Sample records for determine nitric oxide

  1. Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of a number of lung and heart diseases that is characterized by peripheral vascular structural remodeling and loss of vascular tone. Nitric oxide can modulate vascular injury and interrupt elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance selectively; however, it can also produce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and exert cytotoxic and antiplatelet effects. The balance between the protective and adverse effects of nitric oxide is determined by the relative amount of nitric oxide and reactive radicals. Nitric oxide has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of congenital heart disease, mitrial valvular disease combined with pulmonary hypertension and in orthotropic cardiac transplantation patients. Additionally, new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, natriuretic peptides and aqueous nitric oxide are also effective for treatment of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. PMID:20498805

  2. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Rachmilewitz; J S Stamler; D Bachwich; F Karmeli; Z Ackerman; D K Podolsky

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from

  3. Nitric oxide as an antioxidant

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, J.; Harel, S.; Granit, R. (Department of Food Science, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel))

    1991-08-15

    Benzoate monohydroxy compounds, and in particular salicylate, were produced during interaction of ferrous complexes with hydrogen peroxide (Fenton reaction) in a N2 environment. These reactions were inhibited when Fe complexes were flushed, prior to the addition in the model system, by nitric oxide. Methionine oxidation to ethylene by Fenton reagents was also inhibited by nitric oxide. Myoglobin in several forms such as metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and nitric oxide-myoglobin were interacted with an equimolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Spectra changes in the visible region and the changes in membrane (microsomes) lipid peroxidation by the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were determined. The results showed that metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin were activated by H2O2 to ferryl myoglobin, which initiates membrane lipid peroxidation; but not nitric oxide-myoglobin, which, during interaction with H2O2, did not form ferryl but metmyoglobin which only poorly affected lipid peroxidation. It is assumed that nitric oxide, liganded to ferrous complexes, acts to prevent the prooxidative reaction of these complexes with H2O2.

  4. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B?].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. PMID:24857428

  5. Mammalian nitric oxide synthases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J Stuehr

    1999-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) synthase family of enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, which acts as a biologic effector molecule in a broad number of settings. This report summarizes some of the current information regarding NO synthase structure-function, reaction mechanism, control of catalysis, and protein interactions.

  6. An improved method for the determination of dissolved nitric oxide (NO) in seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterbeck, H. E.; Bange, H. W.

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived intermediate of the oceanic nitrogen cycle, however, due to its high reactivity, measurements of dissolved NO in seawater are rare. Here we present an improved method to determine NO concentrations in discrete seawater samples. The set-up of our system consisted of a chemiluminescence NO analyser connected to a stripping unit. The limit of detection for our method was 5 pmol NO in aqueous solution which translates into 0.25 nmol L-1 when using a 20 mL seawater sample volume. Our method was applied to measure high resolution depth profiles of dissolved NO during a cruise to the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. Our method is fast and comparably easy to handle thus it opens the door for deciphering the distribution of NO in the ocean and it facilitates laboratory studies on NO pathways.

  7. Nitric Oxide for Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy L. Aschner; Candice D. Fike; Eric Austin; J. Donald Moore; Frederick E. Barr

    \\u000a The introduction of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure in neonates ushered in a\\u000a new era in neonatal intensive care. This inhalational therapeutic redefined the medical management of the infant with persistent\\u000a pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). With a selective pulmonary vasodilator in hand, a kinder, gentler approach to\\u000a ventilation was embraced in many

  8. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

  9. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

  10. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

  11. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337 Transportation...Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be packaged in cylinders conforming to...

  12. Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells: Differential Nitric Oxide Synthesis Determines Their Ability to Aggregate Platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek W. Radomski; David C. Jenkins; Lesley Holmes; Salvador Moneada

    1991-01-01

    The existence and role of an L-arginine:nitric oxide (NO) pathway in two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, SW-480 and SW-620, were investigated. Both cell lines, which derive from the same patient, SW-480 from the primary tumor and SW-620 from its metastatic lesion, were shown to have a cytosolic, Ca2+-independent, NADPH-dependent NO synthase, the activity of which was lower in the

  13. Determination of in vivo nitric oxide levels in animal tissues using a novel spin trapping technology.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Timoshin, Alexander A

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that microdialysis ensured by the passage of aqueous solutions of Fe(3+) complexes with N-methyl-D: -glucamine dithiocarbamate (MGDMGD ) through fine dialysis fibers permeable for compounds with molecular weights below 5 kDa. These fibers can be implanted into heart, liver, and kidney tissues, enabling effective binding of Fe(3+)-MGD complexes to nitric oxide generated in interstitial fluids of narcotized rats in vivo. Subsequent treatment of dialyzate samples (60??L) with sodium dithionite favors conversion of newly formed diamagnetic NO-Fe(3+)-MGD complexes into electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable NO-Fe(2+)-MGD complexes. The basal levels of NO determined from the concentrations of the complexes in the respective tissues are similar (1???). The microdialysis data suggest that treatment of rats with a water-soluble analogue of nitroglycerine or a dinitrosyl iron complex with thiosulfate induces a long-lasting (>1 h) increase in the steady-state level of NO in animal tissues. This novel technology can be used for comparative analyses of production rates of NO and reactive oxygen species when using iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and spin traps for reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:21161635

  14. Free nitric oxide diffusion in the bronchial microcirculation

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Free nitric oxide diffusion in the bronchial microcirculation PETER CONDORELLI1 AND STEVEN C in final form 12 August 2002 Condorelli, Peter, and Steven C. George. Free nitric oxide diffusion- tions were determined for transient diffusion of free nitric oxide (NO) generated in vivo from vascular

  15. Nitric oxide and asthmatic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Barnes; F. Y. Liew

    1995-01-01

    Asthmatic patients show an increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in airway epithelial cells and an increased level of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. The NO derived from airway epithelial cells may be a mechanism for amplifying and perpetuating asthmatic inflammation, through inhibition of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and their production of interferon ? (IFN-?). This

  16. Molecules of Interest Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase activity in plants

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    Molecules of Interest Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase activity in plants Luis A. del Ri in plants are nitrate reductase, and several nitric oxide synthase-like activities, including one localized. # 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Nitrogen monoxide; Nitric oxide; NO; Nitric oxide

  17. Study of Atmospheric Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of energetic nitrogen atoms to the production of nitric oxide in the thermosphere and their influence on the infrared emission spectrum. The nitric oxide molecules are important contributors to the cooling of the atmosphere. We first pointed out that in determining the energy distribution of the nitrogen atoms, it is important to take into account the thermal motion of the atmospheric gases. It had been ignored in all earlier studies. The source spectra are broadened considerably by the center of mass motion of the reactants. We worked out the consequences for the production of nitric oxide at night, using as sources of energetic N atoms, NO(+) + e yield N + O, N(D-2) + O yield N + O. The high energy tail is enhanced by orders of magnitude. We had earlier suggested (Sharma et al. 1993) that the reaction of energetic nitrogen atoms with O2 was responsible for the rotationally enhanced NO identified in the infrared spectrum. Our calculations provided quantitative confirmation of the suggestion. We proceeded to explore the validity of another approximation used in earlier analyses, the hard sphere approximation for the energy loss in elastic collisions. We carried out precise quantum mechanical calculations of the elastic 2 differential scattering of nitrogen atoms in collisions with oxygen atoms and showed that although the hard sphere approximation was nowhere of high precision, reasonable results could be obtained with an effective cross section of 6 x 10(exp 15)sq cm. We also initiated a program to include inelastic energy loss processes in the determination of the energy distribution function. We began a calculation of the rotation and vibrational excitation cross sections of molecular nitrogen and nitrogen atoms and developed a method for including inelastic energy loss as a function of scattering angle in the Boltzmann equation. A procedure for obtaining the solution of the Boltzman equation was worked out.

  18. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The five WebWare Molecules for December derive from the article Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications by Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer.

  19. Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Level of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Nonsmoking Healthy Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan G. C. Van Amsterdam; Bert P. J. Verlaan; Henk Van Loveren; Bernhard G. V. Elzakker; Sjef G. Vos; Antoon Opperhuizen; Peter A. Steerenberg

    1999-01-01

    The authors sought to determine which air pollutant is responsible for the increase in exhaled nitric oxide observed in healthy subjects. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured in 16 nonsmoking healthy subjects on 14 workdays, during which there were varying air-pollution levels. Contamination of samples by ambient nitric oxide was excluded. The baseline value of exhaled nitric oxide, determined at times

  20. Chemiluminescence of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Rusch, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the intensities of the delta and gamma bands of nitric oxide in the nighttime terrestrial thermosphere are presented and used to infer the rate coefficient for the transition from the C 2 Pi to the A 2 Sigma + states. The nightglow spectrum was observed between 1900 and 2300 A at a resolution of 15 A by a rocket-borne scanning 1/4-m spectrometer pointing north at an apogee of 150 km. Progressions of the delta, gamma and epsilon bands are identified on the spectra by the construction of synthetic spectra, and the contributions of resonance fluorescence to the total band intensities are calculated. Finally, the ratio of the sum of the gamma bands for v-prime = 0 to the sum of the delta bands for v-prime = 0 is used to derive a branching ratio of 0.21 + or - 0.04 to the A 2 Sigma + state, which yields a probability for the C-A transition of 5.6 + or - 1.5 x to the 6th/sec.

  1. Placental nitric oxide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sooranna, S R; Morris, N H; Steer, P J

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) has a role in pregnancy. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS), which can exist either as a calcium-dependent or a calcium-independent isoform of the enzyme. Both isoforms are present in placental villi and the authors have measured NOS activities in tissues from early and term normal, pre-eclamptic and growth-retarded pregnancies. Higher activities were seen in first trimester placental villi than at term. An impairment of NO metabolism occurred in placental villi from pre-eclamptic and growth-retarded pregnancies. Smoking also results in decreased NOS activities in the placental villi, suggesting that problems attributed to smoking during pregnancy could be linked to NO metabolism. Polyamines arginine and citrulline (all of which are important metabolites in the NO pathway) were also measured in placental villous tissues. The data presented in this review article are from work carried out in the authors' laboratories and suggest that alterations in the placental arginine-NO pathway may not only play a role in the physiological changes of advancing gestation but may also contribute to the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation. PMID:8743159

  2. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  3. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression Brian C these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide. Keywords: aggression, autism, nitric oxide synthase, serotonin, social investigation The neurobiological

  4. Satellite measurements of the backscattered ultraviolet to determine ozone trends, volcanic SO2, and nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric backscattered UV albedo have been used from satellites for more than 20 years to measure ozone. The longest continuous record has been from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) and TOMS on the Nimbus 7 satellite, which have been in operation since November of 1978. Because of degradation in space of the diffuser plate used to measure extraterrestrial solar flux, it has been necessary to develop new techniques to maintain the calibration of these instruments. Calibration is maintained by requiring that ozone measured by different wavelength pairs be consistent, and by requiring that ozone measured at different solar zenith angles be consistent. This technique of using a geophysical quantity, ozone, as a transfer standard for wavelength calibration is very powerful. The recalibrated data have been used to measure total ozone trends to an accuracy of +/- 1.3 percent 2(sigma) error over ten years. No significant trends are found near the equator, but significant trends larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry are found at middle to high latitudes in both hemispheres. In addition, UV albedo data have been used to measure SO2 using band structure in the 300-310 nm range, and to measure nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere using the (10) and (02) NO gamma band fluorescence features.

  5. Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase: Computational model Nitric oxide Hemorrhage Endothelial nitric oxide synthase Erythrocyte A large loss of blood from multiple sources in the vasculature. Recent studies have shown that erythrocytes express

  6. Vicinal diaminobenzoacridine used as the fluorescent probe for trace nitric oxide determination by flow injection spectrofluorimetry and macrophage cells imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jixi; Yin, Lingling; Xu, Kehua; Gao, Jingjing; Tong, Lili; Tang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a photoelectron transfer (PET) mechanism, vicinal diaminobenzoacridine (VDABA), a fluorescent probe for the determination of trace amounts of nitric oxide radical in biological sample, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectrum. Combining a flow injection with spectrofluorimetry, a high-throughput method for detecting NO was obtained, which was successfully applied to the determination of NO in the human serum. The proposed method was simple, rapid, precise and automatic. Under optimum conditions, the linear calibration range was from 1.1 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-6)M and the detection limit was 3.1 x 10(-8)M. Furthermore, the probe could make cell-derived NO "visible" by using confocal laser scanning microscope. PMID:18068771

  7. Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zetterquist; C. Pedroletti; J. O. n. Lundberg; K. Alving

    1999-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of

  8. NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Ulich, Thomas

    NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION Carl-Fredrik Enell1 Esa Turunen1 Antti Kero1-situ quantification of the auroral production of nitric oxide (NO). The retrieval requires inverse modelling the adaptation of the Sodankyl¨a Ion Chemistry (SIC) model for the nitric oxide retrieval. #12;

  9. Immunoparasitology series Nitric oxide: an antiparasitic molecule

    E-print Network

    Rivero, Ana

    Immunoparasitology series Nitric oxide: an antiparasitic molecule of invertebrates Ana Rivero the Nobel prize in 1998 for their work on the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule, many) [3]. Recently, a fourth effector mechanism has been discovered, a free radical called nitric oxide

  10. Invited Review Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Invited Review Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange Steven C. George,1,2 Marieann Hogman,3, Steven C., Marieann Hogman, Solbert Permutt, and Philip E. Silkoff. Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange. J Appl Physiol 96: 831­839, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2003.--Nitric oxide (NO) was first

  11. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  12. Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release from invertebrate microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Liu; David Shenouda; Thomas V. Bilfinger; Michelle L. Stefano; Harold I. Magazine; George B. Stefano

    1996-01-01

    Morphine stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in human endothelial cells. To determine whether this mechanism also occurs in invertebrates, the musselMytilus edulis was studied. Exposure of excised ganglia to morphine for 24 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in rnicroglial egress that was naloxone sensitive. In coincubating the excised ganglia with morphine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N

  13. CALCULATED EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE FLOW CONTAMINATION ON SCRAMJET PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Fischer; Kenneth E. Rock

    1995-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamina- tion on scramjet test engine performance were investi- gated analytically. The study was conducted for standard facility conditions corresponding to Mach 6, 7, and 8 flight simulations. The analytically determined levels of nitric oxide

  14. Relationship between Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Childhood Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIMOTHY L. FRANK; ANIL ADISESH; ANTHONY C. PICKERING; JOHN F. J. MORRISON; TAMSIN WRIGHT; HELEN FRANCIS; ANGELA FLETCHER; PETER I. FRANK; PHILIP HANNAFORD

    The purpose of the study was to determine if exhaled nitric oxide levels in children varied according to their asthmatic and atopic status. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured in a sample of 93 children at- tending the North West Lung Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom, for the clinical evaluation of a respiratory questionnaire being developed as a screening tool in general

  15. Nitric Oxide Activates Cyclooxygenase Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Salvemini; Thomas P. Misko; Jaime L. Masferrer; Karen Seibert; Mark G. Currie; Philip Needleman

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) on the activity of the constitutive and induced forms of cyclooxygenase (COX; COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). Induction of NO synthase (NOS) and COX (COX-2) in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (1 mu g\\/ml, 18 h) caused an increase in the release of nitrite (NO^-_2) and prostaglandin

  16. Nitric Oxide Production in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Planchet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    There is now general agreement that nitric oxide (NO) is an important and almost universal signal in plants. Nevertheless, there are still many controversial observations and opinions on the importance and function of NO in plants. Partly, this may be due to the difficulties in detecting and even more in quantifying NO. Here, we summarize major pathways of NO production in plants, and briefly discuss some methodical problems. PMID:19521475

  17. Comparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Comparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide C. A. Barth Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado] A time-dependent thermospheric model has been used to calculate the nitric oxide density in the lower

  18. Electrochemical Sensing of Nitric Oxide with Functionalized Graphene Electrodes

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Electrochemical Sensing of Nitric Oxide with Functionalized Graphene Electrodes Yifei M. Liu: The intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in nitric oxide (NO) sensing and lower detection limits should be feasible with FGSs. KEYWORDS: nitric oxide, electrochemical sensing

  19. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  4. [Determining the alveolar component of nitric oxide in exhaled air: procedures and reference values for healthy persons].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Ana María; Balleza, Marco; Calaf, Núria; González, Mercedes; Feixas, Teresa; Casan, Pere

    2009-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production has been described using a 2-compartment model for the synthesis and movement of NO in both the alveoli and the airways. The alveolar concentration of NO (Ca(NO)), an indirect marker of the inflammatory state of the distal portions of the lung, can be deduced through exhalation at multiple flow rates. Our objective was to determine reference values for Ca(NO). The fraction of exhaled NO (Fe(NO)) was measured in 33 healthy individuals at a rate of 50mL/s; the subjects then exhaled at 10, 30, 100, and 200mL/s to calculate Ca(NO). A chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Aerocrine) was used to perform the measurements. The mean (SD) Fe(NO) was 15 (6)ppb. The mean Ca(NO) was 3.04 (1.30)ppb. These values of Ca(NO) measured in healthy individuals will allow us to analyze alveolar inflammatory behavior in respiratory and systemic processes. PMID:19286114

  5. Novel effects of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  6. Two-dimensional polymorphism and melting in a monolayer of nitric oxide adsorbed on graphite (*)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1155 Two-dimensional polymorphism and melting in a monolayer of nitric oxide adsorbed on graphite by neutron scattering in the first monolayer of nitric oxide adsorbed on graphite. The structure of two of these solids, y and 03B2, has been determined. In both cases, nitric oxide molecules are dimerized

  7. Interaction Between Nitric Oxide and Endogenous Vasoconstrictors in Control of Renal Blood Flow

    E-print Network

    Just, Armin

    Interaction Between Nitric Oxide and Endogenous Vasoconstrictors in Control of Renal Blood Flow alone. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of nitric oxide (NO II. (Hypertension. 1999;34:1254-1258.) Key Words: endothelin receptors, endothelin nitric oxide renal

  8. Role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lubos, Edith; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade basic and clinical research has highlighted the central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease. Enhanced production or attenuated degradation of ROS leads to oxidative stress, a process that affects endothelial and vascular function, and contributes to vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO), a product of the normal endothelium, is a principal determinant of normal endothelial and vascular function. In states of inflammation, NO production by the vasculature increases considerably and, in conjunction with other ROS, contributes to oxidative stress. This review examines the role of oxidative stress and NO in mechanisms of endothelial and vascular dysfunction with an emphasis on atherothrombosis. PMID:18508590

  9. Determination of nitric oxide in hydrophytes using poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Jing Huang; Min Zhang; Wan-Zhen Xie; Hua-Shan Zhang; Yu-Qi Feng; Hong Wang

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that has recently emerged as a cellular messenger in numerous physiological processes in plants. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith microextraction (PMME) is developed for sensitive determination of NO in hydrophytes. NO is derivatized using a fluorescent probe, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(3?,4?-diaminophenyl)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (DAMBO), and then the derivatives

  10. Nonenzymatic nitric oxide synthesis in biological systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay L. Zweier; Alexandre Samouilov; Periannan Kuppusamy

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of a variety of biological functions, and also has a role in the pathogenesis of cellular injury. It had been generally accepted that NO is solely generated in biological tissues by specific nitric oxide synthases (NOS) which metabolize arginine to citrulline with the formation of NO. However, NO can also be generated in

  11. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  12. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  13. Triple point determinations of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, 2.2 percent by weight nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Irwin D.; Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1977-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to ascertain the triple points of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. A laboratory method indicated a triple point for monomethylhydrazine, but tests in a large vacuum chamber indicated that a triple point does not occur in spacelike conditions because the mono-methylhydrazine tends to supercool. Instead, an effective freezing point (with agitation) was obtained. New experimental values for liquid monomethylhydrazine vapor pressure were determined for temperatures from 275.2 to 207.6 K. The values were used to derive vapor pressure equations. Tentative values were obtained for the effective freezing point of nitrogen tetroxide spacelike conditions.

  14. Calculated Effects of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Karen E.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    1995-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. The study was conducted for standard facility conditions corresponding to Mach 6, 7, and 8 flight simulations. The analytically determined levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility are compared with experimentally measured levels. Results of the analysis indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, which corroborates the measured levels. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate how nitric oxide affects scramjet performance in terms of combustor pressure rise, heat release, and thrust performance. Results indicate minimal effects on engine performance for the test conditions of this investigation.

  15. Airway nitric oxide in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, D.; Gustafsson, L.; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Frostell, C.; Paiva, M.

    2005-10-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO), a molecule with a wide range of biological effects, is found in exhaled gas. Elevation of expired NO is an early sign of airway inflammation in asthma and dust inhalation. Animal experiments have demonstrated a marked increase of expired NO after venous gas emboli (bubbles, VGE), which may occur after decompression in conjunction with extravehicular activity (EVA). For this MAP project, astronauts will perform a simple inhalation-exhalation procedure weekly during their flights, and before and after EVA. Furthermore, the microgravity environment offers a possibility to gain new insights into how and where NO is formed in the lungs and what local effects NO may have there. The planned experiments have been made possible by recent developments of new techniques by the team's industrial partners; Aerocrine has developed a highly compact and accurate NO analyser, and Linde Gas Theapeutics has developed a highly compact device for NO administration in the inhaled air.

  16. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  17. Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

  18. Photochemical delivery of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ford, Peter C

    2013-11-01

    There remains considerable interest in developing methods for the targeted delivery of nitric oxide and other small molecule bioregulators such as carbon monoxide to physiological targets. One such strategy is to use a "caged" NO that is "uncaged" by excitation with light. Such photochemical methods convey certain key advantages such as the ability to control the timing, location and dosage of delivery, but also have some important disadvantages, such as the relatively poor penetration of the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths often necessary for the uncaging process. Presented here is an overview of ongoing studies in the author's laboratory exploring new photochemical NO precursors including those with nanomaterial antennas designed to enhance the effectiveness of these precursors with longer excitation wavelengths. PMID:23416089

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, A; Beghetti, M

    2002-01-01

    The nitric oxide pathway plays a pivotal, yet diverse, role in human physiology, including modulation of vascular tone, neural transmission and inflammation. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that has emerged rapidly as an important therapeutic agent. It finds its best applications in paediatrics; the use of iNO in term neonates with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, in the assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity and in the treatment of postoperative pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease is well recognised and accepted. This review details the delivery and monitoring aspects of inhaled nitric oxide, its potential toxic and side effects and its applications in several cardiopulmonary disorders in paediatrics. PMID:22368608

  20. Enhancement of nitric oxide production by association of nitric oxide synthase with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors via

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    Enhancement of nitric oxide production by association of nitric oxide synthase with N-time fluorescence imaging using nitric oxide sensitive dye Hirotaka Ishii,*, Keisuke Shibuya,* Yoshihiro Ohta quantitative study demonstrates that the recruit- ment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) beneath N

  1. Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibition of macrophage nitric oxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Coffey; Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Elizabeth Snella; Susan Pross

    1996-01-01

    ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibited nitric oxide (NO.) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-? (IFN)-?). Inhibition of NO. production was noted at THC concentrations as low as 0.5 ?g\\/mL, and was nearly total at 7 ?g\\/mL. Inhibition was greatest if THC was added 1–4 hr before induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by LPS and

  2. Nitric oxide emissions from engineered soil systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jeffrey Peirce; Viney P. Aneja

    2000-01-01

    Sophisticated laboratory equipment and procedures are developed and used in controlled experiments to measure nitric oxide (NO) emissions ranging from 42 to 75 ng N\\/m²·s from sludge-amended soil of concern to environmental engineers because nitric oxide emitted to the troposphere is a precursor to troublesome ozone formation and also of concern to agricultural engineers because valuable nitrogen as fertilizer is

  3. Nitric oxide synthase activity in mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedram Ghafourifar; Christoph Richter

    1997-01-01

    In the present study we show the existence of a functional nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat liver mitochondria. The enzyme uses l-arginine (l-arg) to produce nitric oxide (NO) and l-citrulline, and is Ca2+-dependent. l-Arg analogues, N?-monomethyl-l-arg and N?-nitro-l-arg, inhibit the enzyme, and d-arginine is not a substrate for it. We found mitochondrial NOS (mtNOS) activity associated with the inner

  4. Chemospheric processes of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and stratosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Brasseur; M. Nicolet

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere and mesosphere is discussed with the aid of a model which introduces the photodissociation of nitric oxide and the formation of nitric acid. The profiles of the nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid concentrations are sensitive to the values of the eddy diffusion coefficients which are adopted. The evaluation of the

  5. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis J. Ignarro; Russell E. Byrns; Daigo Sumi; Filomena de Nigris; Claudio Napoli

    2006-01-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is a rich source of potent flavonoid antioxidants, was tested for its capacity to protect nitric oxide (NO) against oxidative destruction and enhance the biological actions of NO. Employing chemiluminescence headspace analysis, PJ was found to be a potent inhibitor of superoxide anion-mediated disappearance of NO. PJ was much more potent than Concord grape juice, blueberry

  6. Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase promotes diuresis

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rojas, Jazmin M.; Kassem, Kamal M.; Beierwaltes, William H.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume is highly regulated, at least in part, by peripheral resistance and renal function. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase type 3 (NOS 3) in the nonrenal vasculature may promote fluid retention by reducing systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure. In contrast, NO produced by renal NOS 3 promotes water excretion by reducing renal vascular resistance, increasing glomerular filtration, and inhibiting reabsorption along the nephron. Thus, the net effect of NO from NOS 3 on urinary volume (UV) is unclear. We hypothesized that NO produced by NOS 3 promotes water excretion primarily due to renal tubular effects. We gave conscious wild-type and NOS 3 ?/? mice an acute volume load and measured UV, blood pressure, plasma renin concentration (PRC), Na+, vasopressin, and urinary Na+ and creatinine concentrations. To give the acute volume load, we trained mice to drink a large volume of water while in metabolic cages. On the day of the experiment, water was replaced with 1% sucrose, and mice had access to it for 1 h. Volume intake was similar in both groups. Over 3 h, wild-type mice excreted 62 ± 10% of the volume load, but NOS 3 ?/? excreted only 42 ± 5% (P < 0.05). Blood pressure in NOS 3 ?/? was 118 ± 3 compared with 110 ± 2 mmHg in wild-type mice (P < 0.05), but it did not change following volume load in either strain. PRC, vasopressin, and glomerular filtration rate were similar between groups. Urinary Na+ excretion was 49.3 ± 7.0 in wild-type vs. 37.8 ± 6.4 ?mol/3 h in NOS 3 ?/? mice (P < 0.05). Bumetanide administration eliminated the difference in volume excretion between wild-type and NOS 3 ?/? mice. We conclude that 1) NO produced by NOS 3 promotes water and Na+ excretion and 2) the renal epithelial actions of NO produced by NOS 3 supersede the systemic and renal vascular actions. PMID:20147612

  7. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Production by Nitric Oxide Synthase-deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WOLFGANG STEUDEL; MAX KIRMSE; JÖRG WEIMANN; ROMAN ULLRICH; JONATHAN HROMI; WARREN M. ZAPOL

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the nasal cavities, airways, and lungs and is exhaled by normal animals and humans. Although in- creased exhaled NO concentrations in airway inflammation have been associated with increased airway expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS 2), it is uncertain which NOS isoform is responsi- ble for baseline levels of exhaled NO. We therefore

  9. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Steerenberg, Peter A; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the value of exhaled NO (eNO) is an attractive tool for studying pulmonary disease, considering its wide advantages (i.e., fast analysis, noninvasive sampling, ability to measure large numbers of subjects [including children], and inexpensive in use). Increased concentrations of eNO have been observed in asthmatic patients' airway infections, allergic rhinitis, and bronchiectasis. During inflammation, specific and nonspecific stimuli elicit expression and de novo synthesis of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS). Once generated in the bronchiolar cells, NO is released from the tissue and diffuses to the lumen of the bronchiolis. Of the two sampling ways (on-line and off-line), the off-line method is suitable for monitoring environmental health effects of air pollution and for obtaining an impression of the prevalence of atopy in epidemiological surveys. For this off-line measurement, a balloon method is developed (sampling exhaled air at location) that includes a sample device assuring inflation of balloons at a controlled flow rate and back-pressure. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption significantly reduces NO levels in exhaled air because of downregulation of iNOS. Although eNO can be reliably measured and analyzed, the prospective value to detect asthma or allergy is rather low (low sensitivity and low specificity), which makes the diagnostic value of eNO for predicting either allergy or asthma doubtful. Promising results have, however, been observed in corticoid-sparing therapies under guidance of eNO. In addition, measurement of eNO helps to understand the mechanisms of pulmonary disease and may be useful in detecting adverse effects of air pollution. PMID:15199236

  10. Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling in the Central

    E-print Network

    Ganter, Geoffrey

    Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling in the Central Complex of the Grasshopper oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway. The nitric oxide-donor sodium inhibited singing. To identify pu- tative sources of nitric oxide, brains of Ch. biguttulus were subjected

  11. (-)-Epicatechin reduces blood pressure increase in high-fructose-fed rats: effects on the determinants of nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Litterio, Maria C; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A; Adamo, Ana M; Elesgaray, Rosana; Oteiza, Patricia I; Galleano, Monica; Fraga, Cesar G

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin in a model of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a regular chow diet without (Control) or with 10% (w/v) fructose in the drinking water (high fructose, HF) for 8 weeks. A subgroup of the HF-fed rats was supplemented with (-)-epicatechin 20 mg/kg body weight (HF-EC). Dietary (-)-epicatechin reverted the increase in BP caused by the fructose treatment. In aorta, superoxide anion production and the expression of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits p47(phox) and p22(phox) were enhanced in the HF-fed rats. The increase was prevented by (-)-epicatechin. Similar profile was observed for NOX4 expression. The activity of aorta nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was increased in the HF group and was even higher in the HF-EC rats. These effects were paralleled by increased endothelial NOS phosphorylation at the activation site Ser1177. Among the more relevant mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in vascular tissue, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was shown to be activated in the aorta of the HF-fed rats, and (-)-epicatechin supplementation mitigated this activation. Thus, the results suggest that dietary (-)-epicatechin supplementation prevented hypertension in HF-fed rats, decreasing superoxide anion production and elevating NOS activity, favoring an increase in NO bioavailability. PMID:25943039

  12. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  13. Lower thermospheric nitric oxide concentrations derived from WINDII observations of the green nightglow continuum at 553.1 nm

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lower thermospheric nitric oxide concentrations derived from WINDII observations of the green. Vertical pro®les of nitric oxide in the altitude range 90 to 105 km are derived from 553 nm nightglow to determine the nitric oxide concentra- tions, are derived from coordinated WINDII measure- ments

  14. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase competition for L-arginine utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Boucher; C. Moali; J. P. Tenu

    1999-01-01

    .   Nitric oxide (NO) is a recently discovered mediator produced by mammalian cells. It plays a key role in neurotransmission,\\u000a control of blood pressure, and cellular defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyze the oxidation of L-arginine\\u000a to NO and L-citrulline. NOSs are unique enzymes in that they possess on the same polypeptidic chain a reductase domain and\\u000a an oxygenase

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma. A breath nitric oxide test system combines...

  20. A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

  1. Microtubule Reconfiguration during Axonal Retraction Induced by Nitric Oxide

    E-print Network

    Baas, Peter W.

    Microtubule Reconfiguration during Axonal Retraction Induced by Nitric Oxide Yan He, Wenqian Yu study, we sought to test this hypothesis with regard to microtubules. When a donor of nitric oxide that actually caused microtubule levels to increase. The retractions induced by nitric oxide were remarkably

  2. Kinetics of nitric oxide desorption from carbonaceous surfaces

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Kinetics of nitric oxide desorption from carbonaceous surfaces Alejandro Montoya a , Fanor Mondrago of nitrogen-containing chars, the evolution of nitric oxide, (CNO) ! NO+(C*). Density functional theory.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Nitric oxide; Carbonaceous surface; Chars 1. Introduction

  3. Original article Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by dietary phytoestrogen in MCF-7 showed that at a concentration of 40 µg.mL­1, biochanin A decreased the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, thus inhibiting the production of nitric oxide, a known second mes- senger and inducer

  4. Modeling of nitric oxide emissions from temperate agricultural ecosystems.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling of nitric oxide emissions from temperate agricultural ecosystems. M.-N. Rollanda 1 B are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), most of which is derived from nitrogen2 fertilizers. Precise #12;Introduction1 Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically active gas and is involved in tropospheric

  5. Nitric Oxide Is a Volume Transmitter Regulating Postsynaptic Excitability

    E-print Network

    Graham, Bruce

    Neuron Article Nitric Oxide Is a Volume Transmitter Regulating Postsynaptic Excitability *Correspondence: idf@le.ac.uk DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.08.025 SUMMARY Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (n influx. However, its physiological activation and the mecha- nisms by which nitric oxide (NO) influences

  6. Nitric Oxide Myoglobin: Crystal Structure and Analysis of Ligand Geometry

    E-print Network

    Phillips, George N. Jr.

