a suppressed splenocyte proliferative response to concanavalin A (Con A) at the early (1-month) stage and to Echinococcus multilocularis-crude antigen (Emc-antigen) at the late (46-month) stage of chronic infection. Despite proliferative suppression, splenic cytokine production [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-? (IFN-?)] in response to Con A or Emc-antigen stimulation was not suppressed at 1 month postinfection (p.i.). Infection resulted in a strong Mac-1+ cell infiltration of the peritoneal cavity and spleen. Peritoneal cells (PEC) from mice infected at the 1-month stage were rich in macrophages and expressed significantly higher levels of transcripts for the inflammatory cytokine IL-1? and for tumour necrosis factor-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), when compared with PEC from non-infected control mice. Conversely, the IL-10 transcript level remained low and did not change during infection. Spleen cells supplemented with PEC from infected mice induced a marked increase in the levels of nitrite in response to Con A and Emc-antigen stimulation, and also a complete suppression of splenic proliferation. The spleen cells from late-stage infected mice expressed only background levels of IL-10 but greatly increased levels of iNOS, when compared with normal spleen cells. This observation correlated with the immunosuppression demonstrated at the late stage of murine AE. Furthermore, the suppressed splenic proliferative responses observed at the early and late stage were reversed to a large extent by the addition of NG-monomethyl-l-arginine and partially by anti-IFN-?. Thus, our results demonstrated that the immunosuppression observed in chronic AE was not primarily dependent on IL-10 but rather on nitric oxide production by macrophages from infected animals. PMID:10447721

  10. Phosphorylated neuronal nitric oxide synthase in neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhidong; Liang, Yingping; Deng, Fumou; Cheng, Yong; Sun, Jing; Guo, Lian; Xu, Guohai

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain caused by nervous system damage or system dysfunction. The pathogenesis and the mechanism underlying neuropathic pain remains unclear. The only known neurobiological component involved in the neuropathic pain is nitric oxide (NO). NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from L-arginine and oxygen. nNOS is involved in the inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. In this study, we aimed to identify whether KN93 reduced the pain in the rats. Sixty adult male SD rat were randomly divided into 4 groups. Sham group and model group were not received treatment. Experimental group received intrathecal injection of KN93, and negative control group received DMSO injection 30 min before pain test. After last test of pain threshold, the rats were sacrificed and lumbar spinal tissues were sampled for analysis of the expression of pnNOS and pCaMK II by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Pain threshold was increased in the rats received KN93 treatment (P<0.01), and the expression levels of pnNOS was increased (P<0.05) in experimental group and accompanied with decrease of CaMK II expression (P<0.05). By administration of KN93, the interaction of nNOS and the adaptor protein CAPON was reduced through inhibition of CaMK II by KN93. In conclusion, this study reveals that KN93 can reduce neuropathic pain via inhibiting the activity of CaMK II, and then increase the level of phosphorylated nNOS, to reduce the interaction with CAPON. PMID:26722464

  11. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity following thoracic radiotherapy with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This is a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophagus cancer patients. Patients and Methods 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophagus cancer were enrolled in this trial. Each received respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing radiotherapy. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores ?2). Results 28 patients were evaluable, all received 50.4 Gy with concurrent chemotherapy. Pneumonitis toxcity scores were: 1 grade 3, 3 grade 2, 7 grade 1, and 17 grade 0. Dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. Exhaled NO measured before, at completion, and at restaging were 17.3(8.5; 5.5 - 36.7), 16.0(14.2; 5.8 - 67.7), 14.7(6.2; 5.5 - 28.0) parts per billion respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of radiotherapy versus pre-treatment was 3.4(1.7 - 6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8(0.3 - 1.3) for the asymptomatic (P = 0.0017). Elevation in exhaled NO preceded peak symptoms by 33(21 - 50) days. The time to peak symptoms was found to be inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions Elevation in the exhaled NO at the end of radiotherapy was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms. PMID:21377296

  12. Nitric oxide-mediated modulation of the murine locomotor network

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Joshua D.; Dunford, Catherine; Sillar, Keith T.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal motor control networks are regulated by neuromodulatory systems to allow adaptability of movements. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of mammalian spinal locomotor networks. This was investigated with isolated spinal cord preparations from neonatal mice in which rhythmic locomotor-related activity was induced pharmacologically. Bath application of the NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) decreased the frequency and modulated the amplitude of locomotor-related activity recorded from ventral roots. Removal of endogenous NO with coapplication of a NO scavenger (PTIO) and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker [nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of locomotor-related activity. This demonstrates that endogenously derived NO can modulate both the timing and intensity of locomotor-related activity. The effects of DEA/NO were mimicked by the cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP. In addition, the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor ODQ blocked the effects of DEA/NO on burst amplitude and frequency, although the frequency effect was only blocked at low concentrations of DEA/NO. This suggests that NO-mediated modulation involves cGMP-dependent pathways. Sources of NO were studied within the lumbar spinal cord during postnatal development (postnatal days 112) with NADPH-diaphorase staining. NOS-positive cells in the ventral horn exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient, with more cells in rostral segments. The number of NOS-positive cells was also found to increase during postnatal development. In summary, we have shown that NO, derived from sources within the mammalian spinal cord, modulates the output of spinal motor networks and is therefore likely to contribute to the fine-tuning of locomotor behavior. PMID:24259545

  13. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  14. Downregulation of nitric oxide by electroacupuncture against hypoxic?ischemic brain damage in rats via nuclear factor??B/neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichen; Li, Weiguang; Hu, Linyan; Liu, Ying; Li, Baoquan; Sun, Changqing; Zhang, Chenggang; Zou, Liping

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) against perinatal hypoxic?ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in rats by electroacupuncture (EA) and to examine its potential neuroprotective mechanism. NO content, the number of positive cells, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nuclear factor??B (NF??B) in rat cortex cells were determined. The results demonstrated that treatment with EA significantly downregulated the NO content in the cortex cells (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with the control groups) and alleviated cell damage in the cortex of rats with HIBD. The activator, S?adenosyl?L?methionine and the inhibitor, hydroxylamine of cystathionine???synthase (CBS), aggravated and remitted the hypoxic damage in the cortex cells, respectively. In addition, treatment with EA significantly downregulated the expression of nNOS and NF??B in the rat cortex cells (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with the control groups). The results also indicated that treatment with EA downregulated the NO content of cortical cells against HIBD via the NF??B/nNOS pathway and further implied that the hydrogen sulfide/CBS system may be involved in the process. The present study provided a significant reference for the prevention and treatment of HIBD using the EA technique and also described a novel protective mechanism. PMID:25374015

  15. Nitrated lipids decompose to nitric oxide and lipid radicals and cause vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Emersom S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Augusto, Ohara; Barbeiro, Hermes V; Souza, Heraldo P; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2005-08-15

    Nitric oxide-derived oxidants such as nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrite have been receiving increasing attention as mediators of nitric oxide toxicity. Indeed, nitrated and nitrosated compounds have been detected in biological fluids and tissues of healthy subjects and in higher yields in patients under inflammatory or infectious conditions as a consequence of nitric oxide overproduction. Among them, nitrated lipids have been detected in vivo. Here, we confirmed and extended previous studies by demonstrating that nitrolinoleate, chlolesteryl nitrolinoleate, and nitrohydroxylinoleate induce vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner while releasing nitric oxide that was characterized by chemiluminescence-and EPR-based methodologies. As we first show here, diffusible nitric oxide production is likely to occur by isomerization of the nitrated lipids to the corresponding nitrite derivatives that decay through homolysis and/or metal ion/ascorbate-assisted reduction. The homolytic mechanism was supported by EPR spin-trapping studies with 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulfonic acid that trapped a lipid-derived radical during nitrolinoleate decomposition. In addition to provide a mechanism to explain nitric oxide production from nitrated lipids, the results support their role as endogenous sources of nitric oxide that may play a role in endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. PMID:16043024

  16. Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    PACHER, PÁL; BECKMAN, JOSEPH S.; LIAUDET, LUCAS

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review. PMID:17237348

  17. Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production by ?-Opioid Receptors during Glaucomatous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Shahid; Abdul, Yasir; Singh, Sudha; Ahmad, Anis; Husain, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    To determine the roles of nitric oxide in glaucomatous injury and its regulation by ?-opioid-receptor activation, animals were treated with: 1) a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (aminoguanidine; AG; 25 mg/kg, i.p.); 2) ?-opioid-receptor agonist (SNC-121; 1 mg/kg, i.p.); or 3) with both drugs simultaneously for 7 days, once daily. The loss in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) numbers and their function in glaucomatous eyes were significantly improved in the presence of AG or SNC-121; however, we did not see any significant additive or synergistic effects when animals were treated with both drugs simultaneously. The levels of nitrate-nitrite were significantly increased in the glaucomatous retina when compared with normal retina (normal retina 869 vs. glaucomatous retina 17410 mM/mg protein), which was reduced significantly when animals were treated either with SNC-121 (1217 mM/mg protein; P<0.05) or AG (12810 mM/mg protein; P<0.05). Additionally, SNC-121-mediated reduction in nitrate-nitrite levels was not only blocked by naltrindole (a ?-opioid-receptor antagonist), but naltrindole treatment potentiated the nitrate-nitrite production in glaucomatous retina (2354 mM/mg protein; P<0.001). As expected, naltrindole treatment also fully-blocked SNC-121-mediated retina neuroprotection. The nitrotyrosine level in the glaucomatous retina was also increased, which was significantly reduced in the SNC-121-treated animals. Additionally, the expression level of iNOS was clearly increased over the control levels in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerves, which was also reduced by SNC-121 treatment. In conclusion, our data support the notion that nitric oxide plays a detrimental role during glaucomatous injury and inhibition of nitric oxide production provided RGC neuroprotection. Furthermore, ?-opioid receptor activation regulates the production of nitric oxide via inhibiting the activity of iNOS in the retina and optic nerve. PMID:25329670

  18. Nitric Oxide Participation in the Fungicidal Mechanism of Gamma Interferon-Activated Murine Macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angel; de Gregori, Waldemar; Velez, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz E.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis restricted to Latin America and produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is probably acquired by inhalation of conidia produced by the mycelial form. The macrophage (M?) represents the major cell defense against this pathogen; when activated with gamma interferon (IFN-?), murine M?s kill the fungus by an oxygen-independent mechanism. Our goal was to determine the role of nitric oxide in the fungicidal effect of M?s on P. brasiliensis conidia. The results revealed that IFN-?-activated murine M?s inhibited the conidium-to-yeast transformation process in a dose-dependent manner; maximal inhibition was observed in M?s activated with 50 U/ml and incubated for 96 h at 37C. When M?s were activated with 150 to 200 U of cytokine per ml, the number of CFU was 70% lower than in nonactivated controls, indicating that there was a fungicidal effect. The inhibitory effect was reversed by the addition of anti-IFN-? monoclonal antibodies. Activation by IFN-? also enhanced M? nitric oxide production, as revealed by increasing NO2 values (8 3 ?M in nonactivated M?s versus 43 13 ?M in activated M?s). The neutralization of IFN-? also reversed nitric oxide production at basal levels (8 5 ?M). Additionally, we found that there was a significant inverse correlation (r = ?0.8975) between NO2? concentration and transformation of P. brasiliensis conidia. Additionally, treatment with any of the three different nitric oxide inhibitors used (arginase, NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, and aminoguanidine), reverted the inhibition of the transformation process with 40 to 70% of intracellular yeast and significantly reduced nitric oxide production. These results show that IFN-?-activated murine M?s kill P. brasiliensis conidia through the l-argininenitric oxide pathway. PMID:10768942

  19. Mechanistic studies of nitrations and oxidations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of nitrations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid of 1,2,4-trichloro-5-nitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene have been proposed. The kinetics and products of the nitration, in the title medium, of substantially deactivated benzoic acids and benzaldehydes have been investigated. Kinetics of nitration of some substituted benzoic acids in nitric acid solutions containing dinitrogen pentaoxide or nitronium trifluoro-methanesulphonate (nitronium triflate) have been compared. Rate coefficients for reactions in dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions were generally similar to those from nitronium triflate solutions of the same estimated nitronium ion concentration. Yields of aromatic products of nitration of some benzoic acid derivatives in the nitric acid solutions have been determined. Nitrodecarboxylation of 4-fluorobenzoic acid occurs as a result of nitronium ion attach at C(1). The competition between oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid and nitration in the aromatic ring of some substituted benzaldehydes has been probed by kinetic and product studies. 4-Carboxybenzaldehyde is nitrated but more deactivated substrates are predominantly oxidized. Rapid reversible gem-dinitrate formation occurs in concentrated dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions. The equilibrium extent of formation of [alpha]-deuterio-(4-nitropheny)-dinitratomethane from [alpha]-deuterio-4-nitrobenzaldehyde is reported. 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and the gem-dinitrate are oxidized in processes in which [alpha]-hydrogen loss is at least partially rate determining. The relative rates of oxidation in nitronium triflate solutions suggest that the [alpha]-hydrogen is removed as a hydride ion in that medium. There is evidence for the intrusion of a radical mechanism of nitration in concentrated solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide. (4-Nitrophenyl)dinitratomethane was produced on the addition of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to a solution of dinitrogen pentaoxide in dichloromethane.

  20. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol-induced gastric Acid secretion in the common african toad - bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Alada, A R A; Salahdeen, H M; Akande, O O; Idolor, G O

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad - Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase inhibitor; N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and when nitric oxide was in excess by administration of exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Histamine or carbachol increased acid secretion in the toad. Acid output increased from 0.32 +/- 0.04 mEq/15min to 0.56 +/- 0.08 and 0.61 +/- 0.05 mEq/15min for histamine and carbachol respectively [P < 0.05]. Pretreatment of the toad with L-NAME produced further increases in histamine (0.62 +/- 0.06 mEq/15min) or carbachol (0.74 +/- 0.06 mEq/15min) induced acid secretion respectively. SNP however, completely abolished the acid secretion stimulated by either histamine or carbachol. It was therefore concluded that nitric oxide has a negative influence on the histamine or carbachol-stimulated acid secretion in the toad - Bufo regularis. PMID:17220932

  1. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women1234

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Addison A; Smith, E O'Brian; Barnes, Stephen; Hachey, David L

    2012-01-01

    Background: Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure remains unknown. Objective: The objective was to test the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide production and blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 6-wk trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones (in aglycone units) on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in 24 menopausal women with 12 women per group. Changes in nitric oxide metabolism were assessed via a primed, constant-infusion protocol with [15N]arginine and [13C]- and [2H]citrulline. Changes in blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics were assessed via office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, forearm blood flow, and indexes of arterial compliance. Results: When compared with placebo and after control for pretreatment values, soy isoflavone supplementation had no effect on arginine flux, citrulline flux, nitric oxide synthesis, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, or estimates of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones over a 6-wk period had no effect on nitric oxide metabolism or blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. PMID:22552034

  2. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  3. The Biological Chemistry of Nitric Oxide as It Pertains to the Extrapulmonary Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects. PMID:16565423

  4. A hypothesis about cellular signaling with nitric oxide in the earliest life forms in evolution.

    PubMed

    Murad, Ferid; Barber, Roger

    2009-11-01

    We propose that nitric oxide participated as an extracellular and intracellular messenger in the early evolution of life. From a toxic and noxious substance it evolved into an important material for cellular communication and regulation with unique chemistry and properties. The presence of some nitric oxide complexes in extraterrestrial samples may support evidence for life forms in the past or present. Although nitric oxide probably participated in the evolution and maintenance of life, if pollution continues at an ever-increasing rate, it could also end life on the planet as we know it today. PMID:19439177

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Antus, Balzs; Horvth, Ildik

    2007-12-01

    Breath tests have gained increasing interest in recent years mainly driven by the unmet clinical need to monitor airway diseases and to obtain information on unravelled aspects of respiratory disorders. A prototype of such measurement reaching clinical significance besides its use as a research tool is the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO). It took hardly more than a decade after the discovery that exhaled breath contains NO for this measurement to be approved for clinical practice to monitor anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma. Recent studies demonstrate that using exhaled NO measurement to guide anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma may help clinical decision making. A similarly small molecule present in exhaled breath is carbon monoxide, which is not only a biomarker of cigarette smoking but has also been suggested to reflect ongoing oxidative stress/antioxidant defense. The scope of this review is the exciting field of exhaled monoxides. Since several other biomarkers have also been studied in the exhaled breath this review will provide a brief introduction to them. PMID:21383433

  6. Release of nitric oxide from building stones into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgrtner, M.; Remde, A.; Bock, E.; Conrad, R.

    Stone material from the corroding surface of buildings generally released nitric oxide with rates of 0.42-4.2 ng NO?N h -1 g -1 d.w. despite their large range of moisture, pH and content of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. The net release rates of NO were independent of the NO mixing ratio of the atmosphere up to 1 ppmv NO. Whereas NO 2 was taken up by all stones tested, uptake of NO was only observed in one out of five types of stone. NO release rates were highest at the stone surface and rapidly decreased in depth lower than 1 cm. NO release persisted for up to >3 months after the stone sample was removed from the building. NO was mainly produced during the biogenic oxidation of ammonium to nitrate at the stone surface which was probably due to endolithic nitrifying bacteria. Chemical decomposition of nitrite to NO and NO 2 was only observed under acidic conditions.

