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1

30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider...forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty...

2013-07-01

2

Economic viability of biogas technology  

SciTech Connect

Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

1983-12-01

3

The Economic Viability of Mars Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic viability of colonizing Mars is examined. It is shown, that of all bodies in the solar system other than Earth, Mars is unique in that it has the resources required to support a population of sufficient size to create locally a new branch of human civilization. It is also shown that while Mars may lack any cash material

Robert Zubrin

4

A neural network approach to determining cellular viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of cellular viability is a frequent goal of flow cytometry assays, and most published methods for creating boundaries that separate live, apoptotic, and dead cells are based on heuristics. We describe a method of determining these boundaries by training neural networks to learn the intensity patterns of a subset of cells with known viability, and then produce decision boundaries

John Quinn; Ram Achuthanandam; Peter J. Bugelski; Renold J. Capocasale; Paul W. Fisher; Moshe Kam; Leonid Hrebien

2005-01-01

5

Callose and determination of pistil viability and incompatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callose provides a useful phenotypic bioassay in plant breeding to determine: incompatibility system; gametophytic competition; and stigma and ovule viability. Callose appearance in ovules may be associated with senescence, and used to determine the effective pollination period. In incompatible matings, callose formation is specific and related to rejection phenomena. The stigma callose response is induced by informational molecules carried by

C. Dumas; R. B. Knox

1983-01-01

6

Economic viability of large-scale fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined.

Helsley, Charles E.; Burke, Robert J.

2014-01-01

7

The economic viability of pursuing a space power system concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a space power system requires no fundamental technological breakthroughs. There are, however, uncertainties regarding the degree to which necessary developments can be achieved or exceeded. An analysis is conducted concerning the implementation of a 5000 MW space-based solar power system based on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. The solar array is about 13 km long and 5 km wide. Placed in geosynchronous orbit, it provides power to the earth for 30 years. Attention is given to the economic feasibility of a space power system, a risk analysis for space power systems, and the use of the presented methodology for comparing alternative technology development programs.

Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

1977-01-01

8

Economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding programme.  

PubMed

To augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. Among the key organisations supporting the initiative is Heifer Project International-Kenya (HPIK). However, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the HPIK project have not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats to household income and the performance of the dairy goat enterprise using gross and net margins from dairy goat farming as an indicator of economic viability. A survey covering 71 farmers was carried out in the Coast, Nyanza, and the Rift Valley provinces of Kenya using a set of pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that, on average, the dairy goat enterprise contributed, correspondingly, about 15.2% and 4.8% to the total livestock and overall household income and was viable. Differences in gross and net margins across agroecological zones were attributed to milk prices. Despite the existence of non-viable enterprises in two of the provinces, the few present suggest the possibility of obtaining reliable incomes from the enterprise. Redoubling of effort or re-orientation of production to match the local and external requirements would, however, be necessary. Costs and revenues were similar across the agroecological zones. Farmers with positive gross margins had better milk and stock sales and vice versa. The success of a dairy goat enterprise is attributed to location and good management. Besides, farmers' awareness of the market demands within and outside the community is important in establishing production goals and may be crucial to achieving a positive gross margin. PMID:19937381

Ogola, T D O; Nguyo, W K; Kosgey, I S

2010-06-01

9

A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability  

PubMed Central

In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h?1, compared to 1.09 h?1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

Welch, Ken; Cai, Yanling; Str?mme, Maria

2012-01-01

10

Method and Device for Determining Viability of Intact Teeth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a method and device for assessing the viability, in other words vitality, of intact teeth, and more particularly to a device and method for assessing the amount of blood in a tooth of a patient based on the ratio of transmission o...

G. M. Maxwell R. L. Webber

1987-01-01

11

The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize. To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation. First, using real-time energy market price data from seven markets across the U.S. and the physical parameters of fourteen ESS technologies, the maximum potential IRR of each technology from price arbitrage was evaluated in each market, along with the optimal ESS system size. Additionally, the reductions in capital cost needed to achieve a 10% IRR were estimated for each ESS. The results indicate that the profit-maximizing size of an ESS is primarily determined by its technological characteristics (round-trip charge/discharge efficiency and self-discharge) and not market price volatility, which instead increases IRR. This analysis demonstrates that few ESS technologies are likely to be implemented by investors alone. Next, the effects of ESSs on system reliability are quantified. Using historic data for wind, solar, and conventional generation, a correlation-preserving, copula-transform model was implemented in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo framework for estimating system reliability indices. Systems with significant wind and solar penetration (25% or greater), even with added energy storage capacity, resulted in considerable decreases in generation adequacy. Lastly, rather than analyzing the reliability and costs in isolation of one another, system reliability, cost, and emissions were analyzed in 3-space to quantify and visualize the system tradeoffs. The modeling results implied that ESSs perform similarly to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems with respect to generation adequacy and system cost, with the primary difference being that the generation adequacy improvements are less for ESSs than that of NGCC systems and the increase in LCOE is greater for ESSs than NGCC systems. Although ESSs do not appear to offer greater benefits than NGCC systems for managing energy on time intervals of 1-hour or more, we conclude that future research into short-term power balancing applications of ESSs, in particular for frequency regulation, is necessary to understand the full potential of ESSs in modern electric interconnections.

Bradbury, Kyle Joseph

12

Determination of Complement-Mediated Killing of Bacteria by Viability Staining and Bioluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complement-mediated killing of bacteria was monitored by flow cytometric, luminometric, and conventional plate counting methods. A flow cytometric determination of bacterial viability was carried out by using dual staining with a LIVE\\/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. In addition to the viable cell population, several other populations emerged in the fluorescence histogram, and there was a dramatic decrease in the total

MARKO VIRTA; SANNA LINERI; PASI KANKAANPAA; MATTI KARP; KARITA PELTONEN; JARI NUUTILA; ESA-MATTI LILIUS

1998-01-01

13

Counting and Determining the Viability of Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

Determining the number of cells in culture is important in standardization of culture conditions and in performing accurate quantitation experiments. A hemacytometer is a thick glass slide with a central area designed as a counting chamber. Cell suspension is applied to a defined area and counted so cell density can be calculated.

Ricardo, Richard; Phelan, Katy

2008-01-01

14

Use of fluorescent probes for determination of yeast cell viability by gravitational field-flow fractionation.  

PubMed

The quality of wine greatly depends on the features of the yeast used in its production, and yeast cell viability is one of the most important quality control issues to consider in this regard. In the first steps of winemaking, the use of a low-cost and simple methodology for monitoring the cell viability of yeast inoculates is of paramount importance. Gravitational field-flow fractionation is a useful technique for the determination of cell viability because it provides gentle experimental conditions, although the proper use of fluorophore probes as biomass indicators is required. In this paper the use of different fluorescent probes such as carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA), calcein-AM, and SYTO-13 were considered as viability biomarkers. Calceina-AM allowed the establishment of a direct GrFFF method to determine cell viability, with a limit of detection of 5.0 x 10(4) viable cell/mL. SYTO-13 could be used as biomass indicator with a limit of detection of 3.5 x 10(4) total cells/mL. The suitability of the procedure was tested with three commercial yeast samples, and the results were compared with those obtained using standard techniques. PMID:16739970

Garcia, M T; Sanz, R; Galceran, M T; Puignou, L

2006-01-01

15

REVIEW OF METHODS THAT ARE USED TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 55 years a number of methods have been described for excysting Giardia cysts as a means of determining viability. The excystation methods for G. muris cysts are reliable and reproducible. However, methods published to date for the excystation of G. lamblia cysts, th...

16

A colorimetric assay for determination of cell viability in algal cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose the determination of cell viability in algal cultures by using a colorimetric assay widely used for estimation of cell proliferation in animal cell cultures. The method is based on in vivo reduction by metabolically active cells of a tetrazolium compound (MTS=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenil)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) to a colored formazan, with maximal absorbance at 490 nm, that is

Juan M Capasso; Belén R Coss??o; Tomás Berl; Christopher J Rivard; Carlos Jiménez

2003-01-01

17

Determining the viability of marine protists using a combination of vital, fluorescent stains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the viability of protists and small microzooplankton has long been a focus of studies in marine biology and ecology.\\u000a It is especially relevant in the issue of shipborne invasive species, and impending international guidelines and various national\\u000a regulations on the allowable concentrations of organisms in discharged ballast water have spurred the growth of an industry\\u000a that develops and manufactures

Mia K. Steinberg; Edward J. Lemieux; Lisa A. Drake

2011-01-01

18

Conservation and economic viability of nature reserves: An emergy evaluation of the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the ecological and economic benefits of nature reserves in a fair way is a difficult problem confronting not only conservation scientists and managers but also governments and private land owners. Nature reserves and other social and economic land uses must be evaluated on an objective basis to provide an accurate measure of relative benefits for decision-making. The ecological and

Hongfang Lu; Daniel Campbell; Jie Chen; Pei Qin; Hai Ren

2007-01-01

19

Social and Economic Determinants of Marital Separation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The social and economic determinants of separation and divorce were studied using a national sample of 5,000 women aged 30 to 44 who were interviewed annually from 1967 to 1971. The sample was drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market E...

A. J. Cherlin

1976-01-01

20

Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production  

SciTech Connect

While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

2005-11-30

21

The economic viability of wireless local loop and its impact on universal service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the economics of wireless transport focusing on Personal Communications Service (PCS) and Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) as compared with the existing incumbent local exchange carriers, namely the I-LECs. The paper also addresses the issues of universal service and presents an analysis of how wireless may be aviable player in that environment. The paper

Terrence P. McGarty

1997-01-01

22

Escherichia coli viability determination using dynamic light scattering: a comparison with standard methods.  

PubMed

To determine the concentration of bacteria in a sample is important in the food industry, medicine and biotechnology. A disadvantage of the plate-counting method is that a microorganism colony could arise from one cell or from many cells. The other standard methodology, known as optical density determination, is based on the turbidity of a suspension and registers all bacteria, dead and alive. In this article, dynamic light scattering is proposed as a fast and reliable method to determine bacterial viability and, consequently, time evolution. Escherichia coli was selected because this microorganism is well known and easy to handle. A correlation between the data from these three techniques was obtained. We were able to calculate the growth rate, usually determined by plate counting or optical density measurement, using dynamic light scattering and to predict bacterial behavior. An analytical relationship between the colony forming units and the light scattered intensity was also deduced. PMID:24853284

Loske, Achim M; Tello, Elba M; Vargas, Susana; Rodriguez, Rogelio

2014-08-01

23

A colorimetric assay for determination of cell viability in algal cultures.  

PubMed

In this work, we propose the determination of cell viability in algal cultures by using a colorimetric assay widely used for estimation of cell proliferation in animal cell cultures. The method is based on in vivo reduction by metabolically active cells of a tetrazolium compound (MTS=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenil)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) to a colored formazan, with maximal absorbance at 490 nm, that is released to the culture medium. For this purpose, we have tested two microalgae with high commercial value (Dunaliella and Spirulina) and two seaweeds with different morphology (Ulva and Gracilaria). Color development in this assay is directly proportional to the number of viable cells, to the incubation time in the presence of the assay solution, and to the incubation temperature. A direct significant correlation was found between algal photosynthesis rate and color development in all species used through this work. Moreover, the intensity of absorbance at 490 nm was significantly lower in stressed cells (e.g. in nutrient-limited cultures, in the presence of toxic substances, and in osmotically-stressed cultures). We conclude that cell viability of algal cultures can be rapidly and easily estimated through colorimetric determination of the reduction of MTS to formazan. PMID:12919790

Capasso, Juan M; Cossío, Belén R; Berl, Tomás; Rivard, Christopher J; Jiménez, Carlos

2003-07-01

24

Assessment of the efficiency and economic viability of various methods of treatment of sanitary landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study assesses the efficiency of various physico-chemical, biological and other tertiary methods for treating leachate. An evaluation study on the treatability of the leachate from methane phase bed (MPB) reactor indicated that at an optimum hydraulic retention time of 6 days, the efficiency of the reactor in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 91.29 and 82.69%, respectively. Recycling of the treated leachate through the municipal solid waste layers in the leachate recycling unit (LRU) resulted in a significant increase in the biodegradation of organics present in the leachate. Optimum BOD and COD removal efficiencies were achieved at the third recycle; additional recycling of the leachate did not produce any significant improvement. Physico-chemical treatment of the leachate demonstrated that alum and lime (Option 2) were more economical than coagulants lime and MgCO(3). A cost analysis of the economics of the various treatments revealed that the alternative treatment consisting of a MPB bed followed by a LRU and aerated lagoon is the most cost-effective treatment. However, the alternative consisting of a MPB followed by the LRU and a soil column, which is slightly more costly, would be the most appropriate treatment when adequate land is readily available. PMID:17505905

Gupta, S K; Singh, Gurdeep

2007-12-01

25

Reconstituted soils: a probabilistic approach to resolve aspects relating to the sustainability and economic viability of the rehabilitation of mined lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxaro KZN Sands is a heavy minerals mining and beneficiation operation on the east coast of South Africa. The pre-mining land use on the mineralised dunes consists of dryland commercial sugarcane farming. In terms of legislative requirements pertaining to mine closure several issues become evident when considering the concepts of sustainability and economic viability as applied to commercial dryland agriculture.

R. Hattingh; Exxaro KZN; KwaZulu Natal; R. Krantz; Viljoen Viljoen; N. Jovanovic

26

A Study of the Economics and Environmental Viability of a U.S. Flag Toxic Chemical Incinerator Ship. Volume I: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the economic and environmental viability of incinerating toxic chemical wastes at sea using a U.S. flag ship(s). The ocean incineration history in Europe and the United States is reviewed first. The impact of international, national, a...

M. Halebsky

1978-01-01

27

A Study of the Economics and Environmental Viability of a U.S. Flag Toxic Chemical Incinerator Ship. Volume II: Detailed Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the economic and environmental viability of incinerating toxic chemical wastes at sea using a U.S. flag ship(s). The ocean incineration history in Europe and the United States is reviewed first. The impact of international, national, a...

M. Halebsky

1978-01-01

28

Accurate determination of the vapor-liquid-solid contact line tension and the viability of Young equation  

PubMed Central

In this work, we present a theoretical method to determine the line tension of nanodroplets on homogeneous substrates via decomposing the grand free energy into volume, interface and line contributions. With the obtained line tension, we check the viability of Young equation and find that the chemical potential dependence (or equivalently, droplet curvature dependence) of the interface tensions is crucial for the viability of modified Young equation at the nanometer scale. In particular, the linear relationship between the cosine of contact angle and the curvature of the contact line, which is often used to determine the line tension, is found to be incorrect at the nanometer scale.

Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren

2013-01-01

29

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on economic growth has exploded in the past decade. Hundreds of empirical studies on economic growth across countries have highlighted the correlation between growth and a variety of variables. Determinants of Economic Growth, based on Robert Barro's Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures, delivered at the London School of Economics in February 1996, summarizes this important literature. The book contains three

Robert J. Barro

1999-01-01

30

Nuclear Energy Economical Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent construction technique developments and technology evolution have made the nuclear option a cost competitive option\\u000a with other load base technologies such as coal and combined cycle facilities based on natural gas. Construction period, from\\u000a first concrete to commercial operation, is around five years, as it has been confirmed by the most recent reactors built in\\u000a Asia (e.g. Japan and

Gustavo Alonso; Jose R. Ramirez; Javier C. Palacios

31

Hypericin as a marker for determination of myocardial viability in a rat model of myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the necrosis-avid agent hypericin as a potential indicator for determination of myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) weighing 350 ± 20 g were subjected to acute reperfused MI. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6), in which hypericin was intravenously injected at 0, 1, 2 and 5 mg kg(-1) respectively. One day after injection, rats were euthanized with their hearts excised for qualitative and quantitative studies by means of microscopic fluorescence examination to decide the dosage of hypericin. Another group was injected with hypericin at the decided dose and evaluated by fluorescence macroscopy in colocalization with triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) and histomorphology. Infarct-to-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified. Hypericin-induced red fluorescence was significantly brighter in necrotic than in viable myocardium as proven by a six times higher mean fluorescence density. Mean MI area was 35.66 ± 22.88% by hypericin fluorescence and 32.73 ± 21.98% by TTC staining (R(2)  = 0.9803). Global MI-volume was 34.56 ± 21.07% by hypericin and 35.11 ± 20.47% by TTC staining (R(2)  = 0.9933). The results confirm that hypericin specifically labeled necrosis, and enhanced the imaging contrast between the infarcted and normal myocardium, suggesting its potential applications for the assessment of myocardial viability. PMID:24460608

Jiang, Cuihua; Li, Yue; Jiang, Xiao; Yao, Nan; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Junying; Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Ziping; Zhang, Jian; Ni, Yicheng

2014-07-01

32

Potential minability and economic viability of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia; a prefeasibility study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a coal resource assessment of several areas in Armenia from 1997 to 1999. This report, which presents a prefeasibility study of the economic and mining potential of one coal deposit found and studied by the USGS team, was prepared using all data available at the time of the study and the results of the USGS exploratory work, including core drilling, trenching, coal quality analyses, and other ongoing field work. On the basis of information currently available, it is the authors? opinion that a small surface coal mine having about a 20-year life span could be developed in the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, specifically at the Dzoragukh site. The mining organization selected or created to establish the mine will need to conduct necessary development drilling and other work to establish the final feasibility study for the mine. The company will need to be entrepreneurial, profit oriented, and sensitive to the coal consumer; have an analytical management staff; and focus on employee training, safety, and protection of the environment. It is anticipated that any interested parties will be required to submit detailed mining plans to the appropriate Armenian Government agencies. Further development work will be required to reach a final decision regarding the economic feasibility of the mine. However, available information indicates that a small, economic surface mine can be developed at this locality. The small mine suggested is a typical surface-outcropstripping, contour mining operation. In addition, auger mining is strongly suggested, because the recovery of these low-cost mining reserves will help to ensure that the operation will be a viable, economic enterprise. (Auger mining is a system in which large-diameter boreholes are placed horizontally into the coal seam at the final highwall set as the economic limit for the surface mining operation). A special horizontal boring machine, which can be imported from Russia, is required for auger mining. Although auger-mining coal reserves do exist, the necessary development work will further verify the extent of these reserves and all of the other indicated reserves. The following items are based on the detailed study reported in this publication. Initial investment.?Following an investment of US $85,000 over a 12-month period in mine development drilling and other activities, a decision must be taken regarding further investment in an ongoing mining operation. If the new data support the opening of the surface mine, __________________________ 1Consultant, 6024 Morning Dew Drive, Austin, TX 78749. 2 U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 1 2 MINABILITY AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY, ANTARAMUT-KURTAN-DZORAGUKH COAL FIELD the $85,000 development cost is amortized over the first 10 years of mine production. If the new data do not support the opening of the mine, the $85,000 is considered a business development expense that may be written off against profits from other operations for income or other tax purposes or simply as a business loss. Total capital required.?The equipment costs will reach a total of $900,500 which will be amortized over a 7-year period to establish estimated coal mining costs. Estimated working capital costs are $300,000, which will be borrowed. Surface mining reserves.?Approximately 840,200 metric tonnes of surface minable coal reserves at 9.3 m3 of overburden per metric tonne of minable coal is indicated. Recovery of the minable coal at 85 percent will yield 714,000 recoverable metric tonnes of marketable as-mined coal. Auger mining reserves.?Auger-mining reserves of 576,000 metric tonnes are indicated. Recoverable auger-mining reserves of 202,000 metric tonnes (at 35-percent recovery) can be expected. Auger-mining production will vary according to the hole size being used, but, in either case, augering is a very profitable addition to the mining oper

Huber, Douglas W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

2000-01-01

33

A multiplexed immunofluorescence method identifies Phakopsora pachyrhizi Urediniospores and determines their viability.  