    Nitric Oxide Myoglobin: Crystal Structure and Analysis of Ligand Geometry Eric Allen Brucker,1 John School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio ABSTRACT The structure of the ferrous nitric oxide form of native, the rate of nitric oxide dissociation from myoglobin increases tenfold. Proteins 30:352­356, 1998. 1998

  7. Relationship between exhaled nitric oxide and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Frank, T L; Adisesh, A; Pickering, A C; Morrison, J F; Wright, T; Francis, H; Fletcher, A; Frank, P I; Hannaford, P

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if exhaled nitric oxide levels in children varied according to their asthmatic and atopic status. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured in a sample of 93 children attending the North West Lung Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom, for the clinical evaluation of a respiratory questionnaire being developed as a screening tool in general practice. The clinical assessment included full lung function, skin prick testing, and exercise challenge. Children were said to be asthmatic either by consensus decision of three independent consultant pediatricians, who reviewed all the clinical results except the nitric oxide measurements, or by positive exercise test. Atopic asthmatic children had higher geometric mean exhaled nitric oxide levels (consensus decision, 12.5 ppb [parts per billion] 95% CI, 8.3 to 18. 8; positive exercise test, 12.2 ppb 95% CI, 7.6 to 19.7) than did nonatopic asthmatic children (3.2 ppb 95% CI, 2.3 to 4.6; 3.2 ppb 95% CI, 2.0 to 5.0), atopic nonasthmatic children (3.8 ppb 95% CI, 2. 7 to 5.5; 5.7 ppb 95% CI, 4.1 to 8.0), or nonatopic nonasthmatic children (3.4 ppb 95% CI, 2.8 to 4.1; 3.5 ppb 95% CI, 3.0 to 4.1). Thus, exhaled nitric oxide was raised in atopic asthmatics but not in nonatopic asthmatics, and these nonatopic asthmatics had levels of exhaled nitric oxide similar to those of the nonasthmatics whether atopic or not. PMID:9769256

  8. Nitric Oxide Levels in Disruptive Behavioral Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Varol Tas; Taner Guvenir; Gultekin Tas; Burcu Cakaloz; Murat Ormen

    2006-01-01

    There are various evidences of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there is no clinical study which investigated the role of NO in disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between NO levels and DBD. NO levels were measured in serum from 45 patients diagnosed as having DBD

  9. Nitric oxide and gene regulation in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grun; C. Lindermayr; S. Sell; J. Durner

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that nitric oxide (NO), which was first identified as a unique diffusible molecu- lar messenger in animals, plays an important role in diverse physiological processes in plants. Recent pro- gress that has deepened our understanding of NO signalling functions in plants, with special emphasis on defence signalling, is discussed here. Several stud- ies, based on plants

  10. Angiotensin II and Nitric Oxide Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc de Gasparo

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide degradation linked to endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in cardiovascular diseases. Superoxide producing enzymes such as NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase are responsible for NO degradation as they generate a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, superoxide is rapidly degraded by superoxide dismutase to produce hydrogen peroxide leading to the uncoupling of NO synthase and production

  11. Nitric oxide methods in seed biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous, free radical that is involved in many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Compelling evidence points to a central role for NO in the loss of seed dormancy. NO is highly reactive, toxic at high concentrations, and unstable. Methods f...

  12. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy K. ALDERTON; Chris E. COOPER; Richard G. KNOWLES

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now in- formation on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure.

  13. Copper deficiency attenuates endothelial nitric oxide release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary copper deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to deter...

  14. Stratospheric Nitric Oxide from Infrared Spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ackerman; D. Frimout; C. Muller; D. Nevejans; J.-C. FONTANELLA; A. GIRARD; N. LOUISNARD

    1973-01-01

    AERONOMERS have generally admitted that the abundance of nitric oxide is small in the chemosphere. Its detection and even more its measurement have been regarded as a difficult task. The importance of this species in atmospheric chemistry, however, makes the effort to measure it worthwhile. Data have been obtained up to now by using the resonant scattering of solar ultraviolet

  15. Nitric oxide therapy in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T Gladwin; Alan N Schechter

    2001-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in the pathogenesis and therapy of sickle cell disease. NO, a soluble gas continuously synthesized in endothelial cells by the NO synthase (NOS) enzyme systems, regulates basal vascular tone and endothelial function, and maintains blood oxygenation via hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and reduced shunt physiology. These vital

  16. Nitric Oxide Acutely Inhibits Neuronal Energy Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Brorson; Paul T. Schumacker; He Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Disruption of mitochondrial respiration has been proposed as an action of nitric oxide (NO) responsible for its toxicity, but the effects of NO on the energetics of intact central neurons have not been reported. We examined the effects of NO on mito- chondrial function and energy metabolism in cultured hip- pocampal neurons. The application of NO from NO donors or

  17. New concepts in vascular nitric oxide signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Oeckler; Michael S. Wolin

    2000-01-01

    Low levels of nitric oxide (NO) control the activities of guanylate cyclase and mitochondrial respiration. Increasing NO levels\\u000a interact with multiple signaling systems through the formation of peroxynitrite and other oxidation products. Signaling mechanisms\\u000a linked to NO participate in the prevention of acute responses such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis and the recruitment of\\u000a inflammatory cells. In contrast, processes related to vascular

  18. Increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in retinal neurons in early diabetic retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Giove; Monika M. Deshpande; Christine S. Gagen; William D. Eldred

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There are increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) in diabetic retinas. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) contributes to the increased levels of retinal NO in early diabetic retinopathy by examining the expression and activity of nNOS in retinal neurons after 5 weeks of diabetes. Methods: Changes in NO

  19. Influence of ventilatory settings and sampling position on measurements of simulated exhaled nitric oxide levels.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olivia; Greenough, Anne; Wong, Mei-Ling; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Milner, Anthony D

    2003-02-01

    Chronic lung disease is a common adverse outcome of prematurely born infants and is associated with an early inflammatory response, which persists over weeks. As a consequence, it is possible that exhaled nitric oxide levels might be raised in affected infants. The majority of such infants will be ventilated in the first weeks of birth and thus it is important to determine the influence of mechanical ventilation on nitric oxide levels. As a consequence, our aim was to determine whether, during mechanical ventilation, simulated exhaled nitric oxide levels were influenced by changes in ventilator settings or the sampling catheter position. A lung model was created consisting of a rubber bag inside a 11 jar. An endotracheal tube (ETT) was fixed securely within the neck of the bag. Nitric oxide was delivered into the bag at a constant rate to simulate production and sampled from within the ETT and the bag. The sampled nitric oxide was analysed using a Sievers chemiluminescence analyser. The ETT was attached to a neonatal ventilator and a nitric oxide scavenger placed in the ventilator's inspiratory limb to ensure nitric oxide free gas was delivered. Comparison of different sampling positions revealed that the highest peak nitric oxide level within the ETT was at the tip. Increasing peak inflating pressure and ventilator rate resulted in a decrease in the peak nitric oxide levels. Increasing the inspired oxygen concentration also was associated with a reduction in the peak nitric oxide levels, the effect being more pronounced when larger volume lung models were examined. The results emphasized that the conditions of measurement must be standardized in infants receiving respiratory support, if exhaled nitric oxide results are to be appropriately interpreted. PMID:12636183

  20. A selective nanosensing probe for nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouma, P. I.; Kalyanasundaram, K.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of NO gas in exhaled human breath may be used to monitor oxidative stress and pulmonary diseases. Until now, only bulk, expensive, chemiluminescence-based NO monitors have been available to medicine. A nanosensing probe based on WO3 selectively detecting minute nitric oxide gas concentrations in the presence of interfering volatile compounds is presented. This is possible due to the chemical affinity of rhenium trioxide based phases to oxidizing gases. The NO nanoprobe is expected to lead to portable and affordable, noninvasive, single breath sampling, NO diagnostics.

  1. Cannula sensor for nitric oxide detection

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, S.A. [National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) has received much attention because of its numerous roles in mammalian systems. It has been found in the brain and nervous system to act as a neurotransmitter, in blood vessels as a blood pressure regulator, in the immune system to act as a bactericide and tumorcide, and in other postulated roles as well. Nitric oxide is produced in mammalian cells by the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase. Once produced, NO is oxidized or reacts rapidly with components in living systems and hence has a short half-life. Only a few sensors have been constructed which can detect NO at nanomolar to micromolar levels found in these systems. We are currently examining the use of a cannula sensor employing oxyhemoglobin for NO detection. This sensor continuously draws in liquid sample at a low rate and immediately reacts it with oxyhemoglobin. The absorbance changes which accompany the reaction are monitored. The sensor has a linear response range from approximately 50 to 1000 nM of NO in aqueous solution. Its utility in monitoring NO produced by stimulated murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) in culture is currently being examined. The sensor design is generic in that it can also employ fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection chemistries which may allow lower detection limits to be achieved. Details of the sensor`s performance will be given.

  2. Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Rauhala, Pekka [Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, Biomedicum Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, University of Helsinki 00014, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: pekka.rauhala@helsinki.fi; Andoh, Tsugunobu [Department of Applied Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama (Japan); Chiueh, C.C. [Laboratory of Clinical Sciences, NIMH, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 29892-1264 (United States); Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Sing Street, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2005-09-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis may play an important role in the neurodegeneration. The present paper outlines antioxidative and antiapototic mechanisms of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols, which could mediate neuroprotection. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthase or released from an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione may up-regulate antioxidative thioredoxin system and antiapototic Bcl-2 protein through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nitric oxide radicals have been shown to have direct antioxidant effect through their reaction with free radicals and iron-oxygen complexes. In addition to serving as a stabilizer and carrier of nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione may have protective effect through transnitrosylation reactions. Based on these new findings, a hypothesis arises that the homeostasis of nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, glutathione, and thioredoxin systems is important for protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and related neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Detection of hydrazine compounds in gaseous samples by their conversion to nitric oxide-yielding derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rounbehler, D.P.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a method of detecting the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in a gaseous sample, essentially in real time. The method consists of the steps of: (a) contacting a gaseous sample with aldehyde or ketone vapors to convert hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the sample to hydrazine derivatives; (b) heating the sample in the presence of an oxidant to decompose derivatives produced in steps (a) to produce nitric oxide gas; and (c) determining the amount of nitric oxide gas produced in step (b), wherein any nitric oxide gas determined is indicative of the presence of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in the gaseous sample.

  4. Pulsed EPR Determination of Distance between Heme Iron and FMN Centers in a Human Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, Andrei V.; Elmore, Bradley O.; Fan, Weihong; Guillemette, J. Guy; Feng, Changjian

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian NOS is a homodimeric flavo-hemoprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of l-arginine to NO. Regulation of NO biosynthesis by NOS is primarily through control of interdomain electron transfer (IET) processes in NOS catalysis. The IET from the FMN to heme domains is essential in the delivery of electrons required for O2 activation in the heme domain and the subsequent NO synthesis by NOS. The NOS output state for NO production is an IET-competent complex of the FMN-binding domain and heme domain, and thereby it facilitates the IET from the FMN to the catalytic heme site. The structure of the functional output state has not yet been determined. In the absence of crystal structure data for NOS holoenzyme, it is important to experimentally determine the Fe?FMN distance to provide a key calibration for computational docking studies and for the IET kinetics studies. Here we used the relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) technique to measure the electron spin echo envelope modulation caused by the dipole interactions between paramagnetic FMN and heme iron centers in the [Fe(III)][FMNH•] form of a human iNOS oxygenase/FMN bi-domain construct. The FMNH•?Fe distance has been directly determined from the RIDME spectrum. This distance (18.8 ± 0.1 Å) is in excellent agreement with the IET rate constant measured by laser flash photolysis. PMID:20695464

  5. Nitric oxide synthases and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Sanskriti; Singh, Gurinder Bir; Khullar, Madhu

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes significantly contribute to high mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), although extensively researched upon, is partially understood. Impairment in various signaling pathways including nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes induced myocardial damage. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS), the enzymes responsible for NO generation, play an important role in various physiological processes. Altered expression and activity of NOS have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of NOS and their regulation in the pathogenesis of DCM remain poorly understood. In the present review, we focus on the role of myocardial NOS in the development of DCM. Since epigenetic modifications play an important role in regulation of gene expression, this review also describes the epigenetic regulation of NOS. PMID:25153033

  6. Nitric oxide in legume–rhizobium symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliane Meilhoc; Alexandre Boscari; Claude Bruand; Alain Puppo; Renaud Brouquisse

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule with a broad spectrum of regulatory functions in plant growth and development. NO has been found to be involved in various pathogenic or symbiotic plant–microbe interactions. During the last decade, increasing evidence of the occurrence of NO during legume–rhizobium symbioses has been reported, from early steps of plant–bacteria interaction, to the nitrogen-fixing

  7. Nitric oxide in neuroimmune feedback signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa L. Krukoff; Wendy W. Yang

    2001-01-01

    The gaseous neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. NO donors attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in vitro and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors potentiate and prolong activation of the HPA axis by LPS in vivo. Changes in activities of the NO synthase isoforms, neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS),

  8. Hypoxie Mammalian Cell Radiosensitization by Nitric Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Mitchell; David A. Wink; William DeGraff; Janet Gamson; Larry K. Keefer; Murali C. Krishna

    1993-01-01

    The bioregulatory molecule, nitric oxide (NO), was evaluated as a liy- poxic cell radiosensitizer. Authentic NO gas was nearly as effective as oxygen in radiosensitizing hypoxic Chinese hamster V79 lung cells as evaluated using clonogenic assays. When NO was delivered to hypoxic Chinese hamster V79 cells using the NO-releasing agent i( ',lls),N(N(())- NO| NV, radiosensitization was also observed with a

  9. Nitric oxide production in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H R; Carcillo, J A; Burckart, G; Kaplan, S S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure serum nitrite and nitrate levels in critically ill children as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production. HYPOTHESIS: Endogenous NO production is increased in children with conditions characterised by immune stimulation. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study in a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 137 consecutive critically ill children with a variety of clinical conditions. INTERVENTIONS: Using a rapid microtitre plate technique, daily serum nitrite and nitrate levels were measured from serum samples that remained in the clinical laboratory after daily routine phlebotomy. Clinical and laboratory information was also gathered daily for each patient. RESULTS: The maximum serum nitrite plus nitrate levels (microM) reached by children with infection (41.8 (SD 18.1)), sepsis syndrome (85.1 (39.9)), shock without sepsis (36.4 (19.1)), transplantation alone (61.0 (43.4)), transplantation with sepsis (200.7 (150.5)), or rejection (161.7 (70.4)), were higher than in controls (18.1 (9.3)). In the absence of exogenous NO donors, levels greater than 80 microM were reached only in children with the sepsis syndrome, organ transplantation, or acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Increased endogenous NO production occurs in children with clinical conditions associated with immune stimulation. Further investigation is warranted to determine the value of this simple and rapid test as a clinically useful diagnostic tool and therapeutic monitor in the evaluation of children at risk for the sepsis syndrome or acute allograft rejection. PMID:8758122

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of askale coal by nitric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guru, M. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Efficient use of fossil fuels is of utmost importance in a world that depends on these for the greatest part of its energy needs. Although lignite is a widely used fossil fuel, its sulfur content limits its consumption. This study aims to capture combustible sulfur in the ash by oxidizing it with solution of nitric acid solution. Thus, the combustible sulfur in the coal was converted to sulfate form in the ash. Parameters affecting the conversion of sulfur were determined to be nitric acid concentration, reaction time and mean particle size at constant (near room) temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 38.7% of the original combustible sulfur with 0.3 M nitric acid solution, 16 h of reaction time and 0.1 mm mean particle size.

  11. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  12. Inhaled L-Arginine Improves Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Pulmonary Function in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Grasemann; Fionn Kurtz; Felix Ratjen

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Nitric oxide formation is deficient in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Since nitric oxide has bronchodilatory ef- fects, nitric oxide deficiency may contribute to airway obstruction in CF. Objectives: We reasoned that inhalation of L-arginine, the precursor of enzymatic nitric oxide formation, could improve airway nitric oxide formation and pulmonary function in patients with CF. Measurements: Exhaled

  13. Nitric oxide and clustering of metabolic syndrome components in pediatrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asghar Ghasemi; Saleh Zahediasl; Fereidoun Azizi

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the risk factor pattern of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in association with serum nitric\\u000a oxide metabolites (NO\\u000a x\\u000a ) in children and adolescents. The study included 851 children and adolescents, aged 4–19 years. The MetS was defined according\\u000a to modified Adult treatment Panel III criteria. Cluster analysis was performed using principle components analysis with varimax

  14. Nitric Oxide: An Endogenous Modulator of Leukocyte Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kubes; M. Suzuki; D. N. Granger

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) inhibits leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. This was accomplished by superfusing a cat mesenteric preparation with inhibitors of NO production, N^G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and observing single (30-mu m diameter) venules by intravital video microscopy. Thirty minutes into the superfusion period the number of

  15. Nitric oxide modulation of norepinephrine production in acupuncture points

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Xu Chen; Basil O. Ibe; Sheng-Xing Ma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of norepinephrine (NE) turnover in skin tissues and to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on NE production in acupuncture points (acupoints) and meridians. The rats were pretreated with ?-methyl-tyrosine methyl ester and intravenously infused with l-(2,3,5,6-3H)-tyrosine. Blood was withdrawn and skin tissues were excised from the low skin

  16. Estrogen Increases Endothelial Nitric Oxide by a Receptor Mediated System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hayashi; K. Yamada; T. Esaki; M. Kuzuya; S. Satake; T. Ishikawa; H. Hidaka; A. Iguchi

    1995-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of the antiatherosclerotic effect of estrogen, we investigated the effect of estrogen on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3). Preincubation with a physiologic concentration of 17 ?-estradiol (10?12-10?8 M) over 8 hours significantly enhanced the activity of NOS-3 in endothelial cells of cultured human umblical vein (HUVEC) and of bovine aortas (BAEC). 17 ?-estradiol also enhanced the

  17. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Glück; Ingrid Merkle; Gesche Dornberger; Axel Stelzner

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule with regulatory, cytotoxic or cytoprotective properties. In virus-induced myocarditis, NO mediates host defense mechanisms against the infection or causes cardiac dysfunctions. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is regulated by cytokines, involved in the

  18. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anterior Segment Physiology in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W.; Kiland, Julie A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), on IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pupil diameter (PD), refraction (Rfx), aqueous humor formation (AHF), and outflow facility (OF) in monkeys. Methods. Monkeys were treated with single or multiple topical treatments of 500 ?g SNP or L-NAME to one eye. IOP was determined by Goldmann applanation tonometry, PD with vernier calipers in room light, Rfx by Hartinger coincidence refractometry, AHF by fluorophotometry, and MAP with a blood pressure monitor. OF was determined by two-level constant pressure perfusion following anterior chamber exchange. Results. Following four topical treatments with 500 ?g SNP, 30 minutes apart, IOP was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 hours compared with the contralateral control with the maximum IOP reduction of 20% at 3 hours (P < 0.001). PD, Rfx, and AHF were unchanged. Effects on MAP were variable. OF after SNP exchange was significantly increased by 77% (P < 0.05) at 10?3 M. Topical L-NAME had no effect on IOP, PD, Rfx, or MAP. Conclusions. Enhancement of nitric oxide concentration at targeted tissues in the anterior segment may be a useful approach for IOP reduction for glaucoma therapy. Additional studies are warranted before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of NOS inhibition on ocular physiology in nonhuman primates. PMID:23800771

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  20. Nitric oxide, oxidants, and protein tyrosine nitration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Radi

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of protein tyrosine nitration under disease conditions is now firmly established and represents a shift from the signal transducing physiological actions of NO to oxidative and potentially pathogenic pathways. Tyrosine nitration is mediated by reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formed as secondary products of NO metabolism in the presence of oxidants

  1. Development of sensors for nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, S.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) in mammalian systems has recently been recognized. Interest in NO stems from the discovery of its role in several processes. Firstly, NO is found to be an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Release of NO by endothelial cells lining blood vessels causes the surrounding smooth muscle of the vessel walls to relax. Secondly, it is known to inhibit the aggregation and adhesion of platelets in blood vessels. Thirdly, NO is believed to be formed by activated macrophage cells to assist in killing foreign cells. Lastly, NO acts in the brain both as a feedback messenger from post- to presynaptic nerve cells and as a conventional neurotransmitter affecting cells other than presynaptic nerve cells. In addition to these roles, it is likely that NO is involved in other processes given its reactivity and potential presence in all mammalian cells. Measurement of NO flux within biological systems is a challenging problem as NO is generated in the nanomolar to micromolar range and is subject to rapid oxidation. The three most common assay techniques for NO in biological systems include: (a) electron paramagnetic resonance detection, (b) hemoglobin oxidation, and (c) chemiluminescence detection with ozone. The authors have initiated research on the construction of a hemoglobin-based, fiber-optic sensor for the detection of nitric oxide in biological systems and progress toward this goal will be presented.

  2. Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: A little goes a long way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Hummel; Anthony J. Fischer; Sean M. Martin; Freya Q. Schafer; Garry R. Buettner

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant in free radical-mediated lipid oxidation (LPO). It reacts rapidly with peroxyl radicals as a sacrificial chain-terminating antioxidant. The goal of this work was to determine the minimum threshold concentration of NO required to inhibit Fe2+-induced cellular lipid peroxidation. Using oxygen consumption as a measure of LPO, we simultaneously measured nitric oxide and

  3. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Antiphospholipid Antibody-Mediated Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mineo, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss occurring in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Along with arterial and venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications, patients with APS have an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and coronary artery disease, resulting from vascular cell dysfunction induced by aPL. Accumulating evidence to date indicates that interactions between circulating aPL and cell surface molecules of target cells, primarily endothelial cells and platelets, underlie the vascular disease phenotypes of APS. However, the molecular basis of APS is poorly understood. Nitric oxide produced by endothelial cells is a key determinant of vascular health that regulates several physiologic processes including thrombosis, endothelial-leukocyte interaction, vascular cell migration, and the modulation of vascular tone. This review will discuss recent findings that indicate a novel mechanism by which aPL antagonize endothelial cell production of nitric oxide and thereby promote thrombosis. PMID:23519891

  4. Oxidation of nitric oxide by a new heterotrophic Pseudomonas sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Koschorreck; Edward Moore; Ralf Conrad

    1996-01-01

    A new bacterial strain isolated from soil consumed nitric oxide (NO) under oxic conditions by oxidation to nitrate. Phenotypic\\u000a and phylogenetic characterization of the new strain PS88 showed that it represents a previously unknown species of the genus\\u000a Pseudomonas, closely related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. The heterotrophic, obligately aerobic strain PS88 was not able to denitrify or nitrify;

  5. Removal of nitric oxide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarenko, G.S.; Markova, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    In order to localize the process of oxidation and extraction of nitric oxide from coke oven gas the absorption method was investigated where the oxidizing and absorbing agent was an ozone-saturated solvent, chemically inert for oxidizers. The principal stages of the process are the generation of the ozone, preparation of the ozone treated solvent and the treatment of the coke oven gas. The investigations were conducted on a model laboratory apparatus. The ozone was synthesized in a type LG0-15 generator. Water was saturated with the ozone by means of dispersion: the saturation time was 50 to 600 sec, and the saturation temperatures 3 and 22/sup 0/C. In the treatment stage the coke oven was washed in a packed absorption column with a gas phase load of 26 to 30 m/sup 3//m/sup 2/h. The degree of oxidation did not exceed 5%. The theoretical time of contact of the gas with the ozone-treated water was 2.0 to 2.5 sec. The pressure was 908 +- 1 kPa. The ozone concentration in the liquid phase was determined iodometrically, and the nitric oxide concentration before and after treatment was determined by the standard method.

  6. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants Notice...Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants...development, and brain function. Nitric oxide is a chemical compound in gas...

  7. Estimation of atomic oxygen concentrations from measured intensities of infrared nitric oxide radiation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Estimation of atomic oxygen concentrations from measured intensities of infrared nitric oxide Abstract. The vibrational distribution of nitric oxide in the polar ionosphere computed according chemistry and composition). Introduction Nitric oxide molecules have a valent electron and take an active

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Thi Hien; Nak Doo Kim; Yuba Raj Pokharel; Seok Jeong Oh; Moo Yeol Lee; Keon Wook Kang

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells.

  9. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Paul R. S.; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Groeger, Alison L.; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H.; Iles, Karen E.; Baker, Laura M. S.; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 ± 52 and 302 ± 369 nM, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 ± 11 and 155 ± 65 nM. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is ~50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 ?M. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR? expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPAR? showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nM, while PPAR? and PPAR? were activated at ~300 nM OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR?-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  10. TRPV3 regulates nitric oxide synthase-independent nitric oxide synthesis in the skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Miyamoto; Matt J. Petrus; Adrienne E. Dubin; Ardem Patapoutian

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an unstable signalling molecule synthesized de novo mainly from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) enzymes. Nitrite reduction can also produce NO, predominantly within body fluids (for example, saliva, sweat and blood plasma) and under extreme hypoxic and acidic conditions. It remains unknown if intracellular canonical signalling pathways regulate nitrite-dependent NO production. Here we examine NO production

  11. Continuous Nitric Oxide Synthesis by Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Normal Human Airway Epithelium in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuhua H. Guo; Hilde R. de Raeve; Thomas W. Rice; Dennis J. Stuehr; Frederic B. J. M. Thunnissen; Serpil C. Erzurum

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of inflammatory responses in the lung and a key regulator of bronchomotor tone. An airway NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) has been proposed as a source of endogenous NO in the lung but has not been clearly defined. Through molecular cloning, we conclusively demonstrate that NO synthesis in normal human airways is due

  12. Comparative pharmacology of nitric oxide and nitric oxide generators on cardiac contractility in mammalian species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan M Lefer; Toyoaki Murohara

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasorelaxing agent at nanomolar concentrations. At low nanomolar concentrations, NO also inhibits platelet aggregation, attenuates leukocyte adherence to the vascular endothelium, and quenches superoxide radicals. At high nanomolar concentrations, NO attenuates smooth muscle cells growth and stimulates proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. However, even at micromolar concentrations, NO fails to significantly alter cardiac contractility

  13. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for postharvest pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Four insect species including western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae); aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae); confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at various life stages were fumigated with 0.1-2.0% nitric oxide under ultralow oxygen levels of < or = 50 ppm in 1.9-liter glass jars at 2-25 degrees C depending on insect species. Fumigations were effective against all four insect species. Efficacy of nitric oxide fumigation increased with nitric oxide concentration, treatment time, and temperature. There were also considerable variations among insect species as well as life stages in susceptibility to nitric oxide fumigation. Complete control of thrips was achieved in 2 and 8 h with 2.0 and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively, at 2 degrees C. At the same temperature, complete control of the aphid was achieved in 3, 9, and 12 h with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively. Larvae, pupae, and adults of confused flour beetle were effectively controlled in 24 h with 0.5% nitric oxide at 20 degrees C. Complete mortality of confused flour beetle eggs was achieved in 24 h with 2.0% nitric oxide at 10 degrees C. Rice weevil adults and eggs were effectively controlled with 1.0% nitric oxide in 24 and 48 h, respectively, at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that nitric oxide has potential as a fumigant for postharvest pest control. PMID:24498723

  14. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) genes and risks of peripheral arterial disease and coronary heart disease: Edinburgh artery study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. R Fowkes; A. J Lee; C. M Hau; A Cooke; J. M Connor; G. D. O Lowe

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia and reduced nitric oxide synthesis may each result in endothelial dysfunction predisposing to atherogenesis. Genetic variants of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) influence homocysteine metabolism and nitric oxide synthesis, respectively and might thus be determinants of the risk of atherosclerotic disease. The aim of our study was to identify, in a general population sample,

  15. Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds

    E-print Network

    Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of placental nitric oxide synthase expression in preeclampsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed S. Ghabour; Annie L. W. Eis; Diane E. Brockman; Jennifer S. Pollock; Leslie Myatt

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the placenta and umbilical cord of preeclamptic placenta with that of the normotensive placenta.STUDY DESIGN: We compared placental endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in preeclamptic (n = 3) with that in normal (n = 3) pregnancies. Frozen sections of umbilical cords, chorionic plate vessels, and terminal

  17. Nitric oxide mediated recovery sleep is attenuated with aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsi-Marja Rytkönen; Henna-Kaisa Wigren; Andrey Kostin; Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen; Anna V. Kalinchuk

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in adenosine (AD) release and induction of recovery sleep. Aging is associated with impairments in sleep homeostasis, such as decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) intensity following SD. We hypothesized that age related changes in sleep homeostasis

  18. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked…

  19. Iron Deficiency Diminishes Gallbladder Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Swartz-Basile; Matthew I. Goldblatt; Cindy Blaser; Philip A. Decker; Steven A. Ahrendt; Sushil K. Sarna; Henry A. Pitt

    2000-01-01

    Background. Iron deficiency has been demonstrated in the prairie dog to result in cholesterol crystal formation and altered biliary motility. Gallbladder filling and emptying are influenced by both inhibitory and excitatory stimuli, with nitric oxide (NO) playing a key role in normal relaxation. Iron is a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that iron deficiency would

  20. DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

  1. Measurement of nitric oxide with an antimonide diode laser

    E-print Network

    Measurement of nitric oxide with an antimonide diode laser Daniel B. Oh and Alan C. Stanton cooling is not required. © 1997 Optical Society of America Key words: Diode laser, antimonide, nitric oxide, gas sensing, absorption spectroscopy. 1. Introduction Semiconductor diode lasers, including lead

  2. Corrigendum Corrigendum to ``Erythrocyte nitric oxide transport reduced

    E-print Network

    Gimzewski, James

    Corrigendum Corrigendum to ``Erythrocyte nitric oxide transport reduced by a submembrane http://www.elsevier.com/locate/bba BBAGEN-26016; No of Pages 1; 4C: #12;Regular paper Erythrocyte; Erythrocyte; Red blood cell; Cytoskeleton; Membrane 1. Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously produced

  3. Adrenoceptor-activated Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Salivary Acinar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Looms; S. Dissing; K. Tritsaris; A. M. Pedersen; B. Nauntofte

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid

  4. Chemistry of nitric oxide and related species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Martin N

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has essential roles in a remarkable number of diverse biological processes. The reactivity of NO depends upon its physical properties, such as its small size, high diffusion rate, and lipophilicity (resulting in its accumulation in hydrophobic regions), and also on its facile but selective chemical reactivity toward a variety of cellular targets. NO also undergoes reactions with oxygen, superoxide ions, and reducing agents to give products that themselves show distinctive reactivity toward particular targets, sometimes with the manifestation of toxic effects, such as nitrosative stress. These include nitroxyl (HNO), the oxides NO2/N2O4, and N2O3, peroxynitrite, and S-nitrosothiols (RSNO). HNO is attracting considerable attention due to its pharmacological properties, which appear to be distinct from those of NO, and that may be significant in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:18237624

  5. Nitric oxide from a "green" perspective.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2015-02-15

    The molecule nitric oxide (NO) which is involved in practically all biochemical and physiological plant processes has become a subject for plant research. However, there remain many unanswered questions concerning how, where and when this molecule is enzymatically generated in higher plants. This mini-review aims to provide an overview of NO in plants for those readers unfamiliar with this field of research. The review will therefore discuss the importance of NO in higher plants at the physiological and biochemical levels, its involvement in designated nitro-oxidative stresses in response to adverse abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, NO emission/uptake from plants, beneficial plant-microbial interactions, and its potential application in the biotechnological fields of agriculture and food nutrition. PMID:25638488

  6. Nitric oxide availability as a marker of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pierini, Dan; Bryan, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is widely considered one of the most important molecules produced in the human body, acting as a necessary regulator in a vast array of vital physiological functions, namely, blood pressure, immune response, and neural communication. Healthy endothelium is defined by the ability to produce adequate levels of NO. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in NO-based cell signaling. ROS can affect NO availability both from production to post-production scavenging and lead to a myriad of vascular disorders due to compromised NO functionality. In 2004, it was identified in animal models that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of hypertension, in part by inactivation of NO (Ghosh et al., Br J Pharmacol 141(4):562-573, 2004). It was thus concluded that NO bioavailability was reduced in the presence of ROS. We speculated that the accurate detection of NO and quantification in biological matrices is critical as a marker of oxidative stress (Bryan et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(12):4308-4313, 2004). The elucidation of new mechanisms and signaling pathways involving NO hinges on our ability to specifically, selectively, and sensitively detect and quantify NO and all relevant NO products and metabolites in complex biological matrices. Here, we present a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of nitrite and nitrate by HPLC as well as detection of free NO in biological samples using in vitro ozone-based chemiluminescence with chemical derivatization to determine molecular source of NO as well as ex vivo with organ bath myography. This approach ties fundamental biochemistry to functional response. PMID:25323499

  7. Plant pathogenic Streptomyces species produce nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in response to host signals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking...

  8. Changes in nitric oxide sinthase, nitric oxide, lipid pexodidation and melatonin in hypertensive patients treated with lacidipine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Escames; L. González; V. Gallego; F. Vives; H. Khaldy; L. Bikjdaouene; J. León; A. Rodriguez; P. Aranda; D. Acuña

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Arterial hypertension (AH) produces changes in the nitric oxide sinthase (NOS)\\/nitric oxide (NO) system. NO produces peroxinitrites and hydroxyl radicals that, in turn, induce peroxidation of membrane lipids (LPO). On the other hand, melatonin has a free radical scavenger and its protective role as antioxidant is well stablised. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (i) changes in

  9. Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level in relation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level and Environment of Asthma; FeNO, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide; NO, Nitric Oxide; NO2 - , Nitrite; NO3 oxide" pathway, are nitric oxide (NO), nitrites (NO2 - ) and nitrates (NO3 - ), which are indirect

  10. Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, A.S.; López-Rodríguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z.; Saavedra-Alanís, V.M.; Llamazares-Azuara, L.; Rodríguez-Martínez, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP?LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi?10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ?50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P?0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT. PMID:24141614

  11. Heat Reduces Nitric Oxide Production Required for Auxin-Mediated Gene Expression and Fate Determination in Tree Tobacco Guard Cell Protoplasts1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Robert A.; Anderson, David J.; Bufford, Jennifer L.; Tallman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to expand 20- to 30-fold, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, and divide. At higher temperatures (34°C or greater), GCPs expand only 5- to 6-fold; they do not regenerate walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, or divide. Heat (38°C) suppresses activation of the BA auxin-responsive transgene promoter in tree tobacco GCPs, suggesting that inhibition of cell expansion and cell cycle reentry at high temperatures is due to suppressed auxin signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in auxin signaling in other plant systems. Here, we show that heat inhibits NO accumulation by GCPs and that l-NG-monomethyl arginine, an inhibitor of NO production in animals and plants, mimics the effects of heat by limiting cell expansion and preventing cell wall regeneration; inhibiting cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and cell division; and suppressing activation of the BA auxin-responsive promoter. We also show that heat and l-NG-monomethyl arginine reduce the mitotic indices of primary root meristems and inhibit lateral root elongation similarly. These data link reduced NO levels to suppressed auxin signaling in heat-stressed cells and seedlings of thermotolerant plants and suggest that even plants that have evolved to withstand sustained high temperatures may still be negatively impacted by heat stress. PMID:22730424

  12. Original Contribution Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: A little goes a long way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Hummel; Anthony J. Fischer; Sean M. Martin; Freya Q. Schafer; Garry R. Buettner

    Nitric oxide (NO S) is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant in free radical-mediated lipid oxidation (LPO). It reacts rapidly with peroxyl radicals as a sacrificial chain-terminating antioxidant. The goal of this work was to determine the minimum threshold concentration of NO S required to inhibit Fe2+-induced cellular lipid peroxidation. Using oxygen consumption as a measure of LPO, we simultaneously measured nitric

  13. Nitric oxide in biological fluids: analysis of nitrite and nitrate by high-performance ion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Everett; Madeleine F. Dennis; Gillian M. Tozer; Vivien E. Prise; Peter Wardman; Michael R. L. Stratford

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of nitric oxide-derived nitrite and nitrate ions in biological fluids represents a proven strategy for determining nitric oxide participation in a diverse range of physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo. In this article we describe a versatile method for the simultaneous measurement of NO2? and NO3? anions in both plasma and isolated tumour models based on anion-exchange chromatography

  14. Nitric oxide synthase expression in cervical spinal cord in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Wong; M. J. Strong

    1998-01-01

    Nitration of neurofilament (NF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Evidence of such includes elevated 3-nitrotyrosine levels in spinal cord tissue and localized nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity with neurofilamentous aggregates in cortical and spinal motor neurons. To determine if neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) are the sources of nitric oxide in sporadic ALS

  15. Nitric oxide and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Harold Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial cells to relax vascular smooth muscle is one of the most intensely studied molecules in the past 25 years. Much of what is known about NO regulation of NO is based on blockade of its generation and analysis of changes in vascular regulation. This approach has been useful to demonstrate the importance of NO in large scale forms of regulation but provides less information on the nuances of NO regulation. However, there is a growing body of studies on multiple types of in vivo measurement of NO in normal and pathological conditions. This discussion will focus on in vivo studies and how they are reshaping the understanding of NO's role in vascular resistance regulation and the pathologies of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The role of microelectrode measurements in the measurement of [NO] will be considered because much of the controversy about what NO does and at what concentration depends upon the measurement methodology. For those studies where the technology has been tested and found to be well founded, the concept evolving is that the stresses imposed on the vasculature in the form of flow-mediated stimulation, chemicals within the tissue, and oxygen tension can cause rapid and large changes in the NO concentration to affect vascular regulation. All these functions are compromised in both animal and human forms of hypertension and diabetes mellitus due to altered regulation of endothelial cells and formation of oxidants that both damage endothelial cells and change the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:25880514

  16. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or purified drugs derived from Chinese medicinal herbs with proposed actions on NO pathways are also reviewed. PMID:12940876

  17. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  18. Efficient nitrosation of glutathione by nitric oxide?