  7. Stimulation of perivascular nitric oxide synthesis by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Fisher, Donald; Zhang, Jie; Bhopale, Veena M; Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Kotake, Yashige; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Buerk, Donald G

    2003-04-01

    We hypothesized that elevated partial pressures of O(2) would increase perivascular nitric oxide (*NO) synthesis. Rodents with O(2)- and.NO-specific microelectrodes implanted adjacent to the abdominal aorta were exposed to O(2) at partial pressures from 0.2 to 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA). Exposures to 2.0 and 2.8 ATA O(2) stimulated neuronal (type I) NO synthase (nNOS) and significantly increased steady-state.NO concentration, but the mechanism for enzyme activation differed at each partial pressure. At both pressures, elevations in.NO concentration were inhibited by the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine. Enzyme activation at 2.0 ATA O(2) appeared to be due to an altered cellular redox state. Exposure to 2.8 ATA O(2), but not 2.0 ATA O(2), increased nNOS activity by enhancing nNOS association with calmodulin, and an inhibitory effect of geldanamycin indicated that the association was facilitated by heat shock protein 90. Infusion of superoxide dismutase inhibited.NO elevation at 2.8 but not 2.0 ATA O(2). Hyperoxia increased the concentration of.NO associated with hemoglobin. These findings highlight the complexity of oxidative stress responses and may help explain some of the dose responses associated with therapeutic applications of hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:12505879

  8. Effect of nitric oxide on the growth of Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Rizzo, Antonietta; Paolillo, Rossella; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Catalanotti, Piergiorgio; Rossano, Fabio

    2005-11-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae is an important human intracellular pathogen; however, the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae infection is poorly understood and the immune control mechanism versus host cells is not completely known. The role of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase pathway in inhibiting the ability of C. pneumoniae to infect macrophage J774 cells and the ability of NO to damage isolated C. pneumoniae were investigated. Exposure of infected cultures to recombinant murine gamma interferon (MurIFN-gamma) resulted in increased production of NO and reduced viability. Addition of 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolase-2-oxide before infection of J774 cells or during chlamydial cultivation released NO, both resulting in a reduction in the viability of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent way. These results indicate that immune control of chlamydial growth in murine macrophage cells may trigger a mechanism that includes NO release with effects on the multiplication of the microorganism, thus suggesting that NO may play a role in preventing the systemic spread of Chlamydia. PMID:16333333

  9. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement with a handheld device.

    PubMed

    Magori, Erhard; Hiltawsky, Karsten; Fleischer, Maximilian; Simon, Elfriede; Pohle, Roland; von Sicard, Oliver; Tawil, Angelika

    2011-06-01

    A sensing system for fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is presented, which is characterized by a compact setup and a cost potential to be made available for the patient at home. The sensing is based on the work function measurement of a phthalocyanine-type sensing material, which is shown to be sufficiently sensitive for NO(2) in the ppb range. The transducer used to measure the work function is a field effect transistor with a suspended gate electrode. Selectivity is given with respect to other breath components including typically metabolic by-products. The measurement system includes breath treatments in a simple setup, which essentially are dehumidification and a quantitative conversion of NO to NO(2) with a conversion rate of approx. 95%, using a disposable oxidation catalyst. The accomplishment of the correct exhalation maneuver and feeding of the suited portion of exhaled air to the sensor is provided by breath sampling means. The sensor is not gas consuming. This allows us to fill the measurement chamber once, instead of establishing a gas flow for the measurement. This feature simplifies the device architecture. In this paper, we report on sensor characteristics, system architecture and measurement with artificial breath-gas as well as with human breath with the device. PMID:21646688

  10. Regulation of peroxiredoxins by nitric oxide in immunostimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Diet, Alexandre; Abbas, Kahina; Bouton, Ccile; Guillon, Blanche; Tomasello, Flora; Fourquet, Simon; Toledano, Michel B; Drapier, Jean-Claude

    2007-12-14

    Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) are capable of both mediating redox-sensitive signal transduction and eliciting cell injury. The interplay between these messengers is quite complex, and intersection of their signaling pathways as well as regulation of their fluxes requires tight control. In this regard, peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a recently identified family of six thiol peroxidases, are central because they reduce H2O2, organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Here we provide evidence that endogenously produced NO participates in protection of murine primary macrophages against oxidative and nitrosative stress by inducing Prx I and VI expression at mRNA and protein levels. We also show that NO prevented the sulfinylation-dependent inactivation of 2-Cys Prxs, a reversible overoxidation that controls H2O2 signaling. In addition, studies using macrophages from sulfiredoxin (Srx)-deficient mice indicated that regeneration of 2-Cys Prxs to the active form was dependent on Srx. Last, we show that NO increased Srx expression and hastened Srx-dependent recovery of 2-Cys Prxs. We therefore propose that modulation by NO of Prx expression and redox state, as well as up-regulation of Srx expression, constitutes a novel pathway that contributes to antioxidant response and control of H2O2-mediated signal transduction in mammals. PMID:17921138

  11. Diterpenoids from the Roots of Euphorbia fischeriana with Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Jang, Hari; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Ha-Jin; Shin, Jong Won; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2016-01-22

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Euphorbia fischeriana led to the isolation of four new abietane-type diterpenoids, fischeriolides A-D (1-4), together with 11 known diterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated based on the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic circular dichroism methods. Compounds 5-9 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values in the range 4.9-12.6 ?M. PMID:26702644

  12. Organelle-Specific Nitric Oxide Detection in Living Cells via HaloTag Protein Labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuzheng; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Qian; Du, Zengmin; Hu, Aiguo; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a membrane-permeable signaling molecule that is constantly produced, transferred, and consumed in vivo. NO participates and plays important roles in multiple biological processes. However, spatiotemporal imaging of NO in living cells is challenging. To fill the gap in currently used techniques, we exploited the versatility of HaloTag technology and synthesized a novel organelle-targetable fluorescent probe called HTDAF-2DA. We demonstrate the utility of the probe by monitoring subcellular NO dynamics. The developed strategy enables precise determination of local NO function. PMID:25923693

  13. Identification of nitric oxide synthase 2 as an innate resistance locus against ectromelia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, G; Chen, J H; Nathan, C F; Mahalingam, S; MacMicking, J D

    1998-09-01

    To assess whether nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) fulfills the criteria of an innate resistance locus against an acute viral infection, we inoculated genetically deficient NOS2-/- mice with virulent ectromelia virus (EV), the causative agent of mousepox. NOS2-/- mice proved highly susceptible to EV yet showed no diminution in other well-characterized anti-EV immune responses, i.e. , gamma interferon secretion and NK cell and EV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities. Thus, the NOS2 locus can be considered a critical monogenic determinant of EV resistance that contributes to host survival. PMID:9696880

  14. Humulene derivatives from Zingiber zerumbet with the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae Sik; Min, Hye-Young; Kim, Moon-Sun; Han, Ah-Reum; Windono, Tri; Jeohn, Gwang-Ho; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Sang Kook; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2005-07-01

    A new humulene sesquiterpene, 5-hydroxyzerumbone (5-hydroxy-2E,6E,9E-humulatrien-8-one) (1) and a known compound, zerumboneoxide (2) were isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae), and found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 14.1 and 23.5 microM, respectively, by bioassay-guided fractionation (positive control: N(omega)-monomethyl-L-arginine, IC50=21.3 microM). The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D-NMR. PMID:15997145

  15. Flow-Tagging Velocimetry for Hypersonic Flows Using Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; OByrne, S.; Houwing, A. F. P.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate a new type of flow-tagging velocimetry technique for hypersonic flows. The technique involves exciting a thin line of nitric oxide molecules with a laser beam and then, after some delay, acquiring an image of the displaced line. One component of velocity is determined from the time of flight. This method is applied to measure the velocity profile in a Mach 8.5 laminar, hypersonic boundary layer in the Australian National Universities T2 free-piston shock tunnel. The velocity is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 2%. Comparison with a CFD simulation of the flow shows reasonable agreement.

  16. The transport of nitric oxide in the upper atmosphere by planetary waves and the zonal mean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. A.; Avery, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical model was developed and used to study the interaction between planetary waves, the zonal mean circulation, and the trace constituent nitric oxide in the region between 55 km and 120 km. The factors which contribute to the structure of the nitric oxide distribution were examined, and the sensitivity of the distribution to changes in planetary wave amplitude was investigated. Wave-induced changes in the mean nitric oxide concentration were examined as a possible mechanism for the observed winter anomaly. Results indicate that vertically-propagating planetary waves induce a wave-like structure in the nitric oxide distribution and that at certain levels, transports of nitric oxide by planetary waves could significantly affect the mean nitric oxide distribution. The magnitude and direction of these transports at a given level was found to depend not only on the amplitude of the planetary wave, but also on the loss rate of nitric oxide at that level.

  17. Arsenic triggers the nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Leterrier, Marina; Airaki, Morad; Palma, Jos M; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J

    2012-07-01

    Environmental contamination by arsenic constitutes a problem in many countries, and its accumulation in food crops may pose health complications for humans. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved at various levels in the mechanism of responding to environmental stress in higher plants. Using Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to different arsenate concentrations, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to determine the status of ROS and RNS metabolisms. Arsenate provoked a significant reduction in growth parameters and an increase in lipid oxidation. These changes were accompanied by an alteration in antioxidative enzymes and the nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, with a significant increase in NO content, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity and protein tyrosine nitration as well as a concomitant reduction in glutathione and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) content. Our results indicate that 500?M arsenate (AsV) causes nitro-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis, being the glutathione reductase and the GSNOR activities clearly affected. PMID:22504427

  18. Adrenoreceptors and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Corbi, Graziamaria; Izzo, Viviana; Vecchione, Carmine; Filippelli, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule that continues to attract much attention from the scientific community. Since its discovery, it has been evident that NO has a crucial role in the modulation of vascular tone. Moreover, NO is involved in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. NO effects can be either dependent or independent on cGMP, and rely also upon several mechanisms such as the amount of NO, the compartmentalization of the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis (NOS), and the local redox conditions. Several evidences highlighted the correlation among adrenoreceptors activity, vascular redox status and NO bioavailability. It was suggested a possible crosstalk between NO and oxidative stress hallmarks in the endothelium function and adaptation, and in sympathetic vasoconstriction control. Adrenergic vasoconstriction is a balance between a direct vasoconstrictive effect on smooth muscle and an indirect vasorelaxant action caused by ?2- and ?-adrenergic endothelial receptor-triggered NO release. An increased oxidative stress and a reduction of NO bioavailability shifts this equilibrium causing the enhanced vascular adrenergic responsiveness observed in hypertension. The activity of NOS contributes to manage the adrenergic pathway, thus supporting the idea that the endothelium might control or facilitate ?-adrenergic effects on the vessels and the polymorphic variants in ?2-receptors and NOS isoforms could influence aging, some pathological conditions and individual responses to drugs. This seems to be dependent, almost in part, on differences in the control of vascular tone exerted by NO. Given its involvement in such important mechanisms, the NO pathway is implicated in aging process and in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Thus, it is essential to pinpoint NO involvement in the regulation of vascular tone for the effective clinical/therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:24223559

  19. Cardiovascular Consequences When Nitric Oxide and Lipid Signaling Converge

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Volker; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of nitric oxide (•NO) as an endogenously produced free radical mediator of endothelial-dependent relaxation and host defense has fundamentally changed concepts of cell signal transduction. Ligand-receptor oriented paradigms of cell signaling were originally centered on the concept of a high affinity and specific interaction between a ligand and its receptor, resulting in the activation of secondary signaling events such as gene expression or modulation of catalytic protein function. While •NO ligation of the heme iron of soluble guanylate cyclase is consistent with this perspective, the readily diffusible and broadly reactive •NO is increasingly appreciated to react with a vast array of target molecules that mediate paracrine vasodilator actions, inhibition of thrombosis and neointimal proliferation and both pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling reactions that are not affected by inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase. There is an expanding array of functionally significant “off target” collateral reactions mediated by •NO that are guanylate cyclase-independent and rather are dictated by anatomic distribution and the formation of secondary •NO-derived species. These reactions are a critical element of redox-regulated signaling and are addressed herein in the context of the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids to vascular and inflammatory signaling mediators. Because of their abundance and the intrinsic reactivity of unsaturated lipid intermediates and eicosanoid metabolism enzymes with •NO and other oxides of nitrogen, lipid signaling mechanisms are a significant target for regulation by •NO in the vascular compartment. This convergence of •NO and lipid signaling pathways thus adds another level of regulation to physiological responses such as vasodilation, thrombosis and inflammation. Herein, interactions between •NO and lipid signaling events are placed in the context of cardiovascular regulation. PMID:19745170

  20. Nitric oxide as a regulator of B. anthracis pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Taissia G.; Teunis, Allison; Vaseghi, Haley; Zhou, Weidong; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key physiological regulator in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It can cause a variety of biological effects by reacting with its targets or/and indirectly inducing oxidative stress. NO can also be produced by bacteria including the pathogenic Bacillus anthracis; however, its role in the infectious process only begins to emerge. NO incapacitates macrophages by S-nitrosylating the intracellular proteins and protects B. anthracis from oxidative stress. It is also implicated in the formation of toxic peroxynitrite. In this study we further assessed the effects of B. anthracis NO produced by the NO synthase (bNOS) on bacterial metabolism and host cells in experiments with the bNOS knockout Sterne strain. The mutation abrogated accumulation of nitrite and nitrate as tracer products of NO in the culture medium and markedly attenuated growth in both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The regulatory role of NO was also suggested by the abnormally high rate of nitrate denitrification by the mutant in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic regulation mediated by NO was reflected in reduced fermentation of glucose by the mutant correlating with the reduced toxicity of bacteria toward host cells in culture. The toxic effect of NO required permeabilization of the target cells as well as the activity of fermentation-derived metabolite in the conditions of reduced pH. The host cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of major survivor protein kinase AKT correlating with reduced toxicity of the mutant in comparison with Sterne. Our global proteomic analysis of lymph from the lymph nodes of infected mice harboring bacteria revealed numerous changes in the pattern and levels of proteins associated with the activity of bNOS influencing key cell physiological processes relevant to energy metabolism, growth, signal transduction, stress response, septic shock, and homeostasis. This is the first in vivo observation of the bacterial NO effect on the lymphatic system. PMID:26388860

  1. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3--N<256 mg N kg -1 dry weight, NH 3-N˜23,080 mg N kg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N˜41,700 mg N kg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9 ng N m -2 s -1. Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±1.7 ng N m -2 s -1. The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0 ng N m -2 s -1. An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed to be significant variables for predicting NO emissions, however %WFPS was found to be most significant during high soil temperature conditions. In the range of pH values found at this site (5.8±0.3), pH was not observed to be a significant parameter in predicting NO emissions.

  2. Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Activation Generates an Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase-like Output of Nitric Oxide in Inflamed Endothelium*

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Jessica L.; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of NO generated in the vasculature under inflammatory conditions are usually attributed to inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), but the role of the constitutively expressed endothelial NOS (eNOS) is unclear. In normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC), bradykinin (BK) activates kinin B2 receptor (B2R) signaling that results in Ca2+-dependent activation of eNOS and transient NO. In inflamed HLMVEC (pretreated with interleukin-1β and interferon-γ), we found enhanced binding of eNOS to calcium-calmodulin at basal Ca2+ levels, thereby increasing its basal activity that was dependent on extracellular l-Arg. Furthermore, B2R stimulation generated prolonged high output eNOS-derived NO that is independent of increased intracellular Ca2+ and is mediated by a novel Gαi-, MEK1/2-, and JNK1/2-dependent pathway. This high output NO stimulated with BK was blocked with a B2R antagonist, eNOS siRNA, or eNOS inhibitor but not iNOS inhibitor. Moreover, B2R-mediated NO production and JNK phosphorylation were inhibited with MEK1/2 and JNK inhibitors or MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 siRNA but not with ERK1/2 inhibitor. BK induced Ca2+-dependent eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177, Thr495, and Ser114 in cytokine-treated HLMVEC, but these modifications were not dependent on JNK1/2 activation and were not responsible for prolonged NO output. Cytokine treatment did not alter the expression of B2R, Gαq/11, Gαi1,2, JNK, or eNOS. B2R activation in control endothelial cells enhanced migration, but in cytokine-treated HLMVEC it reduced migration. Both responses were NO-dependent. Understanding how JNK regulates prolonged eNOS-derived NO may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of disorders involving vascular inflammation. PMID:23255592

  3. Disruption of endothelial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? reduces vascular nitric oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhenz, Jennifer M.; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; You, Shaojin; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Hansen, Jason M.; Archer, David R.; Sutliff, Roy L.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells express the ligand-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which participates in the regulation of metabolism, cell proliferation, and inflammation. PPAR? ligands attenuate, whereas the loss of function mutations in PPAR? stimulate, endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that PPAR? may regulate vascular endothelial nitric oxide production. To explore the role of endothelial PPAR? in the regulation of vascular nitric oxide production in vivo, mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by an endothelial-specific promoter were crossed with mice carrying a floxed PPAR? gene to produce endothelial PPAR? null mice (ePPAR??/?). When compared with littermate controls, ePPAR??/? animals were hypertensive at baseline and demonstrated comparable increases in systolic blood pressure in response to angiotensin II infusion. When compared with those of control animals, aortic ring relaxation responses to acetylcholine were impaired, whereas relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were unaffected in ePPAR??/? mice. Similarly, intact aortic segments from ePPAR??/? mice released less nitric oxide than those from controls, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was similar in control and ePPAR??/? aortas. Reduced nitric oxide production in ePPAR??/? aortas was associated with an increase in the parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and the activation of nuclear factor-?B in aortic homogenates. These findings demonstrate that endothelial PPAR? regulates vascular nitric oxide production and that the disruption of endothelial PPAR? contributes to endothelial dysfunction in vivo. PMID:19666848

  4. Disruption of endothelial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reduces vascular nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Jennifer M; Kleinhenz, Dean J; You, Shaojin; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Hansen, Jason M; Archer, David R; Sutliff, Roy L; Hart, C Michael

    2009-11-01

    Vascular endothelial cells express the ligand-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), which participates in the regulation of metabolism, cell proliferation, and inflammation. PPARgamma ligands attenuate, whereas the loss of function mutations in PPARgamma stimulate, endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that PPARgamma may regulate vascular endothelial nitric oxide production. To explore the role of endothelial PPARgamma in the regulation of vascular nitric oxide production in vivo, mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by an endothelial-specific promoter were crossed with mice carrying a floxed PPARgamma gene to produce endothelial PPARgamma null mice (ePPARgamma(-/-)). When compared with littermate controls, ePPARgamma(-/-) animals were hypertensive at baseline and demonstrated comparable increases in systolic blood pressure in response to angiotensin II infusion. When compared with those of control animals, aortic ring relaxation responses to acetylcholine were impaired, whereas relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were unaffected in ePPARgamma(-/-) mice. Similarly, intact aortic segments from ePPARgamma(-/-) mice released less nitric oxide than those from controls, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was similar in control and ePPARgamma(-/-) aortas. Reduced nitric oxide production in ePPARgamma(-/-) aortas was associated with an increase in the parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in aortic homogenates. These findings demonstrate that endothelial PPARgamma regulates vascular nitric oxide production and that the disruption of endothelial PPARgamma contributes to endothelial dysfunction in vivo. PMID:19666848

  5. Activation of CFTR chloride current by nitric oxide in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Y J; Chao, A C; Kouyama, K; Hsu, Y P; Bocian, R C; Moss, R B; Gardner, P

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide, which is produced by cytokine-activated mononuclear cells, is thought to play an important role in inflammation and immunity. While the function of nitric oxide as a direct cytotoxic effector molecule is well established, its function as a transducer molecule in immune cells is not. By use of whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we show that nitric oxide activates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CI- currents in normal human cloned T cells by a cGMP-dependent mechanism. This pathway is defective in cystic fibrosis-derived human cloned T cells. These findings not only delineate a novel transduction mechanism for nitric oxide but also support the hypothesis that an intrinsic immune defect may exist in cystic fibrosis. PMID:7540975

  6. Nitric oxide mediates glutamate-linked enhancement of cGMP levels in the cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Nitric oxide, which mediates influences of numerous neurotransmitters and modulators on vascular smooth muscle and leukocytes, can be formed in the brain from arginine by an enzymatic activity that stoichiometrically generates citrulline. The authors show that glutamate and related amino acids, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate, markedly stimulate arginine-citrulline transformation in cerebellar slices stoichiometrically with enhancement of cGMP levels. N{sup {omega}}-monomethyl-L-arginine blocks the augmentation both of citrulline and cGMP with identical potencies. Arginine competitively reverses both effects of N{sup {omega}}-monomethyl-L-arginine with the same potencies. Hemoglobin, which complexes nitric oxide, prevents the stimulation by N-methyl-D-aspartate of cGMP levels, and superoxide dismutase, which elevates nitric oxide levels, increases cGMP formation. These data establish that nitric oxide mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cGMP formation.