PubMed

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, occurs concomitantly wherever soybean is grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. After reports of its first occurrence in Brazil in 2001 and the continental United States in 2004, research on the disease and its pathogen has greatly increased. One area of research has focused on capturing urediniospores, primarily by rain collection or wind traps, and detecting them either by microscopic observations or by immunological or molecular techniques. This system of detection has been touted for use as a potential warning system to recommend early applications of fungicides. One shortcoming of the method has been an inability to determine whether the spores are viable. Our study developed a method to detect viable P. pachyrhizi urediniospores using an immunofluorescence assay combined with propidium iodide (PI) staining. Antibodies reacted to P. pachyrhizi and other Phakopsora spp. but did not react with other common soybean pathogens or most other rust fungi tested, based on an indirect immunofluorescence assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled secondary antibodies. Two vital staining techniques were used to assess viability of P. pachyrhizi urediniospores: one combined carboxy fluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and PI, and the other utilized (2-chloro-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenylquinolinium iodide] (FUN 1). Using the CFDA-PI method, viable spores stained green with CFDA and nonviable spores counterstained red with PI. Using the FUN 1 method, cylindrical intravacuolar structures were induced to form within metabolically active urediniospores, causing them to fluoresce bright red to reddish-orange, whereas dead spores, with no metabolic activity, had an extremely diffused, faint fluorescence. An immunofluorescence technique in combination with PI counterstaining was developed to specifically detect viable P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The method is rapid and reliable, with a potential for application in forecasting soybean rust based on the detection of viable urediniospores. PMID:22894915

Vittal, R; Haudenshield, J S; Hartman, G L

2012-12-01

34

Determining the Effectiveness of Teaching Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to evaluation of home economics instruction covers five major topic areas: (1) Purposes for evaluating pupil learning; (2) steps to take in developing the needed evaluation techniques; (3) suggested means to achieving purposes related to evaluation; (4) tips on improving evaluative practices, and (5) notes on enlisting student help in…

Chadderdon, Hester

35

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

36

Economic determinants of IMF financial arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze factors that lead to IMF approval of financial arrangements. We account for both economic variables that induce a country to seek an IMF arrangement (‘demand-side’ factors) and macroeconomic policy commitments that the IMF considers when deciding whether to approve it (‘supply-side’ factors). Using a pooled sample of annual observations for 91 developing countries over 1973–1991, we obtain maximum

Malcolm Knight; Julio A. Santaella

1997-01-01

37

Rational Economic-Social Planning Based on Needs Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project was initiated by the Department of Human Resources in Long Beach, Calif., to guide the development of the city's human resource plan. The project was titled Rational Economic - Social Planning based on Needs Determination (RESPOND). A problem - ...

P. Pflaum P. Levine M. McClelland M. McDonald S. Weinberger

1978-01-01

38

A Procedure for Determining Optimal Subsidies and Economic Activity Levels in an Economically Depressed Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many developed countries there are areas with serious employment problems. Factor prices in such economically depressed areas are typically determined outside the area. Wage rates, for example, are given by nationwide bargaining by labor unions and are...

T. Hansen

1977-01-01

39

Pedicle viability as the determinant factor for conversion to free nipple graft  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Women with extremely large breasts have many complaints. Reduction mammaplasty improves shape and relieves physical symptoms and alleviates psychological complaints. Mammaplasty is a an evolving technique; no single method is ideal or suitable for all breasts. Many techniques are advocated for reduction mammaplasty, including the superior, vertical, horizontal, lateral and inferior (the most popular) pedicle techniques. Even after 60 years of development in breast reduction techniques, there are still reported incidences of nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative conversion to free nipple graft to prevent the complication of nipple necrosis when pedicle viability is grossly compromised. METHODS: Between January 2002 and March 2006, 66 patients (132 breasts) underwent reduction mammaplasty using the inferior pedicle technique. The patients presented with breast gigantism and required excision of more than 1000 g of breast tissue per side. The mean patient age was 34.81 years. Patients had neck, shoulder and back pain as well as psychological complaints. Data regarding sternal notch-to-nipple distances and inframammary fold-to-nipple distances were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. The weights of the excised breast tissue from either side were recorded. Viability of the pedicle flap was carefully monitored through perioperative clinical observation of skin colour, temperature, capillary refill and bleeding characteristics, and reassessed after pedicle folding and placement inside the newly tailored skin envelope. Nonvital NAC, as evaluated by the surgeon during surgery, necessitated conversion to the free nipple graft technique. RESULTS: During the course of the study, two patients (four breasts; 3.03%) exhibited impending gangrene to the NAC, and perioperative conversion to the free nipple graft was performed. In these two patients, the pedicle length ranged from 23 cm to 25 cm, and breast mass reduction ranged from 1950 g to 2250 g. CONCLUSION: Perioperative conversion to a free nipple-areola graft is always a good and safe option when impending gangrene to the NAC is evident during mammaplasty by inferior pedicle technique.

Al-shaham, AA

2010-01-01

40

Electrical determination of viability in saline-treated mouse myeloma cells  

SciTech Connect

Suspension of mouse myeloma cells in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) induced a significant amount of cell death. The lethal effects of PBS include an increase in cell lysis, a decreased ability of cells to exclude trypan blue, and a decrease in the colony-forming ability of these cells. Dead cells were also detected on a Coulter counter by the increase in the fraction of cells with a smaller electrical size distribution (ESD). Comparing mixtures of live and dead cells by ESD and trypan-blue exclusion showed a high correlation of electrical size with viability (correlation coefficient = 0.98). Sizing of PBS-treated cells by light microscopy suggested that the altered ESD of the PBS-treated cells was due to a downward shift in the volume distribution. Light-scattering experiments also suggested a decrease in the size of cells after PBS treatment. An increase in permeability of the cell membrane may also contribute to these results. We conclude that electrical sizing is an excellent indicator of physical changes that result from PBS-induced cell death, and is an effective method for distinguishing live and dead mouse myeloma cells after PBS treatment.

Matsushita, T.; Brendzel, A.M.; Shotola, M.A.; Groh, K.R.

1982-07-01

41

Determination of viability within serotypes of a soil population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii.  

PubMed Central

Concern has been raised about the percentage of viable cells within soil rhizobia populations measured by the immunofluorescence direct count method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a direct viable count technique which is based on the fact that viable bacteria in natural populations undergo cell elongation when they are exposed to a combination of substrate and the inhibitor of DNA gyrase, nalidixic acid. A soil extraction procedure was developed to recover a high proportion of soil bacteria (ca. 10(9)/g of soil) in suspensions with an optical clarity suitable for accurate microscopic enumeration. After incubation for 16 to 20 h at 27 degrees C in the presence of yeast extract (200 mg/liter) and nalidixic acid (10 mg/liter), between 65 and 74% of the bacteria in soil suspension became significantly elongated (greater than or equal to 4.2 microns). In contrast, less than or equal to 0.5% of the same population could be cultured, regardless of the medium composition, nutrient concentration, or incubation conditions. The direct viable count method was combined with immunofluorescence to compare the percent viability and kinetics of appearance of elongated cells within serotypes of a soil population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Although the majority of these organisms were viable, as observed by immunofluorescence, we obtained evidence that subpopulations within the soil rhizobia community were in different states of competence to respond to substrate. A consistently low percentage (less than or equal to 30%) of the population of serotype 23 was elongated even after 24 h of incubation and regardless of when the soil was sampled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bottomley, P J; Maggard, S P

1990-01-01

42

Viability Measurements on Activated Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine cell viability in industrial and municipal sludges is reported. Viability measurements incorporated into routine monitoring of an industrial activated sludge plant included: (1) fluorescence microscopy, (2) viable plate counts, (3) as...

J. E. Russell

1978-01-01

43

Multiple Freezing Points as a Test for Viability of Plant Stems in the Determination of Frost Hardiness 1  

PubMed Central

A technique is presented for a simple, rapid, and reliable means of determining the viability of plant tissue subjected to freezing temperatures. Freezing curves of excised stems of Cornus stolonifera Michx., and several other genera were studied. Tissue temperature was recorded during freezing of plant stem sections. The heat of crystallization deflected the resultant freezing curves at points where tissue froze. Living stem sections of all genera studied revealed 2 freezing points, while dead tissue exhibited only 1. The influence of variables such as moisture content, sample size, thermocouple placement, and cooling rate on freezing curves was analyzed. Stem samples wrapped in moisture-proof film with a thermocouple inserted into the pith were frozen to a predetermined test temperature, thawed, and subjected to a second freezing cycle. The presence or absence of 2 freezing points in the second freezing cycle was used as a criterion for establishing viability. The results were immediately available and identical to results from regrowth tests which took about 20 days.

McLeester, R. C.; Weiser, C. J.; Hall, T. C.

1969-01-01

44

41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Basis for determining economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2...101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

2013-07-01

45

System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.  

PubMed

Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

2013-05-15

46

An economic model for determining AGV fleet size  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important issues in the design of an automated guided vehicles system (AGVS) is the determination of the number of vehicles needed to operate the system in an efficient and economical way. In this paper a multi-criteria optimization model is developed using two goals, cost and throughput performance. By using a trade-off ratio between the goals the number

D. SINRIECH; J. M. A. TANCHOCO

1992-01-01

47

Economic determinants of diet in older adults: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Methods Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ?60?years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Results We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Conclusions Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive.

Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

2013-01-01

48

SPECT imaging for detecting coronary artery disease and determining prognosis by noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion and myocardial viability.  

PubMed

Basic knowledge of active and passive transport mechanisms for concentrating monovalent cations in myocardial cells led to the investigation of the application of radioisotopes of potassium, thallium, rubidium, and ammonia to the in vivo noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial perfusion and viability utilizing gamma camera or positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging technology. Subsequently, technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled isonitriles (sestamibi and tetrofosmin), which bind to mitochondrial membranes, emerged as superior imaging agents with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging. When any of these imaging agents are injected intravenously during either exercise or pharmacologic stress, myocardial defects in tracer uptake represent either abnormal regional flow reserve or myocardial scar reflecting of coronary artery disease (CAD). The major clinical indications for stress SPECT or PET myocardial perfusion imaging are for detection of CAD as the cause of chest pain and risk stratification for prognostication. Patients with normal stress myocardial perfusion scans have an excellent prognosis with <1.0% annual rate future annual death or nonfatal infarction. The greater the extent and severity of ischemic perfusion defects (defects seen on stress images but improve on resting images), the greater the subsequent death or infarction rate during follow-up. Rest imaging alone is performed for determination of myocardial viability in patients with CAD and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Myocardial segments showing >50% uptake compared to normal uptake have a better long-term outcome with revascularization than with medical therapy with enhanced left ventricular function and improved survival. Other applications of SPECT imaging include the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic function, assessment of myocardial metabolism in health and disease, and molecular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial stem cell therapy. PMID:21732226

Beller, George A; Heede, Ruth C

2011-08-01

49

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

2013-10-01

50

RAPID COMMUNICATION: A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation device: applied to the concentration and viability determination of Cryptosporidium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a microelectrode device, fabricated using photolithography and laser ablation, that combines the electrokinetic effects of travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Here it has been used to concentrate and then assay the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

Goater, Andrew D.; Burt, Julian P. H.; Pethig, Ronald

1997-09-01

51

Investigation to Determine the Validity and Viability of a Regional Biomedical Equipment Technician Program at the Community College Level. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the validity and viability of a Southeastern Pennsylvania biomedical equipment technician program at the community college level. The results of a survey questionnaire, site visits, and interviews with administrators of existing health care facilities and ongoing biomedical curricula, indicated the following: (1)…

Mruk, Walter F.; Fenwick, Douglas E.

52

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

53

Cable in Boston; A Basic Viability Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The viability of urban cable television (CATV) as an economic phenomenon is examined via a case study of its feasibility in Boston, a microcosm of general urban environment. To clarify cable's economics, a unitary concept of viability is used in which all local characteristics, cost assumptions, and growth estimates are structured dynamically as a…

Hauben, Jan Ward; And Others

54

Viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008 at different salinity concentrations determined by specific fluorochromes and CLSM-image analysis.  

PubMed

In previous studies, our group developed a method based on Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis (CLSM-IA) to analyze the diversity and biomass of cyanobacteria in microbial mats. However, this method cannot be applied to heterotrophic microorganisms, as these do not have autofluorescence. In this article, we present a method that combines CLSM-IA and Hoechst 33342 and SYTOX Green fluorochromes (FLU-CLSM-IA) to determine the viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008, isolated from a saline microbial mat (Ebro Delta, Tarragona, Spain). The method has been applied to assess the effect of salinity on this microorganism. A reduction in viability and biomass (live cells) was observed as the salt concentration increases. The largest effect was at 100‰ NaCl with a cell death of 27.25% and a decrease in total and individual biomass of 39.75 and 0.009 mgC/cm(3), respectively, both with respect to optimal growth (10 ‰ NaCl). On the other hand, another important contribution of this article was that combining the FLU-CLSM-IA results with those achieved by plate counts enabled us to determine, for first time, the viability and the total biomass of the "dormant cells" (66.75% of viability and 40.59 mgC/cm(3) of total biomass at 100‰ NaCl). FLU-CLSM-IA is an efficient, fast, and reliable method for making a total count of cells at pixel level, including the dormant cells, to evaluate the viability and the biomass of a hetetrophic microorganism, M. luteus DE2008. PMID:22006073

Puyen, Zully M; Villagrasa, Eduard; Maldonado, Juan; Esteve, Isabel; Solé, Antonio

2012-01-01

55

NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

56

Effect of Semen Dilution on Bovine Sperm Viability as Determined by Dual-DNA Staining and Flow Cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living and dead spermatozoa were examined for the effects of sperm concentration level on sperm viability. Semen was collected from two different bulls on each of four collection dates. A ninth bull was collected on all four collection dates as a control for effects of collection date. The ejaculates from these nine bulls were diluted to 30 x 106 spermatozoa\\/0.5

DUANE L. GARNER; CHERYL A. THOMAS; CHARLES H. ALLENt

57

Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.  

PubMed

Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

2011-07-01

58

Determination of fares: Pricing theory and economic efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of economic efficiency is described, its application to the pricing of air transport services, and its relevance as a policy objective are outlined. The first two sections discuss economic efficiency in general terms, whereas the third applies this norm to several airline pricing problems. The final section emphasizes the importance of industry behavior as a parameter in policy analysis.

Miller, J. C., III

1972-01-01

59

Health Economic Perspectives of Pediatric Malnutrition: Determinants of Innovative Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly

Jörg Spieldenner

2010-01-01

60

Viability analysis of multi-fishery.  

PubMed

This work is about the viability domain corresponding to a model of fisheries management. The dynamic is subject of two constraints. The biological constraint ensures the stock perennity where as the economic one ensures a minimum income for the fleets. Using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we find out a viability domain which simultaneously enables the fleets to exploit the resource, to ensure a minimum income and stock perennity. PMID:22392059

Sanogo, C; Ben Miled, S; Raissi, N

2012-06-01

61

Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

Ela, E.

2009-02-01

62

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2010-07-01

63

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2011-07-01

64

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2013-07-01

65

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2012-07-01

66

Some Economic Considerations for Determining Additional Educational Expenditures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference paper analyzes educational finance from the standpoint of human capital, noting the external economic and social benefits that result from educational expenditures. A case is made for publicly sponsored adjustments to the market mechanism to insure an optimum allocation of educational resources. (LLR)

Goffman, Irving J.

67

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2011-10-01

68

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2012-10-01

69

Economics and the determination of Indian reserved water rights  

SciTech Connect

Economics plays a major role in the historically controversial Indian reserved water rights in which reserved rights differ from appropriated rights because Indian reservations predate other appropriated rights of settlers and miners. Other aspects of Indian reserved rights are their magnitude and their coexistence with the land regardless of use. Court decisions relating to practicably irrigable acres (PIA) are examined in terms of quantification of water rights and ethics. The legal analysis concludes that PIA will probably continue, but needs adjustments to the criteria to make them more strict and more appropriate. 62 references. (DCK)

Brookshire, D.S. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Merrill, J.L.; Watts, G.L.

1983-10-01

70

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

71

Determining the Economic Benefits of Attending Community College. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 104.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume addresses the efforts in several states, including California, Florida, North Carolina, and Washington, to determine the economic gains of community college graduates by measuring their post-college earnings. Articles include: (1) "Economic Benefits of a Community College Education: Issues of Accountability and Performance Measures"…

Sanchez, Jorge R., Ed.; Laanan, Frankie Santos, Ed.

1998-01-01

72

Critical market parameters for viability of fiber access network business case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained by techno-economic analysis of the fiber access (FTTH) business model. The analysis determinates a combined influence that major market parameters have on overall viability of FTTH business case. These critical parameters include the geodemographical background of the customer base, adoption of services provided over FTTH network and related additional revenues that can be generated.

Tomislav Majnaric

2011-01-01

73

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

74

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

75

Appropriate DevR (DosR)-Mediated Signaling Determines Transcriptional Response, Hypoxic Viability and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background The DevR(DosR) regulon is implicated in hypoxic adaptation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study was designed to decipher the impact of perturbation in DevR-mediated signaling on these properties. Methodology/Principal Findings M. tb complemented (Comp) strains expressing different levels of DevR were constructed in Mut1* background (expressing DevR N-terminal domain in fusion with AphI (DevRN-Kan) and in Mut2?devR background (deletion mutant). They were compared for their hypoxia adaptation and virulence properties. Diverse phenotypes were noted; basal level expression (?5.3±2.3 µM) when induced to levels equivalent to WT levels (?25.8±9.3 µM) was associated with robust DevR regulon induction and hypoxic adaptation (Comp 9* and 10*), whereas low-level expression (detectable at transcript level) as in Comp 11* and Comp15 was associated with an adaptation defect. Intermediate-level expression (?3.3±1.2 µM) partially restored hypoxic adaptation functions in Comp2, but not in Comp1* bacteria that co-expressed DevRN-Kan. Comp* strains in Mut1* background also exhibited diverse virulence phenotypes; high/very low-level DevR expression was associated with virulence whereas intermediate-level expression was associated with low virulence. Transcription profiling and gene expression analysis revealed up-regulation of the phosphate starvation response (PSR) in Mut1* and Comp11* bacteria, but not in WT/Mut2?devR/other Comp strains, indicating a plasticity in expression pathways that is determined by the magnitude of signaling perturbation through DevRN-Kan. Conclusions/Significance A minimum DevR concentration of ?3.3±1.2 µM (as in Comp2 bacteria) is required to support HspX expression in the standing culture hypoxia model. The relative intracellular concentrations of DevR and DevRN-Kan appear to be critical for determining dormancy regulon induction, hypoxic adaptation and virulence. Dysregulated DevRN-Kan-mediated signaling selectively triggers the PSR in bacteria expressing no/very low level of DevR. Our findings illustrate the important role of appropriate two-component- mediated signaling in pathogen physiology and the resilience of bacteria when such signaling is perturbed.