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnik, Bernd; Palten, Knut; Schrammel, Astrid; Stessel, Heike; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosothiols are increasingly regarded as important participants in a range of physiological processes, yet little is known about their biological generation. Nitrosothiols can be formed from the corresponding thiols by nitric oxide in a reaction that requires the presence of oxygen and is mediated by reactive intermediates (NO2 or N2O3) formed in the course of NO autoxidation. Because the autoxidation of NO is second order in NO, it is extremely slow at submicromolar NO concentrations, casting doubt on its physiological relevance. In this paper we present evidence that at submicromolar NO concentrations the aerobic nitrosation of glutathione does not involve NO autoxidation but a reaction that is first order in NO. We show that this reaction produces nitrosoglutathione efficiently in a reaction that is strongly stimulated by physiological concentrations of Mg2+. These observations suggest that direct aerobic nitrosation may represent a physiologically relevant pathway of nitrosothiol formation. PMID:23660531

  19. The emerging multifaceted roles of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, P C; Schroeder, R A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical with a multitude of organ specific regulatory functions. Since 1985, NO has been the subject of numerous research efforts and as a result, has been found to play a major role in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous systems. In addition, deranged NO synthesis is the basis for a number of pathophysiologic states, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, pyloric stenosis, and the hypertension associated with renal failure. Traditional NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside and new pharmacologic NO adducts such as S-nitrosothiols may serve as exogenous sources of NO for the treatment of NO-deficient pathologic states. This review is an attempt to acquaint the surgical community with the fundamentals of NO biochemistry and physiology. Increased knowledge of its functions in normal homeostasis and pathologic states will enable physicians to better understand these disease processes and utilize new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:7717775

  20. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  1. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Electrospun Polymer Microfibers

    PubMed Central

    Coneski, Peter N.; Nash, Jessica A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of electrospun polymer microfibers with nitric oxide (NO)-release capabilities is described. Polymer solutions containing disodium 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO), a low molecular weight NO donor, were electrospun to generate fibers ranging from 100–3000 nm in diameter capable of releasing NO upon immersion in aqueous solutions under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C), with kinetics depending on polymer composition and fiber diameter. The NO release half-life for PROLI/NO-doped electrospun fibers was 2–200 times longer than that of PROLI/NO alone. The influence of polymer concentration, applied voltage, capillary diameter, solution conductivity, flow rate, and additives on fiber properties are reported and discussed with respect to potential applications. PMID:21250642

  2. Nitric Oxide Regulation of Bacterial Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Arora, Dhruv P; Hossain, Sajjad; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-23

    Biofilms are surface-associated, multicellular communities of bacteria. Once established, they are extremely difficult to eradicate by antimicrobial treatment. It has been demonstrated in many species that biofilm formation may be regulated by the diatomic signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Although this is still a relatively new area of research, we review here the literature reporting an effect of NO on bacterial biofilm formation, emphasizing dose-dependent responses to NO concentrations when possible. Where it has been investigated, the underlying NO sensors or signaling pathways are also discussed. Most of the examples of NO-mediated biofilm regulation have been documented with exogenously applied NO, but we also survey possible natural sources of NO in biofilm regulation, including endogenously generated NO. Finally, because of the apparent broad-spectrum, antibiofilm effects of NO, NO-releasing materials and prodrugs have also been explored in this minireview. PMID:25996573

  3. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NO’s pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  4. Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.

    PubMed

    Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere. PMID:24797527

  5. Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibition of macrophage nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R G; Yamamoto, Y; Snella, E; Pross, S

    1996-09-13

    delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma). Inhibition of NO production was noted at THC concentrations as low as 0.5 microgram/mL, and was nearly total at 7 micrograms/mL. Inhibition was greatest if THC was added 1-4 hr before induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by LPS and IFN-gamma, and declined with time after addition of the inducing agents. This suggested that an early step such as NOS gene transcription or NOS synthesis, rather than NOS activity, was affected by THC. Steady-state levels of mRNA for NOS were not affected by THC. In contrast, protein synthesis was inhibited as indicated by immunoblotting. NOS activity was also decreased in the cytosol of cells pretreated with THC. Addition of excess cofactors did not restore activity. Inhibition of NO production was greater at low levels of IFN-gamma, indicating the ability of the cytokine to overcome inhibition. The effectiveness of various THC analogues, in decreasing order of potency, was delta 8-THC > delta 9-THC > cannabidiol > or = 11-OH-THC > cannabinol. The presumably inactive stereoisomer, (+)delta 9-THC, and the endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, anandamide, were weakly inhibitory. Inhibition may be mediated by a process that depends partly on stereoselective receptors and partly on a nonselective process. LPS, IFN-gamma, hormone receptor agonists, and forskolin increased macrophage cyclic AMP levels. THC inhibited this increase, indicating functional cannabinoid receptors. Addition of 8-bromocyclic AMP increased NO 2-fold, and partially restored NO production that had been inhibited by THC. This occurred only under conditions of limited NOS induction, suggesting that the effect of THC on cyclic AMP was responsible for only a small portion of the inhibition of NO. PMID:8765472

  6. Nitric oxide system and diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    About 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop clinically overt nephropathy. Hyperglycemia is necessary, but not sufficient, to cause the renal damage that leads to kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial disorder that results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors. In the present article we will review the role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous lipophilic molecule produced in almost all tissues, and it has three distinct genes that encode three NOS isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS). The correct function of the endothelium depends on NO, participating in hemostasis control, vascular tone regulation, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and blood pressure homeostasis, among other features. In the kidney, NO plays many different roles, including control of renal and glomerular hemodynamics. The net effect of NO in the kidney is to promote natriuresis and diuresis, along with renal adaptation to dietary salt intake. The eNOS gene has been considered a potential candidate gene for DN susceptibility. Three polymorphisms have been extensively researched: G894T missense mutation (rs1799983), a 27-bp repeat in intron 4, and the T786C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (rs2070744). However, the potential link between eNOS gene variants and the induction and progression of DN yielded contradictory results in the literature. In conclusion, NOS seems to be involve in the development and progression of DN. Despite the discrepant results of many studies, the eNOS gene is also a good candidate gene for DN. PMID:24520999

  7. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  8. Effect of Long-term Passive Smoking on Erectile Function and Penile Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yining Xie; Hermes Garban; Chris Ng; Jacob Rajfer; Nestor F. Gonzalez-Cadavid

    1997-01-01

    PurposeGiven that smoking is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction, this study aimed to determine, in a rat model, whether long-term exposure to cigarette smoke impairs nitric oxide (NO)-dependent erectile function and reduces penile nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and if these changes are accompanied with effects on the systemic blood pressure.

  9. The Significance of Nitric Oxide for Parasympathetic Vasodilation in the Eye and other Orbital Tissues in the Cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIV F. E. NILSSON

    2000-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide formation in the vasodilation in the eye and other orbital tissues caused by pre-ganglionic stimulation of the facial nerve was studied in cats under ?-chloralose anaesthesia. Regional blood flows were determined with radioactive microspheres during unilateral stimulation of the facial nerve before and after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), alone or in combination with

  10. Removal of nitric oxide from coke oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Stolyarenko; N. N. Markova

    1982-01-01

    In order to localize the process of oxidation and extraction of nitric oxide from coke oven gas the absorption method was investigated where the oxidizing and absorbing agent was an ozone-saturated solvent, chemically inert for oxidizers. The principal stages of the process are the generation of the ozone, preparation of the ozone treated solvent and the treatment of the coke

  11. Direct Nitric Oxide Detection in Aqueous Solution by Copper(II) Fluorescein Complexes

    E-print Network

    Baik, Mu-Hyun

    Direct Nitric Oxide Detection in Aqueous Solution by Copper(II) Fluorescein Complexes Mi Hee Lim nitrogen atoms of the FLn ligands most likely bind to Cu(II). Introduction of nitric oxide (NO) to pH 7-time detection of nitric oxide production in living cells. Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is produced

  12. Comparisons of electron energy deposition derived from observations of lower thermospheric nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    electron precipitation and the excess amounts of nitric oxide at auroral latitudes. In this study the electron energy deposition derived from thermospheric nitric oxide (NO) measurements is compared is derived from nitric oxide densities by use of a photochemical model for nitric oxide and is referred

  13. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the gill of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the gill of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus Kelly A. Hyndman nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is involved in regulation of a variety of processes, including: vascular heteroclitus; Gill; Killifish; Neuronal nitric oxide; Ion transport; Nerve; Vascular tone; Mitochondrion

  14. Shear stress regulation of nitric oxide production in uterine and placental artery endothelial cells

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    Shear stress regulation of nitric oxide production in uterine and placental artery endothelial physiological regulator of endothe- lial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), leading to rapid rises in nitric oxide: pregnancy, shear stress, nitric oxide, blood flow, rheology Introduction Substantial increases in uterine

  15. Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere, 2 Charles A. Barth1

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere, 2 Charles A. Barth1 Received 14 April 2010. The heating leads to an increase in the density of nitric oxide at 140 km in the thermosphere. On some occasions, the increased nitric oxide diffuses downward to the 110 km level causing the nitric oxide density

  16. Polarized distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase regulates activity in intestinal epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Polarized distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase regulates activity in intestinal deoxycholate; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; IFN-, interferon-; IL-1 interleukin-1, IL-6, interleukin-6; NO, nitric oxide; TLR5, Toll-like receptor 5; TX-100, Triton X-100 Key words: Inducible nitric oxide

  17. Short Communication The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME suppresses androgen-induced

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Short Communication The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME suppresses androgen-induced male July 2005 Abstract The synthesis of nitric oxide by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is involved, suggesting that the central role of nitric oxide synthesis is conserved in this species. The deficit

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthase Stabilizes the Tetrahydrobiopterin Cofactor Radical by Controlling Its Protonation State

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Nitric Oxide Synthase Stabilizes the Tetrahydrobiopterin Cofactor Radical by Controlling Its@ucdavis.edu Abstract: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a homodimeric enzyme with a flavin reductase domain and a P450- type-electron chemistry. Introduction Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)1,2 catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO

  19. NO impact on cell energy and LIP, 1 IMPACT OF ENDOGENOUS NITRIC OXIDE ON MICROGLIAL CELL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NO impact on cell energy and LIP, 1 IMPACT OF ENDOGENOUS NITRIC OXIDE ON MICROGLIAL CELL ENERGY, lipopolysaccharide; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PD, Parkinson of inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may exacerbate neuronal

  20. Effect of growth hormone therapy on nitric oxide formation in cystic fibrosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Grasemann; F. Ratjen; D. Schnabel; E. Reutershahn; U. Vester; H. Grasemann

    2008-01-01

    Airway nitric oxide production is decreased in cystic fibrosis. As growth hormone therapy has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in growth hormone-deficient patients, it may also affect nitric oxide production in patients with cystic fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone therapy on systemic and airway nitric oxide formation in

  1. Induction of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase mRNA by silica and lipopolysaccharide in PMA-primed THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Kuhn, D C; Gaydos, L J; Demers, L M

    1996-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a nitrogen-free radical, plays an important role in mediating inflammatory reaction and cytotoxicity of tissue. To determine whether NO was involved in silica-induced pulmonary tissue damage, we studied the effects of silica on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression by THP-1 cells, a monocyte-like cell line with properties of the pulmonary alveolar macrophage. Experimental results showed that silica elicited a marked stimulation of nitric oxide production in a time-dependent manner by THP-1 cells in vitro following the priming of these cells with the phorbol ester PMA. Both nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol can partially suppress silica-induced NO production in PMA-primed THP-1 cells. Northern blot analysis indicated that, after 2 h of silica exposure, PMA-primed THP-1 cells began to express iNOS mRNA, which reached peak expression at 8 h. Endotoxin treatment of these cells produced a similar effect. These results indicated that silica is a potent inducer of NO production in macrophages and its ability to induce tissue damage may partially be attributed to its ability to initiate excessive production of nitric oxide from macrophages. PMID:8611191

  2. Role of nitric oxide in cerebrovascular reactivity to NMDA and hypercapnia during prenatal development in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew P.; Ohata, Hiroto; Koehler, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral vasodilatory responses evoked by activation of NMDA receptors and by hypercapnia are important factors in the integrated vascular response to perinatal cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasodilation to NMDA is mediated by nitric oxide in adult and newborn animals, whereas vasodilation to hypercapnia is thought to become modulated by nitric oxide, at least in swine, after the newborn period. The developmental role of nitric oxide in the cerebral blood flow response to NMDA and hypercapnia was investigated at mid- and late gestation in fetal sheep. Superfusion of 300 ?M NMDA over the cerebral cortex through a closed cranial window on the exteriorized head of an anesthetized fetus increased laser-Doppler flow by 41 ± 7% (± S.E.) at 0.65 gestation. The increase was reduced by superfusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (18 ± 8%). At 0.9 gestation, the response to NMDA was augmented (85 ± 24%) compared to that at 0.65 gestation and was reduced by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (32 ± 6%). In unanesthetized fetal sheep, hypercapnic reactivity of microsphere-determined cerebral blood flow was not significantly attenuated by nitric oxide synthase inhibition at 0.65 gestation (4.6 ± 0.7 to 3.7 ± 1.0% change/mmHg pCO2) or at 0.9 gestation (4.0 ± 0.7 to 3.5 ± 0.9% change/mmHg pCO2). Therefore, nitric oxide-dependent cerebrovascular dilation to NMDA-receptor activation is present as early as 0.65 gestation in fetal sheep and increases further during the last trimester, whereas vasodilation to hypercapnia remains unchanged and independent of nitric oxide during the last trimester. Hence, cerebrovascular reactivities to different stimuli do not mature concurrently. PMID:17935926

  3. Protein kinase C? regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression via Akt activation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Neetu; Wedgwood, Stephen; Black, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explore the roles of the delta isoform of PKC (PKC?) in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells isolated from fetal lambs (FPAECs). Pharmacological inhibition of PKC? with either rottlerin or with the peptide, ?V1-1, acutely attenuated NO production, and this was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 (S1177). The chronic effects of PKC? inhibition using either rottlerin or the overexpression of a dominant negative PKC? mutant included the downregulation of eNOS gene expression that was manifested by a decrease in both eNOS promoter activity and protein expression after 24 h of treatment. We also found that PKC? inhibition blunted Akt activation as observed by a reduction in phosphorylated Akt at position Ser473. Thus, we conclude that PKC? is actively involved in the activation of Akt. To determine the effect of Akt on eNOS signaling, we overexpressed a dominant negative mutant of Akt and determined its effect of NO generation, eNOS expression, and phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177. Our results demonstrated that Akt inhibition was associated with decreased NO production that correlated with reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177, and decreased eNOS promoter activity. We next evaluated the effect of endogenously produced NO on eNOS expression by incubating FPAECs with the eNOS inhibitor 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETU). ETU significantly inhibited NO production, eNOS promoter activity, and eNOS protein levels. Together, our data indicate involvement of PKC?-mediated Akt activation and NO generation in maintaining eNOS expression. PMID:18192589

  4. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  5. The oral microbiome and nitric oxide homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hezel, M P; Weitzberg, E

    2015-01-01

    The tiny radical nitric oxide (NO) participates in a vast number of physiological functions including vasodilation, nerve transmission, host defence and cellular energetics. Classically produced by a family of specific enzymes, NO synthases (NOSs), NO signals via reactions with other radicals or transition metals. An alternative pathway for the generation of NO is the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) are reduced to NO and other reactive nitrogen intermediates. Nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from NOS-dependent NO generation but also constituents in our diet, mainly in leafy green vegetables. Irrespective of origin, active uptake of circulating nitrate in the salivary glands, excretion in saliva and subsequent reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria are all necessary steps for further NO generation. This central role of the oral cavity in regulating NO generation from nitrate presents a new and intriguing aspect of the human microbiome in health and disease. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and specifically highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a hub for its function. PMID:23837897

  6. The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23958488

  7. Electrophysiological responses of neurons in the rat spinal cord to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pehl, U; Schmid, H A

    1997-03-01

    The effects of nitric oxide-containing solution and different nitric oxide donors were investigated on spontaneously active neurons using extracellular recording technique in areas of rat spinal cord slices where high levels of nitric oxide synthase are present. In lamina X, 93% of all neurons investigated (n = 84) increased their firing rate and 2% decreased it by superfusion with the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, 49% of all neurons in laminae I and II (n = 90) were inhibited and only 28% were activated. Both effects were due to the postsynaptic action of sodium nitroprusside, because they could still be observed in medium containing 0.3 mM Ca2+ and 9 mM Mg2+, known to block synaptic transmission. Application of 8-bromo-cyclic-GMP caused an excitation of every neuron which was excited by sodium nitroprusside and an inhibition of every cell which was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside (n = 25). This effect was different from the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic-AMP, which mimicked only the excitatory, but not the inhibitory response of sodium nitroprusside. These results provide evidence that nitric oxide in the spinal cord can directly cause an excitation or an inhibition of the electrical activity of spinal neurons. Another, more general conclusion from our results is that the nitric oxide-induced production of cyclic-GMP alone does not allow any prediction about an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the neuronal activity, which has to be determined separately. PMID:9472412

  8. Prediction of nitric oxide concentrations during inflammation and carcinogenesis

    E-print Network

    Chin, Melanie Pei-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a biological messenger which is synthesized enzymatically throughout the body and which has numerous physiological functions, including roles in blood pressure control, regulation of clotting, and ...

  9. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is crucial for plasma cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Njau, Modesta N; Jacob, Joshy

    2015-01-01

    The viability of long-lived plasma cells is enhanced by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which relieves endoplasmic reticulum stress by triggering a response dependent on cGMP and protein kinase G. PMID:24549066

  10. Hydrogen peroxide differentially modulates cardiac myocyte nitric oxide synthesis

    E-print Network

    Sartoretto, Juliano

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(subscript 2)O(subscript 2)) are synthesized within cardiac myocytes and play key roles in modulating cardiovascular signaling. Cardiac myocytes contain both the endothelial (eNOS) ...

  11. Detecting and Understanding the Roles of Nitric Oxide in biology

    E-print Network

    Tonzetich, Zachary J.

    We are pursuing a dual strategy for investigating the chemistry of nitric oxide as a biological signaling agent. In one approach, metal-based fluorescent sensors for the detection of NO in living cells are evaluated, and ...

  12. Generation, Translocation, and Action of Nitric Oxide in Living Systems

    E-print Network

    Tennyson, Andrew G.

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous diatomic radical that is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions in biology. Conceptually, the biochemistry of NO can be separated into three stages: generation ...

  13. Lack of Central Nitric Oxide Triggers Erectile Dysfuntion in Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Kaushik P. Patel (University of Nebraska Cellular and Integrative Physiology)

    2007-03-01

    Journal article "Lack of central nitric oxide triggers erectile dysfuntion in diabetes", by Kaushik P. Patel, Keshore R. Bidasee, William G. Mayhan, and Zeng Hong, found in the APS journal of Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

  14. Modifications in the nitric acid oxidation of D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler N; Hash, Kirk; Davey, Cara-Lee; Mills, Heidi; Williams, Holly; Kiely, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The nitric acid oxidation of D-glucose was reinvestigated in an effort to better understand and improve the oxidation and subsequent work up steps. The oxidation was carried out using a computer controlled reactor employing a closed reaction flask under an atmosphere of oxygen which allowed for a catalytic oxidation process with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. Removal of nitric acid from product included the use of both diffusion dialysis and nanofiltration methodologies. Product analysis protocols were developed using ion chromatography. PMID:22285512

  15. Obesity, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Raymond M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.; Tanner, Charles J.; Pierce, Joseph R.; Choi, Myung Dong

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (SI). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. SI was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (?43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on SI (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions. PMID:22797309

  16. Hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis: Role of nitric oxide and endothelin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic S. C. Raj; Brad Vincent; Keith Simpson; Etsuro Sato; Kimberly L. Jones; Tomas C. Welbourne; Moshe Levi; Vallabh Shah; Pedro Blandon; Philip Zager; Richard A. Robbins

    2002-01-01

    Hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis: Role of nitric oxide and endothelin.BackgroundEtiology of dialysis induced hypotension and hypertension remains speculative. There is mounting evidence that nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET-1) may play a vital role in these hemodynamic changes. We examined the intradialytic dynamic changes in NO and ET-1 levels and their role in the pathogenesis of hypotension and rebound hypertension

  17. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph A. Schmitt; Verena M. Dirsch

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular

  18. Insulin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase in skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bédard; B. Marcotte; A. Marette

    1998-01-01

    Summary   Recent studies have shown that cytokines and endotoxins impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport by activating the expression\\u000a of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated\\u000a whether iNOS induction is modulated by insulin in L6 myocytes. Long term exposure of muscle cells to tumour necrosis factor-?\\u000a (TNF-?), interferon-? (IFN-?)

  19. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie W. H. Woo; Ricky Y. K. Man; Yaw L. Siow; Patrick C. Choy; Eric W. Y. Wan; Chak S. Lau; Karmin O

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a principal mediator in many physiological and pathological processes. Overproduction of NO via the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has cytotoxic effect through the formation of peroxynitrite with superoxide anion. The iNOS is mainly expressed in macrophages and is able to produce large amount of NO. The expression of iNOS is mainly regulated at the transcriptional

  20. S. C. Solomon et al., "The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer", Space Sciencecraft Control and Tracking in the New Millennium, Proc. SPIE 2810, 1996 The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    S. C. Solomon et al., "The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer", Space Sciencecraft Control and Tracking in the New Millennium, Proc. SPIE 2810, ©1996 1 The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Stanley C. Solomon, Charles for the Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative. Its scientific goals are to measure nitric oxide density

  1. Red Wine Polyphenols Enhance Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Subsequent Nitric Oxide Release From Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen F. Leikert; Thomas R. Räthel; Paulus Wohlfart; Véronique Cheynier; Angelika M. Vollmar; Verena M. Dirsch

    2010-01-01

    Background—Population-based studies suggest a reduced incidence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease caused by moderate and regular consumption of red wine. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a pivotal vasoprotective molecule. This study examines the influence of red wine polyphenols on the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and subsequent NO synthesis, focusing on the putative long-lasting

  2. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and effect of substrate manipulation of the nitric oxide pathway in mouse ovarian follicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila M. Mitchell; C. Richard Kennedy; Geraldine M. Hartshorne; Coventry CV

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell messenger with multiple actions in different biological systems, impli- cated in the control of follicle and oocyte function. NO is formed from L-arginine by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via NG-hydroxy-L-arginine, with L-citrulline as a byproduct. This study aimed to show how modula- tion of NO by manipulating NOS substrates would affect

  3. Nitric oxide and cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), is a ubiquitous, water soluble, free radical gas, which plays key role in various physiological as well as pathological processes. Over past decades, NO has emerged as a molecule of interest in carcinogenesis and tumor growth progression. However, there is considerable controversy and confusion in understanding its role in cancer biology. It is said to have both tumoricidal as well as tumor promoting effects which depend on its timing, location, and concentration. NO has been suggested to modulate different cancer-related events including angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, and metastasis. On the other hand, it is also emerging as a potential anti-oncogenic agent. Strategies for manipulating in vivo production and exogenous delivery of this molecule for therapeutic gain are being investigated. However, further validation and experimental/clinical trials are required for development of novel strategies based on NO for cancer treatment and prevention. This review discusses the range of actions of NO in cancer by performing an online MEDLINE search using relevant search terms and a review of the literature. Various mechanisms by which NO acts in different cancers such as breast, cervical, gastric,colorectal, and head and neck cancers are addressed. It also offers an insight into the dichotomous nature of NO and discusses its novel therapeutic applications for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:23718886

  4. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure-activity-relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03?Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73?Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  5. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  6. Nitric oxide reduces seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Paul C; Libourel, Igor G L; Jones, Russell L

    2006-01-01

    Dormancy is a property of many mature seeds, and experimentation over the past century has identified numerous chemical treatments that will reduce seed dormancy. Nitrogen-containing compounds including nitrate, nitrite, and cyanide break seed dormancy in a range of species. Experiments are described here that were carried out to further our understanding of the mechanism whereby these and other compounds, such as the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bring about a reduction in seed dormancy of Arabidopsis thaliana. A simple method was devised for applying the products of SNP photolysis through the gas phase. Using this approach it was shown that SNP, as well as potassium ferricyanide (Fe(III)CN) and potassium ferrocyanide (Fe(II)CN), reduced dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds by generating cyanide (CN). The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) on dormant seeds were tested and it was confirmed that cyanide vapours were sufficient to break Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Nitrate and nitrite also reduced Arabidopsis seed dormancy and resulted in substantial rates of germination. The effects of CN, nitrite, and nitrate on dormancy were prevented by the NO scavenger c-PTIO. It was confirmed that NO plays a role in reducing seed dormancy by using purified NO gas, and a model to explain how nitrogen-containing compounds may break dormancy in Arabidopsis is presented. PMID:16377732

  7. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  8. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cianchi, Fabio; Cortesini, Camillo; Fantappiè, Ornella; Messerini, Luca; Schiavone, Nicola; Vannacci, Alfredo; Nistri, Silvia; Sardi, Iacopo; Baroni, Gianna; Marzocca, Cosimo; Perna, Federico; Mazzanti, Roberto; Bechi, Paolo; Masini, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, we correlated the expression and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with the degree of tumor angiogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Tumor samples and adjacent normal mucosa were obtained from 46 surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical expression of iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CD31 was analyzed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. iNOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were assessed by specific biochemical assays. iNOS protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. iNOS and VEGF mRNA levels were evaluated using Northern blot analysis. Both iNOS and VEGF expressions correlated significantly with intratumor microvessel density (rs = 0.31, P = 0.02 and rs = 0.67, P < 0.0001, respectively). A significant correlation was also found between iNOS and VEGF expression (P = 0.001). iNOS activity and cyclic GMP production were significantly higher in the cancer specimens than in the normal mucosa (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), as well as in metastatic tumors than in nonmetastatic ones (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Western and Northern blot analyses confirmed the up-regulation of the iNOS protein and gene in the tumor specimens as compared with normal mucosa. NO seems to play a role in colorectal cancer growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:12598314

  9. Nitrous Oxide Decomposition over Fe-ZSM-5 in the Presence of Nitric Oxide: A Comprehensive DFT Study

    E-print Network

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Nitrous Oxide Decomposition over Fe-ZSM-5 in the Presence of Nitric Oxide: A Comprehensive DFT recently that ppm-level additions of nitric oxide (NO) enhance the rate of nitrous oxide (N2O and nitric oxide (NO). While most catalytic systems active for N2O decomposition are inhibited by NO,5

  10. The Chemical Biology of Nitric Oxide. Implications in Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Douglas D.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Flores-Santana, Wilmarie; Switzer, Christopher H.; Donzellie, Sonia; Hussain, Perwez; Vecoli, Cecilia; Paolocci, Nazareno; Ambs, Stefan; Colton, Carol; Harris, Curtis; Roberts, David D.; Wink, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has earned the reputation of being a signaling mediator with many diverse and often opposing biological activities. The diversity in response to this simple diatomic molecule comes from the enormous variety of chemical reactions and biological properties associated with it. In the last few years, the importance of steady state NO concentrations have emerged as a key determinant of its biological function. Precise cellular responses are differentially regulated by specific NO concentration. We propose 5 basic distinct concentration levels of NO activity; cGMP mediated processes ([NO] <1–30 nM; Akt phosphorylation ([NO] = 30–100 nM); stabilization of HIF-1? ([NO] = 100–300 nM); phosphorylation of p53 ([NO] > 400 nM) and nitrosative stress (1 µM). In general, lower NO concentrations promote cell survival and proliferation, while higher levels favor cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Free radical interactions will also influence NO signaling. One of the consequences of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is to reduce NO concentrations. This antagonizes the signaling of nitric oxide and in some cases results in converting a cell cycle arrest profile to a cell survival one. The resulting reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated from these reactions can also have biological effects and increase oxidative and nitrosative stress responses. A number of factors determine the formation of NO and its concentration, such as diffusion, consumption, and substrate availability which are referred to as Kinetic Determinants for Molecular Target Interactions. These are the chemical and biochemical parameters that shape cellular responses to NO. Herein we discuss signal transduction and the chemical biology of NO in terms of the direct and indirect reactions. PMID:18439435

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide correlates with airway eosinophils in childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Warke, T; Fitch, P; Brown, V; Taylor, R; Lyons, J; Ennis, M; Shields, M

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled nitric oxide has been proposed as a marker for airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to compare exhaled nitric oxide levels with inflammatory cells and mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic and normal children. Methods: Children were recruited from elective surgical lists and a non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed after induction of anaesthesia. Exhaled nitric oxide (parts per billion) was measured by two techniques: tidal breathing and restricted breath. Results: Median (interquartile range) exhaled nitric oxide measured by restricted breath was increased in asthmatics compared with normal children (24.3 (10.5–66.5) v 9.7 (6.5–16.5), difference between medians 14.6 (95% CI 5.1 to 29.9), p=0.001). In asthmatic children exhaled nitric oxide correlated significantly with percentage eosinophils (r=0.78, p<0.001 (tidal breathing) and r=0.78, p<0.001 (restricted breath)) and with eosinophilic cationic protein (r=0.53, p<0.01 (restricted breath)), but not with other inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for the prediction of the presence of eosinophilic airways inflammation by exhaled nitric oxide (tidal and restricted) was 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusions: Exhaled nitric oxide correlates closely with percentage eosinophils in BAL fluid in asthmatic children and is therefore likely to be a useful non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. PMID:11978911

  12. Studies in nitric oxide mutagenesis in e. coli and s. typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Elespuru, R.K.; Mark, T.W. [Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic and bio-regulatory molecule produced endogenously in response to varying stimuli. It has been shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations shown to deaminate DNA and to cause mutations in Salmonella typhimurium as well as in mammalian systems. In exploring the mechanism of mutation generation by nitric oxide, several problems have become apparent. One arises from the evidence that different sources of nitric oxide, i.e. gaseous NO or No generated from drugs, behave differently both chemically and biologically. Hence, experiments with the two sources of NO are not comparable. In addition, an oxidation product of nitric oxide, No{sub 2}, is a DNA-strand breaking agent and may contribute to the genetic effects observed, especially from bubbled NO. While Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 is readily mutable by NO-delivering drugs, E. coli B strain WU3610 (wild type for DNA repair) has proved to be non-mutable. The experiments of Hartman and colleagues with sodium nitrite indicate a greatly enhanced sensitivity to mutation induction in UV repair-deficient strains and in certain target DNA sequences. We have sought to determine if the sodium nitrite model also fits nitric oxide. Contrary to expectations, however, the uvrA derivative of WU3610 is not mutable by SperNO, the most potent NO-delivering drug for Salmonella TA1535.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Potentiates the Production of Nitric Oxide Evoked by lnterleukin-1? in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie B. Schini; William Durante; Sebastian Catovsky; Paul M. Vanhoutte

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine whether the ?3-unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid affects the production of nitric oxide evoked by interleukin-l? in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Incubation of cultured rat or human aortic smooth muscle cells with interleukin-1? evoked a time- and concentration-dependent release of nitrite, an oxidation product of nitric oxide. The exposure of cells to interleukin-1? in

  14. Oxidation of DOPAC by nitric oxide: effect of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Laranjinha, João; Cadenas, Enrique