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates Glutamate-Linked Enhancement of cGMP Levels in the Cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredt, David S.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1989-11-01

    Nitric oxide, which mediates influences of numerous neurotransmitters and modulators on vascular smooth muscle and leukocytes, can be formed in the brain from arginine by an enzymatic activity that stoichiometrically generates citrulline. We show that glutamate and related amino acids, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate, markedly stimulate arginine-citrulline transformation in cerebellar slices stoichiometrically with enhancement of cGMP levels. N?-monomethyl-L-arginine blocks the augmentation both of citrulline and cGMP with identical potencies. Arginine competitively reverses both effects of N?-monomethyl-L-arginine with the same potencies. Hemoglobin, which complexes nitric oxide, prevents the stimulation by N-methyl-D-aspartate of cGMP levels, and superoxide dismutase, which elevates nitric oxide levels, increases cGMP formation. These data establish that nitric oxide mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cGMP formation.

  8. EXAMINING THE TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the temporal variability of airborne emissions of ammonia from livestock operations and fertilizer application and nitric oxide from soils. In the United States, the livestock operations and fertilizer categories comprise the majority of the ammonia emissions...

  9. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase does not alter ocular dominance shifts in kitten visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, S N; Daw, N W; Czepita, D; Flavin, H J; Sessa, W C

    1996-01-01

    1. Since nitric oxide has been proposed as a feedback factor in plasticity in the hippocampus, we tested whether it might also be a feedback factor in sensory-dependent plasticity in the cat visual cortex. 2. The effects of monocular deprivation were compared between eight hemispheres with infusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and eight control hemispheres with either infusion of the inactive isomer, or no infusion. Although nitric oxide synthase activity was reduced significantly, the ocular dominance histograms were not substantially different in the two groups of animals. We conclude that the feedback factor for sensory-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex is likely to be some factor other than nitric oxide. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8842008

  10. Thalidomide ameliorates portal hypertension via nitric oxide synthase independent reduced systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Theodorakis, Nicholas G; Wang, Yining N; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Maluccio, Mary A; Skill, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and significantly increases mortality and morbidity. Previous reports have suggested that the compound thalidomide attenuates portal hypertension (PHT). However, the mechanism for this action is not fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that thalidomide destabilizes tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA and therefore diminishes TNFα induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO). To examine this hypothesis, we utilized the murine partial portal vein ligation (PVL) PHT model in combination with endothelial or inducible NOS isoform gene knockout mice. METHODS: Wild type, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-/- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-/- mice received either PVL or sham surgery and were given either thalidomide or vehicle. Serum nitrate (total nitrate, NOx) was measured daily for 7 d as a surrogate of NO synthesis. Serum TNFα level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TNFα mRNA was quantified in liver and aorta tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. PHT was determined by recording splenic pulp pressure (SPP) and abdominal aortic flow after 0-7 d. Response to thalidomide was determined by measurement of SPP and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: SPP, abdominal aortic flow (Qao) and plasma NOx were increased in wild type and iNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham operated control mice. In contrast, SPP, Qao and plasma NOx were not increased in eNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham controls. Serum TNFα level in both sham and PVL mice was below the detection limit of the commercial ELISA used. Therefore, the effect of thalidomide on serum TNFα levels was undetermined in wild type, eNOS-/- or iNOS-/- mice. Thalidomide acutely increased plasma NOx in wild type and eNOS-/- mice but not iNOS-/- mice. Moreover, thalidomide temporarily (0-90 min) decreased mean arterial pressure, SPP and Qao in wild type, eNOS-/- and iNOS-/- PVL mice, after which time levels returned to the respective baseline. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide does not reduce portal pressure in the murine PVL model by modulation of NO biosynthesis. Rather, thalidomide reduces PHT by decreasing MAP by an undetermined mechanism. PMID:25892862

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases in atherosclerosis: role of nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, homocysteine, and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Vacek, Thomas P; Rehman, Shahnaz; Neamtu, Diana; Yu, Shipeng; Givimani, Srikanth; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that involves activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); MMPs degrade collagen and allow for smooth-muscle cell migration within a vessel. Moreover, this begets an accumulation of other cellular material, resulting in occlusion of the vessel and ischemic events to tissues in need of nutrients. Homocysteine has been shown to activate MMPs via an increase in oxidative stress and acting as a signaling molecule on receptors like the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Nitric oxide has been shown to be beneficial in some cases of deactivating MMPs. However, in other cases, it has been shown to be harmful. Further studies are warranted on the scenarios that are beneficial versus destructive. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to decrease MMP activities in all cases in the literature by acting as an antioxidant and vasodilator. Various MMP-knockout and gene-silencing models have been used to determine the function of the many different MMPs. This has allowed us to discern the role that each MMP has in promoting or alleviating pathological conditions. Furthermore, there has been some study into the MMP polymorphisms that exist in the population. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of MMPs and their polymorphisms on the development of atherosclerosis, with emphasis placed on pathways that involve nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, and homocysteine. PMID:25767394

  12. Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

    2004-04-01

    Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

  13. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions were studied with the aid of a mass spectrometer. A pinhole bleed system provided continuous sampling of the gas mixture in the cell during the reaction. It was found that the homogeneous reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with hydrogen peroxide are too slow to be of any significance in the upper atmosphere. However, the heterogeneous reactions may be important in the conversion of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the case of polluted urban atmospheres.

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  15. Pharmacologic strategies in neonatal pulmonary hypertension other than nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Mathew, Bobby; Leach, Corinne L

    2016-04-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is approved for use in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) but does not lead to sustained improvement in oxygenation in one-third of patients with PPHN. Inhaled NO is less effective in the management of PPHN secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), extreme prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Intravenous pulmonary vasodilators such as prostacyclin, alprostadil, sildenafil, and milrinone have been successfully used in PPHN resistant to iNO. Oral pulmonary vasodilators such as endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil and tadalafil are used both during acute and chronic phases of PPHN. In the absence of infection, glucocorticoids may also be effective in PPHN. Many of these pharmacologic agents are not approved for use in PPHN and our knowledge is based on case reports and small trials. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are required to evaluate alternate pharmacologic strategies in PPHN. PMID:26778236

  16. Adenovirus-mediated nitric oxide synthase gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kathleen G; Shapiro, Richard A; Tzeng, Edith; Kibbe, Melina R

    2004-01-01

    The varied biological effects of nitric oxide (NO) have led to intense research into its diverse physiologic and pathophysiologic roles in multiple disease processes. It has been implicated in the development of altered vasomotor tone, intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis, impotence, host defense, and wound healing. Using the modern technologies of recombinant DNA and gene transfer using adenoviral vectors, the effects of NO derived from various NO synthase (NOS) enzymes can be studied in a variety of tissues and the therapeutic applications of NOS is possible. Such uses of NOS gene transfer have been investigated extensively in the vasculature where NO is critical to regulating vascular homeostasis. NOS gene therapy has the theoretical advantage of allowing NO delivery to be localized, thereby limiting potential adverse effects of NO. The benefits of adenoviral vectors in gene transfer include relatively high transduction efficiencies, both replicating and nonreplicating cells may be infected, and the high titers of adenovirus that can be produced. The methods described in this chapter include the cloning of the iNOS cDNA into a recombinant adenoviral vector, large-scale production of that vector AdiNOS preparation, and the use of the vector to transduce tissue in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15199249

  17. Concepts of neural nitric oxide-mediated transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garthwaite, John

    2008-01-01

    As a chemical transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) is still thought a bit of an oddity, yet this role extends back to the beginnings of the evolution of the nervous system, predating many of the more familiar neurotransmitters. During the 20 years since it became known, evidence has accumulated for NO subserving an increasing number of functions in the mammalian central nervous system, as anticipated from the wide distribution of its synthetic and signal transduction machinery within it. This review attempts to probe beneath those functions and consider the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which NO evokes short- and long-term modifications in neural performance. With any transmitter, understanding its receptors is vital for decoding the language of communication. The receptor proteins specialised to detect NO are coupled to cGMP formation and provide an astonishing degree of amplification of even brief, low amplitude NO signals. Emphasis is given to the diverse ways in which NO receptor activation initiates changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by acting at pre- and/or postsynaptic locations. Signalling to non-neuronal cells and an unexpected line of communication between endothelial cells and brain cells are also covered. Viewed from a mechanistic perspective, NO conforms to many of the rules governing more conventional neurotransmission, particularly of the metabotropic type, but stands out as being more economical and versatile, attributes that presumably account for its spectacular evolutionary success. PMID:18588525

  18. Resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock attenuates intrapulmonary nitric oxide formation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Wood, Charles E; Nasiroglu, Omer; Slovin, Paul N; Fang, Xiaoying; Skimming, Jeffrey W

    2002-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock has been shown to upregulate intrapulmonary inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression. Increased intrapulmonary iNOS expression is reflected by increases in concentrations of NO in the airways. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resuscitation on this induction of intrapulmonary NO formation caused by hemorrhage. Eighteen rats were randomized to one of three groups. One group of rats was simply sham-instrumented and monitored. Two other groups experienced hemorrhagic shock (mean systemic blood pressure of 40-45 mmHg) for 60 min. In one of the hemorrhagic shock groups, resuscitation was performed by re-infusing the shed blood and supplementing it with normal saline. Compared with sham-instrumented rats, those exposed to hemorrhagic shock without subsequent resuscitation exhibited a 10-fold increase in exhaled NO concentrations. Additionally, concentrations of both intrapulmonary iNOS protein and mRNA increased. Resuscitation attenuated the hemorrhage-induced upregulation of exhaled NO, iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA. This data suggests that resuscitation attenuates the hemorrhagic shock-induced formation of intrapulmonary NO by downregulating iNOS transcription. We believe that exhaled NO concentrations provide a useful, non-invasive method of monitoring the intrapulmonary inflammatory sequelae of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:12413759

  19. Nitric oxide: a multitasked signaling gas in plants.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patricia; Prado, Ana Margarida; Wong, Aloysius; Gehring, Christoph; Feijo, Jose A

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has evolved as a signaling hormone in many physiological processes in animals. In plants it has been demonstrated to be a crucial regulator of development, acting as a signaling molecule present at each step of the plant life cycle. NO has also been implicated as a signal in biotic and abiotic responses of plants to the environment. Remarkably, despite this plethora of effects and functional relationships, the fundamental knowledge of NO production, sensing, and transduction in plants remains largely unknown or inadequately characterized. In this review we cover the current understanding of NO production, perception, and action in different physiological scenarios. We especially address the issues of enzymatic and chemical generation of NO in plants, NO sensing and downstream signaling, namely the putative cGMP and Ca(2+) pathways, ion-channel activity modulation, gene expression regulation, and the interface with other ROS, which can have a profound effect on both NO accumulation and function. We also focus on the importance of NO in cell-cell communication during developmental processes and sexual reproduction, namely in pollen tube guidance and embryo sac fertilization, pathogen defense, and responses to abiotic stress. PMID:25680232

  20. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  1. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y.; Salmond, Robert J.; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y.

    2014-01-01

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4+ T cells. NO de-represses the tumor suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGFβR and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2−/− mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared to wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells. PMID:25099390

  2. Regulation of oxygen distribution in tissues by endothelial nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Nuez, Cristina; D'Ocn, Pilar; Taylor, Cormac T; Esplugues, Juan V; Moncada, Salvador

    2009-05-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) decreases cellular oxygen (O(2)) consumption by competitively inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we show that endogenously released endothelial NO, either basal or stimulated, can modulate O(2) consumption both throughout the thickness of conductance vessels and in the microcirculation. Furthermore, we have shown that such modulation regulates O(2) distribution to the surrounding tissues. We have demonstrated these effects by measuring O(2) consumption in blood vessels in a hypoxic chamber and O(2) distribution in the microcirculation using the fluorescent oxygen-probe Ru(phen)(3)(2+). Removal of NO by physical or pharmacological means, or in eNOS(-/-) mice, abolishes this regulatory mechanism. Our results indicate that, in addition to its well-known effect on the regulation of vascular tone, endothelial NO plays a major role in facilitating the distribution of O(2), an action which is crucial for the adaptation of tissues, including the vessel wall itself, to hypoxia. It is possible that changes in the distribution of O(2) throughout the vessel wall may be implicated in the origin of vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. PMID:19407240

  3. Why is nitric oxide important for our brain?

    PubMed Central

    Dolji?, Eleonora; Grabatini?, Ivan; Kosti?, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Summary The freely diffusible gaseous compound nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an important messenger in many organ systems throughout the body, and particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). The importance of NO as an intermediary in cell communication in the brain is highlighted by the fact that the excitatory amino acid glutamate, the most abundant CNS neurotransmitter, is an initiator of the reaction that forms NO. Because of its numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles, the impact of NO on clinical medicine is developing. NO can act as a double-edged sword and it has been demonstrated that clarification of the dual effect of NO might have implications for clinical medicine, and could lead to the emergence of therapeutic opportunities. Accordingly, NO was proclaimed Mole cule of the Year in 1992 by the journal Science, while discovery of the pathways and roles of NO was acknowledged with the Nobel Prize in 1998. Additionally, the ubiquity of NO in the CNS implies that drugs designed to modify the biological activity of NO may have distinct effects. Thus, further clinical applications of NO, of its analogs or of newly developed NOS inhibitors are forthcoming. The therapeutic challenge would be to succeed in manipulating the NO pathways selectively.