De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Vashist, Atul; Dhingra, Sakshi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Alka; Challu, Vijay K.; Ramanathan, V. D.; Kumar, Prahlad; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2012-01-01

76

Clinical utility and economic viability of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre: The experience of the centre Oscar Lambret.  

PubMed

This paper will try and describe the installation of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre. Functional sequences become indispensable in the assessment of targeted treatments. It is only possible to carry out these treatments on a routine basis in acceptable examination times with 3T. The technical constraints are overcome with third generation MRI and the improvement of the spatial resolution in examination times reduced by 30 to 50% increases patient comfort. Nevertheless, the financial constraints represent a major handicap. It is not possible to obtain an economic balance with rates based on the cost and depreciation of 1.5T imagers that are half the price. PMID:22726637

Taïeb, S; Devise, V; Pouliquen, G; Rocourt, N; Faivre-Pierret, M; Brongniart, S; Peugny, P; Ceugnart, L

2012-07-01

77

Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

Swift, Lynette

2012-01-01

78

Stochastic Viability of Second Generation Biofuel Chains: Microeconomic Spatial Modeling in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within an overall project to assess the ability of the agricultural sector to contribute to bioenergy production, we set out here to examine the economic and technological viability of a bioenergy facility in an uncertain economic context, using the stochastic viability approach. We consider two viability constraints: the facility demand for lignocellulosic feedstock has to be satisfied each year and

Laure Bamiere; Vincent Martinet; Christophe Gouel; Elodie Le Cadre

2011-01-01

79

The economic and demographic determinants of international migration in Rural Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data collected in rural Egypt to estimate a micro?level model of the economic and demographic determinants of international migration. This model uses predicted income functions to establish origin incomes (incomes excluding remittances). Three findings are noteworthy. First, the results suggest that education may not necessarily be positively correlated with migration. Second, the data indicate that the relationship

Richard H. Adams Jr

1993-01-01

80

Understanding School Choice: Location as a Determinant of Charter School Racial, Economic, and Linguistic Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes the revealed school preferences of parents in the Washington, D.C., and asks, "What is the main determinant of charter school choice and how does it create racial, economic, and linguistic segregation?" The author first establishes a theory of choice, which incorporates past research and adds an additional variable to our…

Jacobs, Nicholas

2013-01-01

81

Determinants of Fertility in Three North Indian States: Caste, Female Autonomy and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the determinants of fertility in three fairly homogenous states in northern India. The results show that scheduled tribe status—though not the scheduled caste status—has a substantial negative effect on fertility. The results also provide strong support for the view that improving the position of women through more equitable social and economic development will have a

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

1998-01-01

82

Determinants of economic efficiency: A case study of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) farms in Samsun Province, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this research were to measure the cost efficiency of sample hazelnut (Corylus avellana) farms and to explore determinants of economic efficiency in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to estimate efficiency measures of sample farms. Farm managers from 151 randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm?level data between production periods

Osman Kilic; Vedat Ceyhan; Isil Alkan

2009-01-01

83

Method and system for determining an economically optimal dismantling of machines  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An economic supply optimization system is provided whereby an optimal machine dismantling configuration of a machine supply is determined to meet a parts demand at a lowest cost. The parts supply is calculated and it is determined what portions of the demand cannot be met from the machine supply and what portions of the demand it is not economically justifiable to meet from the machine supply. A parts supply is then determined from the machine supply. The remaining parts demand is matched to the parts supply to create a list of parts covered by the parts supply and a list of parts not covered by the parts supply, if there are any. The optimal dismantling configuration of the machine supply is calculated for the covered parts list and an optimal harvesting configuration is calculated for the not-covered parts list.

2007-07-31

84

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

85

Viability of bacteria in peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2014-04-01

86

A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental time has been identified as a key determinant in the healthy development of a child. The literature on this topic\\u000a has rapidly increased in recent years and has revealed large variations in the amount of time that parents devote to their\\u000a children, including variations over time and across social and economic subgroups of the population. This paper synthesizes\\u000a research

Berenice Monna; Anne H. Gauthier

2008-01-01

87

Impact of revascularization and myocardial viability determined by nitrate-enhanced Tc99m sestamibi and Tl201 imaging on mortality and functional outcome in ischemic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nitrate-enhanced perfusion imaging has been shown to detect viability in dysfunctional myocardium, but nitrate-enhanced technetium\\u000a 99m sestamibi has not been compared with nitrate-enhanced thallium 201.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Fifty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure (New York Heart Association classes II-IV) were scheduled\\u000a for revascularization. Through use of a matching 12-segment model, nitrate-enhanced Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi uptake at\\u000a rest

Roxy Senior; Sanjiv Kaul; Usha Raval; Avijit Lahiri

2002-01-01

88

Pathways of neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants of adverse birth outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Although socio-economic factors have been identified as one of the most important groups of neighbourhood-level risks affecting birth outcomes, uncertainties still exist concerning the pathways through which they are transferred to individual risk factors. This poses a challenge for setting priorities and developing appropriate community-oriented public health interventions and planning guidelines to reduce the level of adverse birth outcomes. Method This study examines potential direct and mediated pathways through which neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants exert their impacts on adverse birth outcomes. Two hypothesized models, namely the materialist and psycho-social models, and their corresponding pathways are tested using a binary-outcome multilevel mediation analysis. Live birth data, including adverse birth outcomes and person-level exposure variables, were obtained from three public health units in the province of Ontario, Canada. Corresponding neighbourhood-level socio-economic, psycho-social and living condition variables were extracted or constructed from the 2001 Canadian Census and the first three cycles (2001, 2003, and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Surveys. Results Neighbourhood-level socio-economic-related risks are found to have direct effects on low birth weight and preterm birth. In addition, 20-30% of the total effects are contributed by indirect effects mediated through person-level risks. There is evidence of four person-level pathways, namely through individual socio-economic status, psycho-social stress, maternal health, and health behaviours, with all being simultaneously at work. Psycho-social pathways and buffering social capital-related variables are found to have more impact on low birth weight than on preterm birth. Conclusion The evidence supports both the materialist and psycho-social conceptualizations and the pathways that describe them, although the magnitude of the former is greater than the latter.

2013-01-01

89

A spatial analysis of social and economic determinants of tuberculosis in Brazil.  

PubMed

We investigated the spatial distribution, and social and economic correlates, of tuberculosis in Brazil between 2002 and 2009 using municipality-level age/sex-standardized tuberculosis notification data. Rates were very strongly spatially autocorrelated, being notably high in urban areas on the eastern seaboard and in the west of the country. Non-spatial ecological regression analyses found higher rates associated with urbanicity, population density, poor economic conditions, household crowding, non-white population and worse health and healthcare indicators. These associations remained in spatial conditional autoregressive models, although the effect of poverty appeared partially confounded by urbanicity, race and spatial autocorrelation, and partially mediated by household crowding. Our analysis highlights both the multiple relationships between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis in Brazil, and the importance of accounting for spatial factors in analysing socioeconomic determinants of tuberculosis. PMID:24269879

Harling, Guy; Castro, Marcia C

2014-01-01

90

Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.  

PubMed

This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population. PMID:22549155

Vespa, Jonathan

2012-08-01

91

[Myocardial viability assessment].  

PubMed

The prognosis for patients with chronic coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction is poor, despite advances in different therapies. The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnosis, prognosis and management of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction, with a substantial amount of severely ischemic myocardium are at highest risk, and are likely to benefit from coronary revascularization. Patients with predominantly scar tissue should be treated medically. Multiple imaging techniques have been developed to assess viable and nonviable myocardium by evaluating perfusion, cell membrane integrity, glucose metabolism, fibrosis and contractile reserve. PET FDG-F18, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (with (201)Tl and (99m)Tc), dobutamine stress echocardiography and more recently magnetic resonance have been extensively evaluated for assessment of viability and prediction of clinical outcome after coronary revascularization. In general, nuclear imaging techniques have a higher sensitivity for the detection of viability, whereas techniques evaluating contractile reserve have higher specificity (with lower sensitivity). Magnetic resonance has a high diagnostic accuracy for assessment of the transmural extent of myocardial scar tissue. The aim of this article is to review the role of Nuclear Medicine in assessing myocardial viability and risk stratification in patients with advanced left ventricular dysfunction, and to compare it with other imaging modalities. PMID:22863509

Fernandes, Hélder; Sousa, Alexandra; Campos, José; Patrício, José; Oliveira, Patrícia; Vieira, Tiago; Oliveira, Ana; Faria, Teresa; Perez, Berta; Martins, Elisabete; Pereira, Jorge

2011-12-01

92

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

93

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

94

EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

95

Viability and resilience of languages in competition.  

PubMed

We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

2010-01-01

96

Assessment of myocardial viability.  

PubMed

The prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure is increasing. Patients with this condition are at high risk for cardiac death and usually have significant limitations in their lifestyles. Although there have been advances in medical therapy resulting in improved survival and well being, the best and most definitive therapy, when appropriate, is revascularization. In the setting of coronary artery disease, accounting for approximately two thirds of cases of congestive heart failure, LV dysfunction often is not the result of irreversible scar but rather caused by impairment in function and energy use of still viable-myocytes, with the opportunity for improved function if coronary blood flow is restored. Patients with LV dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy, whether using thallium-201, Tc-99m sestamibi, or Tc-99m tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization, including some patients referred instead for cardiac transplantation. Other noninvasive modalities, such as stress echocardiography, also facilitate the assessment of myocardial viability, but there are advantages and disadvantages compared with the nuclear techniques. Nuclear imaging appears to require fewer viable cells for detection, resulting in a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than stress echocardiography for predicting post-revascularization improvement of ventricular function. Nevertheless, it appears that LV functional improvement may not always be necessary for clinical improvement. Future directions include use of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as larger, multicenter trials of radionuclide techniques. The increasing population of patients with LV dysfunction, and the increased benefit afforded by newer therapies, will make assessment of myocardial viability even more essential for proper patient management. PMID:15645391

Travin, Mark I; Bergmann, Steven R

2005-01-01

97

Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests.  

PubMed

Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country. PMID:24596838

Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

2013-06-01

98

Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.  

PubMed

Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

2014-05-01

99

Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country.

Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

2013-01-01

100

Socio-Economic and Nutritional Determinants of Low Birth Weight in India  

PubMed Central

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years) who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included in this study. Infant's LBW (<2500 grams) as outcome variable was examined in association with all independent predictors as infant's sex, maternal household wealth status, caste, age, education, body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia level, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, antenatal care received, and living place. Results: Almost 20% of the infants were born with LBW. Mother's low education level, BMI <18.5, short stature (height <145 centimeters) and lack of antenatal visits (<4 visits) were significant predictors of LBW. Male gender has a protective effect against LBW. Conclusion: Maternal education, nutritional status and antenatal care received are key determinants that need to be addressed to reduce prevalence of LBW in India. Continue implementation of multifaceted health promotion interventions are needed to address these factors effectively.

Kader, Manzur; Perera, Nirmala K P Perera

2014-01-01

101

Application of Probabilistic Methods for the Determination of an Economically Robust HSCT Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines an approach for the determination of economically viable robust design solutions using the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) as a case study. Furthermore, the paper states the advantages of a probability based aircraft design over the traditional point design approach. It also proposes a new methodology called Robust Design Simulation (RDS) which treats customer satisfaction as the ultimate design objective. RDS is based on a probabilistic approach to aerospace systems design, which views the chosen objective as a distribution function introduced by so called noise or uncertainty variables. Since the designer has no control over these variables, a variability distribution is defined for each one of them. The cumulative effect of all these distributions causes the overall variability of the objective function. For cases where the selected objective function depends heavily on these noise variables, it may be desirable to obtain a design solution that minimizes this dependence. The paper outlines a step by step approach on how to achieve such a solution for the HSCT case study and introduces an evaluation criterion which guarantees the highest customer satisfaction. This customer satisfaction is expressed by the probability of achieving objective function values less than a desired target value.

Mavris, Dimitri N.; Bandte, Oliver; Schrage, Daniel P.

1996-01-01

102

Exercising choice: The economic determinants of physical activity behaviour of an employed population  

PubMed Central

Lack of physical activity is a major contributing factor to the worldwide obesity epidemic, and to the overall burden of disease. The deindustrialisation of developed economies and move to more sedentary employment has impacted on the opportunities of working individuals to participate in physical activity. This can have negative effects on productivity and worker health potentially influencing economic growth. Thus, it is important to determine the factors influencing the frequency of participation in physical activity for employed individuals. This paper uses a modified time allocation framework to explore this issue. We use data from the first six waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey (HILDA). The analysis examines frequency of participation in physical activity using a generalised random effects ordered probit model. We control for non-parallel cut-points between the physical activity categories and individual heterogeneity, as well as exploring differences across gender. The results indicate that there is a time trade-off between non-market work, market work, and the frequency of physical activity participation. This effect is moderated by gender. For example, dependent children have a larger negative effect on the frequency of physical activity participation for women. Education and marriage have a larger negative effect on the frequency of participation for men. The findings suggests that policies which make exercise more convenient, and hence decrease the opportunity cost of exercise, will help to encourage more frequent participation in physical activity for working adults.

Brown, Heather; Roberts, Jennifer

2011-01-01

103

Interactions between Cultural and Economic Determinants of Divorce in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between gendered family roles and divorce in The Netherlands. Cultural and economic aspects of this relationship are distinguished. Economic hypotheses argue that the likelihood of divorce is increased if women work for pay and have attractive labor market resources. Cultural hypotheses argue that divorce…

Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.; Poortman, Annerigt

2004-01-01

104

The Political Determinants of Economic PerformancePolitical Competition and the Sources of Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present and test a theory about the effects of political competition on the sources of economic growth. Using Mankiw, Romer, and Weil’s model of economic growth and data for roughly 80 countries, the authors show that political competition decreases the rate of physical capital accumulation and labor mobilization but increases the rate of human capital accumulation and (less

Pablo M. Pinto; Jeffrey F. Timmons

2005-01-01

105

Factors Determining Student Retention of Economic Knowledge after Completing the Principles-of-Microeconomics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)

Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.

1979-01-01

106

Area at Risk and Viability after Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Can Be Determined by Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Clinical differentiation between infarcted and viable myocardium in the ischemic area at risk is controversial. We investigated the potential of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (ceCMRI) in determining the area at risk 24 h after ischemia. Methods: Myocardial ischemia was induced by percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending coronary artery in pigs. Coronary occlusion time was 30

M. Vosseler; N. Abegunewardene; N. Hoffmann; S. E. Petersen; D. Becker; D. Cleppien; P. Kunz; K.-F. Kreitner; M. Lauterbach; B. Bierbach; C. Düber; T. Gori; T. Münzel; L. M. Schreiber; G. Horstick

2009-01-01

107

A study to ascertain the viability of ultrasonic nondestructive testing to determine the mechanical characteristics of wood/agricultural hardboards with soybean based adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been numerous studies with ultrasonic nondestructive testing and wood fiber composites. The problem of the study was to ascertain whether ultrasonic nondestructive testing can be used in place of destructive testing to obtain the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the wood/agricultural material with comparable results. The uniqueness of this research is that it addressed the type of content (cornstalks and switchgrass) being used with the wood fibers and the type of adhesives (soybean-based) associated with the production of these composite materials. Two research questions were addressed in the study. The major objective was to determine if one can predict the destructive test MOE value based on the nondestructive test MOE value. The population of the study was wood/agricultural fiberboards made from wood fibers, cornstalks, and switchgrass bonded together with soybean-based, urea-formaldehyde, and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Correlational analysis was used to determine if there was a relationship between the two tests. Regression analysis was performed to determine a prediction equation for the destructive test MOE value. Data were collected on both procedures using ultrasonic nondestructing testing and 3-point destructive testing. The results produced a simple linear regression model for this study which was adequate in the prediction of destructive MOE values if the nondestructive MOE value is known. An approximation very close to the entire error in the model equation was explained from the destructive test MOE values for the composites. The nondestructive MOE values used to produce a linear regression model explained 83% of the variability in the destructive test MOE values. The study also showed that, for the particular destructive test values obtained with the equipment used, the model associated with the study is as good as it could be due to the variability in the results from the destructive tests. In this study, an ultrasonic signal was used to determine the MOE values on nondestructive tests. Future research studies could use the same or other hardboards to examine how the resins affect the ultrasonic signal.

Colen, Charles Raymond, Jr.

108

Understanding socio-economic determinants of childhood mortality: a retrospective analysis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a view of suggesting strategies for reducing childhood mortality. Methods We compared the childhood mortalities and their average annual reduction rate (AARR) of Teso sub-region with those of Uganda for the period 1959 to 1969. We also compared indicators of social economic well being (such as livestock per capita and per capita intake of protein/energy). In addition data was compared on other important determinants of child survival such as level of education and rate of urbanisation. Findings In 1969 the infant mortality rate (IMR) for Teso was 94 per 1000 live births compared to the 120 for Uganda. Between 1959 and 1969 the AARR for IMR for Teso was 4.57% compared to 3% for Uganda. It was interesting that the AARR for Teso was higher than that that of 4.4.% required to achieve millennium development goal number four (MDG4). The rate of urbanisation and the level of education were higher in Uganda compared to Teso during the same period. Teso had a per capita ownership of cattle of 1.12 compared to Uganda's 0.44. Teso sub region had about 3 times the amount of protein and about 2 times the amount of calories compared to Uganda. Conclusions We surmise that higher ownership of cattle and growing of high protein and energy foods might have been responsible for better childhood survival in Teso compared to Uganda.

2011-01-01

109

Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

Olsen, D.R.

1997-07-13

110

Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

111

A new procedure to asses pollen viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested pollen viability of eight species using four vital dyes, a new peroxidase test together with three other established\\u000a methods (MTT, Baker’s and X-Gal), to determine their potential to differentiate fresh pollen from pollen heated for 2 h and\\u000a 24 h at 80°C (killed pollen) and compared the results with in vitro germination. We found that two of three

T. Rodriguez-Riano; A. Dafni

2000-01-01

112

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

113

A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n?=?210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important finding of this study is the large number of Baby Boomers who indicated that they would be happy to work part-time or never retire. Policies and continued dialogue aimed at making the workplace a safe, flexible and welcoming environment to accommodate this wish, and to entice others to take up this option over complete withdrawal from the labour force, is required.

2014-01-01

114

The effect of socio-economic and demographic determinants on the pattern of consumption of rural adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selected socio-economic and demographic determinants (the number of children in the family, father's education, standard of living, sex and age) on the pattern of consumption in adolescents occupying rural areas of the central-eastern Poland. The study included 564 boys and 548 girls 10-15-years-old. Data on the socio-economic status and dietary habits were collected by means of a diagnostic survey. Dietary habits were determined based on a single 24-hour recall. Results obtained were compared with the RDA for Polish people. The effect of socio-economic and demographic determinants on the pattern of consumption were mogenous clusters each of which corresponded to a specific pattern of consumption. It was demonstrated that standard of living and the father's education exerted a significant effect on the pattern of consumption in adolescents examined. This effect was hot indicated for the number of children in the family, age and sex. PMID:16900865

Raczy?ska, Barbara; Michalska, Agnieszka; Czeczelewski, Jan; Raczy?ski, Grzegorz

2006-01-01

115

HEALTH DISPARITIES IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

parities either between or within countries. Rather, improvements appear to be dispropor- tionately weighted toward those who already have a greater share of social and economic advantages in society, while the health of dis- advantaged groups improves less consistently and at much more modest rates.