    2002-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the redox interaction between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and nitric oxide (.NO), and to assess the reductive and oxidative decay pathways of the DOPAC semiquinone originating from this interaction. The reaction between DOPAC and.NO led to the formation of the DOPAC semiquinone radical, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and stabilized by Mg(2+), and the nitrosyl anion detected as nitrosylmyoglobin. The EPR signal corresponding to the DOPAC semiquinone was modulated as follows: (i) it was suppressed by glutathione and ascorbic acid with the formation of new EPR spectra corresponding to the glutathionyl and ascorbyl radical, respectively; (ii) it was enhanced by Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase; the enzyme also accelerated the decay of the semiquinone species to DOPAC quinone. These results are interpreted as a one-electron oxidation of DOPAC by.NO; the reductive decay of the semiquinone back to DOPAC was facilitated by reducing agents, such as glutathione and ascorbate, whereas the oxidative decay to DOPAC quinone was facilitated by superoxide dismutase. The latter effect is understood in terms of a reversible conversion of nitrosyl anion to.NO by the enzyme. The biological relevance of these reactions is also discussed in terms of the reactivity of peroxynitrite towards DOPAC as a model with implications for aerobic conditions. PMID:12065648

  15. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  16. Imaging of nitric oxide in the retina*

    PubMed Central

    Eldred, William D.; Blute, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the most widespread signaling molecule found in the retina in that it can be made by every retinal cell type. NO is able to influence a wide variety of synaptic mechanisms ranging from increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter release to the modulation of gap junction conductivity. Although biochemical methods can analyze overall levels of NO, such methods cannot indicate the specific cell types involved. In the last few years, fluorescent imaging methods utilizing diaminofluorescein have allowed the real-time visualization of neurochemically or light stimulated NO-induced fluorescence (NO-IF) in specific retinal cells. Recent experiments have shown that this NO-IF can be stabilized using paraformaldehyde fixation. This aldehyde stabilization has allowed the imaging of NO production in the dark and in response to light, as well as the neurochemical modulation of light stimulated NO production. The results of these studies indicate that NO is not always freely diffusible and that NO is largely retained in many cells which make it. The NO production in retina is highly damped in that in the absence of stimulation, the endogenous levels of NO production are extremely low. Finally, different neurochemical or light stimulation protocols activate NO production in specific cells and subcellular compartments. Therefore, although the NO signaling is widespread in retina, it is very selectively activated and has different functions in specific retinal cell types. The use of NO imaging will continue to play a critical role in future studies of the function of NO in retina and other neural systems. PMID:16171845

  17. Nitric oxide dysfunction in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lowe, D T

    2000-08-01

    Researchers disagree as to the importance of nitric oxide (NO) in preeclampsia. Many researchers have alluded to NO's possible primary or secondary role in the development of preeclampsia, but few have correlated the dysfunction of nitric oxide production with the other metabolic derangements seen in this condition. This paper will review the evidence that the primary dysfunction in preeclampsia is a relative deficiency of available NO (secondary to oxidative degradation) and an excess of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The combination of a deficiency of NO and an increase in ONOO(-) can directly or indirectly initiate the vast majority of physiological and serological changes associated with preeclampsia, such as blood pressure, increased glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, platelet dysfunction, increased thromboxane and endothelin, and a decrease in prostacyclin. Understanding the complex role of nitric oxide in this condition may explain why previous interventions have been unsuccessful and suggest possible strategies for prevention and treatment in the future. PMID:10944429

  18. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide at indium hexacyanoferrate film-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Casero, E; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2003-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) by indium (III) hexacyanoferrate (III) films has been studied. These films are electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrodes through potential cycling in acidic solutions containing a potassium electrolyte, indium (III), and potassium hexacyanoferrate. The resulting modified electrodes exhibit a reversible redox response ascribed to the oxidation/reduction of iron atoms presents in the electrodeposited film. The films have a potent and persistent electrocatalytic activity towards NO oxidation at neutral pH. The electrocatalytic oxidation of NO takes place at potentials around +0.75 V which represents a moderate diminution in the overpotential. In addition, interferences due to the presence of nitrate and nitrite have been significantly reduced. According to these results, the described modified electrodes have been used as sensors for the determination of NO generated by decomposition of a typical NO-donor, such as S-nitroso- N -acetyl- d, l -penicillamine (SNAP). PMID:12560976

  19. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  20. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide with nitric oxide as an oxidant gas Jaeyeong Heo, Sang Bok Kim and Roy G. Gordon*

    E-print Network

    Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide with nitric oxide as an oxidant gas Jaeyeong Heo, Sang Bok Kim and nitric oxide (NO) as an oxidant gas. Film properties as a function of growth temperature from 130­250 C report that nitric oxide (NO) can be used as an effective oxidant gas with this Sn(II) precursor

  1. Nitric oxide measurements in the equatorial pacific region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. McFarland; D. Kley; J. W. Drummond; A. L. Schmeltekopf; R. H. Winkler

    1979-01-01

    Surface nitric oxide mixing ratios were measured in the equatorial Pacific region using a chemiluminescent detector. The average NO mixing ratio was about 4 pptv during noontime conditions for nine days of measurements. These NO mixing ratios, which are much lower than any previously reported, imply that the Oâ production rate due to CO and CHâ oxidation may be less

  2. Nitric oxide effect on coloncyte metabolism: Co-action of sulfides and peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Roediger; Wendy J. Babidge

    2000-01-01

    Luminal levels of nitric oxide\\/nitrite are high in colitis. Whether nitric oxide is injurious or protective to human colonocytes is unknown and the role of nitric oxide in the genesis of colitis unclear. The aims were to establish whether nitric oxide was injurious to oxidation of substrates (n-butyrate and D-glucose) in isolated human and rat colonocytes both alone and in

  3. Nitric oxide determines mesodermic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating class IIa histone deacetylases: potential therapeutic implications in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Spallotta, Francesco; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Nanni, Simona; Grasselli, Annalisa; Ambrosino, Valeria; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Farsetti, Antonella; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Gaetano, Carlo; Illi, Barbara

    2010-03-31

    In human endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO) results in class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) activation and marked histone deacetylation. It is unknown whether similar epigenetic events occur in embryonic stem cells (ESC) exposed to NO and how this treatment could influence ESC therapeutic potential during tissue regeneration.This study reports that the NO-dependent class IIa HDACs subcellular localization and activity decreases the global acetylation level of H3 histones in ESC and that this phenomenon is associated with the inhibition of Oct4, Nanog, and KLF4 expression. Further, a NO-induced formation of macromolecular complexes including HDAC3, 4, 7, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) have been detected. These processes correlated with the expression of the mesodermal-specific protein brachyury (Bry) and the appearance of several vascular and skeletal muscle differentiation markers. These events were abolished by the class IIa-specific inhibitor MC1568 and by HDAC4 or HDAC7 short interfering RNA (siRNA). The ability of NO to induce mesodermic/cardiovascular gene expression prompted us to evaluate the regenerative potential of these cells in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. We found that NO-treated ESCs injected into the cardiac left ventricle selectively localized in the ischemic hindlimb and contributed to the regeneration of muscular and vascular structures. These findings establish a key role for NO and class IIa HDACs modulation in ESC mesodermal commitment and enhanced regenerative potential in vivo. PMID:20073046

  4. Protective effects of pu-erh tea on LDL oxidation and nitric oxide generation in macrophage cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-Sen Wang; Hui Mei Yu; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

    2008-01-01

    Effects of water extract of pu-erh tea (WEPT) on low density of lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and their regulation of nitric oxide in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were determined. The results showed that WEPT significantly scavenged H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In the range of 0–0.1mg\\/mL, the inhibitory action on LDL oxidation increased with increasing concentration of WEPT. In addition, WEPT

  5. Redox interactions of nitric oxide with dopamine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Fernando; Nunes, Carla; Laranjinha, João; Cadenas, Enrique

    2005-03-15

    Nitric oxide (*NO) is a ubiquitous diffusible messenger in the central nervous system. *NO and derived nitrogen species may interact with catecholamines, thus, modifying not only its regulatory actions but also producing oxidants and free radicals that are likely to trigger toxic pathways in the nervous system. Oxidative pathways and chain oxidation reactions triggered by catecholamines may be broken by ascorbate and glutathione, of which there is ample supply in the brain. At the subcellular level, mitochondria and cytosolic dopamine storage vesicles are likely to provide site-specific settings for *NO and catecholamines interactions. Thus, a complex picture emerges in which the steady- state levels of the individual reactants, the rate constants of the reactions involved, the oxygen tension, and the compartmentalization of reactions determine the biological significance of the redox interactions between *NO and dopamine metabolism in the brain. The physiological relevance of *NO-driven chemical modifications of dopamine and its derivatives and the ensuing free radical production are discussed in connection with the neurodegeneration inherent in Parkinson's disease. PMID:15691585

  6. The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with methane over scandium oxide, yttrium oxide and lanthanum oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Fokema; Jackie Y Ying

    1998-01-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with methane over nanocrystalline Group IIIB metal oxides was investigated between 400°C and 675°C. Scandium oxide and yttrium oxide are better catalysts than lanthanum oxide because they have a greater specific activity and selectivity. The activity of yttrium oxide is 75% of that of Co-ZSM-5 at 600°C and yttrium oxide was also found

  7. TRPV3 regulates nitric oxide synthase-independent nitric oxide synthesis in the skin.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takashi; Petrus, Matt J; Dubin, Adrienne E; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an unstable signalling molecule synthesized de novo mainly from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) enzymes. Nitrite reduction can also produce NO, predominantly within body fluids (for example, saliva, sweat and blood plasma) and under extreme hypoxic and acidic conditions. It remains unknown if intracellular canonical signalling pathways regulate nitrite-dependent NO production. Here we examine NO production in the skin, a hypoxic tissue enriched in nitrites wherein NO has important roles in wound healing and other biological processes. We show that activation of TRPV3, a heat-activated transient receptor potential ion channel expressed in keratinocytes, induces NO production via a nitrite-dependent pathway. TRPV3 and nitrite are involved in keratinocyte migration in vitro and in wound healing and thermosensory behaviours in vivo. Our study demonstrates that activation of an ion channel can induce NOS-independent NO production in keratinocytes. PMID:21712817

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of ?-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respond to inhaled NO, either in controls or in individuals with sickle cell disease. At baseline, the arterial and venous levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different, but NO inhalation led to a dose-dependent increase in mean nitrosylated hemoglobin, and at the highest dosage, a significant arterial-venous difference emerged. The levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin are too low to affect overall hemoglobin oxygen affinity, but augmented NO transport to the microvasculature seems a promising strategy for improving microvascular perfusion. PMID:10510334

  9. Detecting and Understanding the Roles of Nitric Oxide in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Tonzetich, Zachary J.; McQuade, Lindsey E.

    2010-01-01

    We are pursuing a dual strategy for investigating the chemistry of nitric oxide as a biological signaling agent. In one approach, metal-based fluorescent sensors for the detection of NO in living cells are evaluated, and a sensor based on a copper fluorescein complex has proved to be a valuable lead compound. Sensors of this class permit identification of NO from both inducible and constitutive forms of nitric oxide synthase and facilitate investigation of different NO functions in response to external stimuli. In the other approach, we employ synthetic model complexes of iron-sulfur clusters to probe their reactivity toward nitric oxide as biomimics of the active sites of iron-sulfur proteins. Our studies reveal that NO disassembles the Fe-S clusters to form dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs). PMID:20666391

  10. Nitric oxide as a potential biomarker in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Avdagi?, Nesina; Za?iragi?, Asija; Babi?, Nermina; Huki?, Mirsada; Šeremet, Mensura; Lepara, Orhan; Nakaš-I?indi?, Emina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients and its use as potential biomarker in differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and in disease activity assessment. In 60 patients of both genders – 30 with ulcerative colitis and 30 with Crohn’s disease - and 30 controls serum nitric oxide concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration, a stable metabolic product of NO with oxygen. Conversion of nitrates (NO3-) to nitrites (NO2-) was done with elementary zinc. The nitrite concentration was determined by classic colorimetrical Griess reaction. Median serum NO concentration was statistically different (p=0,0005) between UC patients (15.25 ?mol/L; 13.47 – 19.88 ?mol/L), CD patients (14.54 ?mol/L; 13.03 –16.32 ?mol/L) and healthy controls (13.29 ?mol/L; 12.40 – 13.92 ?mol/L). When active UC and CD patients were compared with inactive UC and CD patients respectively a significant difference in serum NO level was found (p=0.0005). With a cut-off level of 17.39 ?mol/L NO had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in discriminating between active and inactive UC patients. With cut-off value of 14.01 ?mol/L serum NO level had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 69% in distinguishing between patients with active CD and inactive CD. Serum NO concentration is a minimally invasive and rapid tool for discriminating between active and inactive IBD patients and could be used as useful biomarker in monitoring of disease activity in IBD patients. PMID:23448603

  11. Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

  12. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nianzhen Li

    2002-06-27

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca{sup 2+} elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca{sup 2+} elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca{sup 2+} wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca{sup 2+} signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca{sup 2+}, possibly through store-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca{sup 2+} change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca{sup 2+} using fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca{sup 2+} elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca{sup 2+} wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting that NO modulates glutamate release from astrocytes or glutamate receptor sensitivity of neurons.

  13. Nitric acid oxidation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya V. Lakshminarayanan; Hossein Toghiani; Charles U. Pittman Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (Pyrograf III™) with 100–300 nm diameters and ?10–100 ?m lengths were oxidized in 69–71 wt.% nitric acid (115 °C) for various times (10 min to 24 h). These fibers were remarkably oxidation-resistant. XPS (O1s) showed that the surface atomic oxygen percent increased from 6.3 to 18.3–22.5% for 10–90 min oxidations followed by a drop to 14–15%

  14. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-print Network

    Martín, Pino

    1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi;2 Abstract Experimental results are presented that support the surface-catalyzed production of nitric oxide

  15. Nitric oxide emission from pulverized coal blend flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparthi, V.; Gollahalli, S.R. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    An experimental study of the nitric oxide emission from pulverized blended coal flames as a function of blending mass ratio is presented. Coals of three ranks (anthracite, bituminous, and lignite), and of the same rank (bituminous), but of different origin (Oklahoma and Wyoming mines), were used as fuels. Also, their blends (anthracite-bituminous, anthracite-lignite, lignite-bituminous, and Oklahoma-Wyoming coals) at mass ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 were studied. Correlations of nitric oxide emission index (mass/unit energy release) with blend mass ratio are presented.

  16. L-arginine augments nitric oxide production and mesenteric blood flow in ovine endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Allman, K G; Stoddart, A P; Kennedy, M M; Young, J D

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of administrating the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on hemodynamic variables and serum nitrate concentrations in an anesthetized ovine model of endotoxemia to assess the effects on regional visceral blood flow and to determine whether L-arginine availability limits nitric oxide production. Animals received Escherichia coli endotoxin (2 micrograms/kg) followed 2 h later by L-NAME (25 mg/kg), L-arginine (0.575 g/kg), or saline administered over 1 h followed by an infusion of the same dose over 8 h (n = 6 per group). Renal and mesenteric blood flow were measured by placement of electromagnetic flow probes, and serum nitrate concentrations were determined using vanadium III chloride or nitrate reductase reduction to nitric oxide or nitrite, respectively. The results showed L-NAME significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), decreased serum nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05), and caused a transient reduction in mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.05). L-Arginine caused a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), increased mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.001) and conductance (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in renal arterial blood flow in either group. We conclude that the availability of L-arginine limits nitric oxide production in endotoxemia and, furthermore, that L-arginine administration in this model causes significant mesenteric vasodilatation. L-NAME administration had only limited effect on visceral blood flow despite a marked increase in systemic vascular resistance and a reduction in nitric oxide production. PMID:8897920

  17. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05?–?0.8??g??l?1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-?B DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242

  18. Dynamic regulation of metabolism and respiration by endogenously produced nitric oxide protects against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Paxinou, Evgenia; Weisse, Marie; Chen, Qiping; Souza, Jose M.; Hertkorn, Caryn; Selak, Mary; Daikhin, Evgueni; Yudkoff, Marc; Sowa, Grzegorz; Sessa, William C.; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2001-01-01

    One of the many biological functions of nitric oxide is the ability to protect cells from oxidative stress. To investigate the potential contribution of low steady state levels of nitric oxide generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mechanisms of protection against H2O2, spontaneously transformed human ECV304 cells, which normally do not express eNOS, were stably transfected with a green fluorescent-tagged eNOS cDNA. The eNOS-transfected cells were found to be resistant to injury and delayed death following a 2-h exposure to H2O2 (50–150 ?M). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis abolished the protective effect against H2O2 exposure. The ability of nitric oxide to protect cells depended on the presence of respiring mitochondria as ECV304+eNOS cells with diminished mitochondria respiration (??) are injured to the same extent as nontransfected ECV304 cells and recovery of mitochondrial respiration restores the ability of nitric oxide to protect against H2O2-induced death. Nitric oxide also found to have a profound effect in cell metabolism, because ECV304+eNOS cells had lower steady state levels of ATP and higher utilization of glucose via the glycolytic pathway than ECV304 cells. However, the protective effect of nitric oxide against H2O2 exposure is not reproduced in ECV304 cells after treatment with azide and oligomycin suggesting that the dynamic regulation of respiration by nitric oxide represent a critical and unrecognized primary line of defense against oxidative stress. PMID:11562476

  19. Time course and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthases expression during cardiac allograft rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil K Worrall; Thomas P Misko; Mitchell D Botney; Patrick M Sullivan; Jia-J Hui; Gloria M Suau; Pamela T Manning; T. Bruce Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    Background. We have demonstrated that inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) ameliorated acute cardiac allograft rejection. This study determined the time course and cellular localization of inducible NOS expression during the histologic progression of unmodified acute rat cardiac allograft rejection.Methods. Tissue from syngeneic (ACI to ACI) and allogeneic (Lewis to ACI) transplants were harvested on postoperative days 3 through

  20. Nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in a porcine model of granulation tissue formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Pollock; Whitney Webb; Dianne Callaway; Sathyanarayana; William O'Brien; Thomas R. Howdieshell

    2001-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to determine whether the nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in wound granulation tissue formation. Methods. A section of the pig abdominal wall (excluding the skin) was excised, creating an incisional hernia. The resulting defect was repaired with silicone sheeting in a manner that mimics a temporary abdominal wall closure. During the 14-day experimental period,

  1. Time and state-resolved measurements of nitric oxide dimer infrared photodissociation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Casassa; John C. Stephenson; David S. King

    1988-01-01

    Picosecond and nanosecond lasers and pulsed molecular beam techniques have been used to measure the infrared photodissociation spectra, the product state distributions, and the predissociation lifetimes of vibrationally excited nitric oxide dimer (NO)2 . Results for the ?1 (v=1) symmetric NO stretching mode and the ?4 (v=1) antisymmetric NO stretching mode are presented. Predissociation lifetimes are determined by time-resolved laser

  2. Endothelial Cell-Derived Nitric Oxide Mobilization is Attenuated in Copper-Deficient Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attenuation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is a consistent finding in both conduit and resistance vessels during dietary Cu deficiency. While the effect is well established, evidence for the mechanism is still circumstantial. This study was designed to determine...

  3. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the brain stem neural circuit controlling esophageal peristalsis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Bart Wiedner; Xinmin Bao; Steven M. Altschuler

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The central subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract has been implicated in central reflex control of esophageal peristalsis. This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the brain stem circuit controlling esophageal peristalsis by combining transsynaptic retrograde tract tracing with pseudorabies virus and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH) histochemistry. Methods: Virus was injected into

  4. Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Parasympathetic Vasodilation in Ocular and Extraocular Tissues in the Rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siv F. E. Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate in rabbits the relationship between nitric oxide and the noncholinergic vasodilation caused by facial nerve stimulation in the eye and some extraocular tissues. Methods. Uveal vascular resistance was determined by measuring simultaneously the flow from a cannulated vortex vein with intraocular pressure and arterial blood pressure recordings. The local blood flow

  5. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Min Kim; Chang-Hwan Oh; Cha-Kwon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Taraxacum officinale (TO) on the production of nitric oxide (NO). Stimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with TO after the treatment of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?) resulted in increased NO synthesis. TO had no effect on NO synthesis by itself. When TO was used in combination with rIFN-?, there was

  6. The role of nitric oxide in diabetes-induced changes of morphine tolerance in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khojasteh Joharchi; Masoumeh Jorjani

    2007-01-01

    Several neuroendocrine complications including diabetes change the morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to the drug. Morphine antinociception was reduced significantly in morphine tolerant diabetic rats compared to the non-diabetic animals. The exact mechanism of this effect is not known. This study was performed to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) on morphine tolerance in diabetic state. Nociceptive

  7. Nitric oxide reduces tumor cell adhesion to isolated rat postcapillary venules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lipu Kong; Gary D. Dunn; Larry K. Keefert; Ronald J. Korthuis

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of circulating tumor cells to microvascular endothelium plays an important role in tumor metastasis to distant organs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) would attenuate tumor cell adhesion (TCA) to naive or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated postcapillary venules. A melanoma cell line, RPMI 1846, was shown to be much more adhesive to postcapillary venules isolated

  8. Pulmonary Nanoparticle Exposure Disrupts Systemic Microvascular Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Castranova, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs is/are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of reactive species and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) after nanoparticle exposure, and determine the relative contribution of hemoproteins and oxidative enzymes in this process. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fine TiO2 (primary particle diameter ?1 ?m) and TiO2 nanoparticles (primary particle diameter ?21 nm) via aerosol inhalation at depositions of 4–90 ?g per rat. As in previous intravital experiments in the spinotrapezius muscle, dose-dependent arteriolar dilations were produced by intraluminal infusions of the calcium ionophore A23187. Nanoparticle exposure robustly attenuated these endothelium-dependent responses. However, this attenuation was not due to altered microvascular smooth muscle NO sensitivity because nanoparticle exposure did not alter arteriolar dilations in response to local sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. Nanoparticle exposure significantly increased microvascular oxidative stress by ?60%, and also elevated nitrosative stress fourfold. These reactive stresses coincided with a decreased NO production in a particle deposition dose-dependent manner. Radical scavenging, or inhibition of either myeloperoxidase or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (reduced) oxidase partially restored NO production as well as normal microvascular function. These results indicate that in conjunction with microvascular dysfunction, nanoparticle exposure also decreases NO bioavailability through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms that may mutually increase local reactive species. PMID:19270016

  9. Airway nitric oxide release is reduced after PBS inhalation in asthma Hye-Won Shin,1

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Airway nitric oxide release is reduced after PBS inhalation in asthma Hye-Won Shin,1 David A, Fitzpatrick A, Gaston B, George SC. Airway nitric oxide release is reduced after PBS inhalation in asthma. J.2006.--Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is elevated in asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood

  10. Cellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide,

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Cellular/Molecular A Calcium-Induced Calcium Influx Factor, Nitric Oxide, Modulates the Refilling in astrocytes, we imaged the formation of nitric oxide in cultured murine cortical astrocytes using DAF-FM (4 concentrations of ATP induced a Ca2 -dependent production of nitric oxide. We then investigated the roles

  11. Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade

    E-print Network

    Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser for ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide (NO). A broadly tunable laser source allows targeting the optimum Q3 are reported. external cavity laser nitric oxide detection midinfrared magnetic circular birefringence

  12. A model of nitric oxide in the lower thermosphere Scott M. Bailey

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    A model of nitric oxide in the lower thermosphere Scott M. Bailey Geophysical Institute, University--energy deposition; KEYWORDS: thermosphere, nitric oxide, model, photoelectrons, aurora 1. Introduction [2] The importance of nitric oxide in the lower thermo- sphere has long been recognized. Due to its unique proper

  13. Nitric oxide signaling in plants: cross-talk with Ca2+ , protein kinases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Nitric oxide signaling in plants: cross-talk with Ca2+ , protein kinases and reactive oxygen@dijon.inra.fr Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical recognized as a ubiquitous signal transducer regulators of signal transduction. Keywords: Calcium, cell death, nitric oxide, protein kinases, reactive

  14. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects nNOS Neurons from NMDA and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Neurotoxicity

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects nNOS Neurons from NMDA and Nitric Oxide, Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 Neuronal nitric oxide to NMDA mediated neurotoxicity. Key words: nitric oxide; nNOS neuron; MnSOD; NMDA tox- icity; resistance

  15. Sexual Experience Increases Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Medial Preoptic Area of Male Rats

    E-print Network

    Contreras, Robert J.

    Sexual Experience Increases Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Medial Preoptic Area of Male Rats Juan M. Dominguez, Jessica H. Brann, Mario Gil, and Elaine M. Hull Florida State University Nitric oxide levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the MPOA of male rats, regardless of whether they mated

  16. Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere C. A. Barth,1

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Joule heating and nitric oxide in the thermosphere C. A. Barth,1 G. Lu,2 and R. G. Roble2 Received] The effect of Joule heating on the density of nitric oxide in the thermosphere was studied using observations from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite and model calculations from the Thermospheric

  17. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Retinal Apoptosis in Ischemic Proliferative Retinopathy

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Retinal Apoptosis in Ischemic Proliferative Retinopathy to be the leading mechanism in ischemic retinal degeneration. We showed recently that induc- ible nitric oxide and to improve its vascularization. Key words: inducible nitric oxide synthase; apoptosis; retina; knock-out mice

  18. Nitric oxide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Nitric oxide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Billiar, Simon A. Watkins, and Bruce R. Pitt. Nitric oxide inhibits lipopolysaccharide- induced apoptosis defined. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in acute lung injury, with both cytotoxic

  19. A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS AND STEVEN- compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(2):653­666, 1998.--The rela- tively recent detection of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled breath has prompted a great deal

  20. Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Soonjo Kwon; interleukin-1 ; inter- feron- ; tumor necrosis factor- . Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive and perva demonstrated the potential for human lung epithelial cells to express inducible nitric oxide syn- thase (i

  1. FT-ICR Study of Reaction Induced Fragmentation of Silicon Clusters with Nitric Oxide

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    FT-ICR Study of Reaction Induced Fragmentation of Silicon Clusters with Nitric Oxide Shigeo of small silicon cluster ions (Si n + : 20 n 29) with nitric oxide was studied by using the FT with argon, and were exposed to the reactant gas, nitric oxide, in the ICR cell. Results of reaction for all

  2. January 29, 2001 The Role of Nitric Oxide in the Formation

    E-print Network

    Cobbold, Christina

    January 29, 2001 The Role of Nitric Oxide in the Formation of Keloid and Hypertrophic Lesions C that nitric oxide, a free radical molecule synthesised by numerous mammalian cells, is involved to higher than normal levels of nitric oxide, as the free radical is a known stimulus for fibroblast

  3. Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role. It is postulated that a critical factor in this hormonal gating is up-regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area, and consequent enhanced nitric oxide synthesis in response to stimuli

  4. Heme Distortion Modulated by Ligand-Protein Interactions in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    Heme Distortion Modulated by Ligand-Protein Interactions in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase David in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Author to whom correspondence should be sent: Denis L. Rousseau Phone: (718 Biology, Inc. #12;2 ABSTRACT The catalytic center of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) consists of a thiolate

  5. Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells Jingjing Jiang a

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells Jingjing Jiang a , Steven C Revised 21 April 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arginase Nitric oxide synthase L-Arginine a b s t r a c t Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled breath and is generally considered to be a noninvasive

  6. In Vivo Control of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activation by Nitric Oxide: A Kinetic Analysis

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    In Vivo Control of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activation by Nitric Oxide: A Kinetic Analysis Peter ABSTRACT Free nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), an enzyme, within both pulmonary-sensitive, and that activation in vivo occurs at lower NO concentrations than previously reported. INTRODUCTION Nitric oxide (NO

  7. Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames.

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III, and Ronald K. Hanson Laser-induced fluorescence LIF has proven a reliable technique for nitric oxide. Introduction Laser-induced fluorescence LIF is an important tool1­3 to help understand nitric oxide

  8. Global observations of nitric oxide in the thermosphere C. A. Barth,1

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Global observations of nitric oxide in the thermosphere C. A. Barth,1 K. D. Mankoff,1 S. M. Bailey; published 18 January 2003. [1] Nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere (97­150 km) has been measured from the polar-orbiting Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite as a function of latitude

  9. Thermospheric nitric oxide at higher latitudes: Model calculations with auroral energy input

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Thermospheric nitric oxide at higher latitudes: Model calculations with auroral energy input C] The nitric oxide (NO) density in the lower thermosphere has been calculated by a photochemical model for NOx and compared with measured NO densities from Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE). At higher latitudes the most

  10. Nitric oxide soil emissions from tilled and untilled cornelds Kevin L. Civerolo1

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Nitric oxide soil emissions from tilled and untilled corn®elds Kevin L. Civerolo1 , Russell R the eddy covariance nitric oxide ¯ux measurements made at a site on the Eastern Shore of Maryland during during the summer months. # 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is produced

  11. A Model of Nitric Oxide Capillary Exchange NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS* AND ALEKSANDER S. POPEL*

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    A Model of Nitric Oxide Capillary Exchange NIKOLAOS M. TSOUKIAS* AND ALEKSANDER S. POPEL ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to develop a mathematical model that describes the nitric oxide (NO) the contribution of capillary endothelium to the nitric oxide flux into the parenchymal tissue cells; (2

  12. Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Induce Vesicle Release at Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP Induce Vesicle Release at Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Britt, Bu¨ nteweg 17d, D-30559 Hannover, Germany Accepted 5 January 1999 ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO such as nitric oxide (NO) can serve as membrane-permeant messengers in the nervous sys- tem has added a novel

  13. Carbon Monoxide Reduces Neuropathic Pain and Spinal Microglial Activation by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (NOS2-KO) mice using two carbon monoxide (HO-2), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and NOS2 as well as a microglial marker (CD11b/c) were/Significance: This study reports that an interaction between the CO and nitric oxide (NO) systems is taking place following

  14. Accepted Manuscript Title: Vasorelaxing Effects and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Accepted Manuscript Title: Vasorelaxing Effects and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages by New Iron-Containing Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecules (CO- RMs Accepted M anuscript 1 Vasorelaxing Effects and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages by New Iron

  15. Experimental evaluation of strategies for quantitative laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract Nitric oxide laser. All rights reserved. Keywords: Nitric oxide; Laser-induced fluorescence; NO reburn; Combustion,2]. A species of par- ticular concern for its harmful impact on the envi- ronment is nitric oxide (NO), whose

  16. Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst. Mean nitric oxide metabolite levels in the insemination media were 2.6 times higher in embryos characteristic curves between morphological predictors and nitric oxide metabolite levels revealed a trend toward

  17. Lasting beneficial effect of short-term inhaled nitric oxide on graft function after lung transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile A. Bacha; Philippe Hervé; Shinya Murakami; Alain Chapelier; Guy-Michel Mazmanian; Vincent de Montpreville; Hélène Détruit; Jean-Marie Libert; Philippe Dartevelle

    1996-01-01

    The combination of ischemia and reperfusion after lung transplantation is characterized by endothelial damage, neutrophil sequestration, and decreased release of endothelial nitric oxide. Because nitric oxide has been shown to selectively dilate the pulmonary vasculature, abrogate neutrophil adherence, and restore endothelial dysfunction, we hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide given for 4 hours during initial reperfusion might attenuate reperfusion injury in

  18. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24?h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nitric Oxide Formation in Internal Combustion Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE A. LAVOIE; JOHN B. HEYWOOD; JAMES C. KECK

    1970-01-01

    The nonequilibrium formation of nitric oxide within the internal combustion engine cylinder is examined. A thermodynamic model which predicts the properties of the burnt and unburnt gases during the combustion process is developed. A set of reactions which govern the formation of nitric oxide is proposed, and rate equations for nitric oxide concentrations as a function of time in the

  20. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe Vera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Karaca; J. M. Sharma; R. Nordgren

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

  1. Macula densa derived nitric oxide in regulation of glomerular capillary pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Thorup; A Erik G Persson

    1996-01-01

    Macula densa derived nitric oxide in regulation of glomerular capillary pressure. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). At least three different isoforms of NOS have been identified in the kidney. This study examines the effects of selective inhibition of the inducible isoform (iNOS) and the neuronal isoform (bNOS) on the glomerular capillary pressure (PGC),

  2. Nitric oxide and the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability. The G.L. Brown Prize Lecture.

    PubMed

    Paterson, D

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imbalance and arrhythmia; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the cholinergic modulation of cardiac excitability; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the sympathetic modulation of cardiac excitability; Functional significance of nitric oxide in the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability; Summary; References. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 1-12. PMID:11429613

  3. The effect of chronic nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on blood pressure and angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne L. Lubarsky; Robert A. Ahokas; Steven A. Friedman; Baha M. Sibai

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether blockade of inducible or endothelial nitric oxide synthesis prevents maternal vasodilation and blunting of angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat.STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant and nonpregnant rats were given (1) drinking water alone (untreated), (2) drinking water containing the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (0.5 gm\\/L), or (3) drinking water containing the nonselective

  4. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)]. E-mail: jing.pope@okstate.edu; Gupta, Ramesh C. [Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY 42241 (United States); Goad, John T. [Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY 42241 (United States); Karanth, Subramanya [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Pope, Carey [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, 264 McElroy Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation.