  4. Partitioned Exhaled Nitric Oxide to Non-Invasively Assess Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, James L.; George, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness. Chronic repetitive bouts of acute inflammation lead to airway wall remodeling and possibly the sequelae of fixed airflow obstruction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive molecule synthesized by NO synthases (NOS). NOS are expressed by cells within the airway wall and functionally, two NOS isoforms exist: constitutive and inducible. In asthma, the inducible isoform is over expressed, leading to increased production of NO, which diffuses into the airway lumen, where it can be detected in the exhaled breath. The exhaled NO signal can be partitioned into airway and alveolar components by measuring exhaled NO at multiple flows and applying mathematical models of pulmonary NO dynamics. The airway NO flux and alveolar NO concentration can be elevated in adults and children with asthma and have been correlated with markers of airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies which specifically address the clinical potential of partitioning exhaled NO for diagnosis, managing therapy, and predicting exacerbation are needed. PMID:18718562

  5. Characterization of a Fluorescent Probe for Imaging Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Huang, Ngan F; Kambhampati, Swetha; Volz, Katharina S; Joshi, Gururaj G; Anslyn, Eric V; Cooke, John P

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and anti-atherogenic molecule, is synthesized in various cell types including vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The biological importance of NO enforces the need to develop and characterize specific and sensitive probes. To date, several fluorophores, chromophores and colorimetric techniques have been developed to detect NO or its metabolites (NO2 and NO3) in biological fluids, viable cells or cell lysates. Methods Recently, a novel probe (NO550) has been developed and reported to detect NO in solution and in primary astrocytes and neuronal cells with a fluorescence signal arising from a non-fluorescent background. Results Here, we report further characterization of this probe by optimizing conditions for the detection and imaging of NO products in primary vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts, embryonic stem cell (ESC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)- derived endothelial cells (ESC-ECs. and iPSC-ECs respectively) in the absence and presence of pharmacological agents that modulate NO levels. In addition, we studied the stability of this probe in cells over time and evaluated its compartmentalization in reference to organelle-labeling dyes. Finally, we synthesized an inherently fluorescent diazo ring compound (AZO550) that is expected to form when the non-fluorescent NO550 reacts with cellular NO and compared its cellular distribution with that of NO550. Conclusion NO550 is a promising agent for imaging NO at baseline and in response to pharmacological agents that modulate its levels. PMID:24335468

  6. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide in oral precancer patients.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Anandani, C; Singh, K

    2015-05-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer has been the subject of speculation and conflicting reports in the literature. The high incidence of oral cancer and precancer has been linked to tobacco chewing and smoking habits; NO is considered an indicator of tobacco-related diseases. We compared salivary NO levels in oral precancer and normal patients. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 15 patients with oral precancer (group 1) and 15 healthy age and sex matched subjects (group 2). Salivary nitrite levels were estimated using a colorimetric method and a spectrophotometer. The salivary nitrite concentration of group 2 (median = 4.21 ?g/ml) was significantly less than for group 1 (median = 12.91 ?g/ml). We have added evidence concerning involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of oral cancer, but whether it is a potentially carcinogenic agent at the concentration at which it is present in oral precancer patients requires further evaluation. PMID:25831210

  7. Structure-Based Design of Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial (Holden, , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2013, 110, 1812724145412). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors. PMID:25522110

  8. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Li, Huiying; Lim, Nathan; Chen, Steven; Huang, He; Xue, Fengtian; Tang, Wei; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-22

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial ( Holden , , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013 , 110 , 18127 ). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors. PMID:25522110

  9. Structural basis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase binding to calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Mika; Arvai, Andrew S.; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is exquisitely regulated in vivo by the Ca2+ sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) to control production of NO, a key signaling molecule and cytotoxin. The differential activation of NOS isozymes by CaM has remained enigmatic, despite extensive research. Here, the crystal lographic structure of Ca2+-loaded CaM bound to a 20residue peptide comprising the endothelial NOS (eNOS) CaM-binding region establishes their individual conformations and intermolecular interactions, and suggests the basis for isozyme-specific differences. The ?-helical eNOS peptide binds in an antiparallel orientation to CaM through extensive hydrophobic interactions. Unique NOS interactions occur with: (i)the CaM flexible central linker, explaining its importance in NOS activation; and (ii)the CaM C-terminus, explaining the NOS-specific requirement for a bulky, hydrophobic residue at position144. This binding mode expands mechanisms for CaM-mediated activation, explains eNOS deactivation by Thr495 phosphorylation, and implicates specific hydrophobic residues in the Ca2+ independence of inducible NOS. PMID:12574113

  10. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O? at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  11. GAPDH regulates cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Fox, Paul L.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Heme proteins play essential roles in biology, but little is known about heme transport inside mammalian cells or how heme is inserted into soluble proteins. We recently found that nitric oxide (NO) blocks cells from inserting heme into several proteins, including cytochrome P450s, hemoglobin, NO synthases, and catalase. This finding led us to explore the basis for NO inhibition and to identify cytosolic proteins that may be involved, using inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as a model target. Surprisingly, we found that GAPDH plays a key role. GAPDH was associated with iNOS in cells. Pure GAPDH bound tightly to heme or to iNOS in an NO-sensitive manner. GAPDH knockdown inhibited heme insertion into iNOS and a GAPDH mutant with defective heme binding acted as a dominant negative inhibitor of iNOS heme insertion. Exposing cells to NO either from a chemical donor or by iNOS induction caused GAPDH to become S-nitrosylated at Cys152. Expressing a GAPDH C152S mutant in cells or providing a drug to selectively block GAPDH S-nitrosylation both made heme insertion into iNOS resistant to the NO inhibition. We propose that GAPDH delivers heme to iNOS through a process that is regulated by its S-nitrosylation. Our findings may uncover a fundamental step in intracellular heme trafficking, and reveal a mechanism whereby NO can govern the process. PMID:20921417

  12. Measurement of nitric oxide in human exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; Spicer, C.W.; Ollison, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    This project was initiated to confirm the reliability of nitric oxide (NO) measurement in the breath matrix, using two different analytical techniques - ozone and luminol chemiluminescence - and to corroborate literature reports of elevated breath NO values. To measure peak oral and nasal NO levels, subjects performed slow vital capacity and breath holding maneuvers directly into the monitors through the mouth and the nose, respectively. Additional measurements were made using normal breathing techniques. Initial interferent tests indicate that measured NO signals are real and are not confounded by measurement artifacts. Similar results were obtained using the two independent analytical methods in dry or humid air. The NO signal was unaffected by maximum concentrations of potential breath interferents, such as sulfur compounds and alkenes. The measured breath NO concentrations were greater than typical room air levels and differed significantly with the breathing technique used. During these tests room air averaged 4-5 ppb NO. Peak oral NO levels were 4.3 {+-} 1.5 ppb during a slow vital capacity maneuver and 8.0 {+-} 5.0 ppb during a breath holding maneuver. By contrast, higher peak nasal NO levels were measured for both slow vital capacity (17.8 {+-} 7.8 ppb) and breath holding maneuvers (45.4 {+-} 29.5 ppb).

  13. Recent advances in stress research: Focus on nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Kavita; Joshi, Jagdish Chandra; Ray, Arunabha

    2015-10-15

    Stress and stress related disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and understanding stress mechanisms is of great importance for devising appropriate therapeutic measures in such situations. The brain and its complex neurotransmitter systems regulate physiological and behavioral responses to a variety of stressors. Several other factors like age, gender and emotionality of the organism, as well as type, intensity and duration of the stressor may decide the nature and extent of stress effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is widely distributed in the brain and its role in Central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology has been suggested. Recent studies have shown that free radicals and in particular NO may play a crucial role in the regulation of stress effects. All the various factors, mentioned above, that might influence stress responsiveness have been discussed with reference to regulatory role of NO during stress and it appears that NO may act as a therapeutic target for development of novel strategies against stress related disorders. PMID:26341014

  14. Nitric oxide measurements in the Arctic winter stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, D.W. ); Kawa, S.R. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder ); Chan, K.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) from five flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) are presented. The NO values and vertical gradient near 60{degree}N latitude are similar to previous measurements near 50{degree}N in winter (Ridley et al., 1984; 1987). The NO latitudinal gradient is distinctly negative outside of the polar vortex, approaching zero at the boundary of the vortex, and remaining below the 20 pptv detection limit inside the vortex. The low NO values in the vortex occur at solar zenith angles as low as 82{degree} indicating that NO{sub 2} values in the vortex are also low. Steady state NO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} (NO+NO{sub 2}) are calculated from measured NO, O{sub 3}, and ClO, and modeled photodissociation rates. NO{sub x} outside the vortex shows a negative dependence on latitude and solar zenith angle. The average ratio of NO{sub x} to NO{sub y} (at the same relative latitudes from different flight days) shows a strong latitude gradient with values near 0.08 at 12{degree} equatorward of the vortex edge, decreasing to less than 0.02 at the vortex boundary. Low NO{sub x} and NO{sub x}/NO{sub y} inside and near the vortex boundary may be indications of heterogeneous removal of ClONO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  15. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the molluscan CNS.

    PubMed

    Moroz, L L; Chen, D; Gillette, M U; Gillette, R

    1996-02-01

    Putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was assayed in molluscan CNS through histochemical localization of NADPH-diaphorase and through measurement of L-arginine/L-citrulline conversion. Several hundreds of NADPH-dependent diaphorase-positive neurons stained consistently darkly in the nervous system of the predatory opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea californica, whereas stained neurons were relatively sparse and/or light in the other opisthobranchs (Philine, Aplysia, Tritonia, Flabellina, Cadina, Armina, Coriphella, and Doriopsilla sp.) and cephalopods (Sepia and Rossia sp.). L-Arginine/L-citrulline conversion was beta-NADPH dependent, insensitive to removal of Ca2+, inhibited by the calmodulin blocker trifluoperazine, and inhibited by the competitive NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not D-NAME. Inhibitors of arginase [L-valine and (+)-S-2-amino-5-iodoacetamidopentanoic acid)] did not affect L-citrulline production in the CNS. NOS activity was largely associated with the particulate fraction and appeared to be a novel, constitutive Ca(2+)-independent isoform. Enzymatic conversion of L-arginine/L-citrulline in Pleurobranchaea and Aplysia CNS was 4.0 and 9.8%, respectively, of that of rat cerebellum, L-Citrulline formation in gill and muscle of Pleurobranchaea was not significant. The localization of relatively high NOS activity in neuron somata in the CNS of Pleurobranchaea is markedly different from the other opisthobranchs, all of which are grazers. Potentially, this is related to the animal's opportunistic predatory lifestyle. PMID:8592165

  16. Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Doursout, Marie-Franoise; Murad, Ferid

    2008-04-01

    In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway. PMID:18401228

  17. Nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in the eye.

    PubMed

    Murad, Ferid

    2008-06-01

    This brief review describes the components and pathways utilized in nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Since the discovery of the effects of NO and cGMP on smooth muscle relaxation about 30 years ago, the field has expanded in many directions such that many, but not all, biochemical and biological effects seem to be regulated by these unique signaling molecules. While many of the effects of NO are due to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) that can be considered the receptor for NO, cGMP, in turn, can activate a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) to phosphorylate an array of proteins. Some of the effects of cGMP can be independent of PKG and are due to effects on ion channels or cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Also, some of the effects of NO can be independent of sGC activation. The isoenzymes and macromolecules that participate in these signaling pathways can serve as molecular targets to identify compounds that increase or decrease their activation and thus serve as chemical leads for discovering novel drugs for a variety of diseases. Some examples are given. However, with about 90,000 publications in the field since our first reports in 1977, this brief review can only give the readers a sample of the excitement and opportunities we have found in this cell signaling system. PMID:18443613

  18. Nitric oxide and ABA in the control of plant function.

    PubMed

    Hancock, J T; Neill, S J; Wilson, I D

    2011-11-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. ABA has been extensively studied in the mechanisms which control stomatal movement as well as in seed dormancy and germination and plant development. The addition of either ABA or NO to plant cells is known to instigate the actions of many signal transduction components. Both may have an influence on the phosphorylation of proteins in cells mediated by effects on protein kinases and phosphatases, as well as recruiting a wide range of other signal transduction molecules to mediate the final effects. Both ABA and NO may also lead to the regulation of gene expression. However, it is becoming more apparent that NO may be acting downstream of ABA, with such action being mediated by reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide in some cases. However not all ABA responses require the action of NO. Here, examples of where ABA and NO have been put together into the same signal transduction pathways are discussed. PMID:21893252

  19. Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release in human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Mantione, Kirk J; Capellan, Lismary; Casares, Federico M; Challenger, Sean; Ramin, Rohina; Samuel, Joshua M; Snyder, Christopher; Kream, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    The expression of morphine by plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells and organ systems, strongly indicates a high level of evolutionary conservation of morphine and related morphinan alkaloids as required for life. The prototype catecholamine, dopamine, serves as an essential chemical intermediate in morphine biosynthesis, both in plants and animals. We surmise that, before the emergence of specialized plant and animal cells/organ systems, primordial multi-potential cell types required selective mechanisms to limit their responsiveness to environmental cues. Accordingly, cellular systems that emerged with the potential for recruitment of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a multi-faceted autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule, were provided with extremely positive evolutionary advantages. Endogenous morphinergic signaling, in concert with NO-coupled signaling systems, has evolved as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis, energy metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Basic physiological processes involving morphinergic/NO-coupled regulation of mitochondrial function, with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, are critical to all organismic survival. Key to this concept may be the phenomenon of mitochondrial enslavement in eukaryotic evolution via endogenous morphine. PMID:26350413

  20. High correlations between temperature and nitric oxide in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining accurate predictions of the neutral density in the thermosphere has been a long-standing problem. During geomagnetic storms the auroral heating in the polar ionospheres quickly raises the temperature of the thermosphere, resulting in higher neutral densities that exert a greater drag force on objects in low Earth orbit. Rapid increases and decreases in the temperature and density may occur within a couple days. A key parameter in the thermosphere is the total amount of nitric oxide (NO). The production of NO is accelerated by the auroral heating, and since NO is an efficient radiator of thermal energy, higher concentrations of this molecule accelerate the rate at which the thermosphere cools. This paper describes an improved technique that calculates changes in the global temperature of the thermosphere. Starting from an empirical model of the Poynting flux into the ionosphere, a set of differential equations derives the minimum, global value of the exospheric temperature, which can be used in a neutral density model to calculate the global values. The relative variations in NO content are used to obtain more accurate cooling rates. Comparisons with the global rate of NO emissions that are measured with the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry instrument show that there is very good agreement with the predicted values. The NO emissions correlate highly with the total auroral heating that has been integrated over time. We also show that the NO emissions are highly correlated with thermospheric temperature, as well as indices of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y; Salmond, Robert J; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y

    2014-01-01

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4(+) T cells. NO de-represses the tumour suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGF?R and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2(-/-) mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared with wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells. PMID:25099390

  2. Nitric oxide mediates neuropathic pain behavior in peripherally denervated rats.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, B; Snchez, A; Feria, M

    1995-03-16

    The involvement of spinal cord nitric oxide (NO) in the development of autotomy, a proposed behavioral model of denervation pain, was studied in sciatic and saphenous nerves transected rats injected intrathecally, 10-15 min prior to neurectomies, with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20-500 nmol), NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, 500 nmol), L- or D-arginine (5 mumol), and 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (8-Br-cGMP, 100 and 200 nmol). Self-inflicted lesions were scored daily for 8 weeks. The main effects on autotomy were: (1) a significant suppression in rats injected with L-NAME (500 nmol), but not with D-NAME; (2) a significant potentiation after L-arginine, but not D-arginine; and (3) a significant potentiation with 8-Br-cGMP, which was blocked by co-administration of L-NAME. These findings indicate that autotomy in rats can be modulated by blocking or enhancing nitroxidergic transmission at lumbosacral level, and suggest new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of certain pain syndromes, such as phantom limb pain. PMID:7783979

  3. Nitric Oxide-Releasing S-Nitrosothiol-Modified Xerogels

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Dobmeier, Kevin P.; Hetrick, Evan M.; Privett, Benjamin J.; Paul, Heather S.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, material characterization, and in vitro biocompatibility of S-nitrosothiol (RSNO)-modified xerogels is described. Thiol-functionalized xerogel films were formed by hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) sol-gel precursors at varying concentrations. Subsequent thiol nitrosation via acidified nitrite produced RSNO-modified xerogels capable of generating nitric oxide (NO) for up to 2 weeks under physiological conditions. Xerogels also exhibited NO generation upon irradiation with broad-spectrum light or exposure to copper, with NO fluxes proportional to wattage and concentration, respectively. Xerogels were capable of storing up to ∼1.31 µmol NO mg−1, and displayed negligible fragmentation over a 2 week period. Platelet and bacterial adhesion to nitrosated films was reduced compared to non-nitrosated controls, confirming the antithrombotic and antibacterial properties of the NO-releasing materials. Fibroblast cell viability was maintained on the xerogel surfaces illustrating the promise of RSNO-modified xerogels as biomedical device coatings. PMID:19501904

  4. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  5. Pathophysiological role of nitric oxide and adrenomedullin in autism.

    PubMed

    Zoro?lu, Sleyman Salih; Yrekli, Muhittin; Meram, Iclal; S?t, Sadik; Tutkun, Hamdi; Yetkin, Ozer; Sivasli, Ercan; Sava?, Haluk Asuman; Yanik, Medaim; Herken, Hasan; Akyol, Omer

    2003-03-01

    Several studies indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the aetiopathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer's disease, Hungtington disease and stroke. Although it has not been investigated yet, several recent studies proposed that NO may have a pathophysiological role in autism. Adrenomedullin (AM), a recently discovered 52-amino acid peptide hormone, induces vasorelaxation by activating adenylate cyclase and also by stimulating NO release. AM immune reactivity is present in the brain consistent with a role as a neurotransmitter. It has been stated that NO and AM do function in the regulation of many neurodevelopmental processes. We hypothesized that NO and AM activities have been affected in autistic patients and aimed to examine these molecules. Twenty-six autistic patients and 22 healthy control subjects were included in this study. AM and total nitrite (a metabolite of NO) levels have been measured in plasma. The mean values of plasma total nitrite and AM levels in the autistic group were significantly higher than control values, respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.028). There is no correlation between total nitrite and AM levels (r = 0.11, p = 0.31). Certainly, this subject needs much further research investigating autistic patients in earlier periods of life and with subtypes of the disorder. PMID:12579522

  6. Biosynthesis of nitric oxide activates iron regulatory factor in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Drapier, J C; Hirling, H; Wietzerbin, J; Kaldy, P; Khn, L C

    1993-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine modulates activity of iron-dependent enzymes, including mitochondrial acontiase, an [Fe-S] protein. We examined the effect of NO on the activity of iron regulatory factor (IRF), a cytoplasmic protein which modulates both ferritin mRNA translation and transferrin receptor mRNA stability by binding to specific mRNA sequences called iron responsive elements (IREs). Murine macrophages were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide to induce NO synthase activity and cultured in the presence or absence of NG-substituted analogues of L-arginine which served as selective inhibitors of NO synthesis. Measurement of the nitrite concentration in the culture medium was taken as an index of NO production. Mitochondria-free cytosols were then prepared and aconitase activity as well as IRE binding activity and induction of IRE binding activity were correlated and depended on NO synthesis after IFN-gamma and/or LPS stimulation. Authentic NO gas as well as the NO-generating compound 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) also conversely modulated aconitase and IRE binding activities of purified recombinant IRF. These results provide evidence that endogenously produced NO may modulate the post-transcriptional regulation of genes involved in iron homeostasis and support the hypothesis that the [Fe-S] cluster of IRF mediates iron-dependent regulation. Images PMID:7504626

  7. Electrospun nitric oxide releasing bandage with enhanced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A; Bills, J; Verma, R; Lavery, L; Davis, K; Balkus, K J

    2015-02-01

    Research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) enhances wound healing. The incorporation of NO into polymers for medical materials and surgical devices has potential benefits for many wound healing applications. In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)-based terpolymers were electrospun to form non-woven sheets of bandage or wound dressing type materials. NO is bound to the polymer backbone via the formation of a diazeniumdiolate group. In a 14 day NO release study, the dressings released 79 μmol NO g(-1) polymer. The NO-loaded dressings were tested for NO release in vivo, which demonstrate upregulation of NO-inducible genes with dressing application compared to empty dressings. Studies were also conducted to evaluate healing progression in wounds with dressing application performed weekly and daily. In two separate studies, excisional wounds were created on the dorsa of 10 mice. Dressings with NO loaded on the fibers or empty controls were applied to the wounds and measurements of the wound area were taken at each dressing change. The data show significantly enhanced healing progression in the wounds with weekly NO application, which is more dramatic with daily application. Further, the application of daily NO bandages results in improved wound vascularity. These data demonstrate the potential for this novel NO-releasing dressing as a valid wound healing therapy. PMID:25463501