Juan Antonio Casas; J. Norberto; W. Dachs; Alexandra Bambas

116

Economic, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Are There Differences between Asia and Europe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. On…

Jagodzinski, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

117

A Systematic Approach to Determine Economic Potential and Environmental Impact of Biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated biorefinery has the potential to provide a strong, self-dependent alternative to the use of fossil fuels for the production of chemicals and energy, but difficulties arise in measuring the potential economic and environmental benefit of the biorefinery. A myriad of products and production pathways are possible in this growing field of biorefining, and the production path with maximum

Norman Sammons; Wei Yuan; Susilpa Bommareddy; Mario Eden; Burak Aksoy; Harry Cullinan

2009-01-01

118

THE DETERMINANTS OF U.S. STATE ECONOMIC GROWTH: A LESS EXTREME BOUNDS ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates U.S. state economic growth from 1970 to 1999. I innovate on previous studies by developing a new approach for addressing “model uncertainty” issues associated with estimating growth equations. My approach borrows from the “extreme bounds analysis” approach of Leamer while also addressing concerns raised by Granger and Uhlig, Sala-i-Martin, and others that not all specifications are equally

W. ROBERT REED

2009-01-01

119

The adoption of deferred share unit plans for outside directors: economic and social determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the antecedents of adopting deferred compensation plans for corporate directors. Relying on agency\\u000a and network theories, we compare the economic and social characteristics of firms that have adopted a deferred share unit\\u000a plan for their directors over the 1997–2005 period (130 firms) to a control sample. Our findings show that firms where outside\\u000a directors have higher agency

Paul André; Samer Khalil; Michel Magnan

2012-01-01

120

Gender and viability selection on morphology in fledgling pied flycatchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, analyses of gender-dependent differences in viability selection and the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism have been plagued by difficulties in determining the sex of nestling birds on the basis of morphology. Recently, this problem was overcome using molecular sex identification to report for the first time body-size-mediated anta- gonistic selection on the viability of male and female collared

J. Potti; J. A. Davila; J. L. Tella; O. Frias; S. Villar

2002-01-01

121

The Viability of Metapopulations: Individual Dispersal Behaviour Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metapopulation models are frequently used for analysing species–landscape interactions and their effect on structure and dynamic\\u000a of populations in fragmented landscapes. They especially support a better understanding of the viability of metapopulations.\\u000a In such models, the processes determining metapopulation viability are often modelled in a simple way. Animals’ dispersal\\u000a between habitat fragments is mostly taken into account by using a

Simone K. Heinz; Christian Wissel; Karin Frank

2006-01-01

122

Probiotic viability - does it matter?  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.

2012-01-01

123

Viability of keratocytes in epikeratophakia lenticules.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the influence of cryoprotectant, cooling rate, and warming rate on recovery and viability of keratocytes from corneas for cryolathing. METHODS: Corneas were frozen at -50 degrees C for 2 minutes either after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide in Eagle's MEM for 15 minutes at room temperature (about 22 degrees C), or without earlier exposure to the cryoprotectant. Corneas were cooled either rapidly (20 degrees C/min) or slowly (1 degree C/min), and they were warmed either rapidly (> 50 degrees C/min) by direct transfer into medium at 22 degrees C or slowly (< 20 degrees C/min) in air at 22 degrees C. The cryoprotectant was removed by dilution in medium containing 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Recovery of keratocytes was determined by using collagenase digestion to release the cells from the stroma and trypan blue staining. Viability was assessed by the outgrowth of cells from stromal explants in primary tissue culture. RESULTS: The use of a cryoprotectant before freezing was beneficial, irrespective of the different cooling and warming regimens. Both collagenase digestion and tissue culture revealed that keratocyte survival was improved when corneas were warmed rapidly rather than slowly. The collagenase digestion assay showed an apparently higher recovery of keratocytes after slow cooling (54.3%) than after rapid cooling (34.1%), but no differences in cell viability could be demonstrated by primary tissue culture. CONCLUSION: Although in these experiments slow cooling apparently provided the best recovery of keratocyte numbers (though not viability), previous work had revealed some disruption of the epithelial basement membrane after slow cooling. If viable keratocytes and good preservation of epithelial basement membrane are considered to be prerequisites for epikeratophakia lenticules then it is suggested that corneas should be prepared for cryolathing by freezing rapidly after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide and, following cryolathing, they should be warmed rapidly.

Cheng, H C; Armitage, W J; Yagoubi, M I; Easty, D L

1996-01-01

124

Economically Optimal Determination of the Parameters of X\\\\bar Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks a theoretical basis for determining the optimal parameters of the X\\\\bar -chart under the specified conditions. These parameters are the sample size, the factor determining the spread of the control limits, and the intersample interval. The paper shows how to determine these parameters under sound practical assumptions so that the relevant cost function is minimized. Illustrative examples

Isaac N. Gibra

1971-01-01

125

Financial Viability of Farm Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey information from 1,616 farm families in Wisconsin, Mississippi, and Tennessee was used to construct a viability ratio measuring a family's ability to meet its obligations from total income. Coupled with other farm characteristics, the ratio allows policymakers to see why some farms are viable and others are not. (JHZ)

Salant, Priscilla; Saupe, William

1986-01-01

126

Possible relationship among socio-economic determinants, knowledge and practices on lymphatic filariasis and implication for disease elimination in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the socio-economic determinants, knowledge and practices on lymphatic filariasis in India and discuss the implications\\u000a for elimination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A case–control study was undertaken to obtain knowledge and practice measures on various dimensions of the Wuchereria bancroftian filarial disease using a structured questionnaire. A structural equation model, a statistical technique for testing and estimating\\u000a causal relationships using a combination of

Perumal Vanamail; Subbaiah Gunasekaran

2011-01-01

127

The cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) approach to assessing myocardial viability.  

PubMed

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a noninvasive imaging method that can determine myocardial anatomy, function, perfusion, and viability in a relative short examination. In terms of viability assessment, CMR can determine viability in a non-contrast enhanced scan using dobutamine stress following protocols comparable to those developed for dobutamine echocardiography. CMR can also determine viability with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) methods. The gadolinium-based contrast agents used for LGE differentiate viable myocardium from scar on the basis of differences in cell membrane integrity for acute myocardial infarction. In chronic myocardial infarction, the scarred tissue enhances much more than normal myocardium due to increases in extracellular volume. LGE is well validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies that now span from almost a cellular level in animals to human validations in a large international multicenter clinical trial. Beyond infarct size or infarct detection, LGE is a strong predictor of mortality and adverse cardiac events. CMR can also image microvascular obstruction and intracardiac thrombus. When combined with a measure of area at risk like T2-weighted images, CMR can determine infarct size, area at risk, and thus estimate myocardial salvage 1-7 days after acute myocardial infarction. Thus, CMR is a well validated technique that can assess viability by gadolinium-free dobutamine stress testing or late gadolinium enhancement. PMID:21882082

Arai, Andrew E

2011-12-01

128

A viability analysis of fishery controlled by investment rate.  

PubMed

This work presents a stock/effort model describing both harvested fish population and fishing effort dynamics. The fishing effort dynamic is controlled by investment which corresponds to the revenue proportion generated by the activity. The dynamics are subject to a set of economic and biological state constraints. The analytical study focuses on the compatibility between state constraints and controlled dynamics. By using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal situations and management options that guarantee a sustainable system. PMID:24002567

Sanogo, C; Raïssi, N; Ben Miled, S; Jerry, C

2013-09-01

129

Priorities of Low-Income Urban Residents for Interventions to Address the Socio-Economic Determinants of Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the priorities of low-income urban residents for interventions that address the socio-economic determinants of health. Methods We selected and estimated the cost of 16 interventions related to education, housing, nutrition, employment, health care, healthy behavior, neighborhood improvement, and transportation. Low-income residents of Washington, D.C. (N=431) participated in decision exercises to prioritize these interventions. Results Given a budget valued at approximately twice an estimated cost of medical and dental care ($885), the interventions ultimately prioritized by the greatest percentage of individuals were: health insurance (95%), housing vouchers (82%) dental care (82%), job training (72%), adult education (63%), counseling (68%), healthy behavior incentives (68%), and job placement (67%). The percentages of respondents who received support for housing, adult education, and job training and placement were far less than the percentage who prioritized these interventions. Conclusions Poor and low-income residents’ priorities may usefully inform allocation of social services that affect health.

Danis, Marion; Kotwani, Namrata; Garrett, Joanne; Rivera, Ivonne; Davies-Cole, John; Carter-Nolan, Pamela

2013-01-01

130

Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service  

SciTech Connect

Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

2010-10-11

131

Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of children in rural peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The data presented is part of the findings from a four-year collaborative research project between Universiti Putra Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research and the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The project assessed the nutritional status of the major functional groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Mukim Sayong and Pulau Kemiri in the District of Kuala Kangsar, Perak were two of the subdistricts selected to represent small rubber holdings in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper attempts to analyse the socio-economic profile of the households and the nutritional status of children below 9 years of age. A total of 307 households were studied. Approximately 63% of the households were involved in rubber activities and the majority of them were hired tappers. The average monthly income of the households was RM467 and the income ranged between RM30 to RM2120. Based on the per capita poverty line income of RM84.38, it was found that 14.1% of the households earned less than RM42.19, which can be considered as hard-core poor, while 32.7% were poor (monthly per capita income between RM42.19 and RM84.38). Slightly more than half (52.7%) earned income above the poverty line. The average family size was 4.5, ranging from 1 through to 16. The majority of the heads of households (56.6%) had between 3 and 6 years of education, and 14.5% did not receive any formal education. The prevalence of stunting among children 0-5 years of age was 26%, while 31.5% were underweight and 3.8% wasted. Among children aged between 5 and 9 years, almost the same pattern of nutritional status was noted. The overall percentages of stunting, underweight and wasting among these children were 29.2%, 26.1% and 0.62%, respectively. Analysis on nutritional status according to income level showed a noticeable difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in children above and below the poverty line income. The Student's t-test indicated significant differences in weight-for-age and weight-for-height between the two poverty line income for children below 5 years of age. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between height-for-age with household size (r = -0.26, p<0.05), and monthly per capita income with weight-for-height (r = 0.25, p<0.05). There was a highly significant correlation between acreage of land cultivated and weight-for-height (r = 0.42, p<0.01), and weight-for-age (r = 0.25, p<0.05). The findings indicated the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of children. PMID:24393689

Marjan, Z M; Taib, M N; Lin, K G; Siong, T E

1998-12-01

132

Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.  

PubMed

Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and the Corporation are all worse off when treatment levels are pushed beyond what is economic and sustainable. PMID:23183146

Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

2013-01-15

133

Economic, Cultural and Religious Determinants of Perceived Level of Political Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political corruption has received increasing attention in the recent literature as it leads to crises in both industrialized and developing countries. This study examines the level of corruption and for this purpose this study tries to find out the question of what determines political corruption. Foreign aid, the world policy index, GDP per worker, democracy, British colony, religion, women in

Fuat Sekmen

2012-01-01

134

Corporate Governance in China: Current Practices, Economic Effects and Institutional Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary survey of the burgeoning literature on the Chinese listed firms' corporate governance. We structure the existing research around three themes: (1) What are the current corporate governance practices in China? (2) How do these corporate governance practices affect the Chinese listed firms' valuation and various corporate decisions? (3) How does China's unique institutional setting pre-determine

Qiao Liu

2006-01-01

135

Viability of preserved Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to determine the viability and infectivity of oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi that had been stored from 1 to 40 months at 4? preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Oocysts of C. baileyi were purified from the feces of experimentally infected chickens using discontinuous sucrose gradients. Subsequently, the purified oocysts were suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution at a concentration of 1 × 107 organism/ml, and their viabilities were assessed by nucleic acid staining, histologic examination, and infectivity to 2-day-old chickens. All chickens inoculated with oocysts that had been stored for 1-18 months developed patent infections, while chickens infected with older oocysts remained uninfected. Between 5.8% and 82.2% of the oocysts, stored at 4? in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution, were found to be viable, as determined by nucleic acid staining. Parasite colonization in the bursa of Fabricius was detected in the microvillus border of bursal epithelium. The finding that C. baileyi oocysts remain infective to chickens for at least 18 months offers important time-saving advantages to investigators who frequently require large numbers of oocysts.

Surl, Chan-Gu; Kim, Se-Min

2003-01-01

136

Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities.

2014-01-01

137

Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.  

SciTech Connect

This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

2005-12-01

138

Is the Spatial Distribution of Mankind's Most Basic Economic Traits Determined by Climate and Soil Alone?  

PubMed Central

Background Several authors, most prominently Jared Diamond (1997, Guns, Germs and Steel), have investigated biogeographic determinants of human history and civilization. The timing of the transition to an agricultural lifestyle, associated with steep population growth and consequent societal change, has been suggested to be affected by the availability of suitable organisms for domestication. These factors were shown to quantitatively explain some of the current global inequalities of economy and political power. Here, we advance this approach one step further by looking at climate and soil as sole determining factors. Methodology/Principal Findings As a simplistic ‘null model’, we assume that only climate and soil conditions affect the suitability of four basic landuse types – agriculture, sedentary animal husbandry, nomadic pastoralism and hunting-and-gathering. Using ecological niche modelling (ENM), we derive spatial predictions of the suitability for these four landuse traits and apply these to the Old World and Australia. We explore two aspects of the properties of these predictions, conflict potential and population density. In a calculation of overlap of landuse suitability, we map regions of potential conflict between landuse types. Results are congruent with a number of real, present or historical, regions of conflict between ethnic groups associated with different landuse traditions. Furthermore, we found that our model of agricultural suitability explains a considerable portion of population density variability. We mapped residuals from this correlation, finding geographically highly structured deviations that invite further investigation. We also found that ENM of agricultural suitability correlates with a metric of local wealth generation (Gross Domestic Product, Purchasing Power Parity). Conclusions/Significance From simplified assumptions on the links between climate, soil and landuse we are able to provide good predictions on complex features of human geography. The spatial distribution of deviations from ENM predictions identifies those regions requiring further investigation of potential explanations. Our findings and methodological approaches may be of applied interest, e.g., in the context of climate change.

Beck, Jan; Sieber, Andrea

2010-01-01

139

99m Tc-sestamibi kinetics predict myocardial viability in a perfused rat heart model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  \\u000a 99mTc-sestamibi has been proposed as a viability imaging agent. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the relationship\\u000a between myocardial viability and 99mTc-sestamibi kinetics using perfused rat heart models across a full spectrum of viability, (2) to do so under conditions where\\u000a myocardial flow was controlled and held constant, and (3) to do so using multiple quantitative

Zhonglin Liu; David R. Okada; Gerald Johnson; Sonia D. Hocherman; Delia Beju; Robert D. Okada

2008-01-01

140

Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND), which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ?126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males), 202 (14.7%) had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1%) were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL) and above (17.3%). Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7%) observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4%) with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM.

2012-01-01

141

Myocardial viability: whom, what, why, which, and how?  

PubMed

Viability imaging might be useful to guide decisions for revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent trial results raise important points for clinicians regarding which modalities to use and in which patients. We discuss the modalities currently used in clinical practice. We suggest that testing be reserved for complex patients in whom the risks and potential benefits from revascularization are highest, and emphasize that the results of viability testing are not the only determinant of potential outcome benefit, and should not be viewed in isolation but as an objective adjunct to decision making. PMID:23439021

Mc Ardle, Brian A; Beanlands, Rob S B

2013-03-01

142

Measurement of the viability of Lawsonia intracellularis  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and test both a flow cytometry method (FCM) and a direct count method (DCM) that both use fluorescent stains to determine the viability of Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), an obligate intracellular bacterium and the cause of proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs and other animal species. Live LI were passaged in cell culture and harvested from infected McCoy cells. Dead LI were prepared by exposing live LI to 70% isopropyl alcohol for 30 min. Seven samples with dead:live ratios of 0:100 (live control), 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, and 100:0 (dead control) were prepared for testing by both the FCM and the DCM. For the FCM, TO-PRO-3 iodine was applied to the samples, and viable LI were counted. For the DCM, the samples were stained with LIVE/DEAD BacLight, which contains SYTO 9 and propidium iodine, then filtered through 0.2-?m Nuclepore black polycarbonate filters, viewed, and counted with the use of an epifluorescence microscope. Data were evaluated by estimating 95% limits of agreement and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The limits of agreement between the FCM and the DCM versus the standard ratio of added LI showed mean differences not equal to zero, suggesting that systematic bias was introduced. The CCC showed almost perfect agreement (r = 0.9898). With a specific fluorescent probe, the FCM is useful and as good as the DCM for determining LI viability.

2005-01-01

143

Mechanism of viability loss during fluidized bed drying of baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were dried in a modified Yamato Pulvis GA 22 fluidized bed dryer and also exposed to moist heat in classical thermal death time experiments. The results showed that dehydration and not moist heat, dry heat, or oxidation was responsible for viability decreases during fluidized bed drying. It was determined that the viabilities of the compressed yeasts

D. Bayrock; W. M. Ingledew

1997-01-01

144

HPC viability measurement: trypan blue versus acridine orange and propidium iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A reliable, validated method for rapidly determining HPC viability is essential for clinical cell en- gineering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A fluorometric cell viability assay using acridine orange and propidium io- dide (AO\\/PI) was compared to the current standard, trypan blue (TB) exclusion. Viable cells stained with AO\\/ PI fluoresce green under darkfield fluorescence micros- copy, while nonviable cells

K. Mascotti; J. McCullough; S. R. Burger

2000-01-01

145

Luminescent multiplex viability assay for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense  

PubMed Central

Background New compounds for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are urgently required. Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense is the leading cause of HAT, yet T.b. gambiense is often not the prime target organism in drug discovery. This may be attributed to the difficulties in handling this subspecies and the lack of an efficient viability assay to monitor drug efficacy. Methods In this study, a T.b. gambiense strain, recently isolated in the D.R. Congo, was made bioluminescent by transfection with Renilla luciferase (RLuc) without altering its in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics. A luminescent multiplex viability assay (LMVA), based on measurement of the Renilla luciferase activity and the ATP content of the cells within the same experiment, was investigated as an alternative to the standard fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of T.b. gambiense. Results In a 96-well format, the RLuc transfected strain showed a detection limit of 2 × 104 cells ml-1 for the Renilla luciferase measurement and 5 × 103 cells ml-1 for the ATP measurement. Both assays of the LMVA showed linearity up to 106 cells ml-1 and correlated well with the cell density during exponential growth of the long slender bloodstream forms. The LMVA was compared to the fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of pentamidine, eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol with both the wild type and the RLuc transfected population. For each drug, the IC50 value of the RLuc population was similar to that of the wild type when determined with either the fluorimetric resazurin method or the LMVA. For eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol we found no difference between the IC50 values in both viability assays. In contrast, the IC50 value of pentamidine was higher when determined with the fluorimetric resazurin method than in both assays of the LMVA. Conclusions LMVA has some advantages for viability measurement of T.b. gambiense: it requires less incubation time for viability detection than the fluorimetric resazurin assay and in LMVA, two sensitive and independent viability assays are performed in the same experiment.