  5. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1103--1110 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Detection of nitric acid and nitric oxides in the terrestrial atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1996-01-01

    Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1103--1110 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Detection of nitric acid observations of the vertical distributions and the column densities of nitric acid and nitric oxide concentra and nitric oxides in the terrestrial atmosphere in the middle-infrared spectral region M. I. Ble11 cka, M. De

  6. Nitric oxide in fruit ripening: Trends and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Manjunatha; V. Lokesh; Bhagyalakshmi Neelwarne

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring ethylene is crucial in regulating post-harvest life of fruits. The concept of nitric oxide (NO) involvement in antagonizing ethylene is new. NO mediated physiologies casted through regulation of plant hormones are widely reported during developmental and stress chemistry having no direct link with ripening. Research in NO biology and understanding its interplay with other signal molecules in ripening fruits

  7. Carvedilol Action Is Dependent on Endogenous Production of Nitric Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo A. Afonso; Rita S. Patarrao; M. Paula Macedo; Mota M. Carmo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Carvedilol is known to be an adrenoreceptor blocker and free radical scavenger, used in hypertension and cardiac failure. However, its therapeutic actions cannot be fully explained by these mechanisms. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that carvedilol action is associated with the synthesis\\/release of nitric oxide (NO).Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 22), 9 weeks old, were anesthetized

  8. The physiology and pathophysiology of nitric oxide in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. X. Guix; I. Uribesalgo; M. Coma; F. J. Muñoz

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule with pleiotropic effects in different tissues. NO is synthesized by NO synthases (NOS), a family with four major types: endothelial, neuronal, inducible and mitochondrial. They can be found in almost all the tissues and they can even co-exist in the same tissue. NO is a well-known vasorelaxant agent, but it works as a neurotransmitter

  9. Nitric Oxide: Cytotoxicity versus Cytoprotection— How, Why, When, and Where?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus-D. Kröncke; Karin Fehsel; Victoria Kolb-Bachofen

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to play an important role as a signal molecule in many parts of the organism as well as a cytotoxic effector molecule of the nonspecific immune response. It appears paradoxical that NO on one side acts as a physiological intercellular messenger and on the other side may display cytotoxic activityin vivo.To make things even

  10. A role of nitric oxide in Hirschsprung's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tomita; K. Munakata; Y. Kurosu; K. Tanjoh

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been shown to be a neurotransmitter in the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves in the gastrointestinal tract. To clarify the significance of NO in Hirschsprung's disease (HD), enteric nerve responses in colonic tissue obtained from HD patients were investigated. Colonic tissue specimens were obtained from four patients with HD and from 11 patients without constipation

  11. Nitric Oxide, Platelet Function, Myocardial Infarction and Reperfusion Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Alonso; Marek W. Radomski

    2003-01-01

    Platelets play an important role in physiologic hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis that complicate the course of vascular disorders. A number of platelet functions including adhesion, aggregation and recruitment are controlled by nitric oxide (NO) generated by platelets and the endothelial cells. Derangements in this generation may contribute to the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications of vascular disorders. The pharmacologic supplementation of

  12. Rebound Pulmonary Hypertension After Inhalation of Nitric Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M Atz; Ian Adatia; David L Wessel

    1996-01-01

    Background. We describe the hemodynamic response to initiation and withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in infants with pulmonary hypertension after surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.Methods. Between January 1, 1992, and January 1, 1995, 20 patients underwent repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Nine patients had postoperative pulmonary hypertension and received a 15-minute trial of inhaled

  13. Nitric Oxide Production Is Increased in Patients with Inflammatory Myositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wanchu; M. Khullar; A. Sud; P. Bambery

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in several inflammatory disorders. We have previously demonstrated higher levels of NO production among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study we measured serum levels of nitrite and citrulline using calorimetric methods as surrogate markers of NO production among patients with inflammatory myositis (IM). Twenty patients with IM and 19

  14. Experimental study on nitric oxide reduction through calcium propionate reburning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Jianli Zhao; Chunmei Lu

    2011-01-01

    Performances of calcium propionate (CP) on nitric oxide (NO) reduction are experimentally investigated on a drop tube furnace system from basic reburning (BR), Thermal De-NOx and advanced reburning (AR) and it is demonstrated to be feasible of using CP as reburning fuel. BR could supply about 80% efficiency with reburning fuel fraction (Rff) and residence time (?) kept 20–25% and

  15. Nitric oxide accelerates seed germination in warm-season grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Sarath; Paul C. Bethke; Russell Jones; Lisa M. Baird; Guichuan Hou; Robert B. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly promoted germination of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv Kanlow) in the light and in the dark at 25°C, across a broad range of concentrations. SNP also promoted seed germination in two other warm-season grasses. A chemical scavenger of NO inhibited germination and blocked SNP stimulation of seed germination. The phenolic (+)-catechin

  16. Nitric oxide adsorption at Pt(100) electrode surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rodes; V. Climent; J. M. Orts; J. M. Pérez; A. Aldaz

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide adlayers formed at Pt(100) electrode surfaces have been characterized in situ by means of electrochemical and FTIR spectroscopic experiments. These adlayers can be reductively stripped from the electrode surface yielding dissolved ammonium as the main reduction product in acidic solution. From the voltammetric charge involved in this process the absolute NO coverage for the saturated adlayers has been

  17. Two photon spectroscopy of autoionizing levels of nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.; Pratt, S. T.

    1986-08-01

    The two-photon ionization spectrum of supersonically cooled nitric oxide is reported. The two-photon ionization spectrum is found to be different from the corresponding single photon ionization spectrum. The new bands found in the two-photon spectrum are discussed. (AIP)

  18. Low energy electron attachment to clusters of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard S. Carman Jr.; H. S. Jr

    1994-01-01

    The attachment of low energy (9--80 meV) electrons to clusters of nitric oxide (NO) has been studied by means of Rydberg electron transfer (RET) from selected [ital nd] states of rubidium ([ital n]=15--40). The product negative ions have stoichiometry (NO)[sup [minus

  19. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta A. Ballard; William E. Truog; Avital Cnaan; Richard J. Martin; Philip L. Ballard; Jeffrey D. Merrill; Michele C. Walsh; David J. Durand; Dennis E. Mayock; Eric C. Eichenwald; Donald R. Null; Mark L. Hudak; Asha R. Puri; Sergio G. Golombek; Sherry E. Courtney; Dan L. Stewart; Stephen E. Welty; Roderic H. Phibbs; Anna Maria Hibbs; Xianqun Luan; Sandra R. Wadlinger; Jeanette M. Asselin; Christine E. Coburn

    2010-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants is associated with prolonged hospitalization, as well as abnormal pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcome. In animal models, inhaled nitric oxide improves both gas exchange and lung struc- tural development, but the use of this therapy in infants at risk for bronchopulmo- nary dysplasia is controversial. Methods We conducted a randomized, stratified, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of

  20. Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Portia C. Goldsmith; Tabi A. Leslie; Nicholas A. Hayes; Nicholas J. Levell; Pauline M. Dowd; John C. Foreman

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in human skin in viva the role of nitric oxide in maintaining resting vascular tone, in the vasodilatation caused by local warming and by ultraviolet B light exposure and in the response to exogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed by planimetry of the visible erythema or pallor and

  1. Nitric oxide, a survival factor for lens epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coral G. Chamberlain; Kylie J. Mansfield; Anna Cerra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) is capable of promoting either cell death or cell survival depending on cell type and experimental conditions. In this study, the possible effects of NO on the viability of lens epithelial cells were investigated in an explant model used previously to identify cellular changes associated with posterior capsule opacification following cataract surgery. Methods: Rat lens epithelial

  2. Observation of laser oscillation in nitric oxide at 218 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, S.M.; Webb, C.E. (Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, England (GB))

    1990-04-15

    We have recently proposed a scheme to produce coherent radiation at eight or more wavelengths between 158 and 242 nm by optically pumping a high-lying electronic level of nitric oxide. We report here the successful operation of this scheme to produce laser oscillation at 218 nm. The possibility of using this scheme to produce laser oscillation at other wavelengths is discussed.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of a Linear Dinitrosyl-Triiron Complex; Comparison to a Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductase Intermediate

    E-print Network

    Victor, Eric

    Nitric oxide is released during the immune response by the host during bacterial infection. To counteract this response, bacteria have evolved nitric oxide reductases to convert NO to N[subscript 2]O. Some of these nitric ...

  4. Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: A little goes a long way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Hummel; Anthony J. Fischer; Sean M. Martin; Freya Q. Schafer; Garry R. Buettner

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO S ) is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant in free radical-mediated lipid oxidation (LPO). It reacts rapidly with peroxyl radicals as a sacrificial chain-terminating antioxidant. The goal of this work was to determine the minimum threshold concentration of NO S required to inhibit Fe 2+ -induced cellular lipid peroxidation. Using oxygen consumption as a measure of LPO, we

  5. Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrations in Asthmatic Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ildikó Horváth; Louise E. Donnelly; András Kiss; Beata Balint; Sergei A. Kharitonov; Peter J. Barnes

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased oxidative stress in the airways. Exhaled NO levels are not higher in asthmatic smokers than in healthy non-smokers, and the value of exhaled NO for diagnosing asthma in smokers has been questioned. Objectives: To compare exhaled NO concentrations between healthy and steroid-naive and steroid-treated asthmatic smokers and

  6. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-11-03

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

  7. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  8. The modulation of ferryl myoglobin formation and its oxidative effects on low density lipoproteins by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Dee, G; Rice-Evans, C; Obeyesekera, S; Meraji, S; Jacobs, M; Bruckdorfer, K R

    1991-12-01

    This study has investigated the interactions between nitric oxide and haem protein radicals. The results demonstrate that nitric oxide interacts with activated ferryl myoglobin species with reduction to metmyoglobin, but the extent and duration of the reduction depends on the relative concentrations of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. Ferryl myoglobin has a much greater relative potential for oxidising polyunsaturated fatty acid side chains in low density lipoproteins than in cell membranes. The peroxidative response can be modulated by nitric oxide: ferryl myoglobin-mediated peroxidation of LDL may be enhanced or suppressed by nitric oxide depending on the relative concentrations of NO and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:1743289

  9. Mifepristone-induced nitric oxide release and expression of nitric oxide synthases in the human cervix during early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervi Väisänen-Tommiska; Ralf Butzow; Olavi Ylikorkala; Tomi S. Mikkola

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a factor in cervical ripening, perhaps under the control of progesterone. We studied the effects of the antiprogesterone mifepristone on the release of NO and on the expression of inducible NO syn- thase (iNOS) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in the uterine cervix of women in early pregnancy. METHODS: Thirteen women were treated with oral

  10. Air contamination with nitric oxide: effect on exhaled nitric oxide response.

    PubMed

    Therminarias, A; Flore, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Oddou, M F; Delaire, M; Grimbert, F

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the response of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration (ECNO) and quantity of exhaled NO over time (EVNO) in 10 healthy subjects breathing into five polyethylene bags, one in which synthetic air was free of NO and four in which NO was diluted to concentrations of 20 +/- 0.6, 49 +/- 0.8, 98 +/- 2, and 148 +/- 2 ppb, respectively. Each subject was connected to each bag for 10 min at random. Minute ventilation and ECNO were measured continuously, and EVNO was calculated continuously. ECNO and EVNO values were significantly higher for an inhaled NO concentration of 20 ppb than for NO-free air. Above 20 ppb, ECNO and EVNO increased linearly with inhaled NO concentration. It is reasonable to assume that a share of the quantity of inspired NO over time (InspVNO) because of air contamination by pollution is rejected by the ventilatory pathway. Insofar as InspVNO does not affect endogenous production or the metabolic fate of NO in the airway, this share may be estimated as being approximately one third of InspVNO, the remainder being taken by the endogenous pathway. Thus, air contamination by the NO resulting from pollution greatly increases the NO response in exhaled air. PMID:9517592

  11. Basal nitric oxide expresses endogenous cardioprotection during reperfusion by inhibition of neutrophil-mediated damage after surgical revascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sato; Zhi-Qing Zhao; James E. Jordan; James C. Todd; Robert D. Riley; C. Spencer Taft; John W. Hammon Jr; Ping Li; Xin-liang Ma; J. Vinten-Johansen

    1997-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion damages endothelium and impairs basal production of nitric oxide. Basally released nitric oxide is cardioprotective by its inhibition of neutrophil activities. Loss of endogenous nitric oxide with endothelial injury may occur during two phases: cardioplegic ischemia and reperfusion (aortic declamping). This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of endogenously released nitric oxide in hearts subjected to regional ischemia, cardioplegic

  12. HBOC Vasoactivity: Interplay Between Nitric Oxide Scavenging and Capacity to Generate Bioactive Nitric Oxide Species

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. Recent Advances: HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Critical Issues: Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Future Directions: Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2284–2297. PMID:23249305

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the Stark effect for trapping cold molecules: application to nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Eric

    : application to nitric oxide Bryan J. Bichsel, Michael A. Morrison, Neil Shafer-Ray, and E. R. I. Abraham nitric oxide as a test case, we experimentally assess these approximations at field strengths typical of polar molecules: diatomic radicals with 2 ground states. As an exemplar we have chosen nitric ox- ide

  14. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Gugliandolo, Agnese; Calabrò, Carlo; Currò, Monica; Ientile, Riccardo; Raskovic, Desanka; Korkina, Ludmila; Caccamo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)n as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 ?786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS), 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 ?786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 ?786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT)16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT)8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT) repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 ?786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)n polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI. PMID:25878398

  15. Mechanistic study of the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with methane over yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fokema, M.D.; Ying, J.Y.

    2000-05-15

    The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline Group IIIB metal oxides for the reduction of nitric oxide with methane was shown to be comparable to that of Co-ZSM-5. The mechanism of selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with methane in excess oxygen was examined over nanocrystalline yttrium oxide. A series of heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction steps was proposed to account for the observed trends in catalytic properties. Methyl radicals generated at the catalyst surface desorb into the gas phase, where they react with nitric oxide to form nitrosomethane. Nitrosomethane then decomposes in a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions to produce nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Evidence for gas-phase reaction of methyl radicals with nitric oxide was found in the adsorption studies of nitric oxide on yttrium oxide, the presence of ethane and ethene in the reactor effluent, catalytic studies involving nitrosomethane and nitromethane, as well as the successful prediction of methane selectivities based on a homogeneous reaction mechanism for methyl radical consumption. The proposed pathway for nitrogen production was supported by the observation of hydrogen cyanide under certain operating conditions, as well as adsorbed NCO species detected by infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Exogenous nitric oxide protect cucumber roots against oxidative stress induced by salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghua Shi; Fei Ding; Xiufeng Wang; Min Wei

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are subcellular organelles with an essentially oxidative type of metabolism. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in it increases under stress conditions and causes oxidative damage. In the present study, effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on both the ROS metabolism in mitochondria and functions of plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast were studied

  17. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-07-01

    Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

  18. Uncoupled Cardiac Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Gad A.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Liu, Hong; Jiao, Zhe; Xiao, Hong D.; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Boulden, Beth M.; Widder, Julian; Fredd, Scott; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Wolska, Beata M.; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is one consequence of hypertension and caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because nitric oxide synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of its co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) occurs.Similar events may occur in the heart leading to uncoupled NOS and diastolic dysfunction. Methods and Results In a hypertensive mouse model, diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac oxidation, a reduction in cardiac BH4, and uncoupled NOS. Compared to sham-operated animals, male mice with unilateral nephrectomy, with subcutaneous implantation of a controlled release deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet, and given 1% saline to drink were mildly hypertensive and had diastolic dysfunction in the absence of systolic dysfunction or cardiac hypertrophy. The hypertensive mouse hearts showed increased oxidized biopterins, NOS-dependent superoxide production, reduced NO production, and phosphorylated phospholamban. Feeding hypertensive mice BH4 (5 mg/day), but not treating with hydralazine or tetrahydroneopterin, improved cardiac BH4 stores, phosphorylated phospholamban levels, and diastolic dysfunction. Isolated cardiomyocyte experiments revealed impaired relaxation that was normalized with acute BH4 treatment. Targeted cardiac overexpression of angiotensin converting enzyme also resulted in cardiac oxidation, NOS uncoupling, and diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension. Conclusions Cardiac oxidation, independent of vascular changes, can lead to uncoupled cardiac NOS and diastolic dysfunction. BH4 may represent a possible treatment for diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20083682

  19. [Nitric oxide and indicators of oxidative stress in patients with exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Vinokurova, L V; Berezina, O I; Drozdov, V N; Petrakov, A V; Nilova, T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the level of nitric oxide to clinical and laboratory criteria for acute CP, and indicators of oxidative stress in CP. A total of 129 patients with CP (96 males and 33 females), mean age 46,9 +/- 9,2 years, were distributed to the groups with uncomplicated and complicated course. A study of nitric oxide in the blood as an additional criterion for acute CP. Found it significantly increased in patients with CP compared with control values. The content of nitric oxide in the blood during uncomplicated CP was 149,07 +/- 15,4 umol/l, with complicated course increased to 211,5 +/- 17,7 umol/l, which is significantly higher than that in uncomplicated CP (p = 0,042). A significant increase of NO level in the amplification of pain intensity (10-point analogue scale), and also obtained a direct correlation between these criteria (r = 0,69, p = 0,01). Received a significant increase in levels of nitric oxide with an increase in pancreas head size, revealed a direct correlation between these parameters (r = 0,59, p = 0,04). The obtained results allowed using nitric oxide as a criterion of acute HP. For diagnostic levels of nitric oxide made its rise above 120 mmol/liter. Sensitivity and specificity improvement of nitric oxide above 120 umol/L were 97% and 57% respectively when compared with the pain syndrome and 42% and 62% respectively when compared to pancreas head size. Were studied AAO and MDA indices. A significant increase in MDA (t = 2,58, p = 0,012), indicating that activation of LPO. There was a significant increase of MDA in the amplification of the intensity of pain, and also obtained a direct correlation between these criteria (r = 0,30, p = 0,03). Identified a direct correlation between levels of MDA and nitric oxide (r = 0,63, p = 0,01). Study of the level of nitric oxide can be used as an additional criterion of exacerbation of CP. In patients with CP enhanced LPO processes, as evidenced by the increase of MDA in patients with high levels of nitric oxide in the blood. Growth of LP may be an additional pathophysiological factor amplifying damaged pancreas. PMID:21560644

  20. Measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in pediatric asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been extensively investigated as a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The increased NO expression induced by inflammatory mediators in airways can be monitored easily in exhaled air from asthmatic children. Based on the relationship between the increased NO expression and eosinophilic airway inflammation, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements become an important adjunct for the evaluation of asthma. In addition, the availability of portable devices makes it possible to measure FeNO more easily and frequently in the routine pediatric practice. Despite various confounding factors affecting its levels, FeNO can be applicable in diagnosing asthma, monitoring treatment response, evaluating asthma control, and predicting asthma exacerbations. Thus, although pulmonary function tests are the standard tools for objective measurements of asthmatic control, FeNO can broaden the way of asthma monitoring and supplement standard clinical asthma care guidelines. PMID:24244210

  1. Nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere - Measurements and geophysical interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvath, J. J.; Frederick, J. E.; Orsini, N.; Douglass, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket-borne parachute-deployed chemiluminescence instrument has obtained seven new measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide for altitudes between 30 and 50 km at mid-latitudes. These results, when combined with profiles measured by an earlier version of the instrument, cover all four seasons and provide a more comprehensive picture of upper stratospheric nitric oxide than has been available previously. At the highest altitudes studied, the vertical gradient in mixing ratio displays positive and negative values during different observations, with the largest values tending to appear at the greatest heights in summer. Examination of the differences among the profiles, which exceed a factor of 3 near the stratopause, suggests that they arise from the action of transport processes which carry air into the mid-latitude upper stratosphere from regions of the atmosphere that contain widely different odd-nitrogen abundances.

  2. The role of nitric oxide in prostaglandin biology; update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin share many similarities. Two major forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) have been identified: constitutive vs inducible. In general, the constitutive form functions in housekeeping and physiologic roles whereas the inducible form is up-regulated by mitogenic or inflammatory stimuli and is responsible for pathophysiological responses. The cross talk between the COX and NOS pathways was initially reported 1993 and since then, numerous studies have been undertaken to delineate the functional consequences of this interaction as well as the potential mechanism by which each pathway interacts. This review will focus in particular on recent advances in this field that extend our understanding of these two pathways under various systems. PMID:21820072

  3. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Hemoglobin in Health, Disease, and Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is made in endothelial cells lining blood vessels and diffuses to smooth muscle cells where it leads to muscle relaxation, vessel dilatation, and increased blood flow and also plays a large role in controlling platelet aggregation and inflammation. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen carrying molecule in the blood, reacts at nearly diffusion limited rates with nitric oxide to (in some reactions) form nitrate ands thereby destroy NO activity. The presence of such large amounts of such a potent NO scavenger in the blood challenges the idea that NO is indeed the EDRF. Encapsulation in red blood cells in healthy individuals limits NO scavenging by Hb. Biophysical experiments will be described exploring and evaluating these mechanisms. Other studies will be described discussing how red cells break open (lyse) in pathological situations and the cell-free Hb reduces NO bioavailability. Finally, methods to restore NO bioavailability through therapeutics will be discussed.

  4. Nitric oxide: considerations for the treatment of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Terpolilli, Nicole A; Moskowitz, Michael A; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Some 40 years ago it was recognized by Furchgott and colleagues that the endothelium releases a vasodilator, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Later on, several groups identified EDRF to be a gas, nitric oxide (NO). Since then, NO was identified as one of the most versatile and unique molecules in animal and human biology. Nitric oxide mediates a plethora of physiological functions, for example, maintenance of vascular tone and inflammation. Apart from these physiological functions, NO is also involved in the pathophysiology of various disorders, specifically those in which regulation of blood flow and inflammation has a key role. The aim of the current review is to summarize the role of NO in cerebral ischemia, the most common cause of stroke. PMID:22333622

  5. L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, G. P. T.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Holstein, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody against L-citrulline or polyclonal anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase sera, and double immunofluorescence to detect neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-citrulline co-localization. The results demonstrate that the same CNS regions and cell types are labeled by neuronal nitric oxide synthase polyclonal antisera and L-citrulline monoclonal antibodies, using both immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Short-term pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor reduces L-citrulline immunostaining, but does not affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In the vestibular brainstem, double immunofluorescence studies show that many, but not all, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells co-express L-citrulline, and that local intracellular patches of intense L-citrulline accumulation are present in some neurons. Conversely, all L-citrulline-labeled neurons co-express neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cells expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase alone are interpreted as neurons with the potential to produce nitric oxide under other stimulus conditions, and the subcellular foci of enhanced L-citrulline staining are viewed as intracellular sites of nitric oxide production. This interpretation is supported by ultrastructural observations of subcellular foci with enhanced L-citrulline and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining that are located primarily at postsynaptic densities and portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. Copyright 2002 IBRO.

  6. Nitric oxide synthases in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Shimokawa; Masato Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in almost all tissues and organs, exerting a variety of biological actions under both physiological\\u000a and pathological conditions. NO is synthesized by three distinct NO synthase (NOS) isoforms (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial\\u000a NOS), all of which are expressed in the human cardiovascular system. Although the regulatory roles of NOSs in cardiovascular\\u000a diseases have been described

  7. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Migration of Cultured Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Tung Lau; Wei-Ching Ma

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is an important event in both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Although nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in regulating vascular functions, it is not known whether NO modulates migration of endothelial cells. We show here that chemically-derived NO inhibited the serum-induced migration of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

  8. Nitric oxide in autoimmune disease: cytotoxic or regulatory mediator?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Kolb; Victoria Kolb-Bachofen

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is released locally during inflammatory autoimmune diseases and is believed to contribute to tissue destruction. However, recent studies are not fully consistent with such a simple role for NO. Here, Hubert Kolb and Victoria Kolb-Bachofen discuss data that suggest a role for NO in autoimmune diseases as an important regulator of the T helper 1 (Th1)\\/Th2 balance.

  9. Role of nitric oxide in implantation and menstruation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristof Chwalisz; Robert E. Garfield

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a major paracrine mediator of various biological processes, including vascu- lar functions and inflammation. In blood vessels, NO is produced by the low-input constitutive endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and is a potent vasodilator and platelet aggregation inhibitor. The inducible NOS isoform (iNOS) is capable of producing NO at high concentrations which have pro-inflammatory properties. Immuno- histochemical

  10. Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Qing Wei; I. G. Charles; Austin Smith; Jan Ure; Gui-Jie Feng; Fang-Ping Huang; Damo Xu; W. Muller; Salvador Moncada

    1995-01-01

    NITRIC oxide (NO) is important in many biological functions1-5. It is generated from L-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS). The cytokine-inducible NOS (iNOS) is activated by several immunological stimuli, leading to the production of large quantities of NO which can be cytotoxic6. To define the biological role of iNOS further, we generated iNOS mutant mice. These are viable, fertile

  11. Relevance of nitric oxide in pain mechanisms and pain management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr K. Janicki; Magdalena Jeske-Janicka

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be involved in the mechanisms of pain generation and transmission throughout the central and peripheral\\u000a nervous systems (including brain and spinal cord and perivascular tissue and peripheral nerve terminals) and locally released\\u000a pain mediators (including formation of inflammation and vascular edema). NO mechanisms are also involved in the analgesic\\u000a activity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and

  12. Activity Regulation of Photoreactive Nitrile Hydratase by Nitric Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Odaka; Kaoru Fujii; Mikio Hoshino; Takumi Noguchi; Masanari Tsujimura; Shigehiro Nagashima; Masafumi Yohda; Teruyuki Nagamune; Yorinao Inoue; Isao Endo

    1997-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase) from Rhodococcus sp. N-771 is a novel enzyme that possesses a non-heme iron(III) center binding endogenous nitric oxide (NO). It is inactivated by aerobic incubation of cells in the dark, whereas the inactive form is converted to the active one by light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of activity regulation in the NHase, we investigated the role

  13. Interactions between morphine and nitric oxide in various organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Toda; Shiroh Kishioka; Yoshio Hatano; Hiroshi Toda

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays obligatory roles as an important intercellular messenger in the control of physiological functions\\u000a and it also participates in pathophysiological interventions. This labile, gaseous molecule is also involved in mechanisms\\u000a underlying the beneficial and untoward actions of therapeutic agents. Endogenous NO is formed by endothelial and neurogenic\\u000a NO synthases that are constitutively present mainly in the endothelium

  14. Nitric oxide: a novel link between synaptic and nonsynaptic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    János P. Kiss; E. Sylvester Vizi

    2001-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the function of monoamine transporters. Because the production of NO by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) is closely related to the activation of NMDA receptors, the level of NO around nNOS-containing synapses reflects the activity of glutamate-mediated neurotransmission. Glutamate participates mainly in synaptic interactions, but with the help of NO, the strength of

  15. Nitric oxide inhibits prostanoid synthesis in the rat oviduct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Perez Martinez; M. Farina; D. Ogando; M. L. Ribeiro; M. Gimeno; A. M. Franchi

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the production of arachidonic acid ([14C]-AA) metabolites in the rat oviduct. The basal synthesis of eicosanoids was measured by the conversion of ([14C]-AA) to the different radiolabeled products of cyclooxygenase (COX). The oviducts incubated for 1h with the labeled substrate of COX were able to convert 3.3 ± 0.3 %

  16. Low energy electron attachment to clusters of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard S. Carman

    1994-01-01

    The attachment of low energy (9–80 meV) electrons to clusters of nitric oxide (NO) has been studied by means of Rydberg electron transfer (RET) from selected nd states of rubidium (n=15–40). The product negative ions have stoichiometry (NO)?x (x=2–60) and exhibit even\\/odd intensity alternations (odd?even) which increase in magnitude with cluster size such that only odd cluster ions are observed

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Capellier; T. Jacques; P. Balvay; G. Blasco; E. Belle; F. Barale

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To describe the use of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in four patients with severe pulmonary embolism. Setting: The intensive care unit (ICU) of a university teaching hospital. Patients: Four patients with severe pulmonary embolism on the basis of clinical, haemodynamic or blood-gas parameters received NO by\\u000a inhalation either during spontaneous respiration (two cases) or while mechanically ventilated (two cases).

  18. Tutorial Review: Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors for Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Privett, Benjamin J.; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The important biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) have prompted the development of analytical techniques capable of sensitive and selective detection of NO. Electrochemical sensing, more than any other NO-detection method, embodies the parameters necessary for quantifying NO in challenging physiological environments such as blood and the brain. Herein, we provide a broad overview of the field of electrochemical NO sensors, including design, fabrication, and analytical performance characteristics. Both electrochemical sensors and biological applications are detailed. PMID:20502795

  19. Concomitant production of nitric oxide and superoxide in human macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Packiasamy A. R Juliet; Toshio Hayashi; Akihisa Iguchi; Louis J Ignarro

    2003-01-01

    Many harmful effects of nitric oxide are caused by the reaction of NO with superoxide anion. The present study was carried out to find out the concomitant production of superoxide and to investigate a suitable inhibitor of NO, which is produced by iNOS. THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages by PMA and cytokine. Addition of l-NAME showed decrement in superoxide

  20. Smoking is associated with an age-related decline in exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Sundy, J S; Hauswirth, D W; Mervin-Blake, S; Fernandez, C A; Patch, K B; Alexander, K M; Allgood, S; McNair, P D; Levesque, M C

    2007-12-01

    Age-related declines in forced expiratory volume in one second are accelerated in smokers. Smoking is associated with decreased exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)). The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of age on F(eNO) in otherwise healthy smokers and nonsmokers. F(eNO) and serum cotinine levels were measured in 994 healthy subjects aged 18-40 yrs. American Thoracic Society questionnaire data on smoking habits was used to validate serum cotinine levels as a surrogate marker for categorisation of smokers and nonsmokers in the cohort. Serum cotinine levels were a good discriminator of smokers (n = 99) and nonsmokers (n = 895). F(eNO) levels were significantly lower in otherwise healthy smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was an inverse correlation of serum cotinine levels with F(eNO). No correlation of age with F(eNO) was found in nonsmokers but an inverse correlation of F(eNO) with age in smokers was found. F(eNO) was significantly lower in smokers aged 21-40 yrs compared with nonsmokers aged 21-40 yrs, but was not lower in smokers aged 18-20 yrs compared with nonsmokers of the same age. Smoking was associated with decreased exhaled nitric oxide. The greatest smoking-related declines in exhaled nitric oxide occurred in older subjects. This suggests that smoking is associated with age-related declines in exhaled nitric oxide and justifies future mechanistic studies that address the impact of exhaled nitric oxide decline on lung function. PMID:17928310

  1. para-Substituted N-Nitroso-N-oxybenzenamine Ammonium Salts: A New Class of Redox-sensitive Nitric Oxide Releasing

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    constitute a new class of-redox sensitive nitric oxide (NO) releasing compounds. These compounds yield nitric comprise a new class of redox-sensitive nitric oxide releasing agents. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction In the past decade, nitric oxide (NO) has been dis- covered to be a major

  2. Human leucocytes in asthenozoospermic patients: endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Buldreghini, E; Hamada, A; Macrì, M L; Amoroso, S; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Agarwal, A; Balercia, G

    2014-12-01

    In a basic study at the Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy, we evaluated the pattern of mRNA endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in human blood leucocytes isolated from normozoospermic fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile men to elucidate any pathogenic involvement in sperm cell motility. Forty infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia and 45 normozoospermic fertile donors, age-matched, were included. Semen parameters were evaluated, and expression analysis of mRNA was performed in human leucocytes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm volume, count, motility and morphology were determined, and eNOS expression and Western blotting analyses were performed. A positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of NO and the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. The mRNA of eNOS was more expressed in peripheral blood leucocytes isolated from asthenozoospermic infertile men versus those of fertile normozoospermic men (7.46 ± 0.38 versus 7.06 ± 0.56, P = 0.0355). A significant up-regulation of eNOS gene in peripheral blood leucocytes was 1.52-fold higher than that of fertile donors. It is concluded that eNOS expression and activity are enhanced in blood leucocytes in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. PMID:24386917

  3. Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors, and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species, and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)?NO(-)], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates. PMID:23834533

  4. Nitric oxide inhibition of coxsackievirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, C; Ocampo, C J; Saura, M; McMillan, A; Lowenstein, C J

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a radical molecule with antibacterial, -parasitic, and -viral properties. We investigated the mechanism of NO inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication in vitro by determining the effect of NO upon a single replicative cycle of CVB3 grown in HeLa cells. Transfection of inducible NO synthase cDNA into HeLa cells reduces the number of viral particles produced during a single cycle of growth. Similarly, a noncytotoxic concentration of the NO donor S-nitroso-amino-penicillamine reduces the number of viral particles in a dose-dependent manner. To explore the mechanisms by which NO exerts its antiviral effect, we assayed the attachment, replication, and translation steps of the CVB3 life cycle. NO does not affect the attachment of CVB3 to HeLa cells. However, NO inhibits CVB3 RNA synthesis, as shown by a [3H]uridine incorporation assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and Northern analysis. In addition, NO inhibits CVB3 protein synthesis, as shown by [35S]methionine protein labeling and Western blot analysis of infected cells. Thus, NO inhibits CVB3 replication in part by inhibiting viral RNA synthesis by an unknown mechanism. PMID:9312175

  5. Membrane mass spectrometer inlet for quantitation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R S; Deen, W M; Tannenbaum, S R; Wishnok, J S

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological and biochemical messenger that may be involved in endogenous carcinogenesis and cell toxicity via formation of N-nitroso compounds or direct DNA damage by nitrosating agents arising from the reaction of NO with O2. To study the reaction of NO with O2 in model systems and the formation and disappearance of NO in more physiological systems such as cell cultures, we adapted and optimized a membrane mass spectrometer inlet specifically for such analyses. The inlet consisted of Silastic tubing inserted into a Swagelok 'tee', which was attached to the mass spectrometer via the tuning probe. Kinetics of NO disappearance can be followed under electron impact conditions until NO2 interferes via the formation of NO+ during fragmentation of NO2+. The aqueous NO concentration for minimum detection was determined to be 1.4 microM. The inlet response time to step changes in aqueous NO concentrations was 7.0 s, fast enough to permit real-time measurements of aqueous NO changes upon addition of O2. Finally, the depletion of aqueous NO was observed in the presence of O2. The relative steady state responses of inlets designed for gas or aqueous samples, and their relative response times, are explained by an analysis based on mass transfer theory. PMID:8431501

  6. Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate) in several clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Hopps, E; Montana, M; Carollo, C; Calandrino, V; Incalcaterra, E; Canino, B; Lo Presti, R

    2014-01-01

    We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration. PMID:24004551

  7. Decoding Nitric Oxide Release Rates of Amine-Based Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J.; Keefer, Larry K.; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)=NO?], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates. PMID:23834533

  8. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P < 0.05) than the other 2 groups. In experiment 2, twenty 11-d-old ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P < 0.07) and plasma nitric oxide concentration (P < 0.05) 2 h postinjection in the L-NAME administered group were lower than those of the control group. In conclusion, the study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. PMID:24902706

  9. Nitric oxide in Tanzanian children with malaria: inverse relationship between malaria severity and nitric oxide production/nitric oxide synthase type 2 expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-related activity has been shown to be protective against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. It has been hypothesized, however, that excess NO production contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. The purpose of this study was to compare markers of NO production [urinary and plasma nitrate + nitrite (NOx)], leukocyte- inducible nitric oxide synthase type 2 (NOS2), and plasma TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels with disease severity in 191 Tanzanian children with and without malaria. Urine NOx excretion and plasma NOx levels (corrected for renal impairment) were inversely related to disease severity, with levels highest in subclinical infection and lowest in fatal cerebral malaria. Results could not be explained by differences in dietary nitrate ingestion among the groups. Plasma levels of IL-10, a cytokine known to suppress NO synthesis, increased with disease severity. Leukocyte NOS2 antigen was detectable in all control children tested and in all those with subclinical infection, but was undetectable in all but one subject with cerebral malaria. This suppression of NO synthesis in cerebral malaria may contribute to pathogenesis. In contrast, high fasting NOx levels and leukocyte NOS2 in healthy controls and asymptomatic infection suggest that increased NO synthesis might protect against clinical disease. NO appears to have a protective rather than pathological role in African children with malaria. PMID:8760809

  10. Novel insights into the electrochemical detection of nitric oxide in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Pekarová, M; Lojek, A; Hrbá?, J; Kuchta, R; Kadlec, J; Kubala, L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, microsensor technologies have made a rapid expansion into different fields of physical sciences, engineering, and biomedicine. For analyses of various biomolecules, novel sensors and detection platforms in the electrochemical field have been reported recently. The most important applications based on microelectromechanical systems dramatically reduce the need of manipulation steps with samples, while improving data quality and quantitative capabilities. This is also the case of a special class of electrochemical sensors that allow direct, real-time and non-invasive measurements of nitric oxide, whose determination is crucial for the purposes of basic research, as well as of preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, this minireview will focus on the description of recent discoveries in the electrochemical determination of nitric oxide, released in different in vitro systems. PMID:25369335

  11. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO{sub x} vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200{degrees}C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time.