  8. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Glomerular TGF-? Signaling via SMOC-1

    PubMed Central

    Dreieicher, Ellen; Lazaroski, Sandra; Boosen, Meike; Tsalastra-Greul, Wasiliki; Beck, Martina; Fleming, Ingrid; Schaefer, Liliana; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate rat mesangial cells to synthesize and secrete inflammatory mediators. To understand better the signaling pathways that contribute to this response, we exposed rat mesangial cells to the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-1? and analyzed the changes in the pattern of gene expression. IL-1? downregulated the gene encoding the matricellular glycoprotein secreted modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC-1) in mesangial cells. Inflammatory cytokines attenuated SMOC-1 mRNA and protein expression through endogenous production of NO, which activated the soluble guanylyl cyclase. Silencing SMOC-1 expression with small interfering RNA decreased the formation of TGF-?, reduced SMAD binding to DNA, and decreased mRNA expression of genes regulated by TGF-?. In a rat model of antiThy-1 glomerulonephritis, glomerular SMOC-1 mRNA and protein decreased and inducible NO synthase expression increased simultaneously. Treatment of nephritic rats with the inducible NO synthasespecific inhibitor l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine prevented SMOC-1 downregulation. In summary, these data suggest that NO attenuates SMOC-1 expression in acute glomerular inflammation, thereby limiting TGF-?mediated profibrotic signaling. PMID:19578009

  9. Assessment of nitric oxide signals by triiodide chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Hausladen, Alfred; Rafikov, Ruslan; Angelo, Michael; Singel, David J; Nudler, Evgeny; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2007-02-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is mainly conveyed through reactions with iron and thiols, furnishing iron nitrosyls and S-nitrosothiols with wide-ranging stabilities and reactivities. Triiodide chemiluminescence methodology has been popularized as uniquely capable of quantifying these species together with NO byproducts, such as nitrite and nitrosamines. Studies with triiodide, however, have challenged basic ideas of NO biochemistry. The assay, which involves addition of multiple reagents whose chemistry is not fully understood, thus requires extensive validation: Few protein standards have in fact been characterized; NO mass balance in biological mixtures has not been verified; and recovery of species that span the range of NO-group reactivities has not been assessed. Here we report on the performance of the triiodide assay vs. photolysis chemiluminescence in side-by-side assays of multiple nitrosylated standards of varied reactivities and in assays of endogenous Fe- and S-nitrosylated hemoglobin. Although the photolysis method consistently gives quantitative recoveries, the yields by triiodide are variable and generally low (approaching zero with some standards and endogenous samples). Moreover, in triiodide, added chemical reagents, changes in sample pH, and altered ionic composition result in decreased recoveries and misidentification of NO species. We further show that triiodide, rather than directly and exclusively producing NO, also produces the highly potent nitrosating agent, nitrosyliodide. Overall, we find that the triiodide assay is strongly influenced by sample composition and reactivity and does not reliably identify, quantify, or differentiate NO species in complex biological mixtures. PMID:17287342

  10. Export by red blood cells of nitric oxide bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Pawloski, J R; Hess, D T; Stamler, J S

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies support a model in which the physiological O2 gradient is transduced by haemoglobin into the coordinate release from red blood cells of O2 and nitric oxide (NO)-derived vasoactivity to optimize oxygen delivery in the arterial periphery. But whereas both O2 and NO diffuse into red blood cells, only O2 can diffuse out. Thus, for the dilation of blood vessels by red blood cells, there must be a mechanism to export NO-related vasoactivity, and current models of NO-mediated intercellular communication should be revised. Here we show that in human erythrocytes haemoglobin-derived S-nitrosothiol (SNO), generated from imported NO, is associated predominantly with the red blood cell membrane, and principally with cysteine residues in the haemoglobin-binding cytoplasmic domain of the anion exchanger AE1. Interaction with AE1 promotes the deoxygenated structure in SNO-haemoglobin, which subserves NO group transfer to the membrane. Furthermore, we show that vasodilatory activity is released from this membrane precinct by deoxygenation. Thus, the oxygen-regulated cellular mechanism that couples the synthesis and export of haemoglobin-derived NO bioactivity operates, at least in part, through formation of AE1-SNO at the membrane-cytosol interface. PMID:11214321

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of nitric oxide in myoglobin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Meuwly, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ligand migration of photodissociated nitric oxide (NO) in and around the active sites in myoglobin (Mb) are investigated. A distributed multipolar model for open-shell systems is developed and used, which allows one to realistically describe the charge distribution around the diatomic probe molecule. The IR spectra were computed from the trajectories for two conformational substates at various temperatures. The lines are narrow (width of 37 cm1 at 20100 K), in agreement with the experimental observations where they have widths of 45 cm1 at 4 K. It is found that within one conformational substate (B or C) the splitting of the spectrum can be correctly described compared with recent experiments. Similar to photodissociated CO in Mb, additional substates exist for NO in Mb, which are separated by barriers below 1 kcal/mol. Contrary to full quantum mechanical calculations, however, the force field and mixed QM/MM simulations do not correctly describe the relative shifts between the B- and C-states relative to gas-phase NO. Free energy simulations establish that NO preferably localizes in the distal site and the barrier for migration to the neighboring Xe4 pocket is ?GB?C = 1.72.0 kcal/mol. The reverse barrier is ?GB?C = 0.7 kcal/mol, which agrees well with the experimental value of 0.7 kcal/mol, estimated from kinetic data.

  12. Phototherapeutic Release of Nitric Oxide with Engineered Nanoconstructs.

    PubMed

    Fraix, Aurore; Marino, Nino; Sortino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The multiple role nitric oxide (NO) plays in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes has, over the last few years, stimulated a massive interest in the development of new strategies and methods for generating NO in a controlled way, with the exciting prospect of tackling important diseases. Photochemical precursors of NO are particularly suited to this end because light triggering permits an exquisite control of location and timing of NO delivery. Integration of NO photodonors within the structure of appropriate materials represents a key step in the fabrication of functional devices for phototherapeutic applications. It also offers the advantage of concentrating a large number of chromophores in a restricted area with the result of significantly increasing the NO reservoir and the light harvesting properties. We present here an overview of the most significant advances made in the last 5years in the fabrication of engineered nanoconstructs able to delivery NO under the exclusive control of light inputs, highlighting the logical design and their potential applications in battling cancer and bacterial infections. PMID:26589511

  13. S-Nitrosothiol-Modified Dendrimers as Nitric Oxide Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Stasko, Nathan A.; Fischer, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two generation-4 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with S-nitrosothiol exteriors are reported. The hyperbranched macromolecules were modified with either N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (NAP) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NACys) and analyzed via 1H and 13C-NMR, UV absorption spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and size exclusion chromatography. Treatment of the dendritic thiols with nitrite solutions yielded the corresponding S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide (NO) donors (G4-SNAP, G4-NACysNO). Chemiluminescent NO detection demonstrated that the dendrimers were capable of storing ~2 ?mol NOmg?1 when exposed to triggers of S-nitrosothiol decomposition (e.g., light and copper). The kinetics of NO-release were found to be highly dependent on the structure of the nitrosothiol (i.e., tertiary vs. primary) and exhibited similar NO-release characteristics to classical small molecule nitrosothiols reported in the literature. As demonstration of utility, the ability of G4-SNAP to inhibit thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation was assayed. At equivalent nitrosothiol concentrations (25 ?M), the G4-SNAP dendrimer resulted in a 62% inhibition of platelet aggregation, compared to only 17% for the small molecule NO donor. The multivalent NO storage, the dendritic effects exerted on nitrosothiol stability and reactivity, and the utility of dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles highlight the potential of these constructs as clinically useful S-nitrosothiol-based therapeutics. PMID:18247567

  14. Origin and Impact of Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the organized bacterial community called biofilm is a crucial event in bacterial physiology. Given that biofilms are often refractory to antibiotics and disinfectants to which planktonic bacteria are susceptible, their formation is also an industrially and medically relevant issue. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known human pathogen causing acute and chronic infections, is considered a model organism to study biofilms. A large number of environmental cues control biofilm dynamics in bacterial cells. In particular, the dispersal of individual cells from the biofilm requires metabolic and morphological reprogramming in which the second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) plays a central role. The diatomic gas nitric oxide (NO), a well-known signaling molecule in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is able to induce the dispersal of P. aeruginosa and other bacterial biofilms by lowering c-di-GMP levels. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms connecting NO sensing to the activation of c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases in P. aeruginosa, ultimately leading to c-di-GMP decrease and biofilm dispersal. PMID:26260455

  15. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides as Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary amine-functionalized chitosan oligosaccharides of different molecular weights (i.e., ~2500, 5000, 10000) were synthesized by grafting 2-methyl aziridine from the primary amines on chitosan oligosaccharides, followed by reaction with nitric oxide (NO) gas under basic conditions to yield N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The total NO storage, maximum NO flux, and half-life of the resulting NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides were controlled by the molar ratio of 2-methyl aziridine to primary amines (e.g., 1:1, 2:1) and the functional group surrounding the N-diazeniumdiolates (e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains), respectively. The secondary amine-modified chitosan oligosaccharides greatly increased the NO payload over existing biodegradable macromolecular NO donors. In addition, the water-solubility of the chitosan oligosaccharides enabled their penetration across the extracellular polysaccharides matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and association with embedded bacteria. The effectiveness of these chitosan oligosaccharides at biofilm eradication was shown to depend on both the molecular weight and ionic characteristics. Low molecular weight and cationic chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited rapid association with bacteria throughout the entire biofilm, leading to enhanced biofilm killing. At concentrations resulting in 5-log killing of bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, the NO-releasing and control chitosan oligosaccharides elicited no significant cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L929 cells in vitro. PMID:24268196

  16. Nitric oxide removal by wastewater bacteria in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hejingying; Leung, Dennis Y C; Wong, Chifat; Zhang, Tong; Chan, Mayngor; Leung, Fred C C

    2014-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important air pollutants in atmosphere mainly emitted from combustion source. A biotrickling filter was designed and operated to remove NO from an air stream using bacteria extracted from the sewage sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant. To obtain the best operation conditions for the biotrickling filter, orthogonal experiments (L9(3(4))) were designed. Inlet oxygen concentration was found to be the most significant factor of the biotrickling filter and has a significant negative effect on the system. The optimal conditions of the biotrickling filter occurred at a temperature of 40C, a pH of 8.0 and a chemical oxygen demand of 165 mg/L in the recycled water with no oxygen in the system. The bacteria sample was detected by DNA sequencing technology and showed 93%-98% similarity to Pseudomonas mendocina. Moreover, a full gene sequencing results indicated the bacterium was a brand new strain and named as P. mendocina DLHK. This strain can transfer nitrate to organic nitrogen. The result suggested the assimilation nitrogen process in this system. Through the isotope experimental analysis, two intermediate products ((15)NO and (15)N2O) were found. The results indicated the denitrification function and capability of the biotrickling filter in removing NO. PMID:25079268

  17. Nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones crosstalk during early plant development.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Luis; Albertos, Pablo; Mateos, Isabel; Snchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Lechn, Tamara; Fernndez-Marcos, Mara; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    During the past two decades, nitric oxide (NO) has evolved from a mere gaseous free radical to become a new messenger in plant biology with an important role in a plethora of physiological processes. This molecule is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development, pathogen defence and abiotic stress responses, and in most cases this is achieved through its interaction with phytohormones. Understanding the role of plant growth regulators is essential to elucidate how plants activate the appropriate set of responses to a particular developmental stage or a particular stress. The first task to achieve this goal is the identification of molecular targets, especially those involved in the regulation of the crosstalk. The nature of NO targets in these growth and development processes and stress responses remains poorly described. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of NO in these processes and their interaction with other plant hormones are beginning to unravel. In this review, we made a compilation of the described interactions between NO and phytohormones during early plant developmental processes (i.e. seed dormancy and germination, hypocotyl elongation and root development). PMID:25954048

  18. Nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, James G; Wehling-Henricks, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) that occurs in dystrophic muscle is the basis of numerous, complex and interacting features of the dystrophic pathology that affect not only muscle itself, but also influence the interaction of muscle with other tissues. Many mechanisms through which nNOS deficiency contributes to misregulation of muscle development, blood flow, fatigue, inflammation and fibrosis in dystrophic muscle have been identified, suggesting that normalization in NO production could greatly attenuate diverse aspects of the pathology of muscular dystrophy through multiple regulatory pathways. However, the relative importance of the loss of nNOS from the sarcolemma versus the importance of loss of total nNOS from dystrophic muscle remains unknown. Although most current evidence indicates that nNOS localization at the sarcolemma is not required to achieve NO-mediated reductions of pathology in muscular dystrophy, the question remains open concerning whether membrane localization would provide a more efficient rescue from features of the dystrophic phenotype. PMID:25194047

  19. Coordination of nitric oxide by heme-hemopexin.

    PubMed

    Shipulina, N; Hunt, R C; Shaklai, N; Smith, A

    1998-04-01

    Hemopexin, which acts as an antioxidant by binding heme (Kd < 1 pM), is synthesized by hepatic parenchymal cells, by neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and by human retinal ganglia. Two key regulatory molecules, nitric oxide (.NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), both bind to heme proteins and since ferroheme-hemopexin binds CO, the possible role of heme-hemopexin in binding .NO was investigated. .NO binds rapidly to hemopexin-bound ferroheme as shown by characteristic changes in the Soret and visible-region absorbance spectra. Circular dichroism spectra of .NO-ferroheme-hemopexin in the Soret region exhibit an unusual bisignate feature with a zero crossover at the absorbance wavelength maximum, showing that exciton coupling is occurring. Notably, the .NO complex of ferroheme-hemopexin is sufficiently avid and stable to allow hemopexin to bind this molecule in vivo and, thus, hemopexin may protect against NO-mediated toxicity especially in conditions of trauma and hemolysis. PMID:9588949

  20. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. PMID:25944856

  1. Microarray analysis of nitric oxide responsive transcripts in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Parani, Madasamy; Rudrabhatla, Sairam; Myers, Rachel; Weirich, Heatherbea; Smith, Bruce; Leaman, Douglas W; Goldman, Stephen L

    2004-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as an important signalling molecule with diverse physiological functions in plants. In the current study, changes in gene expression in response to 0.1 mm and 1.0 mm sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of NO, were studied in Arabidopsis using the whole genome ATH1 microarray, representing over 24,000 genes. We observed 342 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in response to NO treatments. These included 126 novel genes with unknown functions. Most of these changes were specific to NO treatment, as we observed a reverse trend when the plants were treated with NO scavenger, 2-[4-carboxyphenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy-3-oxide (c-PTIO). Hierarchical clustering revealed 162 genes showing a dose-dependent increase in signal from 0.1 mm SNP to 1.0 mm SNP treatment. We observed the up-regulation of several genes encoding disease-resistance proteins, WRKY proteins, transcription factors, zinc finger proteins, glutathione S-transferases, ABC transporters, kinases and biosynthetic genes of ethylene, jasmonic acid, lignin and alkaloids. This report provides an insight into the molecular basis for the seemingly diverse biological functions of NO in plants. Interestingly, about 2.0% of the genes in Arabidopsis responded to NO treatment, about 10% of which were transcription factors. NO may also influence the plant's signal transduction network as indicated by the transcriptional activation of several protein kinases, including a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We identified many genes previously not shown to be associated with NO responses in plants, and this is the first report of NO responsive genes based on a whole genome microarray. PMID:17134397

  2. The role of arginine, homoarginine and nitric oxide in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Asma; Hardman, Lotte; O Brien, Pat

    2015-09-01

    Normal pregnancy leads to profound maternal hemodynamic changes, including increased blood volume and vasodilatation. Several vasodilator mediators are implicated, including prostaglandins, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide (NO). Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects 3-10 % of pregnancies and is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Around 8 % of pregnancies are complicated by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), also associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. PE and IUGR often co-exist. NO is essential for the formation of healthy endothelium, and in pregnancy promotes endovascular invasion by the cytotrophoblast. As interstitial trophoblasts invade the maternal spiral arteries in the uterine wall, they produce NO which acts on artery walls to create a low-resistance, high-caliber uteroplacental unit. If this process fails, the result is a high-resistance uteroplacental circulation. The hypoperfused and ischemic placenta releases antiangiogenic factors which mediate generalized endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. It is these mediators that are implicated in both the fetal and maternal syndromes of PE and IUGR. Studies of NO and its modulator amino acids, including the precursors arginine and homoarginine and the NO synthesis inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), have investigated their role in both normal and pathological pregnancies. Many studies of PE (and, to a lesser extent, IUGR) have investigated maternal circulating ADMA, arginine and homoarginine levels. This article reviews and discusses the role of these amino acids in pregnancy. The results have shed some light on their role in these pathologies, but some of the findings have been conflicting and more research is needed. Nevertheless, therapeutic interventions that manipulate these guanidine-amino acids and their interactions hold real promise for the management of pregnancies complicated by PE and/or IUGR, and the results of ongoing studies are eagerly awaited. PMID:26092522

  3. Rational Design of a Structural and Functional Nitric Oxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, N.; Lin, Y; Gao, Y; Zhao, X; Russell, B; Lei, L; Miner, L; Robinson, H; Lu, Y

    2009-01-01

    Protein design provides a rigorous test of our knowledge about proteins and allows the creation of novel enzymes for biotechnological applications. Whereas progress has been made in designing proteins that mimic native proteins structurally, it is more difficult to design functional proteins. In comparison to recent successes in designing non-metalloproteins, it is even more challenging to rationally design metalloproteins that reproduce both the structure and function of native metalloenzymes. This is because protein metal-binding sites are much more varied than non-metal-containing sites, in terms of different metal ion oxidation states, preferred geometry and metal ion ligand donor sets. Because of their variability, it has been difficult to predict metal-binding site properties in silico, as many of the parameters, such as force fields, are ill-defined. Therefore, the successful design of a structural and functional metalloprotein would greatly advance the field of protein design and our understanding of enzymes. Here we report a successful, rational design of a structural and functional model of a metalloprotein, nitric oxide reductase (NOR), by introducing three histidines and one glutamate, predicted as ligands in the active site of NOR, into the distal pocket of myoglobin. A crystal structure of the designed protein confirms that the minimized computer model contains a haem/non-haem FeB centre that is remarkably similar to that in the crystal structure. This designed protein also exhibits NO reduction activity, and so models both the structure and function of NOR, offering insight that the active site glutamate is required for both iron binding and activity. These results show that structural and functional metalloproteins can be rationally designed in silico.