2013-01-01

146

Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

Gernot Klantschnig

2003-01-01

147

Social and Economic Determinants of the Educational Achievement of Selected Eleventh Grade Students in Rural Kentucky: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study objectives were (1) to construct a conceptual model to relate incremental educational achievement of individual students during a 2-school-year period to economic inputs of the school, student inputs, and family inputs during that period and (2) to use the model as a basis for generating an economic factor model for the school unit. To test…

Bieker, Richard Francis

148

Viability and predictive control for safe locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of safe locomotion of legged and wheeled robots, when trying to avoid falling, tipping over or hitting obstacles, appears to be a problem of viability and not of Lyapunov stability. Theoretically speaking, viability and Model Predictive Control are unquestionably related, but both can quickly lead to untractable numerical problems. We present here a promising approach for the problem

Pierre-brice Wieber

2008-01-01

149

Viability and Predictive Control for Safe Locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of safe locomotion of legged and wheeled robots, when trying to avoid falling, tipping over or hitting obstacles, appears to be a problem of viability and not of Lyapunov stability. Theoretically speaking, viability and Model Predictive Control are unquestionably related, but both can quickly lead to untractable numerical problems. We present here a very promising approach for the

Wieber Pierre-Brice

150

Evaluation of myocardial viability by multidetector CT.  

PubMed

The continued advancement of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has launched an exciting new method for myocardial viability imaging. This article aims to present data validating MDCT for viability imaging, to demonstrate MDCT's prognostic clinical value, and to delineate its potential clinical applications. PMID:19203745

Mendoza, Dorinna D; Weigold, Wm Guy

2009-01-01

151

Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

Garigliano, Leonard J.

1975-01-01

152

An Assessment of the Effectiveness and Viability of Various Mitigation Technologies under Different Scenarios Using the PESERA-DESMICE Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenario analysis of policy options is one of the most valuable ways in which scientific models can be employed to inform decision-making process. This is particularly relevant for land degradation mitigation policies, which are rarely based on this kind of analysis. In this paper we show how the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework can be used in the assessment of policy options to combat land degradation, illustrating the model analysis of policy options with scenarios for different study sites. The key assumption underlying our analyses is that technologies must be attractive in economic terms, i.e. have the potential to, from a land user perspective, lead to cost reductions, benefit enhancements or both. Trade-off and cost-effectiveness thus form integral parts of the framework. The sequence of options is explored by: (1) Determining which technologies are feasible in which locations. This includes an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each location; we term these the technology scenarios; (2) Determining how policy instruments such as subsidies and credit can have the potential to influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation on the other; we term these the policy scenarios; (3) Determining how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the global scenarios. All types of scenario were found to be useful to policymakers in different ways. Technology scenarios may help focus the portfolio of land degradation mitigation technologies towards areas in need of policy support; policy scenarios further detail the types and levels of support necessary for promoting adoption of the technology; while global scenarios demonstrate how the changes envisaged contribute to the achievement of wider sustainable development goals. Keywords: integrated environmental model, land degradation, mitigation technologies, scenario analysis, policy options

Nainggolan, D.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L. C.

2012-04-01

153

Metabolomic Assessment of Embryo Viability  

PubMed Central

Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strategy promoted metabolomics studies in vitro fertilization (IVF) in an effort to increase success rates of single embryo transfers. With the advance of analytical techniques and bioinformatics, commercial instruments were developed to predict embryo viability using spectroscopic analysis of surplus culture media. However, despite the initial promising results from proof-of-principal studies, recent randomized controlled trials using commercial instruments failed to show a consistent benefit in improving pregnancy rates when metabolomics is used as an adjunct to morphology. At present, the application of metabolomics technology in clinical IVF laboratory requires the elimination of factors underlying inconsistent findings, when possible, and development of reliable predictive models accounting for all possible sources of bias throughout the embryo selection process.

Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

2014-01-01

154

Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

1982-01-01

155

Economic potential of vertical ground-source heat pumps compared to air-source air conditioners in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to compare the economic viability in Johannesburg, R.S.A., of vertical ground-source and air-source systems. Capital costs and optimum borehole length of the ground system were determined. Monthly heating and cooling capacities, and COPs were evaluated to determine running costs. Payback periods, net present values and internal rates of return were computed. The vertical ground-source system was

P. J. Petit; J. P. Meyer

1998-01-01

156

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

2013-07-01

157

Determinants of Environmental Profit: An Analysis of the Firm-Level Relationship between Environmental Performance and Economic Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study contains a theoretical and empirical examination of the relationship between the environmental and economic performance of firms. It reframes the crucial question to read, not whether, but when environmental performance improvements are profitab...

L. Lankoski

2000-01-01

158

Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 M NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, an approximately 50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells (approximately 1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 +/- 162 to 1,588 +/- 284 microns2, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses are required.

Korber, D R; Choi, A; Wolfaardt, G M; Caldwell, D E

1996-01-01

159

Chondrocyte viability in press-fit cryopreserved osteochondral allografts.  

PubMed

The viability of chondrocytes in press-fit glycerol-preserved osteochondral allografts was compared to that in fresh autografts, after transplantation into load-bearing and non-load-bearing sites in mature sheep stifle joints. We used macroscopic grading, tonometer pen indentation testing, histology, sulfate uptake and viability as determined by confocal-microscopy to assess cartilage condition. Despite there being no statistical differences between macroscopic appearance and tonometer testing of all grafts, confocal microscopy and histology demonstrated a positive effect of load-bearing placement on cryopreserved osteochondral allografts. Allografts transplanted into load-bearing sites demonstrated superior confocal microscopy-measured chondrocyte viability (77%+/-17%SD) than those transplanted into non-load-bearing sites (25%+/-2%). Load-bearing effect was not seen in autografts (78%+/-15%), and was comparable in adjacent cartilage (83%+/-9%). Similarly, load-bearing allografts demonstrated histological scoring closer to that of autografts and adjacent cartilage, all of which fared significantly better than non-load-bearing allografts. Load-bearing allografts had a greater amount of fibrocartilage than autografts or adjacent cartilage but less fibrocartilage than non-load-bearing allografts. Both autografts and allografts had non-significant increases in metabolism compared to adjacent cartilage as measured by sulfate-uptake. Load-bearing placement improved chondrocyte viability of glycerol cryopreserved osteochondral allograft following a press-fit implantation. PMID:15183434

Gole, Madhura D; Poulsen, Dan; Marzo, John M; Ko, Seung-Hee; Ziv, Israel

2004-07-01

160

Political Economics: Explaining Economic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

What determines the size and form of redistributive programs, the extent and type of public goods provision, the burden of taxation across alternative tax bases, the size of government deficits, and the stance of monetary policy during the course of business and electoral cycles? A large and rapidly growing literature in political economics attempts to answer these questions. But so

Torsten Persson; Guido Tabellini

2000-01-01

161

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-06-01

162

Assessing the viability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for siting small wind turbines in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete wind resource assessment (WRA) in the urban area of SUNY-ESF was conducted using initial assessment, wind map examination, statistical analysis of measured wind data, and CFD modeling, for the potential installation of small wind turbines. Results consisting of mean wind velocity, annual energy prediction, turbulence, and net present value were used first to determine suitable locations for small wind turbines, and second to determine viability of each method of WRA. This study found that the CFD analysis provides a reasonably accurate and detailed analysis of wind resource in an urban area. The detailed level of analysis can ultimately lead to optimal economic decisions regarding installation, more so than the other explored methods. Also examined, were wind data sets from different locations for use as input data into the CFD model, ultimately finding that CFD output results can be significantly distorted with unsuitable data sets.

Pasco, Nicholas L.

163

Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

1973-01-01

164

Assessment of skin flap viability using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate assessment of skin flap viability is vitally important in reconstructive surgery. Early identification of vascular compromise increases the change of successful flap salvage. The ability to determine tissue viability intraoperatively is also extremely useful when the reconstructive surgeon must decide how to inset the flap and whether any tissue must be discarded. Visible diffuse reflectance and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy, which yield different sets of biochemical information, have not been used in the characterization of skin flap viability simultaneously to our best knowledge. We performed both diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements on a reverse MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model to identify the additional value of auto-fluorescence spectroscopy to the assessment of flap viability. Our result suggests that auto-fluorescence spectroscopy appears to be more sensitive to early biochemical changes in a failed flap than diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which could be a valuable complement to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the assessment of flap viability.

Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Liu, Quan

2012-12-01

165

Funding and Viability of Rural Development Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the Jamaican Development Bank as an example, this paper examines the impact of existing funding sources on the viability of rural development banks (RDB) in low-income countries and suggests new sources for RDB funding.

C. Bourne D. H. Graham

1980-01-01

166

MRI Method for Assessing Myocardial Viability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of myocardial viability in a subject is performed by acquiring an MR image which distinguishes infarcted myocardium from normal myocardium. A contrast agent is used and after a waiting period, a cardiac-gated segmented inversion recovery gra...

O. Unal T. M. Grist

2004-01-01

167

Viability imaging by cardiac computed tomography.  

PubMed

First-pass perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiac imaging have been shown to be feasible by cardiac CT. However, questions remain about its reliability, and ideal scanning parameters have yet to be fully established. In general, scar imaging with cardiac CT typically requires 2 scans, with first-pass perfusion information derived from the same data set used to visualize the coronary arteries. Reduced contrast enhancement on first-pass cardiac CT images represents reduced perfusion. Higher doses of contrast are required to perform viability imaging by cardiac CT. Approximately 10 minutes after contrast administration, viability information is obtained by performing a second (noncontrast) scan. In addition to the concepts of perfusion and viability imaging by cardiac CT, we review parameters such as scan timing, tube settings, contrast delivery, reconstruction, and postprocessing techniques, as well as the associated pitfalls and technical limitations in perfusion and viability imaging by cardiac CT. PMID:20430338

Mendoza, Dorinna D; Joshi, Subodh B; Weissman, Gaby; Taylor, Allen J; Weigold, W Guy

2010-01-01

168

In situ assessment of cell viability.  

PubMed

Cryobiological studies of tissues often require the simultaneous assessment of tissue structure and in situ cellular function. Localization of damage during cryopreservation occurs as a consequence of tissue structure and morphology and as a result of biophysical constraints imposed by diffusion and heat transfer. This study used five experimental model tissue systems: cells in suspension, cells attached to a substrate, a monolayer of cells attached to a substrate, porcine corneas, and intact porcine articular cartilage to examine the efficacy of assessing cell recovery using a novel fluorescent stain (SYTO-13). A graded freezing protocol was used to induce varying degrees of tissue damage. Recovery was assessed in the different tissue model systems using SYTO with ethidium bromide, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) with ethidium bromide, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). In each of the tissue model systems, the SYTO/EB assessment technique was shown to be equally effective as the existing techniques for the determination of cell recovery. In addition, the properties of fluorescence intensity and rate of release for SYTO were significantly better than those obtained using FDA. Assessment of in situ cell viability was clearly demonstrated using porcine corneas and articular cartilage. The SYTO/EB assay is superior to the existing techniques used for the localization of cell damage in tissues after cryopreservation. PMID:9786064

Yang, H; Acker, J; Chen, A; McGann, L

1998-01-01

169

Assessment of myocardial viability by MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Diagnosis of myocardial viability after infarction focuses on the prediction of functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium\\u000a after revascularization therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging provides different approaches for the detection of myocardial\\u000a viability. Measurement of end-diastolic wall thickness is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity,\\u000a and can only be used 4 months after myocardial infarction due

Jörn J. W. Sandstede

2003-01-01

170

The Paradox of Expected Punishment: Legal and Economic Factors Determining Success and Failure in the Fight against Organized Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal and economic analysis presented here empirically tests the theoretical framework advanced by Kugler, Verdier, and Zenou (2003) and Buscaglia (1997). This paper goes beyond the prior literature by focusing on the empirical assessment of the actual implementation of the institutional deterrence and prevention mechanisms contained in the United Nations’ Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Convention). A sample

Edgardo Buscaglia

2008-01-01

171

Economic Time Series Modeling to Determine the Feasibility of Incorporating Drinking Water Treatment in Water Quality Trading  

EPA Science Inventory

The critical steps required to evaluating the feasiblity of establishing a water quality trading market in a testbed watershed is described. Focus is given toward describing the problem of thin markets as a specifi barrier to successful trading. Economic theory for considering an...

172

Determining and exploiting the distribution function of wind power forecasting error for the economic operation of autonomous power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many efforts have been presented in the bibliography for wind power forecasting in power systems and few of them have been used for autonomous power systems. The impact of knowing the distribution function of wind power forecasting error in the economic operation of a power system is studied in this paper. The papers proposes that the distribution of the wind

Antonis G. Tsikalakis; Yiannis A. Katsigiannis; Pavlos S. Georgilakis; Nikos D. Hatziargyriou

2006-01-01

173

Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal

Esben Agerbo; Jonathan A. C. Sterne; David J. Gunnell

2007-01-01

174

Determinants of Foreign Firm Location Decisions in the United States, 1985-1990Implications for State Economic Development Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign direct investment is an important component of state economic development and state political economy, yet relatively little is known about the political factors that influence foreign firm location decisions. Previous econometric studies of firm location decisions have downplayed the role of political conditions (i.e., institutions, parties, and policy interventions) in influencing firm location decisions, whereas case studies have provided

Sharon E. Fox; Jeong-Hwa Lee

1996-01-01

175

The effect of ultrasound-related stimuli on cell viability in microfluidic channels  

PubMed Central

Background In ultrasonic micro-devices, contrast agent micro-bubbles are known to initiate cavitation and streaming local to cells, potentially compromising cell viability. Here we investigate the effects of US alone by omitting contrast agent and monitoring cell viability under moderate-to-extreme ultrasound-related stimuli. Results Suspended H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to ultrasonic fields within a glass micro-capillary and their viability monitored under different US-related stimuli. An optimal injection flow rate of 2.6 mL/h was identified in which, high viability was maintained (~95%) and no mechanical stress towards cells was evident. This flow rate also allowed sufficient exposure of cells to US in order to induce bioeffects (~5 sec), whilst providing economical sample collection and processing times. Although the transducer temperature increased from ambient 23°C to 54°C at the maximum experimental voltage (29 Vpp), computational fluid dynamic simulations and controls (absence of US) revealed that the cell medium temperature did not exceed 34°C in the pressure nodal plane. Cells exposed to US amplitudes ranging from 0–29 Vpp, at a fixed frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.05 sec), revealed that viability was minimally affected up to ~15 Vpp. There was a ~17% reduction in viability at 21 Vpp, corresponding to the onset of Rayleigh-like streaming and a ~60% reduction at 29 Vpp, corresponding to increased streaming velocity or the potential onset of cavitation. At a fixed amplitude (29 Vpp) but with varying frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.02-0.50 sec), cell viability remained relatively constant at tsw ? 0.08 sec, whilst viability reduced at tsw < 0.08 sec and minimum viability recorded at tsw = 0.05 sec. Conclusion The absence of CA has enabled us to investigate the effect of US alone on cell viability. Moderate-to-extreme US-related stimuli of cells have allowed us to discriminate between stimuli that maintain high viability and stimuli that significantly reduce cell viability. Results from this study may be of potential interest to researchers in the field of US-induced intracellular drug delivery and ultrasonic manipulation of biological cells.

2013-01-01

176

The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.  

PubMed

In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

2014-01-01

177

Religion and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, we use instrumental variables

Robert J. Barro; Rachel M. Mccleary

2003-01-01

178

Variation in human islet viability based on different membrane integrity stains.  

PubMed

Membrane integrity fluorescent staining is used routinely to evaluate islet viability. Results are used as one of the determining factors in islet product release criteria, and are used to assess the efficacy of different culture conditions. Recently, it has been observed that there is variation in the viability staining of freshly isolated islets based on which viability assay is used. This investigation compares three membrane integrity stains for the viability assessment of isolated human islets. Fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/ PI), the current standard method for assessing islet viability, demonstrates intense extracellular fluorescence, reducing the differential staining of intact islets. We further evaluated SYTO-13/ethidium bromide (SYTO/ EB) and calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (C/EthD) as alternative viability assays, and found considerable variation between FDA/PI and either SYTO/EB or C/EthD staining. Preparations of human islets were obtained from cadaveric pancreata after collagenase digestion, mechanical separation, and purification by continuous Ficoll gradient centrifugation. For each preparation, two replicate samples of 50 islets were counted for each stain, and the percent viability calculated. The results for SYTO/EB and C/EthD were nearly identical [57.6 +/- 7.3% and 57.9 +/- 7.2%, respectively (mean +/- SEM), N = 11]. FDA/PI-stained islets, however, showed consistently elevated values when compared to SYTO/EB. Accurate assessment of islet viability remains a critical determinant of islet product release. The discrepancies found between FDA/PI scoring and visual quality, compared with alternative stains, suggests that the FDA/PI stain may not be the optimal approach to assess islet viability. PMID:15565860

Barnett, M J; McGhee-Wilson, D; Shapiro, A M J; Lakey, J R T

2004-01-01

179

Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

1980-01-01

180

Techno-economic assessment of a carbothermic alumina reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthur D. Little, Inc., undertook an assessment of a process for the carbothermic reduction of alumina based on prior work and a flowsheet developed by a technical committee for the US Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the techno-economic assessment which identified potentially viable subprocess steps and their economic viability based on past research findings. Economic comparisons show the carbothermic

C. L. Kusik; A. Syska; J. Mullins; V. Vejins

1989-01-01

181

Prevalence of Myocardial Viability as Detected by Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Detection of myocardial viability is important in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Restoration of blood flow to viable myocardium is associated with improved left ventricular function and improved patient prognosis. However, the prevalence of viable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy is unknown. Methods and Results—To determine the prevalence of myocardial viability, clinical ( 13N)ammonia\\/18F-deoxyglucose PET studies performed in 283 patients

Martin Allen Auerbach; Heiko Schoder; Carl Hoh; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir; Shariar Yaghoubi; Jim W. Sayre; Daniel Silverman; Michael E. Phelps; Heinrich R. Schelbert; Johannes Czernin

182

Comparing a high-dose dipyridamole SPECT imaging protocol with dobutamine and exercise stress testing protocols. Part III: Using dobutamine to determine lung-to-heart ratios, left ventricular dysfunction, and a potential viability marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has previously been shown to have greater sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy when performed with pharmacologic stress using dobutamine than by standard dose dipyridamole (SDD) or exercise stress testing (EST) prior to SPECT imaging. The use of lung to heart (L:H) ratios has been

Richard M. Fleming; Kristine M. Feldmann; Diane M. Fleming

1999-01-01

183

Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics.  

PubMed

Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

2014-02-01

184

Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregiver's treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period. Results There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors. Conclusion In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides.

2011-01-01

185

Sphingosine Kinase Activity Is Not Required for Tumor Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology.

Brown, Matthew L.; Carlson, Timothy; Coxon, Angela; Fajardo, Flordeliza; Frank, Brendon; Gustin, Darin; Kamb, Alexander; Kassner, Paul D.; Li, Shyun; Li, Yihong; Morgenstern, Kurt; Plant, Matthew; Quon, Kim; Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Schmidt, Joanna; Swearingen, Elissa; Walker, Nigel; Wang, Zhulun; Watson, J. E. Vivienne; Wickramasinghe, Dineli; Wong, Mariwil; Xu, Guifen; Wesche, Holger

2013-01-01

186

Viability of pulp stromal cells in cryopreserved deciduous teeth.  