  12. Enhancement of nitric oxide production from activated macrophages by a purified form of ginsenoside (Rg1).

    PubMed

    Fan, Z H; Isobe, K; Kiuchi, K; Nakashima, I

    1995-01-01

    We studied the actions of purified ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on nitric oxide production from macrophages and a macrophage cell line RAW264-7. Although neither Rg1 nor Rb1 induced nitric oxide from resting macrophages, Rg1 enhanced the production of nitric oxide from IFN-gamma activated-macrophages or RAW cells. Rg1 also enhanced the production of nitric oxide from macrophages cocultured with nonadherent spleen cells stimulated by conA, LPS or anti-CD3. Rb1, however, did not significantly enhance nitric oxide production from stimulated macrophages or RAW cells. Rg1 enhanced the tumor cell killing by nitric oxide produced from IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. PMID:8571924

  13. Potential involvement of nitric oxide synthase but not inducible nitric oxide synthase in the development of experimental corneal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Gao-Qin; Lu, Pei-Rong

    2011-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of nitric oxide and its synthetase on experimental corneal neovascularization (CRNV). METHODS CRNV was induced by alkali injury in mice, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was inhibited by aminoguanidine hemisulfate salt (AG). The inhibitory effect was detected at day 2 and 4 after corneal alkali injury by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CRNV was compared between the control and the treated mice by microscopic observation and corneal whole mount CD31 immunostaining. RESULTS The inhibition of L-NAME to NOS and AG to iNOS after corneal injury was confirmed by RT-PCR (P<0.05). Compared with control mice, L-NAME treated mice exhibited significantly decreased CRNV areas (P<0.05). In contrast, AG treatment failed to attenuate alkali induced CRNV (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that NOS but not iNOS plays a critical role in alkali injury induced CRNV. PMID:22553677

  14. Reactivity of isolated toad aortic rings to angiotension II: the role of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo O. Marañón; Claudio M. Joo Turoni; Alfredo Coviello; María Peral de Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the vascular actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) in Amphibia. This study investigated\\u000a (1) Ang II contractility, (2) NO concentrations, and (3) correlations between Ang II contractility, NO concentration and mean\\u000a arterial pressure (MAP) in isolated Bufo arenarum toad aortic rings. Contractility was measured in isometric conditions, NO concentrations were determined by

  15. Superoxide Inhibits Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Influences on Afferent Arterioles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuhiro Ichihara; Matsuhiko Hayashi; Nobuhisa Hirota; Takao Saruta

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of increased superoxide anion in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-dependent regulation of afferent arterioles in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Afferent arteriolar diameters of male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were assessed in vitro with the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique and averaged 21.661.6 (n56) and 18.861.2 (n57) mm, respectively. The superoxide dismutase mimetic

  16. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Smooth Muscle Cells From Rat Penile Corpora Cavernosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALIDA HUNG; DOLORES VERNET; YINING XIE; TRIPATHI RAJAVASHISTH; ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ; JACOB RAJFER; STOR F. GONZALEZ-CADAVID

    Nitric oxide (NO), the main mediator of penile erection, isassumedto besynthesizedin thepenisbytheneuronalconstitutive nitricoxidesynthase(nNOS).However,nNOShasnotbeenidentified in the penile smooth muscle,the target of NOaction.TheotherNOS isozymes,the inducible NOS (iNOS)andtheendothelialNOS (eNOS) have not been reported in any penile tissue. The smooth muscle vascularand trabeculartissue from rat corpora cavemosais rep- resentedin vitro by cell cultures designated RPSMC. To determine whetheriNOS can be expressedin penilesmooth muscle,RPSMC were

  17. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Ignarro; G. M. Buga; K. S. Wood; R. E. Byrns; G. Chaudhuri

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is responsible for the vascular smooth muscle relaxation elicited by endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). EDRF is an unstable humoral substance released from artery and vein that mediates the action of endothelium-dependent vasodilators. NO is and unstable endothelium-independent vasodilator that is released from vasodilator drugs such as nitroprusside and

  18. Nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress generated by lactofen in soybean plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Cesar Ferreira; Ana Catarina Cataneo; Lígia Maria Ramazzini Remaeh; Natália Corniani; Terezinha de Fátima Fumis; Yara Andréo de Souza; Joseane Scavroni; Bruno José Aparecido Soares

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule able to directly scavenge ROS and end chain reactions, which can be generated by some herbicides. This study aimed to evaluate whether the pretreatment of soybean plants with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) solution, a NO-donor substance, provides protection against oxidative stress generated by lactofen. Soybean plants were pretreated with SNP before lactofen application. The levels

  19. The composition of ultrathin silicon oxynitrides thermally grown in nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    The composition of ultrathin silicon oxynitrides thermally grown in nitric oxide E. P. Gusev, H. C for publication 8 April 1997 The thermal oxynitridation of Si 100 in nitric oxide NO has been studied by high oxynitrides (SiOxNy) are the leading candidates to replace conventional oxides (SiO2) as the gate dielectric

  20. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  1. Inhibitor Bound Crystal Structures of Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Dejam, Dillon; Lewis, Matthew C; Huang, He; Kang, Soosung; Jing, Qing; Xue, Fengtian; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-07-01

    Nitric oxide generated by bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) increases the susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis to oxidative stress, including antibiotic-induced oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, NOS inhibitors also improve the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Development of potent and selective bacterial NOS inhibitors is complicated by the high active site sequence and structural conservation shared with the mammalian NOS isoforms. To exploit bacterial NOS for the development of new therapeutics, recognition of alternative NOS surfaces and pharmacophores suitable for drug binding is required. Here, we report on a wide number of inhibitor-bound bacterial NOS crystal structures to identify several compounds that interact with surfaces unique to the bacterial NOS. Although binding studies indicate that these inhibitors weakly interact with the NOS active site, many of the inhibitors reported here provide a revised structural framework for the development of new antimicrobials that target bacterial NOS. In addition, mutagenesis studies reveal several key residues that unlock access to bacterial NOS surfaces that could provide the selectivity required to develop potent bacterial NOS inhibitors. PMID:26062720

  2. Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Marletta, M.A.; Yoon, P.S.; Iyengar, R.; Leaf, C.D.; Wishnok, J.S.

    1988-11-29

    Previous studies have shown that murine macrophages immunostimulated with interferon ..gamma.. and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide synthesize NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline from L-arginine by oxidation of one of the two chemically equivalent guanido nitrogens. The enzymatic activity for this very unusual reaction was found in the 100,000g supernatant isolated from activated RAW 264.7 cells and was totally absent in unstimulated cells. This activity requires NADPH and L-arginine and is enhanced by Mg/sup 2 +/. When the subcellular fraction containing the enzyme activity was incubated with L-arginine, NADPH, and Mg/sup 2 +/, the formation of nitric oxide was observed. Nitric oxide formation was dependent on the presence of L-arginine and NADPH and was inhibited by the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis inhibitor N/sup G/-monomethyl-L-arginine. Furthermore, when incubated with L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine, the nitric oxide was /sup 15/N-labeled. The results show that nitric oxide is an intermediate in the L-arginine to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and citrulline pathway. L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitric oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

  3. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0?g?kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200?mg?kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20?mg?kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50?mg?kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1?g?kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25?mg?kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10?mg?kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25?mg?kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25819134

  4. Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc oxide This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc oxide This article has been) doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/15/155105 Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc chloride (haemin)-functionalized Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) is used for nitric oxide (NO) sensing at room

  5. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE WITH METAL SULFIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to determine the technical feasibility of using metal sulfide for the chemical reduction of NOx to N2. Nineteen different metal sulfides were investigated, using a test gas of pure NO. Although most sulfides resulted in some NO reduction, BaS,...

  6. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  7. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Visceral Larva Migrans: Effects on Lung and Liver Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cihan Demirci; Aysen Gargili; Handan Cetinkaya; Ilhan Uyaner; Basak Boynuegri; M. Koray Gumustas

    2006-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide production and oxidative process were studied in mice infected with Toxocara canis and treated with aminoguanidine which is a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Relations of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and tissue pathology were assessed by biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical methods. In experiments, Balb\\/c albino mice were inoculated with T. canis eggs

  8. Nitric oxide adsorbed on zeolites: EPR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiro, Hidenori; Lund, Anders; Shiotani, Masaru

    2004-05-01

    CW-EPR studies of NO adsorbed on sodium ion-exchanged zeolites were focused on the geometrical structure of NO monoradical and (NO) 2 biradical formed on zeolites. The EPR spectrum of NO monoradical adsorbed on zeolite can be characterized by the three different g-tensor components and the resolved y-component hyperfine coupling with the 14N nucleus. Among the g-tensor components, the value of g zz is very sensitive to the local environment of zeolite and becomes a measure of the electrostatic field in zeolite. The temperature dependence of the g-tensor demonstrated the presence of two states of the Na-NO adduct, in rigid and rotational states. The EPR spectra of NO adsorbed on alkaline metal ion-exchanged zeolite and their temperature dependency are essentially the same as that on sodium ion-exchanged zeolite. On the other hand, for NO adsorbed on copper ion-exchanged zeolite it is known that the magnetic interaction between NO molecule and paramagnetic copper ion are observable in the spectra recorded at low temperature. The signals assigned to (NO) 2 biradical were detected for EPR spectrum of NO adsorbed on Na-LTA. CW-EPR spectra as well as their theoretical calculation suggested that the two NO molecules are aligned along their N?O bond axes. A new procedure for automatical EPR simulation is described which makes it possible to analyze EPR spectrum easily. In the last part of this paper, some instances when other nitrogen oxides were used as a probe molecule to characterize the zeolite structure, chemical properties of zeolites, and dynamics of small molecules were described on the basis of selected literature data reported recently.

  9. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  10. Nitric Oxide Release Part III. Measurement and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Coneski, Peter N.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nitric oxide’s expansive physiological and regulatory roles have driven the development of therapies for human disease that would benefit from exogenous NO administration. Already a number of therapies utilizing gaseous NO or NO donors capable of storing and delivering NO have been proposed and designed to exploit NO’s influence on the cardiovascular system, cancer biology, the immune response, and wound healing. As described in Nitric Oxide Release Part I: Macromolecular Scaffolds and Part II: Therapeutic Applications, the preparation of new NO-release strategies/formulations and the study of their therapeutic utility are increasing rapidly. However, comparison of such studies remains difficult due to the diversity of scaffolds, NO measurement strategies, and reporting methods employed across disciplines. This tutorial review highlights useful analytical techniques for the detection and measurement of NO. We also stress the importance of reporting NO delivery characteristics to allow appropriate comparison of NO between studies as a function of material and intended application. PMID:22362308

  11. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric oxide donors in vitro and in vivo has variable effects on vasopressin secretion, but the most common one is inhibition. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis has been reported to increase vasopressin secretion, but again variable results have been obtained. An attractive working hypothesis is that nitric oxide serves a neuromodulatory role as an inhibitor of vasopressin secretion.

  12. Necessity and sufficiency of beta interferon for nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Alley, E W; Russell, S W; Morrison, D C

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and some cytokines can activate macrophages to secrete nitric oxide. Macrophage-derived nitric oxide is a key cytotoxic factor for microbicidal and tumoricidal processes. We report here that a monoclonal antibody specific for beta interferon inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in thioglycolate-elicited C3HeB/FeJ peritoneal macrophages and macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, exogenous added beta interferon enabled lipopolysaccharide-hyporesponsive thioglycolate-elicited C3H/HeJ peritoneal macrophages to produce nitric oxide in response to lipopolysaccharide. These data support the concept that beta interferon provides an essential signal(s) for lipopolysaccharide-triggered nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium which was unable to initiate nitric oxide production in thioglycolate-elicited C3HeB/FeJ peritoneal macrophages in vitro, promoted nitric oxide formation in the presence of beta interferon, suggesting that beta interferon may be a general cofactor necessary for bacterium-derived stimulus-induced nitric oxide production in these macrophages. However, neither beta interferon nor tumor necrosis factor alpha, alone or in combination, triggered nitric oxide production in thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, demonstrating that these macrophage-derived cytokines, while necessary, were not sufficient by themselves for the induction of nitric oxide production in these cells. On the other hand, gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha acted together to induce nitric oxide production in vitro in the absence of lipopolysaccharide in thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, indicating that these two types of interferons provided different signals during the activation of these macrophages. PMID:8262648

  13. Nitric oxide-sensitive pulmonary hypertension in congenital rubella syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Francesco; Migliaro, Fiorella; Di Pietro, Elisa; Borgia, Francesco; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Capasso, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a very rare presentation of congenital virus infection. We discuss the case of complete congenital rubella syndrome presenting at echocardiography with pulmonary hypertension that worsened after ductus ligation. Cardiac catheterization showed a normal pulmonary valve and vascular tree but a PAP = 40?mmHg. The infant promptly responded to inhaled nitric oxide while on mechanical ventilation and was later shifted to oral sildenafil. It is not clear whether our observation may be due to direct viral damage to the endothelium or to the rubella virus increasing the vascular tone via a metabolic derangement. PMID:25785205

  14. Nitric Oxide-Sensitive Pulmonary Hypertension in Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Francesco; Migliaro, Fiorella; Di Pietro, Elisa; Borgia, Francesco; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Capasso, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a very rare presentation of congenital virus infection. We discuss the case of complete congenital rubella syndrome presenting at echocardiography with pulmonary hypertension that worsened after ductus ligation. Cardiac catheterization showed a normal pulmonary valve and vascular tree but a PAP = 40?mmHg. The infant promptly responded to inhaled nitric oxide while on mechanical ventilation and was later shifted to oral sildenafil. It is not clear whether our observation may be due to direct viral damage to the endothelium or to the rubella virus increasing the vascular tone via a metabolic derangement. PMID:25785205

  15. Production of nitric oxide in host-virus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Majumdar, Uddalak; Roy, Anirban; Maiti, Debasis; Goswamy, Achintya Mohan; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in plant diseases resistance. Here we have first time demonstrated that begomovirus infection in susceptible H. cannabinus plants, results in elevated NO and reactive nitrogen species production during early infection stage not only in infected leaf but also in root and shoot. Production of NO was further confirmed by oxyhemoglobin assay. Furthermore, we used Phenyl alanine ammonia lyase as marker of pathogenesis related enzyme. In addition evidence for protein tyrosine nitration during the early stage of viral infection clearly showed the involvement of nitrosative stress. PMID:20215875

  16. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  17. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  18. Sildenafil potentiates nitric oxide mediated inhibition of human platelet aggregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingibjörg J. Gudmundsdóttir; Sarah J. McRobbie; Simon D. Robinson; David E. Newby; Ian L. Megson

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits platelet aggregation primarily via a cyclic 3?5?-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent process. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor that potentiates NO action by reducing cGMP breakdown. We hypothesised that sildenafil would augment the inhibitory effects of NO on in vitro platelet aggregation. After incubation with sildenafil or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxallin-1-one (ODQ), collagen-mediated human

  19. Evidence that nitric oxide modulates food intake in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, J.E.; Flood, J.F. (St. Louis Univ., MO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be an intracellular modulator within the central nervous system. L-arginine, which results in NO synthesis, increased food intake in mice while the inhibitor of NO synthesis, L-N{sup G}-nitro arginine (L-NO Arg) inhibited food intake in food deprived mice. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, partially reverse the inhibitory effect of L-NO Arg on food intake. These findings suggest the possibility that NO may be a physiological modulator of food intake and that the possibility of exploring the utility of L-NO arg in the treatment of obesity should be explored.

  20. Differential nitric oxide synthase activity, cofactor availability and cGMP accumulation in the central nervous system during anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Galley, H F; Le Cras, A E; Logan, S D; Webster, N R

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the effects of anaesthesia on dynamic nitric oxide production, concentrations of tetrahydrobiopterin and the accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) in the rat central nervous system (CNS). Rats were assigned to anaesthesia with halothane, isoflurane, pentobarbital, diazepam, ketamine or xenon (n=6 per group). After 30 min, [14C]L-arginine (i.v.) was given and, after a further 60 min of anaesthesia, rats were killed and exposed immediately to focused microwave radiation. After removal of the brain and spinal cord, nitric oxide production from radiolabelled arginine (and hence nitric oxide synthase activity during anaesthesia) was measured as [14C]L-citrulline by scintillation counting. cGMP was determined by enzyme immunoassay and tetrahydrobiopterin by fluorescence HPLC, in brain regions and the spinal cord. Nitric oxide synthase activity was similar in all brain regions but was lower in the spinal cord, and was unaffected by anaesthesia. cGMP was similar in all areas of the CNS and was significantly decreased in rats anaesthetized with halothane. Isoflurane produced similar effects. In contrast, ketamine and xenon anaesthesia increased cGMP in the spinal cord, brainstem and hippocampus. Diazepam and pentobarbital had no effect. Tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations were similar in all areas of the CNS and were increased in the cortex and hippocampus after anaesthesia. We have shown profound differential effects of anaesthesia on the nitric oxide pathway in the rat CNS. PMID:11573530

  1. Role of nitric oxide in hematosuppression and benzene-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, D.L.; Heck, D.E.; Punjabi, C.J.; Laskin J.D. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that nitric oxide plays a multifunctional role in regulating inflammatory processes in the body. Although nitric oxide and its oxidation products are cytotoxic toward certain pathogens, they can also cause tissue injury and suppress proliferation. Cytokines and growth factors released at sites of inflammation or injury stimulate both immune and nonimmune cells to produce nitric oxide. Nowhere in the body is this more detrimental than in the bone marrow, for the continuous production of hematopoietic precursors is essential for normal blood cell maturation. Our laboratories have discovered that, in response to inflammatory mediators, bone marrow cells readily produce nitric oxide. Nitric oxide production is enhanced by hematopoietic growth factors including interleukin-3, macrophage colony stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. When bone marrow cells produce nitric oxide, hematopoiesis is impaired, an effect that is potentiated by colony-stimulating factors. Treatment of mice with benzene, which suppresses bone marrow cell development, was found to markedly enhance the ability of bone marrow cells to produce nitric oxide in response to inflammatory mediators alone and in combination with hematopoietic growth factors. Taken together, these data suggest that nitric oxide may be an important mediator of benzene-induced bone marrow suppression. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  2. African Green Revolution, NO, and ozone Impacts of African agricultural intensification on nitric oxide fluxes and tropospheric2

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shiliang

    intensification on nitric oxide fluxes and tropospheric2 ozone3 Jonathan E. Hickman*1 , Yaoxian Huang2 be accompanied by32 increased soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a precursor to tropospheric ozone, a

  3. A two-dimensional model of thermospheric nitric oxide sources and their contributions to the middle atmospheric

    E-print Network

    Jackman, Charles H.

    A two-dimensional model of thermospheric nitric oxide sources and their contributions to the middle is known to produce huge amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the Earth's lower thermosphere (on the order of I

  4. Levels of selected minerals, nitric oxide, and vitamins in aborted Sakis sheep raised under semitropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Serap Unubol

    2010-01-01

    The serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron and of nitric oxide, retinol, and ?-carotene were determined in Sakiz ewes that had experienced an abortion and in healthy controls. Ten healthy and 25 aborted Sakiz sheep were selected from Afyon zone in western Turkey. Their ages ranged between 2 and 4 years weighing between 40 and 60 kg at the time of experiment. All of the abortions occurred in October. The concentrations of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus, and zinc were significantly lower and those of calcium and nitric oxide were increased in aborted ewes relative to healthy controls. The serum levels of iron, copper, and magnesium were not significantly different among the two groups. In conclusion, abortion is an important problem in commercially important species of ruminants in many regions in the tropics including of western Turkey. Deficiencies of retinol, ?-carotene, phosphorus and zinc, and the increase of calcium and nitric oxide concentration may play an important role in the etiology of abortion in ewes. Prophylactic measures such as vitamin and mineral supplementation may be of help to prevent or reduce the incidence of abortion in sheep. PMID:21076941

  5. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Endogenous NO Metabolism in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christiana W.; Gonzales, Linda W.; Ballard, Roberta A.; Ballard, Philip L.; Guo, Changjiang; Gow, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a multifactorial disease of preterm neonates of complex etiology, is a significant problem within very low birth weight infants. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in both the pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic of this disease. At this time, there is little direct evidence of the changes in NO production and metabolism that occur within BPD in humans. Animal models have implied that reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and NO production in the early stages of the disease may be critical factors. However, inflammation and hence iNOS expression, is also thought to play a role. In the present study we have utilized pathological samples to determine changes in the expression of NOS and NO metabolites within late stage BPD. It is our contention that within these samples iNOS expression is increased and associated with increased NO metabolite production. Mild immunostaining of all three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes (neuronal, inducible and endothelial) is observed in control lung with tight localization to the endothelium and epithelial airway. This tight localization was lost in samples from subjects with BPD. There was also a marked increase in iNOS expression throughout the lung tissue with strong coexistence with an epithelial cell marker cytokeratin. NO reaction products are altered with BPD as evidenced by increased S-nitrosothiol (SNO) and strong nitrotyrosine (NO2Y) imunoreactivity. This study demonstrates a strong correlation between products of NO reactivity and NOS localization in BPD. PMID:18500734

  6. Manganese-induced effects on cerebral trace element and nitric oxide of Hyline cocks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zuo, Nan; Guan, Huanan; Han, Chunran; Xu, Shi Wen

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to Manganese (Mn) is a common phenomenon due to its environmental pervasiveness. To investigate the Mn-induced toxicity on cerebral trace element levels and crucial nitric oxide parameters on brain of birds, 50-day-old male Hyline cocks were fed either a commercial diet or a Mn-supplemented diet containing 600, 900, 1,800 mg kg(-1). After being treated with Mn for 30, 60, and 90 days, the following were determined: the changes in contents of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) in brain; inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide (iNOS-NO) system activity in brain; and histopathology and ultrastructure changes of cerebral cortex. The results showed that Mn was accumulated in brain and the content of Cu and Fe increased. However, the levels of Zn and Se decreased and the Ca content presented no obvious regularity. Exposure to Mn significantly elevated the content of NO and the expression of iNOS mRNA. Activity of total NO synthase (T NOS) and iNOS appeared with an increased tendency. These findings suggested that Mn exposure resulted in the imbalance of cerebral trace elements and influenced iNOS in the molecular level, which are possible underlying nervous system injury mechanisms induced by Mn exposure. PMID:23813426

  7. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 ?M. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 ?M). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  8. Nitric Oxide Not Apoptosis Mediates Differential Killing of Mycobacterium bovis in Bovine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Solís, Hugo; Vallecillo, Antonio J.; Benítez-Guzmán, Alejandro; Adams, L. Garry; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A.

    2013-01-01

    To identify the resistance phenotype against Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, we used a bactericidal assay that has been considered a marker of this trait. Three of 24 cows (12.5%) were phenotyped as resistant and 21 as susceptible. Resistance of bovine macrophages (M?) to BCG challenge was evaluated for its association with SLC11A1 GT microsatellite polymorphisms within 3?UTR region. Twenty-three cows (95.8%) had a GT13 genotype, reported as resistant, consequently the SLC11A1polymorphism was not in agreement with our bactericidal assay results. M? of cows with resistant or susceptible phenotype were challenged in vitro with virulent M. bovis field strain or BCG, and nitric oxide production, bacterial killing and apoptosis induction were measured in resting and LPS-primed states. M. bovis field strain induced more apoptosis than BCG, although the difference was not significant. Resistant M? controlled better the replication of M. bovis (P<0.01), produced more nitric oxide (P<0.05) and were slightly more prone to undergo apoptosis than susceptible cells. LPS pretreatment of M? enhanced all the functional parameters analyzed. Inhibition of nitric oxide production with nG-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate enhanced replication of M. bovis but did not modify apoptosis rates in both resistant and susceptible M?. We conclude that nitric oxide production not apoptosis is a major determinant of macrophage resistance to M. bovis infection in cattle and that the influence of SLC11A1 gene 3?UTR polymorphism is not associated with this event. PMID:23691050

  9. The role of nitric oxide radicals in removal of hyper-radiosensitivity by priming irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Edin, Nina Jeppesen; Sandvik, Joe Alexander; Vollan, Hilde Synnøve; Reger, Katharina; Görlach, Agnes; Pettersen, Erik Olai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a mechanism in which low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is permanently removed, induced by low-dose-rate (LDR) (0.2–0.3 Gy/h for 1 h) but not by high-dose-rate priming (0.3 Gy at 40 Gy/h) was investigated. One HRS-negative cell line (NHIK 3025) and two HRS-positive cell lines (T-47D, T98G) were used. The effects of different pretreatments on HRS were investigated using the colony assay. Cell-based ELISA was used to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels, and microarray analysis to compare gene expression in primed and unprimed cells. The data show how permanent removal of HRS, previously found to be induced by LDR priming irradiation, can also be induced by addition of nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEANO combined with either high-dose-rate priming or exposure to prolonged cycling hypoxia followed by reoxygenation, a treatment not involving radiation. The removal of HRS appears not to involve DNA damage induced during priming irradiation as it was also induced by LDR irradiation of cell-conditioned medium without cells present. The permanent removal of HRS in LDR-primed cells was reversed by treatment with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W. Furthermore, 1400W could also induce HRS in an HRS-negative cell line. The data suggest that LDR irradiation for 1 h, but not 15 min, activates iNOS, and also that sustained iNOS activation is necessary for the permanent removal of HRS by LDR priming. The data indicate that nitric oxide production is involved in the regulatory processes determining cellular responses to low-dose-rate irradiation. PMID:23685670

  10. Altered messenger RNA expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kusafuka; P. Puri

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been described as a mediator of smooth muscle relaxation in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. The enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the formation of NO. We examined the expression of the neuronal NOS gene at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in pyloric smooth-muscle biopsy specimens from six patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) using

  11. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  12. Nitric oxide production by mouse renal tubules can be increased by a sodium-dependent mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kempson; Nathan Thompson; Laura Pezzuto; H. Glenn Bohlen

    2007-01-01

    Renal tubules process large amounts of NaCl that other investigators indicate increases tubular generation of nitric oxide. We questioned whether medullary or superficial cortical tubules would have the greater increase in nitric oxide concentration, [NO], when stressed by sodium and if the sodium\\/calcium exchanger was involved. Sodium stress in proximal tubules is due to the large amount of sodium absorbed

  13. Exercise training reverses age-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation 

    E-print Network

    Song, Wook

    2005-02-17

    EXERCISE TRAINING REVERSES AGE-INDUCED INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE UPREGULATION A Dissertation by WOOK SONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2003 Major Subject: Kinesiology EXERCISE TRAINING REVERSES AGE-INDUCED INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE UPREGULATION A Dissertation by WOOK SONG...

  14. Characterizing airway and alveolar nitric oxide exchange during tidal breathing using a three-compartment model

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Characterizing airway and alveolar nitric oxide exchange during tidal breathing using a three Engineering and 2 Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California-Won Shin, and Steven C. George. Char- acterizing airway and alveolar nitric oxide exchange during tidal

  15. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  16. The Effect of Nuclear Explosions on Stratospheric Nitric Oxide and Ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Johnston; Garry Whitten; John Birks

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews the derivation by Foley and Ruderman of the injection of nitric oxide into the stratosphere by nuclear bomb tests and compares it with similar studies. Upper and lower limits of this pollutant are estimated by us and compared with the amount and distribution of nitric oxide in the stratosphere possible from supersonic transports. The effect on ozone

  17. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Human Lung Transplantation A Noninvasive Marker of Acute Rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. SILKOFF; M. CARAMORI; L. TREMBLAY; P. M C CLEAN; C. CHAPARRO; S. KESTEN; M. HUTCHEON; A. S. SLUTSKY; N. ZAMEL; S. KESHAVJEE

    Acute allograft rejection in animals and humans has been associated with increased nitric oxide pro- duction in the graft. Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) measurement is a noninvasive method of assessing inflammation in airway diseases, e.g., asthma, which might be applicable to lung transplant recipi- ents. Over 12 months, ENO of lower respiratory origin was measured in 108 lung transplant recipi-

  18. SALICYLIC ACID- AND NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current advances in plant defense signaling is discussed, with emphasis on the role of nitric oxide and salicylic acid in the development of disease resistance. Nitric Oxide has recently been shown to have an important role in plant disease resistance. We show an increase in NOS-like activity in TMV...

  19. The investigation of the alleviated effect of copper toxicity by exogenous nitric oxide in tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Cui; Y. K. Zhang; X. B. Wu; C. S. Liu

    2010-01-01

    As a bioactive signal, nitric oxide (NO) is involved in multiple plant physiological responses, especially under some abiotic stress. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous nitric oxide on both the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging metabolism and regulating functions of plasma membrane and tonoplast in tomato plants treated with 50µM CuCl 2 . Copper stress induced significant accumulation of

  20. The role of nitric oxide and prostaglandin signaling pathways in spinal nociceptive processing in chronic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharron Dolan; Lois C Field; Andrea M Nolan

    2000-01-01

    Both nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) and their associated enzymes nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and cyclooxygenases (COX) (specifically COX-2) have been implicated in the development of hyperalgesia. This study examined the effects of naturally occurring chronic inflammation, chronic mastitis, on spinal nociceptive processing in sheep and focused on potential alterations in spinal PG and NO signaling pathways. Mechanical withdrawal

  1. Nitric Oxide Production During Endotoxin-Induced Mastitis in the Cow1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bouchard; S. Blais; C. Desrosiers; X. Zhao; P. Lacasse

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide production was measured during endo- toxin-induced mastitis. One hour after morning milk- ing, the right hind quarters of 15 cows were infused with saline containing Escherichia coli endotoxin. Left hind control quarters were infused with saline only. At varying intervals before and after infusion, diagnostic markers of mastitis were recorded and nitric oxide pro- duction was evaluated by

  2. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory system of an adult teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praful S. Singru; Amul J. Sakharkar; Nishikant Subhedar

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory system of an adult teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry methods. Intense nNOS immunoreactivity was noticed in several olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), in their axonal extensions over the olfactory nerve

  3. Nitric oxide: comparative synthesis and signaling in animal and plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wendehenne; Alain Pugin; Daniel F. Klessig; Jörg Durner

    2001-01-01

    Since its identification as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the 1980s, nitric oxide has become the source of intensive and exciting research in animals. Nitric oxide is now considered to be a widespread signaling molecule involved in the regulation of an impressive spectrum of mammalian cellular functions. Its diverse effects have been attributed to an ability to chemically react with

  4. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Lactic Acid Bacteria-Contributions to Health, Food Quality, and Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aynur Gül Karahan; M. Lütfü Çakmakçi; Buket Cicioglu-Aridogan; Arzu Kart-Gündogdu

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide producer bacteria on food quality, safety, and human health care high lighted. NO, which was previously recognized as a toxic gas, has attracted attention in the last two decades due to its vital role in many physiological processes of animals and plants. Particularly, it is important to note

  5. Is the nitric oxide system involved in genetic hypertension in Dahl rats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Y. Deng

    1998-01-01

    Is the nitric oxide system involved in genetic hypertension in Dahl rats? To address this issue, a series of genetic tests were carried out. Linkage studies showed that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) locus cosegregated with blood pressure in three F2 populations originated from crosses of Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats with rats of various normotensive strains. However, the brain

  6. Exhaled Nitric Oxide following Leukotriene E 4 and Methacholine Inhalation in Patients with Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AARON DEYKIN; OLGA BELOSTOTSKY; CHRISTOPHER HONG; ANTHONY F. MASSARO; CRAIG M. LILLY

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecular gas that can be recovered in higher levels from the exhaled gas of subjects with asthma than from subjects without asthma. However, the precise mechanisms responsible of promoting increased fraction of expired nitric oxide (F E NO ) in asthma are unknown. As leukotriene antagonism has been shown to reduce F E NO in

  7. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis X. Pizza; Israel J. Hernandez; James G. Tidball

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to deter- mine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflamma- tion, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutro- phils, ED11 and ED21 macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb

  8. Effects of Estradiol and Its Metabolites on Glomerular Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Mesangial Cell Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen Xiao; Delbert G. Gillespie; Christine Baylis; Edwin K. Jackson; Raghvendra K. Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Reduced nitric oxide synthesis by glomerular endothelial cells and increased proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells is associated with glomerular remodeling that leads to accelerated glomerulosclerosis. Estradiol induces nitric oxide synthesis and slows the progression of renal disease. Because the estradiol metabolites 2-hydroxyestradiol and 2-methoxyestradiol are more potent than estradiol in inhibiting growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, which are phenotypically

  9. Is smooth muscle growth in primate arteries regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erney J. R. Mattsson; Randolph L. Geary; Larry W. Kraiss; Selina Vergel; James K. Liao; Marshall A. Corson; Y. P. Tina Au; Stephen R. Hanson; Alexander W. Clowes

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether control of constitutive endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) by changes in shear stress might be important for the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and vascular diameter. Methods: Bilateral femoral arteriovenous fistulas were placed in baboons to increase the blood flow in the external iliac arteries. At 2 months, the

  10. Generation of Nitric Oxide and Possibly Nitroxyl by Nitrosation of Sulfohydroxamic Acids and Hydroxamic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances N. Shirota; Eugene G. DeMaster; Melinda J. C. Lee; Herbert T. Nagasawa

    1999-01-01

    Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) and sulfohydroxamic acids are chemical entities that spontaneously generate nitric oxide (NO) and nitroxyl (HNO), respectively, at physiological pH and temperature. By combining the functional aspects of the NONOates with the hydroxamic acids and sulfohydroxamic acids, hybrid NONOate-type compounds that could theoretically generate nitroxyl or nitric oxide can be rationalized. Although the instability of these compounds, viz., the

  11. Nitric oxide activation of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in human colon carcinoma cells

    E-print Network

    Wogan, Gerald N.