  4. Effects of Erythrocyte Aging on Nitric Oxide and Nitrite Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Benjamin Y.; Stapley, Ryan; Honavar, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent studies have suggested that in addition to oxygen transport, red blood cells (RBC) are key regulators of vascular function by both inhibiting and promoting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Most studies assume that RBC are homogenous, but, in fact, they comprise cells of differing morphology and biochemical composition which are dependent on their age, parameters that control NO reactions. We tested the hypothesis that distinct RBC populations will have differential effects on NO signaling. Results: Young and old RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Consistent with previous reports, old RBC had decreased levels of surface N-acetyl neuraminic acid and increased oxygen binding affinities. Competition kinetic experiments showed that older RBCs scavenged NO?2-fold faster compared with younger RBC, which translated to a more potent inhibition of both acetylcholine and NO-donor dependent vasodilation of isolated aortic rings. Moreover, nitrite oxidation kinetics was faster with older RBC compared with younger RBC; whereas no differences in nitrite-reduction kinetics were observed. This translated to increased inhibitory effect of older RBC to nitrite-dependent vasodilation under oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions. Finally, leukodepleted RBC storage also resulted in more dense RBC, which may contribute to the greater NO-inhibitory potential of stored RBC. Innovation: These results suggest that a key element in vascular NO-homeostasis mechanisms is the distribution of RBC ages across the physiological spectrum (0120 days) and suggest a novel mechanism for inhibited NO bioavailability in diseases which are characterized by a shift to an older RBC phenotype. Conclusion: Older RBC inhibit NO bioavailability by increasing NO- and nitrite scavenging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 11981208. PMID:23311696

  5. Effect of nitric oxide compounds on monkey ciliary muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gabelt, B'Ann T; Kaufman, Paul L; Rasmussen, Carol A

    2011-09-01

    The effects of various nitric oxide compounds and their inhibitors on monkey ciliary muscle contraction in vitro were investigated in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. The responses to nitric oxide compounds in carbachol precontracted ciliary muscle consisted of an initial relaxation often followed by recovery to near carbachol precontracted levels while the compound was still present. Sodium nitroprusside produced the greatest relaxation responses (nearly 100% relaxation in both vectors at 10(-3) M). The highest concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (10(-4) M) and L-arginine (10(-3) M) produced relaxation responses of approximately 50% in both vectors. 8-Bromo cyclic GMP produced the smallest relaxation responses (25-35%). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition enhanced carbachol contraction up to 20% in the longitudinal but not the circular vector. Phosphodiesterase inhibition did not further enhance the relaxation response to L-arginine. Guanylate cyclase inhibition partially attenuated the relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside. Nitric oxide generating compounds were effective in relaxing precontracted monkey ciliary muscle in vitro. Endogenous production of nitric oxide is likely involved in the regulation of the contractile response in monkey ciliary muscle. Nitric oxide generating compounds may have potential value in therapeutic areas where modulation of ciliary muscle tension is desirable. PMID:21147103

  6. Interactive effects of mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and oxidative stress in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos; Campos, Fabio Joly; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Moraes, Marcos Aurlio; Bonatto, Rossano Cesar; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Fioretto, Jose Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To compare conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), with/without inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), for oxygenation, inflammation, antioxidant/oxidative stress status, and DNA damage in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). Lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Rabbits were ventilated at [Formula: see text] 1.0 and randomly assigned to one of five groups. Overall antioxidant defense/oxidative stress was assessed by total antioxidant performance assay, and DNA damage by comet assay. Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded every 30min for 4h. ALI groups showed worse oxygenation than controls after lung injury. After 4h of mechanical ventilation, HFOV groups presented significant improvements in oxygenation. HFOV with and without iNO, and CMV with iNO showed significantly increased antioxidant defense and reduced DNA damage than CMV without iNO. Inhaled nitric oxide did not beneficially affect HFOV in relation to antioxidant defense/oxidative stress and pulmonary DNA damage. Overall, lung injury was reduced using HFOV or CMV with iNO. PMID:24148688

  7. Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

  8. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection. PMID:26391171

  9. Inhibitory effects of indole ?-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in LPS/IFN? activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Arzu Zeynep; Koc, Asl?; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Buyukbingol, Zeliha; Buyukbingol, Erdem

    2015-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (?-lipoic acid) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. RAW 264.7 macrophages produce various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-alpha upon activation with LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and IFN? (interferon gamma). In this study, the effect of 12 synthetic indole ?-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein expression in LPS/IFN? activated RAW 264.7 macrophages was determined. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide levels and iNOS protein expression were examined with thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue test, griess assay and western blot, respectively. Our results showed that all of the indole ?-lipoic acid derivatives showed significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and iNOS protein levels (p?nitric oxide production. PMID:25727912

  10. Studies on the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene 1: Oxidation of hexamethylbenzene with nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiba, K.; Tomura, S.; Mizuno, T.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidative reaction of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) with nitric acid was studied, and the hitherto unknown polymethylbenzenepolycarboxylic acids were isolated: tetramethylphthalic anhydride, tetramethylisophthalic acid, 1,3,5-, 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids. When HMB was warmed with 50% nitric acid at about 80 C, tetramethylphthalic anhydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were initially produced. The continued reaction led to the production of trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids, but only slight amounts of dimethylbenzenetetracarboxylic acids were detected in the reaction mixture. Whereas tetramethylphthalic anydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were obtained, pentamethylbenzoic acid, a possible precursor of them, was scarcely produced. On the other hand, a yellow material extracted with ether from the initial reaction mixture contained bis-(nitromethyl)prehnitene (CH3)4C6(CH2NO2)2, which was easily converted into the phthalic anhydride.

  11. Nitric oxide and chemically induced hepatotoxicity: beneficial effects of the liver-selective nitric oxide donor, V-PYRRO/NO.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2005-03-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously produced by the enzyme NO synthase in the cell or pharmacologically delivered to tissues as NO prodrugs. This simple molecule is a potent biological mediator in a myriad of physiological and pathological events. The liver plays a central role in metabolism and immune processes, and is a major target organ influenced by NO. NO production in the liver is usually increased in response to acute insult with hepatotoxicants, and may be decreased during chronic liver diseases. The induction of NO production could be envisioned as an early adaptive response, which may become a mediator of tissue damage when in excess. In this regard, inhibition of endogenous NO synthase has been shown to be beneficial in some cases and detrimental in others. The creation of eNOS and iNOS knockout animals has advanced our understanding of NO function in hepatic response to toxic insults. Knocking endogenous NO production can be beneficial in response to certain toxicants; however, in general it weakens the body's defense mechanisms against toxic insults. A variety of pharmacological NO prodrugs have been developed, and, when used appropriately, most of them have demonstrated beneficial effects in the liver in a variety of pathological settings. In this review, we discuss the relationship between NO and hepatotoxicity, and the beneficial effects of NO donors on the liver, using the liver-selective NO donor, V-PYRRO/NO, as an example to demonstrate that pharmacologically delivered NO could have therapeutic benefits for liver disorders. PMID:15691592

  12. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001.

    PubMed

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer - while not entirely understood - is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. PMID:26164533

  13. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001?

    PubMed Central

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M.; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer while not entirely understood is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. PMID:26164533

  14. Is endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide involved in cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation-related damage?

    PubMed

    Rus, A; Peinado, M A; Blanco, S; Del Moral, M L

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to act both as a destructive and a protective agent in the pathogenesis of the injuries that occur during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). It has been suggested that this dual role of NO depends directly on the isoform of NO synthase (NOS) involved. In this work, we investigate the role that NO derived from endothelial NOS (eNOS) plays in cardiac H/R-induced injury. Wistar rats were submitted to H/R (hypoxia for 30 min; reoxygenation of 0 h, 12 h and 5 days), with or without prior treatment using the selective eNOS inhibitor L-NIO (20 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and protein nitration, as well as NO production (NOx), were analysed. The results showed that L-NIO administration lowered NOx levels in all the experimental groups. However, no change was found in the lipid peroxidation level, the percentage of apoptotic cells or nitrated protein expression, implying that eNOS-derived NO may not be involved in the injuries occurring during H/R in the heart. We conclude that LNIO would not be useful in alleviating the adverse effects of cardiac H/R. PMID:21451249

  15. Breathing new life into nitric oxide signaling: A brief overview of the interplay between oxygen and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Douglas D

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (()NO, nitrogen monoxide) is one of the most unique biological signaling molecules associated with a multitude of physiologic and pathological conditions. In order to fully appreciate its numerous roles, it is essential to understand its basic biochemical properties. Most signaling effector molecules such as steroids or proteins have a significant life-span and function through classical receptor-ligand interactions. ()NO, however, is a short-lived free-radical gas that only reacts with two types of molecules under biological conditions; metals and other free radicals. These simple interactions can lead to a myriad of complex intermediates which in turn have their own phenotypic effects. For these reasons, responses to ()NO often appear to be random or contradictory when outcomes are compared across various experimental settings. This article will serve as a brief overview of the chemical, biological, and microenvironmental factors that dictate ()NO signaling with an emphasis on ()NO metabolism. The prominent role that oxygen (dioxygen, O2) plays in ()NO metabolism and how it influences the biological effects of ()NO will be highlighted. This information and these concepts are intended to help students and investigators think about the interpretation of data from experiments where biological effects of ()NO are being elucidated. PMID:26056766

  16. Nitric Oxide in the Offensive Strategy of Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In the course of evolutionary changes pathogens have developed many invasion strategies, to which the host organisms responded with a broad range of defense reactions involving endogenous signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO). There is evidence that pathogenic microorganisms, including two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens, also acquired the ability to synthesize NO via non-unequivocally defined oxidative and/or reductive routes. Although the both kingdoms Chromista and Fungi are remarkably diverse, the experimental data clearly indicate that pathogen-derived NO is an important regulatory molecule controlling not only developmental processes, but also pathogen virulence and its survival in the host. An active control of mitigation or aggravation of nitrosative stress within host cells seems to be a key determinant for the successful invasion of plant pathogens representing different lifestyles and an effective mode of dispersion in various environmental niches. PMID:26973690

  17. Heat stress stimulates nitric oxide production in Symbiodinium microadriaticum: a possible linkage between nitric oxide and the coral bleaching phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jose Nina; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas displaying multiple physiological functions in plants, animals and bacteria. The enzymes nitrate reductase and NO synthase have been suggested to be involved in the production of NO in plants and algae, but the implication of those enzymes in NO production under physiological conditions remains obscure. Symbiodinium microadriaticum, commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, is a marine microalga commonly found in symbiotic association with a cnidarian host including reef-building corals. Here we demonstrate NO production in zooxanthellae upon supplementation of either sodium nitrite or L-arginine as a substrate. The nitrite-dependent NO production was detected electrochemically and confirmed by the application of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger. Cells stained with the diaminofluorescein, DAF-2 DA, an NO fluorescent probe, showed an increase in fluorescence intensity upon supplementation of both sodium nitrite and L-arginine. Microscopic observations of DAF-stained cells verified that NO was produced inside the cells. NO production in S. microadriaticum was found to increase upon exposure of cells to an acute heat stress which also caused a decline in the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)). This study provides substantial evidence to confirm that zooxanthellae can synthesize NO even when they are not in a symbiotic association with a coral host. The increase in NO production at high temperatures suggests that heat stress stimulates the microalgal NO production in a temperature-dependent manner. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the coral bleaching phenomenon which is associated with elevated sea surface temperature due to global warming. PMID:18308760

  18. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibition, nitric oxide and hydroperoxide on insulin release induced by various secretagogues.

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotidis, G; Akesson, B; Rydell, E L; Lundquist, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by islet NO synthase and monoamine oxidase, respectively, may have a regulatory influence on insulin secretory processes. We have investigated the pattern of insulin release from isolated islets of Langerhans in the presence of various pharmacological agents known to perturb the intracellular levels of NO and the oxidation state of SH-groups. 2. The NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) dose-dependently increased L-arginine-induced insulin release. D-Arginine did not influence L-arginine-induced insulin secretion. However, D-NAME which reportedly has no inhibitory action on NO synthase, modestly increased L-arginine-induced insulin release, but was less effective than L-NAME. High concentrations (10 mM) of D-arginine as well as L-NAME and D-NAME could enhance basal insulin release. 3. The intracellular NO donor, hydroxylamine, dose-dependently inhibited insulin secretion induced by L-arginine and L-arginine+L-NAME. 4. Glucose-induced insulin release was increased by NO synthase inhibition (L-NAME) and inhibited by the intracellular NO donor, hydroxylamine. Sydnonimine-1 (SIN-1), an extracellular donor of NO and superoxide, induced a modest suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin release. SIN-1 did not influence insulin secretion induced by L-arginine or the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin. 5. The intracellular 'hydroperoxide donor' tert-butylhydroperoxide in the concentration range of 0.03-3 mM inhibited insulin release stimulated by the nutrient secretagogues glucose and L-arginine. Low concentrations (0.03-30 microM) of tert-butylhydroperoxide, however enhanced insulin secretion induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7533613

  19. Mamao Pomace Extract Alleviates Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Nitric Oxide Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Donpunha, Wanida; Sripui, Jintana; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Boonla, Orachorn

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress plays a major role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Antidesma thwaitesianum (local name: Mamao) is a tropical plant distributed in the tropical/subtropical areas of the world, including Thailand. Mamao pomace (MP), a by-product generated from Mamao fruits, contains large amounts of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive and antioxidative effects of MP using hypertensive rats. For this purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in drinking water (50 mg/kg) for three weeks. MP extract was orally administered daily at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. l-NAME administration induced marked increase in blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and oxidative stress. MP treatment significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure, hindlimb blood flow and hindlimb vascular resistance of l-NAME treated hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). The antihypertensive effect of MP treatment was associated with suppression of superoxide production from carotid strips and also with an increase in eNOS protein expression and nitric oxide bioavailability. The present results provide evidence for the antihypertensive effect of MP and suggest that MP might be useful as a dietary supplement against hypertension. PMID:26225998

  20. Mamao Pomace Extract Alleviates Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Nitric Oxide Deficient Rats.

    PubMed

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Donpunha, Wanida; Sripui, Jintana; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Boonla, Orachorn

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress plays a major role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Antidesma thwaitesianum (local name: Mamao) is a tropical plant distributed in the tropical/subtropical areas of the world, including Thailand. Mamao pomace (MP), a by-product generated from Mamao fruits, contains large amounts of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive and antioxidative effects of MP using hypertensive rats. For this purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in drinking water (50 mg/kg) for three weeks. MP extract was orally administered daily at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. L-NAME administration induced marked increase in blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and oxidative stress. MP treatment significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure, hindlimb blood flow and hindlimb vascular resistance of L-NAME treated hypertensive rats (p < 0.05). The antihypertensive effect of MP treatment was associated with suppression of superoxide production from carotid strips and also with an increase in eNOS protein expression and nitric oxide bioavailability. The present results provide evidence for the antihypertensive effect of MP and suggest that MP might be useful as a dietary supplement against hypertension. PMID:26225998

  1. Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattolica, R. J.; Mataga, T. G.; Cavolowsky, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration profiles of NO in low-pressure (76 Torr) H2/O2/Ar flames to which nitric oxide is added are measured by pulsed laser-induced fluorescence. Temporally resolved fluorescence measurements are used to determine the collisional deexcitation rates needed to convert time-integrated fluorescence signal into oxide concentration. Five flames are studied with H2/O2 equivalence ratios of 0.88, 0.98, 1.22, 1.37, and 1.50. In these flames the collisional deexcitation rate decreases rapidly above the burner surface as the density decreases with increasing temperature. A 20 percent decrease is observed for the lean flames, and a 30 percent decrease for the rich flames. Within the precision of the measurement technique (+ or - 10 percent), no significant removal of nitric oxide is observed in these flames.