PubMed

The cryopreservation of exfoliated deciduous teeth and harvesting of stem cells from them as required would reduce the costs and efforts associated with banking stem cells from primary teeth. The aim of this study was determine whether the viability of pulp stromal cells from deciduous teeth was influenced by the cryopreservation process itself or the period of cryopreservation. In total, 126 deciduous teeth were divided into three groups: (1) fresh, (2) cryopreserved for <3 months (cryo<3), and (3) cryopreserved for 3-9 months (cryo3-9). The viability of the pulp tissues was compared among the three groups by evaluating the outgrowth from pulp tissues and cell activity within those pulp tissues. In addition, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to compare cell apoptosis within fresh pulp tissue and pulp tissue that had been cryopreserved for 4 months. The outgrowth from and cell activity within the pulp tissues did not differ significantly between the fresh and cryo<3 pulp tissues. However, these parameters were significantly reduced in the cryo3-9 pulp tissue. In TUNEL assay, 4-month cryopreserved pulp tissues has more apoptotic cells than fresh group. In conclusion, it is possible to acquire pulp stromal cells from cryopreserved deciduous teeth. However, as the period of cryopreservation becomes longer, it is difficult to get pulp cells due to reduced cell viability. PMID:23670172

Ji, Eun Hye; Song, Je Seon; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jeon, Mijeong; Choi, Byung-Jai; Lee, Jae Ho

2014-03-01

187

Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.  

PubMed

The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 ?L of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform. PMID:23075417

Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

2012-11-01

188

Etanercept Enhances Preservation of Osteochondral Allograft Viability  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Osteochondral allografts are an increasingly popular treatment for the repair of articular cartilage lesions. Current tissue bank protocols require bacteriological testing that takes from 21 to 28 days to process. During this time, tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-? (a pro-apoptotic cytokine) is upregulated resulting in loss of chondrocyte viability. To date, etanercept (a cytokine inhibitor) has not been studied in the current storage paradigm with the intention of preserving cell viability. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE To assess whether or not the addition of Etanercept can improve the chondrocytic viability of osteochondral allograft during storage. STUDY DESIGN Controlled, randomized and blinded in vitro laboratory study. METHODS Osteochondral allografts were harvested from eight Boer goat femurs and placed into storage media and stored at 4°C for 28 days. The experimental group was supplemented with 10 µg/mL of Etanercept. After storage, cell viability was assessed by live/dead staining and confocal microscopy. Specimens were also analyzed histologically and underwent histomorphological analysis. TNF-? expression was measured with semi-quantitative PCR. RESULTS At 28 days, the percent viability of the superficial zone in etanercept-treated allografts was maintained at significantly higher levels than those measured in the untreated group (69.3 ± 9.4 compared to 47.8 ± 19.1, p=0.01). No difference was found histologically between the etanercept and the untreated group (i.e. safranin-O staining for GAG expression). Histomorphologic assessment showed no difference in indentation stiffness or roughness between groups. TNF-? expression was significantly decreased in the etanercept group compared to the untreated group. CONCLUSION Etanercept was able to maintain cell viability of osteochondral allografts significantly better than the current storage paradigm after 28 days storage. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maintaining the viability of the superficial zone will benefit outcomes by facilitating joint articulation via improved lubrication. Additionally, maintaining the cellular viability for increased periods of time may allow a greater window of time in which a suitable recipient may be found.

Linn, Michael S.; Chase, Derek C.; Healey, Robert M.; Harwood, Frederick L.; Bugbee, William D.; Amiel, David

2012-01-01

189

Effect of air humidity on the egg viability of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae) common on rubber trees in Brazil.  

PubMed

Rubber pest mites, Calacarus heveae and Tenuipalpus heveae, reach economic damage levels at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season in Brazil. Therefore, low humidity adaptation might be an important characteristic for predatory mites to successfully control pest organisms. This study determined the effect of the relative humidity (RH) levels of 30-100% on the hatching of larvae of Amblyseius acalyphus, Euseius citrifolius, Iphiseiodes zuluagai, Metaseiulus camelliae, Agistemus floridanus and Zetzellia malvinae at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C. These predatory mites are common on rubber trees in the state of São Paulo and might be used for introduction in the major rubber tree production regions in the state of Mato Grosso. At 70% RH or higher, viability was 70% or higher for all species, indicating that their performance might be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Eggs of E. citrifolius and M. camelliae presented higher viability at the lower relative humidity levels than those of other species, indicating that these species might have higher chance to persist in the dry season. It is suggested that M. camelliae should be further evaluated for introduction in the state of Mato Grosso, considering that this mite is not yet present in that area. PMID:16550332

de Vis, Raf Michaël Julien; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bellini, Marcos Roberto

2006-01-01

190

Chondrocyte Viability Is Higher After Prolonged Storage at 37°C Than at 4 C for Osteochondral Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Osteochondral allografts are currently stored at 4°C for 2 to 6 weeks before implantation. At 4°C, chondrocyte viability, especially in the superficial zone, deteriorates starting at 2 weeks. Alternative storage conditions could maintain chondrocyte viability beyond 2 weeks, and thereby facilitate increased graft availability and enhanced graft quality.Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of

Andrea L. Pallante; Won C. Bae; Albert C. Chen; Simon Görtz; William D. Bugbee; Robert L. Sah

2009-01-01

191

Muscle Fiber Viability, a Novel Method for the Fast Detection of Ischemic Muscle Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute lower extremity ischemia is a limb- and life-threatening clinical problem. Rapid detection of the degree of injury is crucial, however at present there are no exact diagnostic tests available to achieve this purpose. Our goal was to examine a novel technique - which has the potential to accurately assess the degree of ischemic muscle injury within a short period of time - in a clinically relevant rodent model. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 4, 6, 8 and 9 hours of bilateral lower limb ischemia induced by the occlusion of the infrarenal aorta. Additional animals underwent 8 and 9 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion to examine the effects of revascularization. Muscle samples were collected from the left anterior tibial muscle for viability assessment. The degree of muscle damage (muscle fiber viability) was assessed by morphometric evaluation of NADH-tetrazolium reductase reaction on frozen sections. Right hind limbs were perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde for light and electron microscopic examinations. Muscle fiber viability decreased progressively over the time of ischemia, with significant differences found between the consecutive times. High correlation was detected between the length of ischemia and the values of muscle fiber viability. After reperfusion, viability showed significant reduction in the 8-hour-ischemia and 2-hour-reperfusion group compared to the 8-hour-ischemia-only group, and decreased further after 9 hours of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion. Light- and electron microscopic findings correlated strongly with the values of muscle fiber viability: lesser viability values represented higher degree of ultrastructural injury while similar viability results corresponded to similar morphological injury. Muscle fiber viability was capable of accurately determining the degree of muscle injury in our rat model. Our method might therefore be useful in clinical settings in the diagnostics of acute ischemic muscle injury.

Turoczi, Zsolt; Aranyi, Peter; Lukats, Akos; Garbaisz, David; Lotz, Gabor; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szijarto, Attila

2014-01-01

192

Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

1980-01-01

193

Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

1980-09-01

194

Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets. PMID:23212836

Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa

2013-04-01

195

Prediction of Myocardial Viability by MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

evascularization interventions in evolving myocardial infarctions have their rationale in the assumption that viable myocardial cells persist in the ischemically in- jured area. Consequently, intensive work has been directed over the past decade toward the development of noninvasive imaging methods to identify and quantify myocardial viability. See p 744 In this regard, the temporal pattern of myocardial contrast enhancement on

Charles B. Higgins

196

Evaluation of myocardial viability with contrast echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of viable myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (MI) or in the setting of severe chronic ischemic heart disease has important clinical implications. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) has been used for the evaluation of myocardial viability by assessing myocardial perfusion and microvascular integrity. In acute MI, MCE can identify the no-reflow phenomenon after revascularization, which has significant implications regarding recovery

William A Zoghbi

2002-01-01

197

The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of the…

Belson, Nicole

1989-01-01

198

Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

2011-01-01

199

Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

Zanatta, G; Steffens, D; Braghirolli, D I; Fernandes, R A; Netto, C A; Pranke, P

2012-02-01

200

Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

201

Determination of the existence of economic rents accruing in the United States coal industry and implications of increased coal severance taxation  

SciTech Connect

To raise necessary revenues, many energy rich states have turned to greater utilization of severance taxation. Increases in oil and gas prices and the decline of nuclear power led to an increase in the competitiveness of coal, and perhaps to the generation of economic rents within the coal industry which state legislatures would hope to reappropriate via severance taxation. The purpose of this research is to determine if economic rents have been generated within the coal industry, and to analyze the implications of increased severance taxation. A mine simulation model was used to estimate the price per ton of coal a typical firm would have to charge in order to cover all operating costs and earn a normal rate or return. Such estimates were made for eleven major coal producing states and compared to actual price data for the years 1978 through 1981. For each year, actual selling prices exceeded the minimum acceptable selling price necessary for firms to earn a normal rate of return, i.e., economic rents were generated in each year, totalling nearly $2.5 billion in 1981. Regarding the implications of increased severance taxation, it was argued that will the exception of a pure profits tax, any tax imposed on a profit-maximizing firm would discourage production and investment.

Noser, T.C.

1986-01-01

202

Comparison of viability and heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes stored at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of storage temperature on the viability and heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes spores. Spore suspension containing both spores and vegetative cells was divided into 3 groups to be stored at different temperatures of -20 (freezing), 4 (refrigerating), and 25 degrees C (ambient temperature). Samples stored for different times within the 2 mo were tested for viability by comparison of colony counts on plates and for heat resistance by determining D values at 121 degrees C. No significant differences were found in the viability of vegetative cells during the storage period, regardless of storage temperatures tested, while the viability of the spores stored for more than 4 wk was significantly higher at 4 degrees C than at -20 degrees C. The heat resistance of spores stored at 4 degrees C for more than 4 wk was remarkably higher than that at 25 degrees C, but similar to that at -20 degrees C throughout the storage period. Consequently, it turned out that a refrigerating temperature of 4 degrees C is satisfactory for storage of C. sporogenes spores in maintaining viability and heat resistance. This study suggests that storage temperature influences the viability and heat resistance of C. sporogenes spores. PMID:19200102

Mah, J-H; Kang, D-H; Tang, J

2009-01-01

203

Social, economic, political and health system and program determinants of child mortality reduction in China between 1990 and 2006: A systematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Between 1990 and 2006, China reduced its under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 64.6 to 20.6 per 1000 live births and achieved the fourth United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal nine years ahead of target. This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success. Methods For each of the years between 1990 and 2006, we obtained an estimate of U5MR for 30 Chinese provinces from the annual China Health Statistics Yearbook. For each year, we also obtained data describing the status of 8 social, 10 economic, 2 political, 9 health system and policy, and six health programmes and intervention indicators for each province. These government data are not of the same quality as some other health information sources in modern China, such as articles with primary research data available in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wan Fang databases, or Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system. Still, the comparison of relative changes in underlying indicators with the undisputed strong general trend of childhood mortality reduction over 17 years should still capture the main effects at the macro-level. We used multivariate random effect regression models to determine the effect of 35 indicators individually and 5 constructs defined by factor analysis (reflecting effects of social, economic, political, health systems and policy, and health programmes) on the reduction of U5MR in China. Results In the univariate regression applied with a one-year time lag, social determinants of health construct showed the strongest crude association with U5MR reduction (R2?=?0.74), followed by the constructs for health programmes and interventions (R2?=?0.65), economic (R2?=?0.47), political (R2?=?0.28) and health system and policy determinants (R2?=?0.26), respectively. Similarly, when multivariate regression was applied with a one-year time lag, the social determinants construct showed the strongest effect (beta?=?11.79, P?economic growth alone may all fail to achieve the desired reduction in child mortality when improvement of the key social determinants of health is lagging behind. To accelerate progress toward MDG4, low- and middle-income countries should undertake appropriate efforts to promote maternal education, reduce fertility rates, integrate minority populations and improve access to clean water and safe sanitation. A cross-sectoral approach seems most likely to have the greatest impact on U5MR.

Feng, Xing Lin; Theodoratou, Evropi; Liu, Li; Chan, Kit Yee; Hipgrave, David; Scherpbier, Robert; Brixi, Hana; Guo, Sufang; Chunmei, Wen; Chopra, Mickey; Black, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Guo, Yan

2012-01-01

204

Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores  

SciTech Connect

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-10-06

205

Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-10-01

206

Economic perspectives of using indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the interrelation of ecological and economic aspects through the use of indicators. Two aspects are painted out: the first being the measurement of the economic value of ecological services, and the second being the integration of economic aspects into comprehensive indicator systems.The measurement of the economic value provides a means of determining consumer-orientated values of landscapes

Elisabeth Osinski; Jochen Kantelhardt; Alois Heissenhuber

2003-01-01

207

Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).  

PubMed

The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

2013-04-01

208

Determination of peroxide values using ethyl acetate as solvent. Analytical methods in respect to environmental and economical concern, part 21.  

PubMed

Peroxide values of fixed oils can be determined in ethyl acetate, an easily biodegredable solvent instead of chloroform according to PH. EUR. 2002, method A. Potentiometric indication is recommended. Further investigations are necessary to explain the high blank values obtained, when ethyl acetate is used. PMID:15497757

Hilp, M

2004-09-01

209

Towards "Lisbon Objectives": Economic Determinants of Participation Rates in University Education--An Empirical Analysis in 14 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation rates in higher education are an important indicator to pursue one of the main European policy objectives, which is to increase the proportion of population attending higher education. A model used to detect the determinants of participation rates is proposed in this paper, and it is empirically tested for 14 European countries…

Agasisti, Tommaso

2009-01-01

210

From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

2005-01-01

211

Salinity effects on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of three Perkinsus species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known regarding the range of conditions in which many Perkinsus species may proliferate, making it difficult to predict conditions favorable for their expansion, to identify conditions inducing mortality, or to identify instances of potential cross-infectivity among sympatric host species. In this study, the effects of salinity on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki were determined. Specifically, this research examined the effects of 5 salinities (7, 11, 15, 25, 35???), (1) without acclimation, on the viability and metabolic activity of 2 isolates of each Perkinsus species, and (2) with acclimation, on the viability, metabolic activity, size and number of 1 isolate of each species. P. chesapeaki showed the widest range of salinity tolerance of the 3 species, with high viability and cell proliferation at all salinities tested. Although P. chesapeaki originated from low salinity areas (i.e. <15???), several measures (i.e. cell number and metabolic activity) indicated that higher salinities (15, 25???) were more favorable for its growth. P. olseni, originating from high salinity areas, had better viability and proliferation at the higher salinities (15, 25, 35???). Distinct differences in acute salinity response of the 2 P. olseni isolates at lower salinities (7, 11???), however, suggest the need for a more expansive comparison of isolates to better define the lower salinity tolerance. Lastly, P. marinus was more tolerant of the lower salinities (7 and 11???) than P. olseni, but exhibited reduced viability at 7???, even after acclimation. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

La, Peyre, M.; Casas, S.; La, Peyre, J.

2006-01-01

212

The effect of centrifugation condition on mature adipocytes and adipose stem cell viability.  

PubMed

Different researchers have recommended different lipoaspirate centrifugation speeds and times, probably due to the limits in fat cell viability assays. We assessed fat cell viability using a fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide (FDA-PI) stain and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay after harvesting syringe liposuction and spun with different centrifugation speeds to determine the optimal conditions. Lipoaspirates, harvested from 13 donors, were transferred into a centrifuge tube and spun at 1000, 3000, and 4000 rpm for 3 minutes. Mature adipocytes and adipose stem cells were isolated and tested with a direct counting of FDA-PI-stained cells under fluorescence microscope and XTT assay. We incubated adipocytes and adipose stem cells for 1 day and 3 days, and we compared both of them with fresh samples to evaluate the influence of culturing condition on fat cell viability. Centrifugation speeds from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm for 3 minutes showed no change in the percentage of adipocytes and adipose stem cell viability not only in the fresh samples but also in the cultured samples (1 day and 3 days). Centrifugation speeds under 4000 rpm do not change the percentage of fat cell viability. To differentiate viable cells from dying or dead mature adipocytes and oil accurately, combinations of viability tests are essential. PMID:23636113

Son, Daegu; Choi, Taehyun; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

2014-05-01

213

Myocardial viability: Seeking relevance and redefinition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  More than any other discipline, nuclear cardiology has contributed to understanding of myocardial viability, including the\\u000a concepts of hibernation and stunning. It must be recognized, however, that these concepts are used as models to drive the\\u000a process of scientific inquiry. These models may describe components of the pathophysiology of ventricular dysfunction in CAD.\\u000a Integration of the models of hibernation and

James A. Arrighi; Robert Soufer

1998-01-01

214

Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression  

PubMed Central

Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

2013-01-01

215

Use of Time-Aggregated Data in Economic Screening Analyses of Combined Heat and Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power (CHP) projects (also known as cogeneration projects) usually undergo a series of assessments and viability checks before any commitment is made. A screening analysis, with electrical and thermal loads characterized on an annual basis, may be performed initially to quickly determine the economic viability of the proposed project. Screening analyses using time-aggregated data do not reflect several critical cost influences, however. Seasonal and diurnal variations in electrical and thermal loads, as well as time-of-use utility pricing structures, can have a dramatic impact on the economics. A more accurate economic assessment requires additional detailed data on electrical and thermal demand (e.g., hourly load data), which may not be readily available for the specific facility under study. Recent developments in CHP evaluation tools, however, can generate the needed hourly data through the use of historical data libraries and building simulation. This article utilizes model-generated hourly load data for four potential CHP applications and compares the calculated cost savings of a CHP system when evaluated on a time-aggregated (i.e., annual) basis to the savings when evaluated on an hour-by-hour basis. It is observed that the simple, aggregated analysis forecasts much greater savings (i.e., greater economic viability) than the more detailed hourly analysis. The findings confirm that the simpler tool produces results with a much more optimistic outlook, which, if taken by itself, might lead to erroneous project decisions. The more rigorous approach, being more reflective of actual requirements and conditions, presents a more accurate economic comparison of the alternatives, which, in turn, leads to better decision risk management.

Hudson II, Carl Randy [ORNL

2004-09-01

216

Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

217

Determination of natural and socio-economic factors affecting landslide damage: an econometric approach using empirical evidence from the Calabria Region (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies investigated how natural and human factors control the occurrence of landslides. In addition, considerable efforts have been made to quantitatively and qualitatively estimate damage, direct as well as indirect, due to the occurrence of landslides. However, only very few studies explicitly investigate how socio-economic factors affect the magnitude of damage caused by a landslide event. Nevertheless, socio-economic factors will be crucial determinants of landslide damage. For example, at household level, more wealthy households will be able to build houses in areas less susceptible to landslides or will be more able to take preventive measures to mitigate landslide damage. At the same time, the higher the income the higher the value of the property that will be damaged in case of a landslide occurrence. At regional level, the landslide damage is likely to depend on factors such as population density, income level and distribution, and rurality. In addition, it should be taken into account that historical data or inventories will be more precise when it comes to reporting landslide frequency and damage in the more recent years, while events that occurred longer ago are less likely to be reported unless major damage was caused. This might give the false impression that landslides occurred less frequently but were more damaging in the past. Therefore, this study econometrically estimates a landslide damage function. Based on a landslide inventory for an Italian region, landslide damage index is calculated for landslide damage assessment. Using state of the art econometric techniques, we identify which natural and socio-economic factors significantly affect landslide damage while correcting for time fixed effects. As such it provides a useful tool to predict future land damage. Furthermore, it provides useful insights for policy makers about the factors they should primarily try to alter in order to reduce landslide damage.