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates expression of genes that protect cells from oxidative damage. Here, we characterized nitric oxide (•NO)-induced Nrf2–Kelch-like ECH-associated protein ...

  12. Coinduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and arginine recycling enzymes in cytokine-stimulated PC12 cells and high output production of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Yi Zhang; Tomomi Gotoh; Seiichi Oyadomari; Masataka Mori

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many physiological and pathological processes in the brain. NO is synthesized from arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the citrulline generated as a by-product can be recycled to arginine by argininosuccinate synthetase (AS) and argininosuccinate lyase (AL) via the citrulline–NO cycle. When neuronal PC12 cells differentiated with nerve growth factor were treated with

  13. Inactivation of nitric oxide synthases and cellular nitric oxide formation by N 6-iminoethyl- l-lysine and N 5-iminoethyl- l-ornithine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J Wolff; Andrew Lubeskie; Douglas S Gauld; Matthew J Neulander

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of inactivation of affinity-purified nitric oxide synthase isoforms by N6-iminoethyl-l-lysine (NIL) and N5-iminoethyl-l-ornithine (NIO) has been examined. Each of the agents produced a time and concentration dependent first order inactivation of the nitric oxide synthase isoforms that required exposure of the NO synthase to drug under conditions that supported catalysis, consistent with the proposal that these agents act

  14. Nitric Oxide and Cancer Therapy: The Emperor has NO Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Jason R.; Thomas, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO·) as a mediator of cancer phenotype has led researchers to investigate strategies for manipulating in vivo production and exogenous delivery of this molecule for therapeutic gain. Unfortunately, NO· serves multiple functions in cancer physiology. In some instances, NO· or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels correlate with tumor suppression and in other cases they are related to tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding this dichotomy has been a great challenge for researchers working in the field of NO· and cancer therapy. Due to the unique chemical and biochemical properties of NO·, it’s interactions with cellular targets and the subsequent downstream signaling events can be vastly different based upon tumor heterogeneity and microenvironment. Simple explanations for the vast range of NO-correlated behaviors will continue to produce conflicting information about the relevance of NO· and cancer. Paying considerable attention to the chemical properties of NO· and the methodologies being used will remove many of the discrepancies in the field and allow for in depth understanding of when NO-based chemotherapeutics will have beneficial outcomes. PMID:20236067

  15. Nitric oxide-modulating agents for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Brendan J R

    2005-11-01

    Almost 20 years after the identification of the biological role of nitric oxide (NO), the full therapeutic potential of novel agents that mimic the activity of NO or interfere with its synthesis has yet to be realised for utilities involving the gastrointestinal tract. New utilities for classical NO donors, which were used as vasodilators for decades, in the treatment of motility disorders have been explored and a product for treating anal fissure was recently launched. New classes of compounds incorporating a NO-donating moiety into standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the NO-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) or COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donors (CINODs) have also been developed. These have been shown to exhibit reduced gastrointestinal injury in experimental models, and reports on their efficacy and safety in Phase I and II studies are now available. Modulation of the inducible NO synthase isoform that generates excessive NO that can lead to subsequent cytotoxic moieties, such as peroxynitrite, may have therapeutic possibilities in a range of inflammatory diseases of the gut. Likewise, agents that promote the decomposition of peroxynitrite or removal of its other component, superoxide, may also prove to be of use. Further targets for pharmaceutical exploitation are likely to come from both genomic and molecular insights into the processes that regulate the NO system. PMID:16255675

  16. Cytokinins can act as suppressors of nitric oxide in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Zhong; Kong, Dong-Dong; Gu, Xue-Xin; Gao, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Xia, Min; Gao, Qian; Tian, Li-Li; Xu, Zhang-Hong; Bao, Fang; Hu, Yong; Ye, Neng-Sheng; Pei, Zhen-Ming; He, Yi-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is essential for normal plant physiological processes. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of NO modulation in plants. Here, we report a unique mechanism for the catabolism of NO based on the reaction with the plant hormone cytokinin. We screened for NO-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis and isolated two allelic lines, cnu1-1 and 1–2 (continuous NO-unstressed 1), that were identified as the previously reported altered meristem program 1 (amp1) and as having elevated levels of cytokinins. A double mutant of cnu1-2 and nitric oxide overexpression 1 (nox1) reduced the severity of the phenotypes ascribed to excess NO levels as did treating the nox1 line with trans-zeatin, the predominant form of cytokinin in Arabidopsis. We further showed that peroxinitrite, an active NO derivative, can react with zeatin in vitro, which together with the results in vivo suggests that cytokinins suppress the action of NO most likely through direct interaction between them, leading to the reduction of endogenous NO levels. These results provide insights into NO signaling and regulation of its bioactivity in plants. PMID:23319631

  17. Diurnal variation of nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Pirre, M.; Ramaroson, R.; Matthews, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km are reported. The observations were made at float altitude with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector together with in situ ozone measurements. The first measurement was made at 44 N on September 17, 1987, at an altitude of 40 km from before sunrise until 1000 LT. The second observation was made at the same latitude on June 18, 1988, at 39 km from 0800 to 1230 LT. At an altitude of 40 km, nitric oxide was observed to start increasing very rapidly at sunrise when the solar zenith angle reached about 95 deg. After the rapid initial buildup, the rate of NO increase stabilized for 3 hours at about 1.2 ppbv/hour. Near 1100 LT at 39 km in summer, the NO mixing ratio was observed to become nearly constant. These features of the diurnal variation of NO are in accord with the temporal variation expected from a time-dependent zero-dimensional photochemical model.

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthase: Non-Canonical Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Joshua T.; Thomas, Anita C.

    2014-01-01

    Science can move ahead by questioning established or canonical views and, so it may be with the enzymes, nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by NOS isoforms that are often described by their tissue-specific expression patterns. NOS1 (nNOS) is abundant in neural tissue, NOS2 is upregulated in activated macrophages and known as inducible NOS (iNOS), and NOS3 (eNOS) is abundant in endothelium where it regulates vascular tone. These isoforms are described as constitutive or inducible, but in this perspective we question the broad application of these labels. Are there instances where “constitutive” NOS (NOS1 and NOS3) are inducibly expressed; conversely, are there instances where NOS2 is constitutively expressed? NOS1 and NOS3 inducibility may be linked to post-translational regulation, making their actual patterns activity much more difficult to detect. Constitutive NOS2 expression has been observed in several tissues, especially the human pulmonary epithelium where it may regulate airway tone. These data suggest that expression of the three NOS enzymes may include non-established patterns. Such information should be useful in designing strategies to modulate these important enzymes in different disease states. PMID:25346730

  19. Regulation of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Pautz, Andrea; Art, Julia; Hahn, Susanne; Nowag, Sebastian; Voss, Cornelia; Kleinert, Hartmut

    2010-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in complex immunomodulatory and antitumoral mechanisms and has been described to have multiple beneficial microbicidal, antiviral and antiparasital effects. However, dysfunctional induction of iNOS expression seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Therefore iNOS has to be regulated very tightly. Modulation of expression, on both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, is the major regulation mechanism for iNOS. Pathways resulting in the induction of iNOS expression vary in different cells or species. Activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha and thereby activation of the iNOS promoter seems to be an essential step for the iNOS induction in most human cells. However, at least in the human system, also post-transcriptional mechanisms involving a complex network of RNA-binding proteins build up by AUF1, HuR, KSRP, PTB and TTP is critically involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. Recent data also implicate regulation of iNOS expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). PMID:20438856

  20. Nitrooleate mediates nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eunju; Yeo, Eunju; Lim, Jihye; Chang, Yun Hee; Park, Haeryun; Shim, Eugene; Chung, Haeyon; Hwang, Hye Jin; Chun, Jiyeon; Hwang, Jinah

    2014-05-01

    Nitrated lipids such as nitrooleate (OLA-NO2) can act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) ligands to exert vascular protective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding nitric oxide (NO) production and its regulation are not fully defined in the vasculature. Here, we show that OLA-NO2 increased endothelial NO release by modulating activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells. Treatment with OLA-NO2 (3 ?M) increased NO release in a time-dependent manner. OLA-NO2 decreased protein expression of eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) but increased heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that OLA-NO2 replaced eNOS/Cav-1 with eNOS/Hsp90 interaction, resulting in increasing eNOS activity. OLA-NO2 also induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser633 and Ser1177 and eNOS dephosphorylation at Ser113 and Thr495. In addition, OLA-NO2 induced phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), which might contribute to eNOS activation. Collectively, these results substantiate a new functional role for nitrated fatty acid, demonstrating that OLA-NO2 exerts vascular protective effects by increasing NO bioavailability through eNOS phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and interaction with associated proteins such as Hsp90 and Cav-1. PMID:24664541

  1. Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D R; Pijnenburg, M W; Smith, A D

    2006-01-01

    The use of exhaled nitric oxide measurements (FEno) in clinical practice is now coming of age. There are a number of theoretical and practical factors which have brought this about. Firstly, FEno is a good surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. High FEno levels may be used to distinguish eosinophilic from non?eosinophilic pathologies. This information complements conventional pulmonary function testing in the assessment of patients with non?specific respiratory symptoms. Secondly, eosinophilic airway inflammation is steroid responsive. There are now sufficient data to justify the claim that FEno measurements may be used successfully to identify and monitor steroid response as well as steroid requirements in the diagnosis and management of airways disease. FEno measurements are also helpful in identifying patients who do/do not require ongoing treatment with inhaled steroids. Thirdly, portable nitric oxide analysers are now available, making routine testing a practical possibility. However, a number of issues still need to be resolved, including the diagnostic role of FEno in preschool children and the use of reference values versus individual FEno profiles in managing patients with difficult or severe asthma. PMID:16936238

  2. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Dendrimers as Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Chudasama, Shalini L.; Lu, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of a series of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers was evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A direct comparison of the bactericidal efficacy between NO-releasing and control PPI dendrimers (i.e., non-NO-releasing) revealed both enhanced biocidal action of NO-releasing dendrimers and reduced toxicity against mammalian fibroblast cells. Antibacterial activity for the NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers was shown to be a function of both dendrimer size (molecular weight) and exterior functionality. In addition to minimal toxicity against fibroblasts, NO-releasing PPI dendrimers modified with styrene oxide exhibited the greatest biocidal activity (?9.999% killing) against all bacterial strains tested. The N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-functionalized PPI dendrimers presented in this study hold promise as effective NO-based therapeutics for combating bacterial infections. PMID:23013537

  3. Superoxide activates constitutive nitric oxide synthase in a brain particulate fraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deanne B. McPherson; Ryan P. Kilker; Timothy D. Foley

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can act as an antioxidant by directly scavenging reactive free radicals, inhibiting the oxidative chemistry of iron, and signaling the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. However, the cellular utility of NO as an antioxidant requires that constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) be activated rapidly by a signal(s) for oxidant formation. We report here that superoxide (O2?), added directly

  4. Increased exhaled nitric oxide in active pulmonary tuberculosis due to inducible NO synthase upregulation in alveolar macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Wang; C.-Y. Liu; H.-C. Lin; C.-T. Yu; K. F. Chung; H.-P. Kuo

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in resistance to Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis infection. Our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) by alveo- lar macrophages (AM) are increased in patients infected with M. tuberculosis. NO levels in the exhaled air of 19 active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 14 con-

  5. Estimate of diffusion parameters of aircraft exhaust plumes near the tropopause from nitric oxide and turbulence measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Schumann; P. Konopka; R. Baumann; R. Busen; T. Gerz; H. Schlager; P. Schulte; H. Volkert

    1995-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical plume scales and respective diffusivities for dispersion of exhaust plumes from airliners at cruising altitudes are determined from nitric oxide (NO) and turbulence data measured with the DLR Falcon research aircraft flying through the plumes. Ten plumes of known source aircraft were encountered about 5 to 100 min after emission at about 9.4 to 11.3 km altitude

  6. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells and Keratocytes In Vitro After Lipopolysaccharide and Cytokines Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Dighiero; Francine Behar-Cohen; Yves Courtois; Olivier Goureau

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells and keratocytes express the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) after exposure to cytokines and lipopolysac- charide (LPS), and to study the regulation of NOS by growth factors. Methods. Cultures of bovine corneal endothelial cells and keratocytes were exposed to increas- ing concentrations of LPS, interferon-y (IFN-y), and tumor necrosis

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Replication of a Murine Retrovirus In Vitro and In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. AKARID; M. SINET; B. DESFORGES; A. GOUGEROT-POCIDALO; X. BICHAT

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts microbicidal effects on a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses, but its antiretrovirus properties have not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NO inhibits murine Friend leukemia virus (FV) replication in vitro and to what extent NO may play a role in defenses against FV infection in mice. Three NO-generating

  8. Rapid reversal by aminoguanidine of the neurovascular effects of diabetes in rats: Modulation by nitric oxide synthase inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Cameron; M. A. Cotter

    1996-01-01

    Aminoguanidine treatment prevents the development of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) deficits and some renal and retinal complications in diabetic rats. Pharmacological actions include inhibition of the formation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and nitric oxide (NO) synthase. The aims of the study were to determine the extent to which diabetic NCV and nerve blood flow deficits could be corrected

  9. Measurement of IL13Induced iNOS-Derived Gas Phase Nitric Oxide in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Suresh; Justin D. Mih; Steven C. George

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is altered in numerous diseases including asthma, and is thought broadly to be a noninvasive marker of in- flammation. However, the precise source of exhaled NO has yet to be identified, and the interpretation is further hampered by significant inter-subject variation. Using fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, we sought to determine (1) the

  10. Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshi, S. R.; Agarwal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nitric Oxide (NO), the L-arginine derivative, is tonically synthesised by the endothelium within the kidney and it plays a crucial role in the regulation of the blood pressure and the renal blood flow. NO regulates the renal function through the modulation of the vascular tone and sodium handling. With the progressive development of the renal insufficiency, it remains unclear whether the endogenous NO production is increased or decreased in the kidney. This study was carried out to determine whether there were any changes in the levels of NO and teir correlation with the routine parameters of the renal dysfunction in the patients of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), as the disease progresses in conjunction with poor renal functions. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic renal disease which was caused by chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension, who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis (MHD) with serum creatinine levels of > 2.5 mg/dl, were included in this study. Thirty healthy voluntary blood donors were taken as the controls. NO was estimated by a spectrophotometric method by using cadmium reduction. The routine renal function tests, BUN and Creatinine were performed by the standard clinical chemistry procedures. Results: The serum NO levels were found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the CRF on MHD (98.77 ± 35.40 ?mol/l) as compared to the controls (22.03 ± 7.23 ?mol/l). The NO output correlated with the serum creatinine (r = 0.8123, p < 0.01) and the urea concentration (r = 0.5166, p = <0.01) in the CRF group. Conclusion: The NO levels were markedly enhanced in the CRF patients who were on MHD. This was due to the dialysis procedure itself, which led to the stimulation of cytokine induced NO synthase and also due to the platelets which generated more NO due to uraemia. At high concentrations, NO is a cytotoxic molecule which is responsible for the complications of dialysis and it results in Nitrosative Stress in these patients, as it is a highly reactive free radical. Since the no output correlated with the serum creatinine and urea concentrations, a higher no production probably indicated insufficient blood purification, due to the common effect on their elimination pathways via the renal tract. Therefore, the alterations of the renal function, that are reflected in the changes of the creatinine concentration, will be accompanied by the changes in the serum NO. Thus, the determination of the NO levels in the peripheral blood may be useful in the assessment of the dialysis and they can also be used as markers in the follow up and the prognosis in these type of patients. PMID:23998047

  11. Imaging Pulmonary Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression with PET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Howard J.; Isakow, Warren; Byers, Derek E.; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Debra; Brody, Steven L.; Gropler, Robert J.; Miller, J. Philip; Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Pierce, Richard A.; Castro, Mario; Mach, Robert H.; Chen, Delphine L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity increases in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Imaging iNOS expression may be useful as an inflammation biomarker for monitoring lung disease activity. We developed a novel tracer for PET that binds to iNOS in vivo, 18F-NOS. In this study, we tested whether 18F-NOS could quantify iNOS expression from endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers were screened to exclude cardiopulmonary disease. Qualifying volunteers underwent a baseline, 1-h dynamic 18F-NOS PET/CT scan. Endotoxin (4 ng/kg) was then instilled bronchoscopically in the right middle lobe. 18F-NOS imaging was performed again approximately 16 h after endotoxin instillation. Radiolabeled metabolites were determined from blood samples. Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after imaging were stained immunohistochemically for iNOS. 18F-NOS uptake was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) determined by Logan plot graphical analysis in volumes of interest placed over the area of endotoxin instillation and in an equivalent lung region on the left. The mean Hounsfield units (HUs) were also computed using the same volumes of interest to measure density changes. Results Seven healthy volunteers with normal pulmonary function completed the study with evaluable data. The DVR increased by approximately 30%, from a baseline mean of 0.42 ± 0.07 to 0.54 ± 0.12, and the mean HUs by 11% after endotoxin in 6 volunteers who had positive iNOS staining in BAL cells. The DVR did not change in the left lung after endotoxin. In 1 volunteer with low-level iNOS staining in BAL cells, the mean HUs increased by 7% without an increase in DVR. Metabolism was rapid, with approximately 50% of the parent compound at 5 min and 17% at 60 min after injection. Conclusion 18F-NOS can be used to image iNOS activity in acute lung inflammation in humans and may be a useful PET tracer for imaging iNOS expression in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:25525182

  12. The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen of thermospheric cooling by 5.3 m nitric oxide has been neglected and the photo- dissociation of O2 and heating photodissociation rate, in the model. Seasonally dependent 5.3 m nitric oxide cooling is also included

  13. Comparisons of thermospheric high-latitude nitric oxide observations from SNOE and global auroral X-ray bremsstrahlung observations

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Comparisons of thermospheric high-latitude nitric oxide observations from SNOE and global auroral X 2003; published 18 March 2003. [1] Three years (March 1998 through March 2001) of nitric oxide (NO) observations in the Northern Hemispheric thermosphere (90­170 km) as made by the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer

  14. A new form of cerebellar long-term potentiation is postsynaptic and depends on nitric oxide but

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    A new form of cerebellar long-term potentiation is postsynaptic and depends on nitric oxide and requires cAMP but not nitric oxide. It is a poor candidate to reverse LTD because it is presynaptically , and depends on nitric oxide but not cAMP or cGMP, making it a plausible anti-Hebbian counterpart to Hebbian

  15. Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide

    E-print Network

    Routh, Vanessa H.

    by Nitric Oxide Nicolas Marsollier1 *, Nadim Kassis1 , Karima Mezghenna2 , Maud Soty3,4,5 , Xavier: We investigated here whether hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) could mediate deleterious peripheral Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6649. doi

  16. An ancient immunity gene duplication in Daphnia magna: RNA expression and sequence analysis of two nitric oxide synthase genes

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    nitric oxide synthase genes Pierrick Labbe´ *, Seanna J. McTaggart, Tom J. Little University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK 1. Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical gas produced by the conversion of L-arginine into L-citrulline by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Most of what is known about

  17. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in sucrose-enhanced hydrogen peroxide tolerance of Rhodococcus sp. strain APG1,

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Michael F.

    Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in sucrose-enhanced hydrogen peroxide tolerance of Rhodococcus isolated from the aquatic fern Azolla pinnata, was examined in relation to nitric oxide (NO) production. Addition to cells of LL-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), stimulated production

  18. FTIR and Resonance Raman Studies of Nitric Oxide Binding to H93G Cavity Mutants of Myoglobin

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    FTIR and Resonance Raman Studies of Nitric Oxide Binding to H93G Cavity Mutants of Myoglobin ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) binds to the myoglobin (Mb) cavity mutant, H93G, forming either a five- or six pocket. When nitric oxide (NO)1 binds to heme proteins, it is believed to exert a repulsive trans effect

  19. On-chip multi-electrochemical sensor array platform for simultaneous screening of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On-chip multi-electrochemical sensor array platform for simultaneous screening of nitric oxide amperometric detection of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOOÀ ), two biologically relevant molecules those species, the balance between nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2 À ) and their reaction product

  20. A Variant of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene (NOS3) Associated with AMS Susceptibility Is Less

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    A Variant of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene (NOS3) Associated with AMS Susceptibility, Michael S. Koehle, and Jim L. Rupert. A variant of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3. Med. Biol. 20:27­30, 2010.-- Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a vascular enzyme

  1. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 9, PAGES 12591262, MAY 1, 1999 Auroral production of nitric oxide measured

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    of nitric oxide measured by the SNOE satellite Stanley C. Solomon and Charles A. Barth Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia Abstract. Measurements by the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite ultraviolet spectrometer confirm that nitric oxide density is elevated

  2. Role of Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Infarct Size-Reducing Effect Conferred by Heat Stress in Isolated Rat Hearts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Role of Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Infarct Size-Reducing Effect Conferred by Heat Stress. Abbreviated running head: Nitric oxide synthases and heat stress response * Please address correspondence;132(8):1845-51" DOI : 10.1038/sj.bjp.0703942 #12;2 Abstract 1 Nitric oxide (NO) donors are known to induce both

  3. Adrenergic-and capsaicin-evoked nitric oxide release from urothelium and afferent nerves in urinary bladder

    E-print Network

    Apodaca, Gerard

    Adrenergic- and capsaicin-evoked nitric oxide release from urothelium and afferent nerves Apodaca, William C. de Groat, and Anthony J. Kanai. Adrenergic- and capsaicin-evoked nitric oxide release229, 1998.--Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of the lower urinary tract

  4. Targeting of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase to the Cytoplasmic Face of the Golgi Complex or Plasma Membrane

    E-print Network

    Sessa, William C.

    Targeting of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase to the Cytoplasmic Face of the Golgi Complex or Plasma Membrane Regulates Akt- Versus Calcium-dependent Mechanisms for Nitric Oxide Release* Received of endothelial nitric- oxide synthase (eNOS) on the Golgi complex versus the plasma membrane has made

  5. Effect of Mild Nitric Acid Oxidation on Dispersability, Size, and Structure of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Resasco, Daniel

    Effect of Mild Nitric Acid Oxidation on Dispersability, Size, and Structure of Single-Walled Carbon) with nitric acid increases their dispersability in water, methanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Two oxidation conditions carefully. Nitric acid has been the most frequently utilized agent for oxidation of carbon

  6. Modified peptide nucleic acids are internalized in mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 and inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Scarfi; Marco Giovine; Anna Gasparini; Gianluca Damonte; Enrico Millo; Marina Pozzolini; Umberto Benatti

    1999-01-01

    Overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase causes the production of high levels of nitric oxide, which, under pathological conditions, leads to immunosuppression and tissue damage. The results recently obtained using peptide nucleic acids, rather than traditional oligonucleotides as antigen and antisense molecules, prompted us to test their efficacy in the regulation of nitric oxide production, thereby overcoming the obstacle of

  7. Protective Effect of Nitric Oxide against Oxidative Damage in Arabidopsis Leaves under Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingang Zhang; Shuo Zhou; Yi Xuan; Miao Sun; Liqun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule involved in many physiological processes. To characterize its roles in the tolerance of\\u000a Arabidopsis thaliana to ultraviolet-B (UV-B), we investigated the effect of a reduced endogenous NO level on oxidative damage to wild-type and\\u000a mutant (Atnoa1) plants. Under irradiation, hydrogen peroxide was accumulated more in mutant leaves than in the wild type. However,

  8. Protective role of nitric oxide during hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in tobacco plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Dubovskaya; E. V. Kolesneva; D. M. Knyazev; I. D. Volotovskii

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide, produced from exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, and hydrogen peroxide exerted antagonistic effects on\\u000a tobacco leaves at micromolar concentrations but induced synergistic effects at millimolar concentrations. During H2O2-induced oxidative stress, low concentrations of NO inhibited lipid peroxidation, counteracted the fragmentation of total\\u000a DNA, and prevented accumulation of soluble proteins in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells. When applied at high concentrations,

  9. Behavioral impairments and changes of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the brains of molarless KM mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Qian; Hu, Xingxue; Li, Xinya; Zhang, Jianjun; Jiang, Qingsong

    2015-02-01

    More studies showed that as a common disorder in senior population, loss of teeth could adversely affect human cognitive function, and nitric oxide (NO) might play an important role in the cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been well-established. The objectives of this study are to evaluate behavior changes of KM mice after loss of molars, and levels of NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain in molarless condition. It is hypothesized that loss of molars of the mice tested results in the cognitive impairments and that the process is mediated by NO in the brain through the signaling pathways. Morris water maze is used to test the behavioral changes after 8 weeks of the surgery. The changes of NO and iNOS are evaluated by using Griess assay, western blot, and immunohistochemistry method. The results show that 8 weeks after loss of molars, the spatial learning and memory of KM mice impair and the levels of NO and iNOS in mice hippocampus increase. These findings suggest that molar extraction is associated with the behavioral impairment, and that the changes of NO and iNOS in the hippocampus may be involved in the behavioral changes in the molarless condition. PMID:25447296

  10. Nitric Oxide Generated from Isoniazid Activation by KatG: Source of Nitric Oxide and Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, Graham S.; Master, Sharon; Rusnak, Frank; Deretic, Vojo

    2004-01-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) is a frontline antituberculosis agent. Once taken up by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, INH requires activation by the catalase-peroxidase KatG, converting INH from its prodrug form into a range of bactericidal reactive species. Here we used 15N-labeled INH together with electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping techniques to demonstrate that nitric oxide (N?) is generated from oxidation at the hydrazide nitrogens during the activation of INH by M. tuberculosis KatG. We also observed that a specific scavenger of N? provided protection against the antimycobacterial activity of INH in bacterial culture. No significant increases in mycobacterial protein nitration were detected, suggesting that N? and not peroxynitrite, a nitrating metabolite of NO·, is involved in antimycobacterial action. In conclusion, INH-derived NO· has biological activity, which directly contributes to the antimycobacterial action of INH. PMID:15273113

  11. Nitric oxide, cholesterol oxides and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in plasma of patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Sevanian, A; Ajzen, S; Zanella, M T; Plavnik, F L; Rubbo, H; Abdalla, D S P

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify disturbances of nitric oxide radical (.NO) metabolism and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in human essential hypertension. The concentrations of.NO derivatives (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols and nitrotyrosine), water and lipid-soluble antioxidants and cholesterol oxides were measured in plasma of 11 patients with mild essential hypertension (H: 57.8 +/- 9.7 years; blood pressure, 148.3 +/- 24.8/90.8 +/- 10.2 mmHg) and in 11 healthy subjects (N: 48.4 +/- 7.0 years; blood pressure, 119.4 +/- 9.4/75.0 +/- 8.0 mmHg). Nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiols were measured by chemiluminescence and nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. Antioxidants were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. Hypertensive patients had reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperemia (H: 9.3 and N: 15.1% increase of diameter 90 s after hyperemia), and lower levels of ascorbate (H: 29.2 +/- 26.0, N: 54.2 +/- 24.9 micro M), urate (H: 108.5 +/- 18.9, N: 156.4 +/- 26.3 micro M), beta-carotene (H: 1.1 +/- 0.8, N: 2.5 +/- 1.2 nmol/mg cholesterol), and lycopene (H: 0.4 +/- 0.2, N: 0.7 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg cholesterol), in plasma, compared to normotensive subjects. The content of 7-ketocholesterol, 5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol and 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol in LDL, and the concentration of endothelin-1 (H: 0.9 +/- 0.2, N: 0.7 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) in plasma were increased in hypertensive patients. No differences were found for.NO derivatives between groups. These data suggest that an increase in cholesterol oxidation is associated with endothelium dysfunction in essential hypertension and oxidative stress, although.NO metabolite levels in plasma are not modified in the presence of elevated cholesterol oxides. PMID:12426629

  12. Febrigenic signaling to the brain does not involve nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Rudaya, Alla Y; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of peripheral nitric oxide (NO) in febrigenic signaling to the brain has been proposed because peripherally administered NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever in rodents. However, how the unstable molecule of NO can reach the brain to trigger fever is unclear. It is also unclear whether NOS inhibitors attenuate fever by blocking febrigenic signaling or, alternatively, by suppressing thermogenesis in brown fat. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with jugular catheters; their colonic and tail skin temperatures (Tc and Tsk) were monitored. Study 1 was designed to determine whether the relatively stable, physiologically relevant forms of NO, that is, S-nitrosoalbumin (SNA) and S-nitrosoglutathione (SNG), are pyrogenic and whether they enhance LPS fever. At a neutral ambient temperature (Ta) of 31°C, afebrile or LPS (1 ?g kg?1, i.v.)-treated rats were infused i.v. with SNA (0.34 or 4.1 ?mol kg?1; the controls received NaNO2 and albumin) or SNG (10 or 60 ?mol kg?1; the controls received glutathione). Tc of SNA- or SNG-treated rats never exceeded that of the controls. In Study 2, we tested whether the known fever-attenuating effect of the NOS inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) at a subneutral Ta (when fever is brought about by thermogenesis) also occurs at a neutral Ta (when fever is brought about by skin vasoconstriction). At a subneutral Ta of 24°C, L-NAME (2.5 mg kg?1, i.v.) attenuated LPS (10 ?g kg?1, i.v.) fever, presumably by inhibiting thermogenesis. At 31°C, L-NAME enhanced LPS fever by augmenting skin vasoconstriction (Tsk fall). In summary, both SNA and SNG had no pyrogenic effect of their own and failed to enhance LPS fever; peripheral L-NAME attenuated only fever brought about by increased thermogenesis. It is concluded that NO is uninvolved in febrigenic signaling to the brain. PMID:15006900

  13. Downregulation of nitric oxide by electroacupuncture against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in rats via nuclear factor-?B/neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YICHEN; LI, WEIGUANG; HU, LINYAN; LIU, YING; LI, BAOQUAN; SUN, CHANGQING; ZHANG, CHENGGANG; ZOU, LIPING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) against perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in rats by electroacupuncture (EA) and to examine its potential neuroprotective mechanism. NO content, the number of positive cells, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in rat cortex cells were determined. The results demonstrated that treatment with EA significantly downregulated the NO content in the cortex cells (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with the control groups) and alleviated cell damage in the cortex of rats with HIBD. The activator, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and the inhibitor, hydroxylamine of cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), aggravated and remitted the hypoxic damage in the cortex cells, respectively. In addition, treatment with EA significantly downregulated the expression of nNOS and NF-?B in the rat cortex cells (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, compared with the control groups). The results also indicated that treatment with EA downregulated the NO content of cortical cells against HIBD via the NF-?B/nNOS pathway and further implied that the hydrogen sulfide/CBS system may be involved in the process. The present study provided a significant reference for the prevention and treatment of HIBD using the EA technique and also described a novel protective mechanism. PMID:25374015

  14. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of tin in canned foods, using nitric acid-hydrochloric acid digestion and nitrous oxide-acetylene flame: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Albert, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six collaborators participated in a study to evaluate an atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method for the determination of tin in canned foods. The 5 foods evaluated were meat, pineapple juice, tomato paste, evaporated milk, and green beans, each spiked at 2 levels. The concentration range of tin in the samples was 10-450 micrograms/g, and each level was sent as a blind duplicate. Statistical treatment of results revealed no laboratory outliers and 6 individual or replicate-total outliers, accounting for 3.3% of the data. Repeatability (within-laboratory) coefficient of variation (CVo) ranged from 2.2 to 48%, depending on the tin level and food evaluated. For samples containing greater than or equal to 80 micrograms/g of tin, repeatability CV averaged 5.6% including outliers and 3.7% after their rejection. Overall among-laboratories coefficient of variation (CVx) varied from 3.3 to 58%; at levels greater than or equal to 80 micrograms/g, it averaged 7.3% with outliers and 5.3% after their rejection. Recovery of tin, based on spiking levels, ranged from 100.0 to 112.8% and averaged 105.4%. Detection limit range is 2-10 micrograms/g, and lower quantitation limit is 40 micrograms/g. This method has been adopted official first action. PMID:2985534

  15. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase in human skin.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, P C; Leslie, T A; Hayes, N A; Levell, N J; Dowd, P M; Foreman, J C

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in human skin in vivo the role of nitric oxide in maintaining resting vascular tone, in the vasodilatation caused by local warming and by ultraviolet B light exposure, and in the response to exogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed by planimetry of the visible erythema or pallor and by laser Doppler flowmetry. Intradermal injection of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 nmol), into forearm skin produced a visible pallor and a reduction of blood flow at a controlled ambient temperature of 21 degrees C. The control, NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME; 25 nmol) or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 25 nmol) did not cause pallor or reduce blood flow. L-NAME and L-NMMA caused dose- and time-dependent increases in pallor, and reductions in cutaneous blood flow in skin that had been locally warmed by immersion in water at 45 degrees C and in skin that had been exposed to ultraviolet B light. D-NAME and D-NMMA at comparable concentrations did not have the effects on skin blood flow observed with the L forms. L-NAME and L-NMMA both inhibited the increased blood flow in human skin caused by the intradermal injection of CGRP (12.5 or 25 pmol). The reduction of CGRP-induced increase of blood flow by L-NAME was reversed by L-arginine. Neither D-NAME nor D-NMMA inhibited the increase in blood flow caused by CGRP. Neither L-NAME nor L-NMMA inhibited the increase in blood flow in human skin caused by the intradermal injection of prostaglandin E2 (63 pmol). The data show that nitric oxide is involved in the maintenance of resting blood flow in human skin and also in the cutaneous vasodilator responses to local warming, ultraviolet B irradiation, or injection of CGRP. PMID:8592060