  2. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  3. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  4. Nitric oxide metabolites induced in Anopheles stephensi control malaria parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tina M.L.; Gow, Andrew J.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes is limited by inflammatory levels of nitric oxide metabolites. To assess the mechanisms of parasite stasis or toxicity, we investigated the biochemistry of these metabolites within the blood-filled mosquito midgut. Our data indicate that nitrates, but not nitrites, are elevated in the Plasmodium-infected midgut. Although levels of S-nitrosothiols do not change with infection, blood proteins are S-nitrosylated after ingestion by the mosquito. In addition, photolyzable nitric oxide, which can be attributed to metal nitrosyls, is elevated following infection and, based on the abundance of hemoglobin, likely includes heme iron nitrosyl. The persistance of oxyhemoglobin throughout blood digestion and changes in hemoglobin conformation in response to infection suggest that hemoglobin catalyzes the synthesis of nitric oxide metabolites in a reducing environment. Provision of urate, a potent reductant and scavenger of oxidants and nitrating agents, as a dietary supplement to mosquitoes increased parasite infection levels relative to allantoin-fed controls, suggesting that nitrosative and/or oxidative stresses negatively impact developing parasites. Collectively, our results reveal a unique role for nitric oxide in an oxyhemoglobin-rich environment. In contrast to facilitating oxygen delivery by hemoglobin in the mammalian vasculature, nitric oxide synthesis in the blood-filled mosquito midgut drives the formation of toxic metabolites that limit parasite development. PMID:17157200

  5. Symmetric dimethylarginine alters endothelial nitric oxide activity in glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Feliers, Denis; Lee, Duck-Yoon; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2015-01-01

    Circulating symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease. SDMA is considered an inert metabolite, but because it can transported into cells, we studied the effect of SDMA on glomerular endothelial cells. SDMA suppressed VEGF-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, but not VEGFR2 activation and signaling leading to eNOS activation. SDMA caused eNOS uncoupling and increased superoxide anion production in response to VEGF. All these effects were blocked by preventing cellular uptake of SDMA with a molar excess of arginine. These data show that SDMA interferes with nitric oxide production by uncoupling eNOS and leads to oxidative stress in glomerular endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data show that SDMA is not an inert metabolite and that it could contribute to oxidative stress in the renal endothelium. PMID:25283600

  6. Nitric oxide and its role in ischaemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keynes, Robert G; Garthwaite, John

    2004-03-01

    The role of the neural messenger nitric oxide (NO) in cerebral ischaemia has been investigated extensively in the past decade. NO may play either a protective or destructive role in ischaemia and the literature is plagued with contradictory findings. Working with NO presents many unique difficulties and here we review the potential artifacts that may have contributed to discrepancies and cause future problems for the unwary investigator. Recent evidence challenges the idea that NO from neurones builds up to levels (micromolar) sufficient to directly elicit cell death during the post-ischaemic period. Concomitantly, the case is strengthened for a role of NO in delayed death mediated post-ischaemia by the inducible NO synthase. Mechanistically it seems unlikely that NO is released in high enough quantities to inhibit respiration in vivo; the formation of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, represents the more likely pathway to cell death. The protective and restorative properties of NO have become of increasing interest. NO from endothelial cells may, via stimulating cGMP production, protect the ischaemic brain by acutely augmenting blood flow, and by helping to form new blood vessels in the longer term (angiogenesis). Elevated cGMP production may also stop cells dying by inhibiting apoptosis and help repair damage by stimulating neurogenesis. In addition NO may act as a direct antioxidant and participate in the triggering of protective gene expression programmes that underlie cerebral ischaemic preconditioning. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which NO is protective may ultimately identify new potential therapeutic targets. PMID:15032712

  7. Energy Landscapes and Catalysis in Nitric-oxide Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewska-Stawiarz, Anna; Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Fisher, Karl; Heyes, Derren J.; Hay, Sam; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays diverse roles in mammalian physiology. It is involved in blood pressure regulation, neurotransmission, and immune response, and is generated through complex electron transfer reactions catalyzed by NO synthases (NOS). In neuronal NOS (nNOS), protein domain dynamics and calmodulin binding are implicated in regulating electron flow from NADPH, through the FAD and FMN cofactors, to the heme oxygenase domain, the site of NO generation. Simple models based on crystal structures of nNOS reductase have invoked a role for large scale motions of the FMN-binding domain in shuttling electrons from the FAD-binding domain to the heme oxygenase domain. However, molecular level insight of the dynamic structural transitions in NOS enzymes during enzyme catalysis is lacking. We use pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy to derive inter-domain distance relationships in multiple conformational states of nNOS. These distance relationships are correlated with enzymatic activity through variable pressure kinetic studies of electron transfer and turnover. The binding of NADPH and calmodulin are shown to influence interdomain distance relationships as well as reaction chemistry. An important effect of calmodulin binding is to suppress adventitious electron transfer from nNOS to molecular oxygen and thereby preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species. A complex landscape of conformations is required for nNOS catalysis beyond the simple models derived from static crystal structures of nNOS reductase. Detailed understanding of this landscape advances our understanding of nNOS catalysis/electron transfer, and could provide new opportunities for the discovery of small molecule inhibitors that bind at dynamic protein interfaces of this multidimensional energy landscape. PMID:24610812

  8. Fluorinated Xerogel-Derived Microelectrodes for Amperometric Nitric Oxide Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Ho; Privett, Benjamin J.; Kita, Justin M.; Wightman, R. Mark; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric fluorinated xerogel-derived nitric oxide (NO) microelectrode is described. A range of fluorine-modified xerogel polymers were synthesized via the co-hydrolysis and condensation of alkylalkoxy- and fluoroalkoxysilanes. Such polymers were evaluated as NO sensor membranes to identify the optimum composition for maximizing NO permeability while providing sufficient selectivity for NO in the presence of common interfering species. By taking advantage of both the versatility of solgel chemistry and the poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)-like high NO permselective properties of the xerogels, the performance of the fluorinated xerogel-derived sensors was excellent, surpassing all miniaturized NO sensors reported to date. In contrast to previous electrochemical NO sensor designs, xerogel-based NO microsensors were fabricated using a simple, reliable dip-coating procedure. An optimal permselective membrane was achieved by synthesizing xerogels of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and 20% (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trimethoxysilane (17FTMS, balance MTMOS) under acid-catalyzed conditions. The resulting NO microelectrode had a conical tip of ~20 ?m in diameter and ~55 mm in length, and exhibited sensitivities of 7.91 pAnM?1 from 0.2 to 3.0 nM (R2 = 0.9947) and 7.60 nAmM?1 from 0.5 to 4.0 ?M (R2 = 0.9999), detection limit of 83 pM (S/N = 3), response time (t95%) of <3 sec, and selectivity (logKNO,jamp) of ?5.74,

  9. Nitric oxide, antioxidants and prooxidants in plant defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Felicitas; Durner, Jörg; Gaupels, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the free radical nitric oxide (NO) interacts both with anti- as well as prooxidants. This review provides a short survey of the central roles of ascorbate and glutathione—the latter alone or in conjunction with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase—in controlling NO bioavailability. Other major topics include the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by NO and the interplay between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under stress conditions NO regulates antioxidant enzymes at the level of activity and gene expression, which can cause either enhancement or reduction of the cellular redox status. For instance chronic NO production during salt stress induced the antioxidant system thereby increasing salt tolerance in various plants. In contrast, rapid NO accumulation in response to strong stress stimuli was occasionally linked to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a subsequent rise in hydrogen peroxide levels. Moreover, during incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae interactions ROS burst and cell death progression were shown to be terminated by S-nitrosylation-triggered inhibition of NADPH oxidases, further highlighting the multiple roles of NO during redox-signaling. In chemical reactions between NO and ROS reactive nitrogen species (RNS) arise with characteristics different from their precursors. Recently, peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide has attracted much attention. We will describe putative functions of this molecule and other NO derivatives in plant cells. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHb) were proposed to act in NO degradation. Additionally, like other oxidases nsHb is also capable of catalyzing protein nitration through a nitrite- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent process. The physiological significance of the described findings under abiotic and biotic stress conditions will be discussed with a special emphasis on pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:24198820

  10. Role of nitric oxide in murine conventional outflow physiology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jason Y H; Stamer, W Daniel; Bertrand, Jacques; Read, A Thomas; Marando, Catherine M; Ethier, C Ross; Overby, Darryl R

    2015-08-15

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) decreases IOP by increasing outflow facility, but whether endogenous NO production contributes to the physiological regulation of outflow facility is unclear. Outflow facility was measured by pressure-controlled perfusion in ex vivo eyes from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or transgenic mice expressing human endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) superimposed on the endogenously expressed murine eNOS (eNOS-GFPtg). In WT mice, exogenous NO delivered by 100 ?M S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) increased outflow facility by 62 28% (SD) relative to control eyes perfused with the inactive SNAP analog N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (NAP; n = 5, P = 0.016). In contrast, in eyes from eNOS-GFPtg mice, SNAP had no effect on outflow facility relative to NAP (-9 4%, P = 0.40). In WT mice, the nonselective NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 ?M) decreased outflow facility by 36 13% (n = 5 each, P = 0.012), but 100 ?M l-NAME had no detectable effect on outflow facility (-16 5%, P = 0.22). An eNOS-selective inhibitor (cavtratin, 50 ?M) decreased outflow facility by 19 12% in WT (P = 0.011) and 39 25% in eNOS-GFPtg (P = 0.014) mice. In the conventional outflow pathway of eNOS-GFPtg mice, eNOS-GFP expression was localized to endothelial cells lining Schlemm's canal and the downstream vessels, with no apparent expression in the trabecular meshwork. These results suggest that endogenous NO production by eNOS within endothelial cells of Schlemm's canal or downstream vessels contributes to the physiological regulation of aqueous humor outflow facility in mice, representing a viable strategy to more successfully lower IOP in glaucoma. PMID:26040898

  11. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, Giti; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Wilson, Gary W; Goodwin, David A; Garthwaite, John

    2015-03-01

    In the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) transmits signals from one neurone to another, or from neurones to astrocytes or blood vessels, but the possibility of oligodendrocytes being physiological NO targets has been largely ignored. By exploiting immunocytochemistry for cGMP, the second messenger generated on activation of NO receptors, oligodendrocytes were found to respond to both exogenous and endogenous NO in cerebellar slices from rats aged 8 days to adulthood. Atrial natriuretic peptide, which acts on membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, also raised oligodendrocyte cGMP in cerebellar slices. The main endogenous source of NO accessing oligodendrocytes appeared to be the neuronal NO synthase isoform, which was active even under basal conditions and in a manner that was independent of glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes in brainstem slices were also shown to be potential NO targets. In contrast, in the optic nerve, oligodendrocyte cGMP was raised by natriuretic peptides but not NO. When cultures of cerebral cortex were continuously exposed to low NO concentrations (estimated as 40-90 pM), oligodendrocytes responded with a striking increase in arborization. This stimulation of oligodendrocyte growth could be replicated by low concentrations of 8-bromo-cGMP (maximum effect at 1 M). It is concluded that oligodendrocytes are probably widespread targets for physiological NO (or natriuretic peptide) signals, with the resulting rise in cGMP serving to enhance their growth and maturation. NO might help coordinate the myelination of axons to the ongoing level of neuronal activity during development and could potentially contribute to adaptive changes in myelination in the adult. PMID:25327839

  12. ASCORBATE IN AQUEOUS HUMOR AUGMENTS NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY MACROPHAGES*

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kyle C.; Beatty, Kelly M.; Scherder, Rebecca C.; Li, Fuwang; Liu, Huanbo; Chen, Alex F.; Ghosh, Arnab; Stuehr, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive molecules within the aqueous humor (AqH) are thought to preserve ocular immune privilege by inhibiting pro-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages (M?s). Consistent with previous observations, we observed that although M?s stimulated in the presence of AqH expressed NO-synthase-2 (NOS2) protein, nitrite concentrations in culture supernatants, an indirect measure NO production, did not increase. Interestingly, NOS2 enzymatic activity, as measured by the conversion of L-arginine (L-Arg) into L-citrulline, was augmented in lysates of M?s stimulated in the presence of AqH. These data suggested that intracellular L-arg may have been limited by AqH. However, we observed increased mRNA expression of the L-arg transporter, CAT2B, and increased L-arg uptake in M?s stimulated in the presence of AqH. Arginases were expressed by stimulated M?s but competition for L-arg with NOS2 was excluded. Expression of GTP cyclohydrolase which produces tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B), an essential cofactor for NOS2 homodimerization, increased after M? stimulation in the presence or absence of AqH and NOS2 homodimers formed. Taken together these data provided no evidence for inhibited NOS2 enzymatic activity by AqH suggesting that a factor within AqH may have interfered with the measurement of nitrite. Indeed, we observed that nitrite standards were not measurable in the presence of AqH and this effect was due to ascorbate in AqH. Controlling for interference by ascorbate revealed that AqH augmented NO production in M?s via ascorbate which limited degradation of H4B. Therefore, AqH may augment NO production in macrophages by stabilizing H4B and increasing intracellular L-Arg. PMID:23241881

  13. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Freschi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception, and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates, and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO–phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic, and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO–phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed. PMID:24130567

  14. Effects of ambient pressure on pulmonary nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Tryggve E; Linnarsson, Dag; Frostell, Claes; Van Muylem, Alain; Kerckx, Yannick; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2012-02-01

    Airway nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to play a role in the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema. We undertook a study of the effects of acute changes of ambient pressure on exhaled and alveolar NO in the range 0.5-4 atmospheres absolute (ATA, 379-3,040 mmHg) in eight healthy subjects breathing normoxic nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. On the basis of previous work with inhalation of low-density helium-oxygen gas, we expected facilitated backdiffusion and lowered exhaled NO at 0.5 ATA and the opposite at 4 ATA. Instead, the exhaled NO partial pressure (Pe(NO)) did not differ between pressures and averaged 1.21 0.16 (SE) mPa across pressures. As a consequence, exhaled NO fractions varied inversely with pressure. Alveolar estimates of the NO partial pressure differed between pressures and averaged 88 (P = 0.04) and 176 (P = 0.009) percent of control (1 ATA) at 0.5 and 4 ATA, respectively. The airway contribution to exhaled NO was reduced to 79% of control (P = 0.009) at 4 ATA. Our finding of the same Pe(NO) at 0.5 and 1 ATA is at variance with previous findings of a reduced Pe(NO) with inhalation of low-density gas at normal pressure, and this discrepancy may be due to the much longer durations of low-density gas breathing in the present study compared with previous studies with helium-oxygen breathing. The present data are compatible with the notion of an enhanced convective backtransport of NO, compensating for attenuated backdiffusion of NO with increasing pressure. An alternative interpretation is a pressure-induced suppression of NO formation in the airways. PMID:22162525

  15. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Garthwaite, Giti; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Wilson, Gary W; Goodwin, David A; Garthwaite, John

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) transmits signals from one neurone to another, or from neurones to astrocytes or blood vessels, but the possibility of oligodendrocytes being physiological NO targets has been largely ignored. By exploiting immunocytochemistry for cGMP, the second messenger generated on activation of NO receptors, oligodendrocytes were found to respond to both exogenous and endogenous NO in cerebellar slices from rats aged 8 days to adulthood. Atrial natriuretic peptide, which acts on membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, also raised oligodendrocyte cGMP in cerebellar slices. The main endogenous source of NO accessing oligodendrocytes appeared to be the neuronal NO synthase isoform, which was active even under basal conditions and in a manner that was independent of glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes in brainstem slices were also shown to be potential NO targets. In contrast, in the optic nerve, oligodendrocyte cGMP was raised by natriuretic peptides but not NO. When cultures of cerebral cortex were continuously exposed to low NO concentrations (estimated as 4090 pM), oligodendrocytes responded with a striking increase in arborization. This stimulation of oligodendrocyte growth could be replicated by low concentrations of 8-bromo-cGMP (maximum effect at 1 M). It is concluded that oligodendrocytes are probably widespread targets for physiological NO (or natriuretic peptide) signals, with the resulting rise in cGMP serving to enhance their growth and maturation. NO might help coordinate the myelination of axons to the ongoing level of neuronal activity during development and could potentially contribute to adaptive changes in myelination in the adult. PMID:25327839

  16. The clinical use of exhaled nitric oxide in wheezing children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Pedro; Caires, Iolanda; Rosado Pinto, José; Lopes da Mata, Pedro; Torres, Simões; Valente, Joana; Borrego, Carlos; Neuparth, Nuno

    2008-01-01

    The body of published work on the role of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in the study of bronchial inflammation allows it to be classed as a simple, non-invasive measurement that is very useful in evaluating asthmatic patients. During a prospective study into the effects of air pollution on the health of the population of Viseu (Saud'AR Project), children with a clinical history of wheezing were identified through using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Children later filled in a new standardised questionnaire and underwent skin-prick-tests, spirometry and FENO measurement. Their mean age was 7.8+/-1.1 years. Comparing those who wheezed in the 6 months before evaluation (n=27) with those who didn't, statistical differences for DeltaFEV1 (8% median versus 4.5%, p=0.0399) and for FENO (23 ppb median versus 12 ppb, p=0.0195, respectively) were observed. Concerning children who needed a bronchodilator in the six previous months (n=19) and those who didn't, there was also a statistically significant difference in FENO: 27 ppb median versus 11 ppb median, respectively; p<0.0001. When comparing children who needed an unscheduled medical appointment in the six months previous to the evaluation (n=9) and those who didn't, there was also significant differences for FE NO: 28 ppb median versus 13 ppb median, p=0.0029. In conclusion, the existence of symptoms seems to be better related to FE NO than spirometry. PMID:18363018

  17. Nitric oxide regulates neutrophil migration through microparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Sarah; Dixon, Rachel; Norman, Keith; Hellewell, Paul; Ridger, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating neutrophil migration has been investigated. Human neutrophil migration to interleukin (IL)-8 (1 nmol/L) was measured after a 1-hour incubation using a 96-well chemotaxis plate assay. The NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced IL-8-induced migration by up to 45%. Anti-CD18 significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited both IL-8-induced and L-NAME enhanced migration. Antibodies to L-selectin or PSGL-1 had no effect on IL-8-induced migration but prevented the increased migration to IL-8 induced by L-NAME. L-NAME induced generation of neutrophil-derived microparticles that was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than untreated neutrophils or D-NAME. This microparticle formation was dependent on calpain activity and superoxide production. Only microparticles from L-NAME and not untreated or D-NAME-treated neutrophils induced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in IL-8-induced migration and transendothelial migration. Pretreatment of microparticles with antibodies to L-selectin (DREG-200) or PSGL-1 (PL-1) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited this effect. The ability of L-NAME-induced microparticles to enhance migration was found to be dependent on the number of microparticles produced and not an increase in microparticle surface L-selectin or PSGL-1 expression. These data show that NO can modulate neutrophil migration by regulating microparticle formation. PMID:18079439