Petrucci, O.; Vranken, L.

2012-04-01

218

Evaluation of Myocardial Viability With Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of myocardial viability is of clinical and scientific significance. Traditionally, the detection of myocardial viability (either stunning or hibernation) has been used in aiding diagnosis before revascularization, especially in high-risk patients. There is a considerable body of observational evidence showing substantial improvement after revascularization in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial viability. Recent randomized evidence has questioned

Suchi Grover; Govindarajan Srinivasan; Joseph B. Selvanayagam

2011-01-01

219

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1...of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of...deposit and during the term of deposit. Viability may be tested by the...

2009-07-01

220

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1...of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of...deposit and during the term of deposit. Viability may be tested by the...

2010-07-01

221

The economic common sense of SDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present development history and current status evaluation of the economic viability of SDI technologies suggests that much of the exaggeration of SDI costs has been due to an effort of the part of the program's opponents to consider only the most exotic, and commensurately expensive, options for orbital missile defense. It is noted that, by contrast, extraordinary advancements in

1990-01-01

222

Education and economic inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the structure and determinants of economic inequality in Greece and the EU-15 countries using data from the latest available Greek Household Budget Survey and the 7th wave of the ECHP survey. Emphasis is given to the possibly less well- researched but nonetheless important role of education in the shaping of economic inequalities. The analysis shows that in

Theodore M. Mitrakos

2004-01-01

223

Site-specific economic analysis of solar thermosyphon domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

A market analysis and economic assessment has been conducted for solar thermosyphon domestic hot water (STDHW) systems. For the continental United States, a specific procedure was followed using current information in the public domain to select three sites with potentially viable markets for the STDHW systems. Following this, a technique was developed and applied to each of the sites to determine the required cost/performance boundary conditions for economic viability of the solar systems versus available conventional systems. The technique developed allows the user to input any site- and system-specific parameters required and to choose from any or all of the three different economic assessment methods combined into a single nomography. The technique is thus repeatable for any system, any site.

Coleman, G.B.; Ford, K.E.

1982-01-01

224

Rapid Endospore Viability Assay of Clostridium sporogenes spores.  

PubMed

A rapid Endospore Viability Assay (EVA), previously developed for Bacillus spores, was modified for enumeration of germinable Clostridium sporogenes spores. The EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released during stage I germination and quantified by terbium (III) ion Tb-DPA luminescence. Germination of C. sporogenes spores in aqueous suspension was induced by L-alanine and NaHCO(3) addition, and germinable endospore numbers were determined by reference to a standard curve. Determination of the fractions of germinable C. sporogenes spores by EVA and phase-contrast microscopy yielded comparable results of 54.0%+/-2.9% and 59.3%+/-2.6%, respectively, while only 32.3%+/-5.3% of spores produced colonies on reinforced clostridial medium (RCM). Rates of germination were measured as a function of temperature (30 degrees C-60 degrees C) using EVA, yielding a linear relationship between the square root of the rate constant and inverse temperature. PMID:19540610

Yang, Wan-Wan; Ponce, Adrian

2009-08-15

225

Determinants of Persistent Underweight among Children, Aged 6-35 Months, after Huge Economic Development and Improvements in Health Services in Oman  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades, health indicators have witnessed major improvements in the Sultanate of Oman. This study was aimed at factors associated with underweight among children in four regions of Oman, as, in 1998, underweight was prevalent among 17.9% of children aged less than five years. A case-control study was conducted in 2002: 190 cases were 6-35-month old children with weight-for-age determinants of persistent underweight after huge economic development and improvements in health services. Further research is also needed to investigate further specific determinants of low birth-weight in the Omani context and try to disentangle emaciation and determinants of linear growth retardation.

Alasfoor, Deena; Traissac, Pierre; Gartner, Agnes; Delpeuch, Francis

2007-01-01

226

Resilience and vulnerability to a natural hazard: A mathematical framework based on viability theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This deals with the response of a coupled human and natural system (CHANS) to a natural hazard by using the concepts of resilience and vulnerability within the mathematical framework of viability theory. This theory applies to time-evolving systems such as CHANS and assumes that their desirable properties can be defined as a subset of their state space. Policies can also apply to influence the dynamics of such systems: viability theory aims at finding the policies which keep the properties of a controlled dynamical system for so long as no disturbance hits it. The states of the system such that the properties are guaranteed constitute what is called the viability kernel. This viability framework has been extended to describe the response to a perturbation such as a natural hazard. Resilience describes the capacity of the CHANS to recover by getting back in the viability kernel, where its properties are guaranteed until the onset of the next major event. Defined for a given controlled trajectory that the system may take after the event ends, resilience is (a) whether the system comes back to the viability kernel within a given budget such as a time constraint, but also (b) a decreasing function of vulnerability. Computed for a given trajectory as well, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for a certain trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of an associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Computing the resilience and vulnerability of a trajectory enables the viability framework to describe the response of both deterministic and stochastic systems to hazards. In the deterministic case, there is only one response trajectory for a given action policy, and methods exist to find the actions which yield the most resilient trajectory, namely the least vulnerable trajectory for which recovery is complete. In the stochastic case however, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the resilience and vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield either the policies that maximize the probability of being resilient by achieving recovery within a given time horizon, or these which minimize a given vulnerability statistic. These objectives are different and can be in contradiction, so that trade-offs may have to be considered between them. The approach is illustrated in both the deterministic and stochastic cases through a simple model of lake eutrophication, for which the desirable ecological properties of the lake conflict with the economic interest of neighboring farmers.

Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

2013-04-01

227

Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe  

PubMed Central

Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable to continuously track viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative DRAQ7 is gaining increasing interest as an easy to use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect cells susceptibility to the death inducing agents. However when the membrane integrity is compromised DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (??m) sensing probe.

Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

228

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi.

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

229

Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability  

SciTech Connect

We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

230

Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of the associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Due to the stochastic nature of the system, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield the policies which, among available policies, minimize a given trajectory. Thus, this viability framework gives indication on both the possible consequences of a hazard or an environmental change, and on the policies that can mitigate or avert it. It also enables to assess the benefits of extending the set of available policy options, and we define adaptive capacity as the reduction in a given vulnerability statistic due to the introduction of new policy options.

Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

2013-04-01

231

Behavioral Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albiet highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects ...

S. R. Hursh

1984-01-01

232

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

1999-01-01

233

Ricardo's Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book, together with Marx's Economic and Walras' Economics, completes a sequence of titles by Professor Morishima on the first generation of scientific economists. The author's assessment of Ricardo differs substantially from the established views adopted by economists and historians of economic thought. While economists such as Pasinetti, Caravale and Samuelson have concentrated on macroeconomic interpretations of Ricardo, and historians

Michio Morishima

234

FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2?M of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p<0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p<0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heat-shock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways.

Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

2013-01-01

235

Evaluation of the Cell Viability of Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells for Use in Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are gaining attention as a possible clinical source of mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their high accessibility, expansion potential, and plasticity. We employed a combination of highly sensitive techniques to determine the average cell viability levels and proliferation capabilities of 10 consecutive cell passages of cultured HWJSCs and then used RNA microarrays to identify genes associated with changes in cell viability levels. We found an initial decrease in cell viability from the first to the third cell passage followed by an increase until the sixth passage and a final decrease from the sixth to tenth cell passages. The highest cell viability levels corresponded to the fifth and sixth passages. The intracellular ionic contents of potassium, sodium, and chlorine suggest that the lower cell viability levels at passages 2, 3, and 8–10 may be associated with apoptotic cell death. In fact, gene expression analysis revealed that the average cell viability was significantly associated with genes with a function in apoptotic cell death, especially pro-apoptotic FASTKD2, BNIP3L genes and anti-apoptotic TNFAIP8 and BCL2L2 genes. This correlation with both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes suggests that there may be a complex live-death equilibrium in cultured HWJSCs kept in culture for multiple cell passages. In this study, the highest cell viability levels corresponded to the fifth and sixth HWJSC passages, suggesting that these passages should be preferentially employed in cell therapy or tissue engineering protocols using this cell type.

Garzon, Ingrid; Perez-Kohler, Barbara; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Carriel, Victor; Nieto-Aguilar, Renato; Martin-Piedra, Miguel Angel; Garcia-Honduvilla, Natalio; Bujan, Julia; Campos, Antonio

2012-01-01

236

Economic and financial analysis of harvesting and utilization of river reed in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

The Okavango Delta, the largest Ramsar wetland site, is one of the most resource-rich ecosystems in Botswana. A range of resources, including reeds, contribute in various ways to the well-being of many of the communities through subsistence and income generation. The economic value of reeds and other resources found in wetlands has been poorly understood, leading to the perception that wetlands are wastelands, and have little or no economic values. Such resources are therefore likely to receive lower priority in conservation when evaluated against other alternative activities. The aim of this research was to determine the benefit and financial and economic viability of harvesting river reed in the Okavango Delta. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered at three villages in the Okavango Delta. Secondary data were collected from existing literature. Financial and economic analysis was undertaken using static and financial models. Market prices were used to calculate the net income generated from the sale of harvested reed. The measurement criteria for static models were the annual net cash income, net annual economic benefit, and return on investment (ROI), while those under the dynamic models were the net present value (NPV), benefit cost ratio (BCR), and the net benefit investment (N/K) ratio. It was more financially profitable and economically viable to harvest and sell reeds at Shorobe village (a village relatively close to the District economic centre, Maun), than Shakawe or Etsha-13. PMID:16288956

Mmopelwa, G

2006-06-01

237

Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

1975-01-01

238

Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discoura...

C. Marnay J. Chang J. Lai M. Stadler O. Megel

2010-01-01

239

Myocardial viability assessment in 18FDG PET/CT study (18FDG PET myocardial viability assessment).  

PubMed

Accurate identification of viable myocardium is crucial in patient qualification for medical or surgical treatment. Only persons with confirmed cardiac viability will benefit from revascularization procedures. It is also well known, that the amount of viable myocardium assessed preoperatively is the best indicator of long term cardiac event free survival after cardiac intervention.There are several diagnostic approaches used in current clinical practice for assessment of myocardial viability. Analysis of wall thickness or myocardial contraction, evaluation of cardiac perfusion or metabolism can be assessed using following modalities: Echocardiography, Cardiac Molecular Imaging techniques (PET, SPECT), Cardiovascular MR or Cardiovascular CT. The article describes the methods and problems of viability assessment in 18FDG PET study. PET imaging has proved its accuracy and reproducibility for myocardial ischemia and viability assessment. However this unique in its ability for showing the particular substrate metabolism technique has unfortunately some disadvantages: currently achieved PET resolution is 0.4 cm. However the combined devices multislice computed tomography scanners with PET (PET/CT) are now widely used in clinical practice. This combination allows for wider morphologic assessments: coronary calcium scoring and non-invasive coronary angiography may be added to myocardial perfusion/metabolic imaging if necessary. PMID:23047574

Kobylecka, Ma?gorzata; M?czewska, Joanna; Fronczewska-Wieniawska, Katarzyna; Mazurek, Tomasz; P?azi?ska, Maria Teresa; Królicki, Leszek

2012-01-01

240

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

2000-04-24

241

Health Services & Economics Research: Economics of Cancer & Cancer Trials  

Cancer.gov

The Health Services and Economics Branch supports several activities related to the economics of cancer. These include developing data resources and methods to produce estimates of the Economic Burden of Cancer, developing detailed estimates of and determinants of The Cost of Cancer Care, and estimating The Cost of Cancer Care in Clinical Trials.

242

Optimizing CO2 normalizes pH and enhances chondrocyte viability during cold storage.  

PubMed

Fresh osteochondral allografts are an important treatment option for the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Viable chondrocytes within the transplanted tissue are considered important to maintaining matrix integrity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether an increase in pH decreases chondrocyte viability during cold storage and whether equilibration of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in 5% CO(2) normalizes pH and increases chondrocyte survival during storage at 4 degrees C. Freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads were stored for up to 5 days at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C in DMEM exposed to ambient air or in DMEM equilibrated with 5% CO(2). Chondrocyte viability was determined by flow cytometry. Physiologic pH was maintained when DMEM was equilibrated with 5% CO(2), while pH increased in ambient air. After 5 days of storage at 4 degrees C, chondrocyte necrosis was higher when stored in ambient air than if equilibrated with 5% CO(2). No decrease in chondrocyte viability was observed with storage at 37 degrees C. In addition, chondrocyte viability in bovine cartilage osteochondral cores was examined after storage for 14 days at 4 degrees C in DMEM with and without HEPES, and with and without 5% CO(2). Under these conditions, the superficial layer of chondrocytes was more viable when stored in DMEM with HEPES or DMEM equilibrated with 5% CO(2) than when stored in DMEM in ambient air. This data shows that an increase in pH decreased bovine chondrocyte viability when refrigerated at 4 degrees C in DMEM, and that optimization of CO(2) normalized pH and improved chondrocyte viability during cold storage in DMEM. PMID:18050310

Dontchos, Brian N; Coyle, Christian H; Izzo, Nicholas J; Didiano, Deanna M; Karpie, John C; Logar, Alison; Chu, Constance R

2008-05-01

243

Evaluation of myocardial viability with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Assessment of myocardial viability is of clinical and scientific significance. Traditionally, the detection of myocardial viability (either stunning or hibernation) has been used in aiding diagnosis before revascularization, especially in high-risk patients. There is a considerable body of observational evidence showing substantial improvement after revascularization in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial viability. Recent randomized evidence has questioned the benefit of viability testing but must be interpreted with caution. Dobutamine stress echocardiography, nuclear imaging, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance are the mainstays of viability testing and provide information on contractile function, cellular metabolism, and myocardial fibrosis, respectively. Larger, multicenter trials with outcome data are needed to define the nature of viability testing and, particularly, cardiovascular magnetic resonance in moderate-to-severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:22014488

Grover, Suchi; Srinivasan, Govindarajan; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

2011-01-01

244

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

PubMed Central

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research.

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

245

Financial viability, medical technology, and hospital closures.  

PubMed

Informed investments in medical technology and information systems are associated with the financial viability of community hospitals. Financially distressed facilities are 3 to 4 years behind proactive hospitals in supporting high-speed data, voice, and image transmissions to physicians in various locations. Impact of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, fraud and abuse activities, Y2K issues, and lack of information systems support for physicians will result in 800 hospital closures and mergers of distressed hospitals over the next 60 months. These findings are based on the application of an eight-step framework for classifying information systems in health care entities. This framework is validated by survey instruments, site visits, interviews with senior management in 44 health care entities containing 576 hospitals, and judgments on the financial status of the health care entities. PMID:10845382

Prince, T R; Sullivan, J A

2000-01-01

246

Economics Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.

2000-01-01

247

Economics (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... SBE) SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SCIENCES (SES) Economics The Program strengthens both empirical and ... economics, labor economics, public finance, macroeconomics, and mathematical economics. Target Dates ...

248

Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

1982-01-01

249

Economic Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

Van Alstyne, Carol

250

Economics 301.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this one-credit economics course for secondary schools in Manitoba (Canada) is to help students develop skills in business education and to provide them with basic information about how the Canadian economic system affects business, government, and the individual. The course requires 110 to 220 hours of instruction. Students study…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

251

Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

PubMed

For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

252

[Economic evaluation in healthcare].  

PubMed

Economics was only recently considered as a dimension of health technology assessment in France. Yet there are always limits in resources that we collectively agree to devote to health. A comparative "economic" appraisal is therefore needed to guide health choices and contribute to price regulation. Methodologies are based on the determination of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with a reference. The interpretation of these ratios is never isolated from the context of the decision. Health economic evaluation is not involved in healthcare rationing, but it contributes to the rationality of decisions in the interest of the overall population. PMID:24939547

Detournay, Bruno

2014-05-01

253

Economic Incentive Programs: Performance Evaluation and the Iowa Department of Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Iowa Department of Economic Development (IDED) oversees a broad range of economic development programs and services designed to meet the needs of individuals, companies and communities. Evaluating economic incentive programs can help determine what wo...

D. A. Keele

1999-01-01

254

The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

1994-01-01

255

Ingredient Supplementation Effects on Viability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation studied the effects of cysteine, whey powder, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophi- lus, and bifidobacteria. Changes in pH, titratable acidity, redox potential, and viability of bacteria were monitored during 24 h of fermentation and refriger- ated storage ( 4°C) of yogurt for 35 d. The incubation

R. I. Dave; N. P. Shah

1998-01-01

256

Financial Viability of Institutions. Issues in Post-Secondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial viability in postsecondary education is considered as part of the Postsecondary Education Core Design Project sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. Financial viability is defined within the scope of postsecondary education, and key policy issues at the national, state, and institutional levels are identified.…

Jenny, Hans H.

257

Optical measurement of the viability of stored human platelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been carried out to test the feasibility of optically assessing the viability of stored blood platelets. A red (633 nm) laser beam was passed through the platelet pack, and the scatter measured. Live platelets scattered the beam differently from dead ones, owing to their different shape. The results compared favourably with those from established in vitro tests of platelet viability.

Bellhouse, M. A.; Ross, I.; Entwistle, C. C.; Bellhouse, B. J.

1985-02-01

258

Viability of microbial mass in a submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the viability of biomass in a submerged membrane activated sludge system (sMBR) which treats domestic wastewater was investigated by dealing with non-biodegradable COD, specific oxygen uptake rate and MLVSS during operation for 100 days. It was shown that the viability of biomass in the bioreactor was reduced at the 50% level because of the accumulation of inert

Halil Hasar; Cumali Kinaci; Ayhan Unlü

2002-01-01

259

Computing the viability kernel using maximal reachable sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a connection between the viability kernel and maximal reachable sets. Current numerical schemes that compute the viability kernel suffer from a complexity that is exponential in the dimension of the state space. In contrast, extremely efficient and scalable techniques are available that compute maximal reachable sets. We show that under certain conditions these techniques can be used to

Shahab Kaynama; John Maidens; Meeko Oishi; Ian M. Mitchell; Guy A. Dumont

2012-01-01

260

Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis in Urine: Epidemiologic and Clinical Implications?  

PubMed Central

The impact of the viability of Trichomonas vaginalis in urine on wet mount, culture, and PCR methods was assessed. To minimize the chance of false-negative results, urine specimens should be processed within 30 min of specimen collection and maintained at 37°C, since temperature appears to affect the viability of Trichomonas.

Shafir, Shira C.; Sorvillo, Frank J.

2006-01-01

261

Population Viability Assessment of Salmonids by Using Probabilistic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public agencies are being asked to quantitatively assess the impact of land manage- ment activities on sensitive populations of salmonids. To aid in these assessments, we developed a Bayesian viability assessment procedure (BayVAM) to help characterize land use risks to salmo- nids in the Pacific Northwest. This procedure incorporates a hybrid approach to viability analysis that blends qualitative, professional judgment

DANNY C. LEE; BRUCE E. RIEMAN

1997-01-01

262

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

263

Determination of 16 selected trace elements in children plasma from china economical developed rural areas using high resolution magnetic sector inductively coupled mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1? ? g/L, 0-10? ? g/L and 0-100? ? g/L. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02? ? g/L (Rb) to 1.89? ? g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3-12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

264

Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1??g/L, 0–10??g/L and 0–100??g/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02??g/L (Rb) to 1.89??g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002.