  16. Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production by ?-Opioid Receptors during Glaucomatous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Shahid; Abdul, Yasir; Singh, Sudha; Ahmad, Anis; Husain, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    To determine the roles of nitric oxide in glaucomatous injury and its regulation by ?-opioid-receptor activation, animals were treated with: 1) a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (aminoguanidine; AG; 25 mg/kg, i.p.); 2) ?-opioid-receptor agonist (SNC-121; 1 mg/kg, i.p.); or 3) with both drugs simultaneously for 7 days, once daily. The loss in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) numbers and their function in glaucomatous eyes were significantly improved in the presence of AG or SNC-121; however, we did not see any significant additive or synergistic effects when animals were treated with both drugs simultaneously. The levels of nitrate-nitrite were significantly increased in the glaucomatous retina when compared with normal retina (normal retina 86±9 vs. glaucomatous retina 174±10 mM/mg protein), which was reduced significantly when animals were treated either with SNC-121 (121±7 mM/mg protein; P<0.05) or AG (128±10 mM/mg protein; P<0.05). Additionally, SNC-121-mediated reduction in nitrate-nitrite levels was not only blocked by naltrindole (a ?-opioid-receptor antagonist), but naltrindole treatment potentiated the nitrate-nitrite production in glaucomatous retina (235±4 mM/mg protein; P<0.001). As expected, naltrindole treatment also fully-blocked SNC-121-mediated retina neuroprotection. The nitrotyrosine level in the glaucomatous retina was also increased, which was significantly reduced in the SNC-121-treated animals. Additionally, the expression level of iNOS was clearly increased over the control levels in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerves, which was also reduced by SNC-121 treatment. In conclusion, our data support the notion that nitric oxide plays a detrimental role during glaucomatous injury and inhibition of nitric oxide production provided RGC neuroprotection. Furthermore, ?-opioid receptor activation regulates the production of nitric oxide via inhibiting the activity of iNOS in the retina and optic nerve. PMID:25329670

  17. Protective effects of three smoke flavouring phenols on oxidative damage and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Hsing; Chang, Lee-Wen; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Vong, Wen-Jong; Wang, Bor-Sen

    2011-06-15

    In this study, the effects of three smoke flavouring phenols, including 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP), 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol (EMP), and 4-propenyl-2-methoxyphenol (isoeugenol), on oxidative damage and nitric oxide production, were examined. In the range 5-20?M, EMP displayed the highest inhibitory effects on radical production and biomolecule oxidation in the acellular systems of the three smoke flavouring phenols. In addition, 4-MP, EMP and isoeugenol, in the range 5-20?M, protected liver cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity, correlating with protection against intracellular glutathione depletion. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of the three smoke flavouring phenols on nitric oxide (NO) generation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, increased with increasing concentrations. The decrease in NO production was attributed to the reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophages. These data suggested that the three smoke flavouring phenols, particularly EMP, show biological activities that contribute to antioxidation as well as anti-inflammation. PMID:25213941

  18. Effect of nitric oxide annealing on the interface trap density near the conduction bandedge of 4HSiC at the oxide,,1120... 4HSiC interface

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Effect of nitric oxide annealing on the interface trap density near the conduction bandedge of 4H, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Received 1 April 2003; accepted 2 January 2004 Nitric oxide postoxidation anneal a nitric oxide NO postoxidation anneal POA .3­6 Reports by other groups have indicated improved properties

  19. Nitric oxide in fruit ripening: trends and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, G; Lokesh, V; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring ethylene is crucial in regulating post-harvest life of fruits. The concept of nitric oxide (NO) involvement in antagonizing ethylene is new. NO mediated physiologies casted through regulation of plant hormones are widely reported during developmental and stress chemistry having no direct link with ripening. Research in NO biology and understanding its interplay with other signal molecules in ripening fruits suggest ways of achieving greater synergies with NO applications. Experiments focused at convincingly demonstrating the involvement of NO in altering ripening-related ethylene profile of fruits, would help develop new processes for shelf life extension. This issue being the central theme of this review, the putative mechanisms of NO intricacies with other primary and secondary signals are hypothesized. The advantage of eliciting NO endogenously may open up various biotechnological opportunities for its precise delivery into the target tissues. PMID:20307642

  20. Antioxidant and anti-nitric oxide components from Quercus glauca.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chien-Chang; Hong, Kun-Yuan; Chen, Jennifer; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Hung-Tse; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2012-01-01

    From the ethanolic extract of Quercus glauca, two new lignans, (+)-5'-methoxyisolariciresinol-9'-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-?-D-xyloside (2), along with fourteen known compounds including four lignanoids (3-6), five triterpenoids (7-11), two flavonoids (12, 13), two aromatics (14, 15), and one steroid (16) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, compounds 9 and 14 strongly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 8.25 and 14.04?µM, respectively, and compounds 1, 4-6, 14, and 15 showed moderate antioxidant activities. PMID:22790829

  1. Deciphering Nitric Oxide Stress in Bacteria with Quantitative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jonathan L.; Adolfsen, Kristin J.; Brynildsen, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens depend on nitric oxide (NO•) detoxification and repair to establish an infection, and inhibitors of these systems are under investigation as next-generation antibiotics. Due to the broad reactivity of NO• and its derivatives with biomolecules, a deep understanding of how pathogens sense and respond to NO•, as an integrated system, has been elusive. Quantitative kinetic modeling has been proposed as a method to enhance analysis and understanding of NO• stress at the systems-level. Here we review the motivation for, current state of, and future prospects of quantitative modeling of NO• stress in bacteria, and suggest that such mathematical approaches would prove equally useful in the study of other broadly reactive antimicrobials, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:24983704

  2. Calmodulin-induced structural changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Persechini, Anthony; Tran, Quang-Kim; Black, D.J.; Gogol, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    We have derived structures of intact calmodulin(CaM)-free and CaM-bound endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by reconstruction from cryo-electron micrographs. The CaM-free reconstruction is well fitted by the oxygenase domain dimer, but the reductase domains are not visible, suggesting they are mobile and thus delocalized. Additional protein is visible in the CaM-bound reconstruction, concentrated in volumes near two basic patches on each oxygenase domain. One of these corresponds with a presumptive docking site for the reductase domain FMN-binding module. The other is proposed to correspond with a docking site for CaM. A model is suggested in which CaM binding and docking position the reductase domains near the oxygenase domains and promote docking of the FMN-binding modules required for electron transfer. PMID:23266515

  3. Nitric oxide in the middle to upper thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siskind, David E.; Rusch, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The results of six rocket observations of thermospheric nitric oxide are reviewed and reconciled with the available laboratory photochemical data. The impact of the recently revised recommendation for the N (S-4) + O2 rate coefficient on photochemical models is assessed. Use of the new rate coefficient leads to significantly enhanced production of NO, particularly at F-region altitudes during solar maximum conditions. A comparison of photochemical calculations with the rocket profiles indicates that the new rate coefficient introduces a significant discrepancy which can be resolved if the recombination reaction of N + NO is temperature dependent. Calculations using the preposed rate coefficient predict the NO solar cycle variation at 180 km to be less than at 140 km, which is also in agreement with the observations.

  4. Solar cycle variation of thermospheric nitric oxide at solstice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Fesen, C. G.; Rusch, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A coupled, two-dimensional, chemical-diffusive model of the thermosphere is used to study the role of solar activity in the global distribution of nitric oxide. The model calculates self-consistently the zonally averaged temperature, circulation, and composition for solstice under solar maximum and solar minimum conditions. A decrease of the NO density by a factor of three to four in the E region is predicted from solar maximum to solar minimum. It is found that the main features of the overall morphology and the changes induced by the solar cycle are well reproduced in the model, although some details are not satisfactorily predicted. The sensitivity of the NO distribution to eddy transport and to the quenching of metastable N(2D) atoms by atomic oxygen is also described.

  5. Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling in stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) pathway mediates important physiological functions associated with various integrative body systems including the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Furthermore, NO regulates cell growth, survival, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation at the cellular level. To understand the significance of the NO-cGMP pathway in development and differentiation, studies have been conducted both in developing embryos and stem cells. Manipulation of the NO-cGMP pathway by employing activators and inhibitors as pharmacological probes and/or genetic manipulation of NO signaling components has implicated the involvement of this pathway in regulation of stem cell differentiation. This review will focus on some of the work pertaining to the role of NO-cGMP in differentiation of stem cells into cells of various lineages particularly into myocardial cells and stem cell based therapy. PMID:22019632

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of exogenous nitric oxide on periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Backlund, C J; Sergesketter, A R; Offenbacher, S; Schoenfisch, M H

    2014-11-01

    Current treatments for periodontitis (e.g., scaling/root planing and chlorhexidine) have limited efficacy since they fail to suppress microbial biofilms satisfactorily over time, and the use of adjunctive antimicrobials can promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Herein, we report the novel application of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing scaffolds (i.e., dendrimers and silica particles) as anti-periodontopathogenic agents. The effectiveness of macromolecular NO release was demonstrated by a 3-log reduction in periodontopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis viability. In contrast, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis, caries-associated organisms, were substantially less sensitive to NO treatment. Both dendrimer- and silica-based NO release exhibited substantially less toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts at concentrations necessary to eradicate periodontopathogens than did clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine. These results suggest the potential utility of macromolecular NO-release scaffolds as a novel platform for the development of periodontal disease therapeutics. PMID:25139363

  7. Natural Product Nitric Oxide Chemistry: New Activity of Old Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Bryan, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a therapy and preventative care measure for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may prove to be beneficial when used in conjunction with or in place of conventional medicine. However, the lack of understanding of a mechanism of action of many CAMs limits their use and acceptance in western medicine. We have recently recognized and characterized specific nitric oxide (NO) activity of select alternative and herbal medicines that may account for many of their reported health benefits. The ability of certain CAM to restore NO homeostasis both through enhancing endothelial production of NO and by providing a system for reducing nitrate and nitrite to NO as a compensatory pathway for repleting NO bioavailability may prove to be a safe and cost-effective strategy for combating CVD. We will review the current state of science behind NO activity of herbal medicines and their effects on CVD. PMID:22548122

  8. Fabrication of nitric oxide-releasing polyurethane glucose sensor membranes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ahyeon; Riccio, Daniel A.; Sun, Bin; Carpenter, Alexis W.; Nichols, Scott P.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite clear evidence that polymeric nitric oxide (NO) release coatings reduce the foreign body response (FBR) and may thus improve the analytical performance of in vivo continuous glucose monitoring devices when used as sensor membranes, the compatibility of the NO release chemistry with that required for enzymatic glucose sensing remains unclear. Herein, we describe the fabrication and characterization of NO-releasing polyurethane sensor membranes using NO donor-modified silica vehicles embedded within the polymer. In addition to demonstrating tunable NO release as a function of the NO donor silica scaffold and polymer compositions and concentrations, we describe the impact of the NO release vehicle and its release kinetics on glucose sensor performance. PMID:21795038

  9. Reversible suppression of nitric oxide system in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Maurya, D R; Kumar, S; Basara, H; Ghatak, A; Tekwani, B L; Kaur, G; Misra, M K

    2003-07-01

    Despite enormous research in the field of hypertension, its pathophysiology still remains largely unresolved and appears to be multifactorial. In the present communication, we have analyzed the status of nitric oxide (NO) in the patients with essential hypertension and age matched controls. We have found that the levels of NO are lowered in essential hypertension. The normalization of blood pressure by administration of antihypertensive therapy causes rise in the NO level indicating that perturbed NO status in essential hypertension is reversible. Addition of antioxidant to the antihypertensive drugs causes a further, though non significant, rise in the levels of NO, suggesting that antioxidants may be combined with antihypertensive drugs as adjunct in the management of essential hypertension. PMID:23105406

  10. REQUIREMENT OF ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE FOR SYSTEMIC NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh CS.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Chen, Yuqing; Garg, Harsha K.; Li, Li; Mian, Asad; Bertin, Terry K.; Black, Jennifer O.; Zeng, Heng; Tang, Yaoping; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Summar, Marshall; O’Brien, William E.; Harrison, David G.; Mitch, William E.; Marini, Juan C.; Aschner, Judy L.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Lee, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) plays a critical role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We show that a hypomorphic mouse model of argininosuccinate lyase (Asl) deficiency exhibits a distinct phenotype manifest by multi-organ dysfunction and NO deficiency. Loss of Asl leads to reduced NO synthesis due to decreased endogenous arginine synthesis as well as reduced utilization of extracellular arginine for NO production in both humans and mice. Hence, ASL as seen in other species through evolution has a structural function in addition to its catalytic activity. Importantly, therapy with nitrite rescued the tissue autonomous NO deficiency in hypomorphic Asl mice, while a NOS independent NO donor restored NO-dependent vascular reactivity in subjects with ASL deficiency. Our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for ASL in NOS function and NO homeostasis. Hence, ASL may serve as a target for manipulating NO production in experimental models, as well as treatment of NO-related diseases. PMID:22081021

  11. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Ashina, Messoud

    2002-04-01

    Chronic tension-type headache may be caused by prolonged painful input from pericranial myofacial tissues, for example tender points, resulting in central sensitisation (increased excitability of neurons in the central nervous system). Animal studies have shown that sensitisation of pain pathways may be caused by or associated with the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the generation of nitric oxide. Furthermore, it has been shown that nitric oxide synthase inhibitors reduce central sensitisation in animal models of persistent pain. On the basis of this information, the analgesic effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G) methyl arginine hydrochloride was investigated. This drug significantly reduced headache and myofacial factors in patients with chronic tension-type headache. These studies show that nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache. The analgesic effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in patients with chronic tension-type headache is probably due to a reduction in central sensitisation at the level of the spinal dorsal horn, trigeminal nucleus or both. Furthermore, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase may become a novel principle in the future treatment of chronic headache. PMID:11934342

  12. Nitric oxide increases the enzymatic activity of three ascorbate peroxidase isoforms in soybean root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Keyster, Marshall; Klein, Ashwil; Egbichi, Ifeanyi; Jacobs, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidase is one of the major enzymes regulating the levels of H2O2 in plants and plays a crucial role in maintaining root nodule redox status. We used fully developed and mature nitrogen fixing root nodules from soybean plants to analyze the effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide, generated from the nitric oxide donor 2,2?-(hydroxynitrosohydrazono)bis-ethanimine, on the enzymatic activity of soybean root nodule ascorbate peroxidase. Nitric oxide caused an increase in the total enzymatic activity of ascorbate peroxidase. The nitric oxide-induced changes in ascorbate peroxidase enzymatic activity were coupled to altered nodule H2O2 content. Further analysis of ascorbate peroxidase enzymatic activity identified three ascorbate peroxidase isoforms for which augmented enzymatic activity occurred in response to nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that nitric oxide regulates soybean root nodule ascorbate peroxidase activity. We propose a role of nitric oxide in regulating ascorbate-dependent redox status in soybean root nodule tissue. PMID:21494099

  13. Effects of Nitric Oxide on Neuromuscular Properties of Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Michael; Bradley, Sophie; McDearmid, Jonathan Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a bioactive signalling molecule that is known to affect a wide range of neurodevelopmental processes. However, its functional relevance to neuromuscular development is not fully understood. Here we have examined developmental roles of nitric oxide during formation and maturation of neuromuscular contacts in zebrafish. Using histochemical approaches we show that elevating nitric oxide levels reduces the number of neuromuscular synapses within the axial swimming muscles whilst inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis has the opposite effect. We further show that nitric oxide signalling does not change synapse density, suggesting that the observed effects are a consequence of previously reported changes in motor axon branch formation. Moreover, we have used in vivo patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of nitric oxide on physiological maturation of zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. We show that developmental exposure to nitric oxide affects the kinetics of spontaneous miniature end plate currents and impacts the neuromuscular drive for locomotion. Taken together, our findings implicate nitrergic signalling in the regulation of zebrafish neuromuscular development and locomotor maturation. PMID:24489806

  14. Overall rate constant measurements of the reactions of alkene-derived hydroxyalkylperoxy radicals with nitric oxide

    E-print Network

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    with nitric oxide Angela M. Miller, Laurence Y. Yeung, Annastassja C. Kiep and Matthew J. Elrod* Department ! R CHðOHÞ CHðO2Þ R0 ð2Þ which is generally followed by reaction with nitric oxide: R CHðOHÞ CHðO2Þ R0 derived from the OH-initiated oxidation of several atmospherically abundant alkenes--ethene, propene, 1

  15. The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: Its role in human exercise physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Bailey; Anni Vanhatalo; Paul G. Winyard; Andrew M. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signalling molecule that influences an array of physiological responses. It was traditionally assumed that NO was derived exclusively via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. This complex reaction requires a five electron oxidation of L-arginine and is contingent on the presence of numerous essential substrates (including O2) and co-factors. Recently an additional,

  16. The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: Its role in human exercise physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Bailey; Anni Vanhatalo; Paul G. Winyard; Andrew M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signalling molecule that influences an array of physiological responses. It was traditionally assumed that NO was derived exclusively via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. This complex reaction requires a five electron oxidation of L-arginine and is contingent on the presence of numerous essential substrates (including O2) and co-factors. Recently an additional,

  17. Inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter polymorphism in human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Gisela; Sánchez, Elena; López-Nevot, Miguel Angel; Caballero, Abelardo; Bravo, María José; Morata, Pilar; de Dios Colmenero, Juan; Alonso, Antonio; Martín, Javier

    2003-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) protein, is a defence mechanism against various pathogens, including bacteria of the genus Brucella. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between the NOS2 gene promoter polymorphism, TAAA(n) and CCTTT(n) microsatellites, and the predisposition to human brucellosis. We performed a case-control study in 85 patients with brucellosis and 100 healthy individuals, matched for age and sex, living in the same geographic area, in whom the NOS2 promoter was genotyped by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method combined with fluorescent technology. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of TAAA(n) alleles between the groups under study. When the overall NOS2 CCTTT(n) allele distribution of the brucellosis patients was compared with that of the control subjects, a significant skewing was observed (P = 0.04, by chi(2) test from 2 x 9 contingency table). Interestingly, we observed a trend towards Brucella infection protection with the 9 repeat (181 bp) allele (1.8% patients vs. 7.5% controls; P = 0.01, odds ratios = 0.22, 95% confidence interval = 0.05-0.83), which turned out to be non-significant after applying multiple testing. We concluded that the NOS2 microsatellite polymorphism might not have a major effect on brucellosis; nevertheless, the fact that a non-significant trend towards protection was detected in the CCTTT(n) alleles may be an indication for a follow-up study. PMID:14623011

  18. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas, E-mail: tguerrero@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Martinez, Josue [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); McCurdy, Matthew R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Wolski, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); McAleer, Mary Francis [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  19. Hypoxic Conditioning Suppresses Nitric Oxide Production upon Myocardial Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Sun, Jie; Oguayo, Kevin N.; Manukhina, Eugenia B.; Downey, H. Fred; Mallet, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically modulated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are generally beneficial, but excessive NO can injure myocardium by producing cytotoxic peroxynitrite. Recently we reported that intermittent, normobaric hypoxia conditioning (IHC) produced robust cardioprotection against infarction and lethal arrhythmias in a canine model of coronary occlusion-reperfusion. This study tested the hypothesis that IHC suppresses myocardial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and thereby dampens explosive, excessive NO formation upon reperfusion of occluded coronary arteries. Mongrel dogs were conditioned by a 20 d program of IHC (FIO2 9.5–10%; 5–10 min hypoxia/cycle, 5–8 cycles/d with intervening 4 min normoxia). One day later, ventricular myocardium was sampled for NOS activity assays, and immunoblot detection of the endothelial NOS isoform (eNOS). In separate experiments, myocardial nitrite (NO2?) release, an index of NO formation, was measured at baseline and during reperfusion following 1 h occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Values in IHC dogs were compared with respective values in non-conditioned, control dogs. IHC lowered left and right ventricular NOS activities by 60%, from 100–115 to 40–45 mU/g protein (P < 0.01), and decreased eNOS content by 30% (P < 0.05). IHC dampened cumulative NO2? release during the first 5 min reperfusion from 32 ± 7 to 14 ± 2 lmol/g (P < 0.05), but did not alter hyperemic LAD flow (15 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2 ml/g). Thus, IHC suppressed myocardial NOS activity, eNOS content, and excessive NO formation upon reperfusion without compromising reactive hyperemia. Attenuation of the NOS/NO system may contribute to IHC-induced protection of myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18408142

  20. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Dirsch, Verena M

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular function by enhancing NO bioavailability. In this article we first outline common pathways modulating endothelial NO production or bioavailability to provide a basis for subsequent mechanistic discussions. Then we comprehensively review natural products and plant extracts known to positively influence eNOS activity and/or endothelial function in vitro or in vivo. We will discuss red wine, highlighting polyphenols, oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol as modulators of endothelial NO production. Other dietary products and their active components known to activate eNOS include cocoa (OPC and its monomer (-)-epicatechin), pomegranates (polyphenols), black and green tea (flavanoids, especially epigallocatechin gallate), olive oil (oleic acid and polyphenols), soy (genistein), and quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in plants. In addition, phytomedical preparations made from ginkgo, hawthorn and ginseng, as well as formulations used in traditional Chinese Medicine, have been shown to affect endothelial NO production. Recurring phytochemical patterns among active fractions and purified compounds are discussed. In summary, there is increasing evidence that several single natural products and plant extracts influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19497380

  1. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Woo, Connie W H; Man, Ricky Y K; Siow, Yaw L; Choy, Patrick C; Wan, Eric W Y; Lau, Chak S; O, Karmin

    2005-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a principal mediator in many physiological and pathological processes. Overproduction of NO via the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has cytotoxic effect through the formation of peroxynitrite with superoxide anion. The iNOS is mainly expressed in macrophages and is able to produce large amount of NO. The expression of iNOS is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. The iNOS-mediated NO production plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Linzhi or Reishi) is a traditional herbal medicine which is commonly used as health supplement. Several studies have demonstrated its effectiveness against cancer, immunological disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of G. lucidum on iNOS-mediated NO production in macrophages. Human monocytic cell (THP-1) derived macrophages were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Such treatment significantly stimulated NO production (253% versus the control). Such a stimulatory effect was resulted from increased iNOS mRNA expression (270% versus the control) and iNOS activity (169.5% versus the control) in macrophages. The superoxide anion level was also elevated (150% versus the control) in LPS-treated macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with G. lucidum extract (100 microg/ml) completely abolished LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production. Such an inhibitory effect of G. lucidum was mediated via its antioxidant action against LPS-induced superoxide anion generation in macrophages. These results suggest that G. lucidum may exert a therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis via ameliorating iNOS-mediated NO overproduction in macrophages. PMID:16335796

  2. Observations of nitric acid removal that strongly affects the relationship between ozone and NOx oxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, J.; Nowak, J. B.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Ryerson, T.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.; Parrish, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the relationship between ozone formation and NOx precursors has been examined in order to understand the factors that control ozone pollution. Understanding the fate of NOx and its oxidation products is necessary to accurately determine the dependence of ozone upon NOx. Measurements of ozone, NOx, and NOx oxidation products were obtained from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study under a variety of meteorological conditions in plumes downwind from Houston, Texas. Over 50 crosswind transects of coalesced plumes from the Houston urban and industrial areas were examined. Nitric acid, which is one of the primary NOx oxidation products, can be removed rapidly from the atmosphere by deposition. This deposition affects reactive nitrogen partitioning and causes an increase in the slope of the correlation between ozone and the products of NOx oxidation (often interpreted as ozone production efficiency). During this study, nitric acid loss increased when wind speeds were high, causing the ozone to NOy-NOx correlation slopes to increase dramatically. Accounting for this loss is necessary to use correlation slopes of ozone versus NOy-NOx to represent an ozone production efficiency that describes the NOx-VOC chemistry.

  3. Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    PACHER, PÁL; BECKMAN, JOSEPH S.; LIAUDET, LUCAS

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review. PMID:17237348

  4. The transport of nitric oxide in the upper atmosphere by planetary waves and the zonal mean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. A.; Avery, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical model was developed and used to study the interaction between planetary waves, the zonal mean circulation, and the trace constituent nitric oxide in the region between 55 km and 120 km. The factors which contribute to the structure of the nitric oxide distribution were examined, and the sensitivity of the distribution to changes in planetary wave amplitude was investigated. Wave-induced changes in the mean nitric oxide concentration were examined as a possible mechanism for the observed winter anomaly. Results indicate that vertically-propagating planetary waves induce a wave-like structure in the nitric oxide distribution and that at certain levels, transports of nitric oxide by planetary waves could significantly affect the mean nitric oxide distribution. The magnitude and direction of these transports at a given level was found to depend not only on the amplitude of the planetary wave, but also on the loss rate of nitric oxide at that level.

  5. Flow-Tagging Velocimetry for Hypersonic Flows Using Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; OByrne, S.; Houwing, A. F. P.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate a new type of flow-tagging velocimetry technique for hypersonic flows. The technique involves exciting a thin line of nitric oxide molecules with a laser beam and then, after some delay, acquiring an image of the displaced line. One component of velocity is determined from the time of flight. This method is applied to measure the velocity profile in a Mach 8.5 laminar, hypersonic boundary layer in the Australian National Universities T2 free-piston shock tunnel. The velocity is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 2%. Comparison with a CFD simulation of the flow shows reasonable agreement.

  6. Organelle-Specific Nitric Oxide Detection in Living Cells via HaloTag Protein Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Du, Zengmin; Hu, Aiguo; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a membrane-permeable signaling molecule that is constantly produced, transferred, and consumed in vivo. NO participates and plays important roles in multiple biological processes. However, spatiotemporal imaging of NO in living cells is challenging. To fill the gap in currently used techniques, we exploited the versatility of HaloTag technology and synthesized a novel organelle-targetable fluorescent probe called HTDAF-2DA. We demonstrate the utility of the probe by monitoring subcellular NO dynamics. The developed strategy enables precise determination of local NO function. PMID:25923693

  7. Effect of nitric oxide gas on the generation of nitric oxide by isolated blood vessels: implications for inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kiff, R J; Moss, D W; Moncada, S

    1994-10-01

    1. We have investigated, using rat aortic rings, whether exogenous nitric oxide (NO) gas affects the activity or expression of the inducible, Ca(2+)-independent NO synthase. 2. Incubation of rings with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, S. typhosa) for 6 h resulted in a gradual loss of tissue tone, a time-dependent reduction in constrictor response to phenylephrine and significant expression and activity of Ca(2+)-independent NO synthase. 3. Following incubation of LPS-treated rings with NO gas, the expression of inducible NO synthase mRNA was still observed, although the enzyme activity was significantly reduced and there was no reduction in the response to phenylephrine. 4. Therefore, NO gas can inhibit the action but not the induction of an NO synthase likely to play a role in inflammatory states such as adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). 5. These observations may explain the rebound phenomenon observed in some ARDS patients following inhalation therapy with NO gas. PMID:7530572

  8. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (nitric oxide) has protective actions in the stomach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. MacNaughton; J. L. Wallace; G. Cirino

    1989-01-01

    The role that nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, may play in the regulation of gastric mucosal defense was investigated by assessing the potential protective actions of this factor against the damage caused by ethanol in an ex vivo chamber preparation of the rat stomach. Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside, which have been shown to release nitric

  9. Observations of the 5-day planetary wave in PMC measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Satellite

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Scott

    Observations of the 5-day planetary wave in PMC measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Satellite, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(4), 1196, doi:10; revised 5 December 2002; accepted 17 December 2002; published 28 February 2003. [1] The Student Nitric

  10. FUNCTIONAL VASODILATION IN THE RAT SPINOTRAPEZIUS MUSCLE: ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE, PROSTANOIDS AND EPOXYEICOSATRIENOIC ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lusha; Naik, Jay S; Hester, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms responsible for functional vasodilation of arterioles paired and unpaired with venules in the rat spinotrapezius muscle.The spinotrapezius muscle (from Sprague-Dawley rats) was treated with combinations of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100 µmol/L), the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 µmol/L) and the epoxygenase inhibitor 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanoic acid (PPOH; 30 µmol/L) to determine vascular responses to muscle stimulation. Both paired and unpaired arcade arterioles were chosen for microcirculatory observation. Arteriolar diameter was measured following 2 min muscle stimulation before and 30 min after subsequent application of each inhibitor.In all cases, l-NAME treatment resulted in decreased basal diameter that was restored to control levels by the addition of sodium nitroprusside (0.01–0.1 µmol/L) to the superfusion solution. NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly inhibited the functional dilation in both paired (?20 ± 3%) and unpaired (?29 ± 3%) arterioles, whereas these inhibitory effects of l-NAME were diminished after pretreatment with indomethacin and PPOH. Indomethacin treatment attenuated the dilation in paired (?33 ± 5%) but not unpaired (?6 ± 4%) arterioles. Treatment with PPOH had no effect on the functional dilation in either set of arterioles. Approximately 50% of the vasodilatory responses remained in the presence of l-NAME, indomethacin and PPOH.These results suggest that both nitric oxide and vasodilator prostanoid(s) are involved in mediating functional vasodilation in the rat spinotrapezius. The vasodilator prostanoid(s) released from venules is responsible for a portion of the vasodilation of the paired arteriole. The results also suggest possible interactions between the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostaglandin or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids during muscle contraction. PMID:18215183

  11. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  12. The Biological Chemistry of Nitric Oxide as It Pertains to the Extrapulmonary Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects. PMID:16565423

  13. Inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction involves reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidant stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Clapp; Aroon D. Hingorani; Rajesh K. Kharbanda; Vidya Mohamed-Ali; Jeffrey W. Stephens; Patrick Vallance; Raymond J. MacAllister

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to investigate mechanisms of inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans. Methods: Endothelial function in twenty-one healthy human volunteers was measured using forearm venous plethysmography before and 8 h after administration of typhoid vaccination to generate an inflammatory response. Basal and stimulated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was assessed by measurement of the responses to intra-arterial NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA)

  14. Autocrine growth inhibition of IL1?-treated cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: Possible role of nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Makita; Motoyuki Nakamura; Hiroaki Yoshida; Katsuhiko Hiramori

    1996-01-01

    Summary This study was designed to investigate whether interleukin (IL)-1ß would stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and to determine the basic effect of the liberated NO on VSMC proliferation. NO production was estimated from nitrite concentration of culture medium in multi-well plates, determined by the Griess method. VSMCs were IL-1ß-pretreated in

  15. Thalidomide ameliorates portal hypertension via nitric oxide synthase independent reduced systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Theodorakis, Nicholas G; Wang, Yining N; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Maluccio, Mary A; Skill, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and significantly increases mortality and morbidity. Previous reports have suggested that the compound thalidomide attenuates portal hypertension (PHT). However, the mechanism for this action is not fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that thalidomide destabilizes tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) mRNA and therefore diminishes TNF? induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO). To examine this hypothesis, we utilized the murine partial portal vein ligation (PVL) PHT model in combination with endothelial or inducible NOS isoform gene knockout mice. METHODS: Wild type, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-/- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-/- mice received either PVL or sham surgery and were given either thalidomide or vehicle. Serum nitrate (total nitrate, NOx) was measured daily for 7 d as a surrogate of NO synthesis. Serum TNF? level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TNF? mRNA was quantified in liver and aorta tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. PHT was determined by recording splenic pulp pressure (SPP) and abdominal aortic flow after 0-7 d. Response to thalidomide was determined by measurement of SPP and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: SPP, abdominal aortic flow (Qao) and plasma NOx were increased in wild type and iNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham operated control mice. In contrast, SPP, Qao and plasma NOx were not increased in eNOS-/- PVL mice when compared to sham controls. Serum TNF? level in both sham and PVL mice was below the detection limit of the commercial ELISA used. Therefore, the effect of thalidomide on serum TNF? levels was undetermined in wild type, eNOS-/- or iNOS-/- mice. Thalidomide acutely increased plasma NOx in wild type and eNOS-/- mice but not iNOS-/- mice. Moreover, thalidomide temporarily (0-90 min) decreased mean arterial pressure, SPP and Qao in wild type, eNOS-/- and iNOS-/- PVL mice, after which time levels returned to the respective baseline. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide does not reduce portal pressure in the murine PVL model by modulation of NO biosynthesis. Rather, thalidomide reduces PHT by decreasing MAP by an undetermined mechanism. PMID:25892862

  16. H-NOXmediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    H-NOX­mediated nitric oxide sensing modulates symbiotic colonization by Vibrio fischeri Yanling | colonization Small molecules have important signaling functions in microbe­ microbe and microbe in the mutualistic symbiotic asso- ciationbetweentheHawa

  17. The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes

    E-print Network

    Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

  18. Ground-based remote sensing of nitric oxide and ozone in the Antarctic middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Patrick; Hartogh, Paul; Clilverd, Mark; Holmén, Kim

    Nitric oxide, which reacts catalytically to destroy ozone, can be produced in great abundance in the middle atmosphere during energetic particle precipitation triggered by solar storms. During the Antarctic winter, the strong polar vortex can rapidly transport the nitric oxide downward, and this process links ozone recovery in the upper stratosphere to solar activity. A new microwave radiometer has been developed at the British Antarctic Survey to simultaneously measure profiles of ozone and nitric oxide between 30 and 80 km, deep within the Antarctic polar vortex at Troll Station (72S, 2.5E). A third channel will be used to infer the average vertical transport velocities near the mesopause using carbon monoxide. Details of the programme and first results from the instrument will be presented, with upper limits on the autumnal production and transport of nitric oxide provided.

  19. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea 

    E-print Network

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30

    The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust ...

  20. Pathophysiology of endotoxin: microvascular dysfunction, and the roles of VEGF and nitric oxide (NO) 

    E-print Network

    Naftanel, Mark Andrew

    2013-02-22

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) elicits nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation and plays major roles in angiogenesis and wound healing. Although bacterial endotoxin (LPS) has been shown to alter endothelial ...