  18. Nitric oxide contributes to the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Curry, Timothy B; Eisenach, John H; Wilkins, Brad W; Joyner, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide (NO) contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise and (2) the combined inhibition of NO production and adenosine receptor activation would attenuate the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise more than NO inhibition alone. In separate protocols subjects performed forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n= 12), subjects received intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). In protocol 2 (n= 10), subjects received intra-arterial saline (control) and combined l-NMMAaminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist) administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min?1 (100 mmHg)?1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (ml min?1) and blood pressure (mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (? from normoxic baseline) due to hypoxia under resting conditions and during hypoxic exercise was substantially lower with l-NMMA administration compared to saline (control; P < 0.01). In protocol 2, administration of combined l-NMMAaminophylline reduced the ?FVC due to hypoxic exercise compared to saline (control; P < 0.01). However, the relative reduction in ?FVC compared to the respective control (saline) conditions was similar between l-NMMA only (protocol 1) and combined l-NMMAaminophylline (protocol 2) at 10% (?17.5 3.7 vs.?21.4 5.2%; P= 0.28) and 20% (?13.4 3.5 vs.?18.8 4.5%; P= 0.18) hypoxic exercise. These findings suggest that NO contributes to the augmented vasodilatation observed during hypoxic exercise independent of adenosine. PMID:19948661

  19. Inhibition of locally produced nitric oxide resets tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Thorup, C; Persson, A E

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of systemic and intratubular infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) on the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism in anesthetized rats. We recently showed that intravenous infusion of L-NNA led to increases in mean arterial blood pressure (Pa), proximal tubular stop-flow pressure (Psf), and enhanced TGF sensitivity and reactivity. To avoid major systemic effects, in this study TGF was studied after intratubular NO inhibition. Intratubular infusion of L-NNA (10(-3) M) yielded similar results as shown with intravenous infusion, without systemic effects. TGF sensitivity and reactivity were increased, indicated by decreased turning point (TP) from 19.8 +/- 1.0 to 15.2 +/- 0.7 nl/min and increased delta Psf from 10.0 +/- 0.8 to 23.9 +/- 1.9 mmHg (24.3 vs. 59.1%). L-NNA at a concentration of 10(-4) M showed significant changes in both TP (from 20.9 +/- 1.1 to 17.8 +/- 1.0 nl/min) and delta Psf (from 7.6 +/- 0.6 to 13.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg), whereas 10(-5) M only increased delta Psf (9.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 12.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg). However, at low tubular perfusion rates Psf was not influenced by L-NNA. The early proximal flow rate (EPFR) showed no change at low tubular perfusion rates with L-NNA. At maximal TGF activation (40 nl/min), delta EPFR was increased from 34% in control to 62%. Our results suggest that NO not only regulates glomerular capillary pressure but also decreases the sensitivity of the TGF mechanism. PMID:7524359

  20. From synaptically localized to volume transmission by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, John

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions widely as a transmitter/diffusible second messenger in the central nervous system, exerting physiological effects in target cells by binding to specialized guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, resulting in cGMP generation. Despite having many context-dependent physiological roles and being implicated in numerous disease states, there has been a lack of clarity about the ways that NO operates at the cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, several approaches have been used to try to gain a more concrete, quantitative understanding of this unique signalling pathway. These approaches have included analysing the kinetics of NO receptor function, real-time imaging of cellular NO signal transduction in target cells, and the use of ultrasensitive detector cells to record NO as it is being generated from native sources in brain tissue. The current picture is that, when formed in a synapse, NO is likely to act only very locally, probably mostly within the confines of that synapse, and to exist only in picomolar concentrations. Nevertheless, closely neighbouring synapses may also be within reach, raising the possibility of synaptic crosstalk. By engaging its enzyme-coupled receptors, the low NO concentrations are able to stimulate physiological (submicromolar) increases in cGMP concentration in an activity-dependent manner. When many NO-emitting neurones or synapses are active simultaneously in a tissue region, NO can act more like a volume transmitter to influence, and perhaps coordinate, the behaviour of cells within that region, irrespective of their identity and anatomical connectivity. PMID:26486504

  1. Hemoglobin increases endothelin-1 in endothelial cells by decreasing nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, G; Macdonald, R L; Marton, L S; Kowalczuk, A; Solenski, N J; Weir, B K

    2001-01-26

    We determined whether ferrous hemoglobin increases endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion from bovine cerebral artery endothelial cells and the mechanisms involved. Exposure of endothelial cells to hemoglobin caused dose-dependent increases in pre-proET-1 mRNA and peptide. The increase in ET-1 peptide was inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D whereas only cycloheximide decreased basal ET-1 release. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine significantly increased ET-1 concentration and reduced hemoglobin stimulation of ET-1 release. 8-Bromo-cGMP did not alter basal ET-1 concentration but suppressed hemoglobin-induced ET-1 production. Methemoglobin and S-nitrosylated methemoglobin were less potent inducers of ET-1 release. In summary, hemoglobin increases ET-1 in cerebral endothelial cells by mechanisms that involve transcription and translation. Nitric oxide production inhibits ET-1 production. Ferrous hemoglobin increases ET-1 by binding nitric oxide and abolishing this inhibitory pathway although other mechanisms are involved since N(G)-nitro-l-arginine reduces hemoglobin-induced ET-1 release. PMID:11162595

  2. Endogenous Nitric-Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA after Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Carla S.; Wispel, Christian; Zweckberger, Klaus; Beynon, Christopher; Hertle, Daniel; Sakowitz, Oliver W.; Unterberg, Andreas W.

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in comparison to controls. Furthermore, perilesionally ADMA is positively correlated with neuroscore performance, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 are negatively correlated. ADMA and its metabolizing enzymes show significant temporal changes after TBI and may be new targets in TBI treatment. PMID:24663083

  3. Generation of a Conditional Allele for the Mouse Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rosie; Wang, Suwan; Takahashi, Keiko; Fujita, Hiroki; Fruci, Christopher R.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Harris, Raymond C; Takahashi, Takamune

    2012-01-01

    Mice with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletions have defined the crucial role of eNOS in vascular development, homeostasis, and pathology. However, cell specific eNOS function has not been determined, although an important role of eNOS has been suggested in multiple cell types. Here we have generated a floxed eNOS allele in which exons 9–12, encoding the sites essential to eNOS activity, are flanked with loxP sites. Mice homozygous for the floxed allele showed normal eNOS protein levels and no overt phenotype. Conversely, homozygous mice with Cre-deleted alleles displayed truncated eNOS protein, lack of vascular nitric oxide production, and exhibited similar phenotype to eNOS knockout mice, including hypertension, low heart rate, and focal renal scar. These findings demonstrate that the floxed allele is normal and it can be converted to a non-functional eNOS allele through Cre recombination. This mouse will allow time and cell specific eNOS deletion. PMID:22467476

  4. Possible attenuation of nitric oxide expression in anti-inflammatory effect of Ziziphus jujuba in rat.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rohit; Sharma, Pyare Lal; Singh, Manjeet

    2011-07-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of fruits of Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory effect using acute and chronic models of inflammation in rat. Wistar albino rats of either sex were employed in the present study (n = 6). Acute inflammation was induced by subplantar administration of carrageenan (1%) in rat hind paw. Chronic inflammation was induced by interscapular implantation of a sterile cotton pellet (50 mg). ZJ extract as test drug and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) as standard were used. Serum nitrite/nitrate was also estimated to determine the expression of nitric oxide. In the acute study, carrageenan (1%) administration caused marked paw edema. Pretreatment with ZJ extract exhibited marked dose-dependent attenuation in edema compared to control. In the chronic study, interscapular implantation of sterile cotton pellets caused significant granuloma formation after 7 days, serving as control. ZJ extract significantly decreased granuloma tissue formation compared to control. The serum nitrite/nitrate level was significantly increased after 7 days in the control group due to chronic inflammation, but was decreased by ZJ extract. Moreover, phytochemical studies indicated the presence of jujubosides, flavonoids and terpenes, which may produce the marked anti-inflammatory effect of ZJ fruit in acute and chronic inflammation, possibly by inhibiting nitric oxide expression. The study provides a scientific and ethnopharmacological rationale for the therapeutic use of ZJ fruit as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21479860

  5. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing; Zhang Fengmin; Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan; Wu Jianguo

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  6. Nitrous oxide-antinociception is mediated by opioid receptors and nitric oxide in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouil, Dimitris E.; Dickens, Andrea S.; Heckert, Rick W.; Ohgami, Yusuke; Chung, Eunhee; Han, Shujie; Quock, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that nitrous oxide (N2O)-induced antinociception is sensitive to antagonism by blockade of opioid receptors and also by inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. The present study was conducted to determine whether these occur within the same brain site. Mice were stereotaxically implanted with microinjection cannulae in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) area of the midbrain. In saline-pretreated mice, exposure to 70% N2O resulted in a concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect in the mouse abdominal constriction test. Pretreatment with an opioid antagonist in the PAG significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of NO production in the PAG also significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect. These findings suggest that N2O acts in the PAG via an NO-dependent, opioid receptor-mediated mechanism to induce antinociception. PMID:17683915

  7. Sepiapterin decreases acute rejection and apoptosis in cardiac transplants independently of changes in nitric oxide and inducible nitric-oxide synthase dimerization.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Galen M; Ionova, Irina A; Cooley, Brian C; Migrino, Raymond Q; Khanna, Ashwani K; Whitsett, Jennifer; Vsquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2009-06-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), is an important post-translational regulator of NO bioactivity. We examined whether treatment of cardiac allograft recipients with sepiapterin [S-(-)-2-amino-7,8-dihydro-6-(2-hydroxy-1-oxopropyl)-4-(1H)-pteridinone], a precursor of BH(4), inhibited acute rejection and apoptosis in cardiac transplants. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation was performed in Wistar-Furth donor to Lewis recipient strain rats. Recipients were treated daily after transplantation with 10 mg/kg sepiapterin. Grafts were harvested on post-transplant day 6 for analysis of BH(4) (high-performance liquid chromatography), expression of inflammatory cytokines (reverse transcription- and real-time polymerase chain reaction), iNOS (Western blots), and NO (Griess reaction and NO analyzer). Histological rejection grade was scored, and graft function was determined by echocardiography. Apoptosis, protein nitration, and oxidative stress were determined by immunohistochemistry. Treatment of allografts with sepiapterin increased cardiac BH(4) levels by 3-fold without changing protein levels of GTP cyclohydrolase, the enzyme that regulates de novo BH(4) synthesis. Sepiapterin decreased inflammatory cell infiltrate and significantly inhibited histological rejection scores and apoptosis similar in magnitude to cyclosporine. Sepiapterin also decreased nitrative and oxidative stress. Sepiapterin caused a smaller increase in left ventricular mass versus untreated allografts but without improving fractional shortening. Sepiapterin did not alter tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression, whereas it decreased interleukin (IL)-2 expression. Sepiapterin did not change total iNOS protein or monomer levels, or plasma and tissue NO metabolites levels. It is concluded that the mechanism(s) of antirejection are due in part to decreased apoptosis, protein nitration, and oxidation of cardiomyocytes, which seems to be mediated at the immune level by limiting inflammatory cell infiltration via decreased IL-2-mediated T-lymphocyte expansion. PMID:19307452

  8. Characteristics and function of cardiac mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dedkova, Elena N; Blatter, Lothar A

    2009-01-01

    We used laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye DAF-2 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive dyes CM-H2DCF and MitoSOX Red to characterize NO and ROS production by mitochondrial NO synthase (mtNOS) in permeabilized cat ventricular myocytes. Stimulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by exposure to different cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i= 1, 2 and 5 ?m) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of NO production by mitochondria when l-arginine, a substrate for mtNOS, was present. Collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential with the protonophore FCCP or blocking the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter with Ru360 as well as blocking the respiratory chain with rotenone or antimycin A in combination with oligomycin inhibited mitochondrial NO production. In the absence of l-arginine, mitochondrial NO production during stimulation of Ca2+ uptake was significantly decreased, but accompanied by increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial arginase to limit l-arginine availability resulted in 50% inhibition of Ca2+-induced ROS production. Both mitochondrial NO and ROS production were blocked by the nNOS inhibitor (4S)-N-(4-amino-5[aminoethyl]aminopentyl)-N?-nitroguanidine and the calmodulin antagonist W-7, while the eNOS inhibitor l-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (l-NIO) or iNOS inhibitor N-(3-aminomethyl)benzylacetamidine, 2HCl (1400W) had no effect. The superoxide dismutase mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP abolished Ca2+-induced ROS generation and increased NO production threefold, suggesting that in the absence of MnTBAP either formation of superoxide radicals suppressed NO production or part of the formed NO was transformed quickly to peroxynitrite. In the absence of l-arginine, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), which was blocked by the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A and MnTBAP, and reversed by l-arginine supplementation. In the presence of the mtNOS cofactor (6R)-5,6,7,8,-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4; 100 ?m) mitochondrial ROS generation and PTP opening decreased while mitochondrial NO generation slightly increased. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake activates mtNOS and leads to NO-mediated protection against opening of the mitochondrial PTP, provided sufficient availability of l-arginine and BH4. In conclusion, our data show the importance of l-arginine and BH4 for cardioprotection via regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulation of PTP opening by mtNOS. PMID:19103678

  9. Nitric oxide emissions from the high-temperature viscous boundary layers of hypersonic aircraft within the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, S.B.; Lewis, M.J.; Dickerson, R.R.

    1993-09-20

    The authors study the nitric oxide emission characteristics of supersonic aircraft resulting from heating of viscous boundary layers along the skin of the aircraft. Previous study has concentrated on nitric oxide emissions coming from combustion products from the scramjet engines. This work shows that above mach 8, emissions from viscous heating become a significant factor in total emission of nitric oxide. Above mach 16 it becomes the dominant source of emission.

  10. Effects of chemical ischemia in cerebral cortex slices. Focus on nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, S; Marti, M; Marino, S; Selvatici, R; Beani, L; Bianchi, C; Siniscalchi, A

    2005-12-01

    Superfused rat cerebral cortex slices were submitted to a continuous electrical (5 Hz) stimulation and treated with sodium azide (1-10 mM) in the presence of 2 mM 2-deoxyglucose ("chemical ischemia"). Presynaptic cholinergic activity, evaluated as acetylcholine release, was inhibited depending on the sodium azide concentrations and on the length of application (5-30 min). Following a 5-min treatment with 10 mM sodium azide, acetylcholine release was reduced to 45+/-2.3%; simultaneously, there was a 15- and 10-fold increase in glutamate and nitric oxide effluxes, respectively. After restoring normal superfusion conditions, acetylcholine release recovered to 70+/-3.1% of the controls; the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (10 microM) as well as the nitric oxide scavengers, haemoglobin (20 microM) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide (150 microM), improved the recovery in presynaptic activity, showing that both glutamate and nitric oxide play detrimental roles in chemical ischemia. On the other hand, the post-ischemic recovery was worsened by the guanylylcyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM), suggesting that the activation of such a pathway plays a neuroprotective role and that the nitric oxide-induced harmful effects depend on different mechanisms. Chemical ischemia-evoked nitric oxide efflux partly derived from its calcium-dependent endogenous synthesis, since both the intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (1 mM), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 microM), substantially prevented sodium azide effects. Nitric oxide efflux was only weakly reduced by MK-801 and was not modified by either the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine (10 microM) or the N-type calcium channel blocker omega-conotoxin (0.5 microM), thus suggesting a prevailing intracellular calcium-dependence of nitric oxide production, although a partial extracellular calcium source cannot be ruled out. These findings show that sodium azide plus 2-deoxyglucose treatment is a useful protocol to induce brain ischemia in vitro and underline the involvement of nitric oxide in the complex events following the ischemic insult. PMID:16135390

  11. Proliferation of macrophages due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Monika; Gruber, Miriam; Schmid, Diethart; Baran, Halina; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is assumed to be a major causal agent in hypercholesteraemia-induced atherosclerosis. Because the proliferation of lipid-loaden macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions has been described, we investigated the dependence of macrophage proliferation on the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by hypochlorite oxidized LDL. Ox-LDL induces a dose dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-interferon stimulated mouse macrophages (J774.A1) with concomitant macrophage proliferation as assayed by cell counting, tritiated-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cell protein. Native LDL did not influence macrophage proliferation and inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein and mRNA was reduced by HOCl-oxidized LDL (0-40 g/ml) as revealed by immunoblotting and competitive semiquantitative PCR. Macrophage proliferation was increased by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The addition of ox-LDL to L-NAME containing incubations induced no further statistically significant increase in cell number. Nitric oxide donors decreased ox-LDL induced macrophage proliferation and nitric oxide scavengers restored macrophage proliferation to the initial values achieved by ox-LDL. The decrease of cytosolic DNA fragments in stimulated macrophages incubated with ox-LDL demonstrates that the proliferative actions of ox-LDL are associated with a decrease of NO-induced apoptosis. Our data show that inhibition of iNOS dependent nitric oxide production caused by hypochlorite oxidized LDL enhances macrophage proliferation. This might be a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26600745

  12. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Rutherford, Daniel; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator in both health and disease. In addition to its effects on vascular tone and platelet function, it plays roles in inflammation and pain perception that may be of relevance in osteoarthritis. Many patients with osteoarthritis take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) long term for pain control. Over recent years concern has been raised about the possible cardiovascular side effects of NSAIDs. The reasons for this possible increased cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs are not yet entirely clear, although changes in blood pressure, renal salt handling and platelet function may contribute. Recently, drugs that chemically link a NSAID with a NO donating moiety (cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting NO-donating drugs [CINODs]) were developed. NO is an important mediator of endothelial function, acting as a vasodilator and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and having anti-inflammatory properties. The potential benefits of CINODs include the combination of effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with NO release, which might counterbalance any adverse cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Effects of CINODs in animal studies include inhibition of vasopressor responses, blood pressure reduction in hypertensive rats and inhibition of platelet aggregation. CINODs may also reduce ischemic damage to compromised myocardial tissue. In addition, endothelial dysfunction is a recognized feature of inflammatory arthritides, and therefore a drug that might provide slow release of NO to the vasculature while treating pain is an attractive prospect in these conditions. Further studies of the effects of CINODs in humans are required, but these agents represent a potential exciting advance in the management of osteoarthritis. PMID:19007428

  13. Interactions between substrates and the haem-bound nitric oxide of ferric and ferrous bacterial nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, FranoisJ.M.; Coutur