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

265

Swarm Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

266

A novel live-dead staining methodology to study malaria parasite viability  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major health and socio-economical problem in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Several methodologies have been used to assess parasite viability during the adaption of field strains to culture or the assessment of drug potential, but these are in general not able to provide an accurate real-time assessment of whether parasites are alive or dead. Methods Different commercial dyes and kits were assessed for their potential to allow for the real-time detection of whether a blood stage malaria parasite is dead or alive. Results Here, a methodology is presented based on the potential-sensitive mitochondrial probe JC-1, which allows for the real-time visualization of live (red staining) and/or dead (absence of red staining) blood stage parasites in vitro and ex vivo. This method is applicable across malaria parasite species and strains and allows to visualize all parasite blood stages including gametocytes. Further, this methodology has been assessed also for use in drug sensitivity testing. Conclusions The JC-1 staining approach is a versatile methodology that can be used to assess parasite viability during the adaptation of field samples to culture and during drug treatment. It was found to hold promise in the assessment of drugs expected to lead to delayed death phenotypes and it currently being evaluated as a method for the assessment of parasite viability during the adaptation of patient-derived Plasmodium vivax to long-term in vitro culture.

2013-01-01

267

A bacteriophage detection tool for viability assessment of Salmonella cells.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis, one of the most common food and water-borne diseases, has a major global health and economic impact. Salmonella cells present high infection rates, persistence over inauspicious conditions and the potential to preserve virulence in dormant states when cells are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). These facts are challenging for current detection methods. Culture methods lack the capacity to detect VBNC cells, while biomolecular methods (e.g. DNA- or protein-based) hardly distinguish between dead innocuous cells and their viable lethal counterparts. This work presents and validates a novel bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial detection tool to detect and assess Salmonella viability. Salmonella Enteritidis cells in a VBNC physiological state were evaluated by cell culture, flow-cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, and further assayed with a biosensor platform. Free PVP-SE1 phages in solution showed the ability to recognize VBNC cells, with no lysis induction, in contrast to the minor recognition of heat-killed cells. This ability was confirmed for immobilized phages on gold surfaces, where the phage detection signal follows the same trend of the concentration of viable plus VBNC cells in the sample. The phage probe was then tested in a magnetoresistive biosensor platform allowing the quantitative detection and discrimination of viable and VBNC cells from dead cells, with high sensitivity. Signals arising from 3 to 4 cells per sensor were recorded. In comparison to a polyclonal antibody that does not distinguish viable from dead cells, the phage selectivity in cell recognition minimizes false-negative and false-positive results often associated with most detection methods. PMID:24055938

Fernandes, E; Martins, V C; Nóbrega, C; Carvalho, C M; Cardoso, F A; Cardoso, S; Dias, J; Deng, D; Kluskens, L D; Freitas, P P; Azeredo, J

2014-02-15

268

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

269

AEM. Arctic Economics Model  

SciTech Connect

AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery, costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.

Reister, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1985-08-01

270

Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets  

SciTech Connect

The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

1989-07-01

271

Cardiomyocyte Ogt is essential for postnatal viability.  

PubMed

The singly coded gene O-linked-?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (Ogt) resides on the X chromosome and is necessary for embryonic stem cell viability during embryogenesis. In mature cells, this enzyme catalyzes the posttranslational modification known as O-GlcNAc to various cellular proteins. Several groups, including our own, have shown that acute increases in protein O-GlcNAcylation are cardioprotective both in vitro and in vivo. Yet, little is known about how OGT affects cardiac function because total body knockout (KO) animals are not viable. Presently, we sought to establish the potential involvement of cardiomyocyte Ogt in cardiac maturation. Initially, we characterized a constitutive cardiomyocyte-specific (cm)OGT KO (c-cmOGT KO) mouse and found that only 12% of the c-cmOGT KO mice survived to weaning age (4 wk old); the surviving animals were smaller than their wild-type littermates, had dilated hearts, and showed overt signs of heart failure. Dysfunctional c-cmOGT KO hearts were more fibrotic, apoptotic, and hypertrophic. Several glycolytic genes were also upregulated; however, there were no gross changes in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Histopathology of the KO hearts indicated the potential involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress, directing us to evaluate expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase, which were elevated. Additional groups of mice were subjected to inducible deletion of cmOGT, which did not produce overt dysfunction within the first couple of weeks of deletion. Yet, long-term loss (via inducible deletion) of cmOGT produced gradual and progressive cardiomyopathy. Thus, cardiomyocyte Ogt is necessary for maturation of the mammalian heart, and inducible deletion of cmOGT in the adult mouse produces progressive ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24186210

Watson, Lewis J; Long, Bethany W; DeMartino, Angelica M; Brittian, Kenneth R; Readnower, Ryan D; Brainard, Robert E; Cummins, Timothy D; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Hill, Bradford G; Jones, Steven P

2014-01-01

272

In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides *  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of two photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris HZ0301 and Rhodobacter sphaeroides HZ0302, as probiotics in aquaculture. The viability of HZ0301 and HZ0302 in simulated gastric transit conditions (pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 gastric juices) and in simulated small intestinal transit conditions (pH 8.0, with or without 0.3% bile salts) was tested. The effects of HZ0301 and HZ0302 on the viability and permeability of intestinal epithelial cell in primary culture of tilapias, Oreochromis nilotica, were also detected. All the treatments were determined with three replicates. The simulated gastric transit tolerance of HZ0301 and HZ0302 strains was pH-dependent and correspondingly showed lower viability at pH 2.0 after 180 min compared with pH 3.0 and pH 4.0. Both HZ0301 and HZ0302 were tolerant to simulated small intestine transit with or without bile salts in our research. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among three treatments including the control and the groups treated with HZ0301 or HZ0302 both in intestinal epithelial cell viability and membrane permeability, showing no cell damage. In summary, this study demonstrated that HZ0301 and HZ0302 had high capacity of upper gastrointestinal transit tolerance and were relatively safe for intestinal epithelial cells of tilapias.

Zhou, Xu-xia; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Yan-bo; Li, Wei-fen

2007-01-01

273

Effect of storage and preservation methods on viability in transplantable human skin allografts.  

PubMed

This study compared the metabolic activity of fresh skin samples to that of cadaver human skin allografts processed and stored by current tissue banking methods. We chose to use two metabolic assays as surrogate measures for viability in these grafts. Skin allografts stored either in liquid media at 4 degrees C for varying periods of time or stored by cryopreservation were quantitatively assessed for viability by tetrazolium reduction and oxygen consumption assays. These measurements were compared to viability assessments of fresh autograft skin. Human cadaver skin grafts, after procurement and just prior to further tissue bank processing, exhibited approximately 60% of the metabolic activity found in fresh skin samples obtained from living surgical donors. If allowed an overnight (18-24 h) incubation period at 37 degrees C, cadaver samples showed a recovery of their metabolic activity to 95% of that found in the autograft skin samples. When stored in liquid media at 4 degrees C, the cadaver skin declined steadily in cellular metabolic activity, arriving in less than 5 days storage at a measurement below that of cryopreserved skin. The cryopreserved skin was measured both immediately after thawing and dilution of cryoprotectant, as well as after equilibration and overnight incubation. Skin cryopreserved with dimethylsulfoxide Me(2)SO retained higher viability than glycerol cryopreserved skin. Residual concentrations of cryoprotectants were determined following typical recommendations for thawing and diluting skin allografts. The implications of these findings for transplantation and tissue banking are discussed. PMID:10751705

Bravo, D; Rigley, T H; Gibran, N; Strong, D M; Newman-Gage, H

2000-06-01

274

Chromosome Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Viability Studies  

PubMed Central

The nature of fitness interactions is an important, yet unsolved, question in population genetics. We compare the egg-to-adult viability of individuals homozygous for either a second or a third chromosome with the viability of individuals homozygous for both chromosomes simultaneously. On the average, the viability of the two-chromosome homozygotes is somewhat greater than expected assuming that the fitnesses of the single-chromosome homozygotes interact in a multiplicative fashion. This result differs from previous observations that indicate either no significant deviations from the expectation or lower-than-expected average fitnesses for the double homozygotes.

Seager, Robert D.; Ayala, Francisco J.

1982-01-01

275

Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.  

PubMed

Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

D?browska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; K?ape?, Teresa

2014-01-01

276

Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics  

PubMed Central

“Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

Camerer, Colin

1999-01-01

277

Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage  

PubMed Central

A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

278

45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shows legal status but not financial viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21...shows legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official...

2009-10-01

279

Population Viability Analysis of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Population viability analysis (PVA) can be used to partition influences on population recovery, and to distinguish those under the control of the military. We used PVA to evaluate threats to recovery of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in a riv...

D. L. Peterson H. I. Jager M. S. Bevelhimer

2011-01-01

280

Non-Rail Vehicle Market Viability Study. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently, only four manufacturers account for most of the transit bus production in the United States. Nevertheless, buses represent the largest single mode of public transportation. In order to investigate the viability of the U.S. transit bus manufactu...

2006-01-01

281

Viability of Personal Rapid Transit in New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report was prepared for the New Jersey Legislature to document the current state of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) development and implementation and to explore the potential viability of implementing PRT in New Jersey. The report summarizes t...

J. A. Carnegie P. S. Hoffman

2007-01-01

282

Leishmaniasis causes oxidative stress and alteration of oxidative metabolism and viability of neutrophils in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and alteration of oxidative metabolism and apoptosis of neutrophils in dogs vary with the stage of leishmaniasis and to determine the contribution of uremia to such alterations. Dogs with leishmaniasis were classified into two stages: moderate (Leish II, n=20) or very severe (i.e. with concurrent uremia; Leish IV, n=20) according to the LeishVet Consensus. The two leishmaniasis groups were compared with uremic dogs without leishmaniasis (Uremic, n=10) and to healthy dogs (Control, n=30). To determine oxidative stress, total antioxidant/oxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, total glutathione and the plasma antioxidants albumin, uric acid and bilirubin were quantified. Superoxide production was determined using the hydroethidine probe and viability and apoptosis were measured using annexin V-PE by capillary flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was present in both uremia and leishmaniasis with reduced total antioxidant capacity and was associated with increased induced production of superoxide and apoptosis. The greatest amount of oxidants was observed in animals with moderate disease only. Neutrophils from uremic dogs with and without leishmaniasis had decreased viability and an increased apoptosis rate in addition to increased lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, oxidative stress occurs in both stages of leishmaniasis with differences in intensity and levels of plasma markers; however, uremia does contribute to the decreased spontaneous viability of neutrophils in dogs in the final stage of the disease. PMID:24080475

Almeida, B F M; Narciso, L G; Melo, L M; Preve, P P; Bosco, A M; Lima, V M F; Ciarlini, P C

2013-12-01

283

Cell viability improves following inhibition of cryopreservation-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

A new concept in cryopreservation solution design was developed that focuses on the use of an intracellular-type, hypothermic maintenance medium coupled with additives that inhibit cryopreservation-induced apoptosis. HypoThermosol' (HTS), a hypothermic (4 degrees C) maintenance medium utilized in the long-term storage of cell, tissue, and organ systems, was tested for cryoprotective capability on a renal cell line (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells). HTS and HTS derivatives were tested against conventional cell culture medium (Dulbecco's Minimal Essential medium, DME) as the cryoprotectant carrier solution because (1) cells are exposed to an extended state of hypothermia during the freeze-thaw process, and (2) HTS is designed to protect cells exposed to a hypothermic state. Cells separately cryopreserved in either HTS or DME + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) yielded equivalent 24-h postthaw survival (approximately 30%) and 5-d recovery (approximately 90%). Cells cryopreserved in CryoStor CS 5, a HTS derivative containing 5% DMSO, yielded approximately 75% 24-h postthaw survival and recovery to 100% within 3 d. DNA gel electrophoresis was performed to determine the mechanisms of cell death contributing to cryopreservation failure. Cells preserved in DME (DMSO-free) died primarily through necrosis, whereas cells preserved in either DME + 5% DMSO, HTS, or CryoStor CS 5 died through a combination of apoptosis and necrosis. This observation led to the inclusion of an apoptotic inhibitor designed to improve cryopreservation outcome. MDCK cells cryopreserved in CryoStor CS 5 supplemented with an apoptotic inhibitor (Caspase I Inhibitor V), hereafter termed CryoStor CS 5N, resulted in a 24-h postthaw survival and recovery rate exceeding that of any other cryoprotective solution tested (85%). We conclude that: (1) the use of HTS (a dextran-based, intracellular-type solution) without DMSO can yield postthaw viability equivalent to that of standard DMSO-based cryopreservation methods, (2) postthaw viability can be significantly increased through the use of an intracellular-type solution in conjunction with DMSO, (3) the use of HTS allows for cryopreservation to be accomplished with reduced levels of cryoprotectants, and (4) the regulation of apoptosis is essential for the improvement of cryopreservation outcome. PMID:10852352

Baust, J M; Van Buskirk; Baust, J G

2000-04-01

284

Light exposure and cell viability in fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

Test systems for measuring cell viability in optical microscopy (based on colony formation ability or lysosomal integrity) were established and applied to native cells as well as to cells incubated with fluorescence markers or transfected with genes encoding for fluorescent proteins. Human glioblastoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated by various light doses, and maximum doses where at least 90% of the cells survived were determined. These tolerable light doses were in the range between 25 J cm?² and about 300 J cm?² for native cells (corresponding to about 250-3000 s of solar irradiance and depending on the wavelength as well as on the mode of illumination, e.g. epi- or total internal reflection illumination) and decreased to values between 50 J cm?² and less than 1 J cm?² upon application of fluorescent markers, fluorescent proteins or photosensitizers. In high-resolution wide field or laser scanning microscopy of single cells, typically 10-20 individual cell layers needed for reconstruction of a 3D image could be recorded with tolerable dose values. Tolerable light doses were also maintained in fluorescence microscopy of larger 3D samples, e.g. cell spheroids exposed to structured illumination, but may be exceeded in super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule detection. PMID:22126439

Schneckenburger, H; Weber, P; Wagner, M; Schickinger, S; Richter, V; Bruns, T; Strauss, W S L; Wittig, R

2012-03-01

285

Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.  

PubMed

The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions. PMID:22161315

Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

2012-06-01

286

Centre for Economic Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Economic and Social Research Council in 1990, the Centre for Economic Performance CEP at the London School of Economics and Political Science is one of the most prominent and established economic research groups in Europe. By focusing on the major links between globalization, technology and institutions, the CEP studies the determinants of economic performance at the level of the company, the nation, and the global economy. Broadly, CEP's research programs are divided into five groups that include research into labor markets, technology and growth, and education and skills. From the prodigious site, visitors can read about CEP In the News, learn about the various staff members' research areas of expertise, and browse their related publications (including occasional papers, working papers, and the like) back to 1990. Overall, this site will merit more than one visit, as it will be of substantial interest to persons interested in the intersections between economics, education, and globalization, to name but a few of the topical areas covered under the remit of the CEP.

287

Economic Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The signals had been there for years. Task force reports and researchers all predicted it. Then, in the late 1990s, the economic collapse in this blue-collar region of central Maine began. First, the Cascade Co. closed its textile mill. Then the C.F. Hathaway Co. shut down, and Dumont Industries followed suit soon after. Several stores and other…

Sack, Joetta L.

2005-01-01

288

Economic Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

Stuart, Reginald

2009-01-01

289

Cable Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

290

Economics of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic concepts and methods useful to a firm considering the allocation of resources to training workers are presented, with applicability where appropriate for industrial education teachers. The discussion includes goals of investment in training, determining human capital requirements, the training decision, and efficiency in training. (MF)

Passmore, David Lynn; And Others

1978-01-01

291

Weed seed viability in composted beef cattle feedlot manure.  

PubMed

Manure composting has gained increased acceptance by the beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot industry in southern Alberta, Canada. Unlike fresh manure, compost is often promoted as being "weed-free." Studies were conducted with five weed species in 1997 and thirteen in 1999 to examine the effect of feedlot manure composting on weed seed viability. Weed seeds were buried in open-air compost windrows and recovered at various times during the thermophilic phase of composting. Windrow temperature and water contents were also measured. Germinability was zero for all composted weed seeds at all sampling times in 1997. However, some seeds remained viable (positive tetrazolium test denoting respiration) on Day 70. In 1999, only one of the thirteen species retained germinability on Day 21 and only two species had respiring seeds on Day 42. Time-viability relationships during composting were defined by exponential decay models. Lethal temperatures to eliminate viability was species-dependent. In 1999, four weed species were killed in the initial 7 d of composting at a lethal temperature of 39 degrees C while temperatures of > 60 degrees C were required for two species. Regression analysis on weed seed viability versus windrow temperature resulted in significant R2 values, which showed that only 17 to 29% of the variation in viability was accounted for by temperature. The lack of definitive relationships between temperature and weed seed viability demonstrated that factors other than temperature may play a role in eliminating weed seeds during composting. PMID:12809312

Larney, Francis J; Blackshaw, Robert E

2003-01-01

292

Flow cytometry as a rapid and reliable method to quantify sperm viability in the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

An important measure of male quality is sperm viability; i.e., the percentage of live sperm within an ejaculate, as this provides an accurate measure of the number of sperm potentially available for egg fertilization. Sperm viability is often determined by fluorescence microscopy using dyes that differentially stain viable and nonviable sperm, but the technique has a number of limitations. Here, a flow cytometry (FCM) method was developed, which allows the rapid determination of honeybee sperm viability, facilitating high throughput analyses. Using samples with known sperm viabilities, it was found that data obtained from FCM were more accurate and less variable compared with data obtained for the same samples using fluorescence microscopy. It was also found that a previously reported additional population of honeybee sperm found in datasets using FCM is caused by freeze-thawing samples. In conclusion, the method described here allows to quantify sperm viability of honeybees quickly and with high accuracy. This will be of great value for future scientific research and could also be of value to guide future bee breeding programs, given the agricultural importance of honeybees as pollinators. PMID:24706575

Paynter, Ellen; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Linden, Matthew; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Heel, Kathy; Rigby, Paul; Baer, Boris

2014-05-01

293

Clinical assessment of myocardial viability using MRI during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA.  

PubMed

This study assessed the accuracy and feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a constant infusion of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for the determination of myocardial viability in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Nine patients were studied within 10 days of AMI. Rest-redistribution 201Thallium (201Tl) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used as a gold standard for viability. Using MRI, regional perfusion was assessed using dynamic imaging during a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA and viability was assessed during a continuous infusion. Finally, cine MR images were acquired at baseline, during low-dose dobutamine infusion and after recovery. To assess viability, the left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and signal intensity in corresponding MRI and redistribution SPECT segments were compared. Wall thickening index (WTI) was determined at each step during the dobutamine study. The results revealed that in five patients, reduced perfusion in infarcted regions was observed qualitatively during dynamic first pass imaging. There was a significant inverse correlation between 201Tl uptake and MRI signal intensity, i.e. infarcted tissue (low 201Tl uptake) had increased MR signal intensity. Segments were separated into normal (201Tl uptake > 90%) and infarcted (< 601%). lnfarcted MRI segments had greater signal intensity than normal segments (179 +/- 50 vs. 102 +/- 14%; P < 0.0001). WTI in normal segments increased by 18 +/- 8.5% (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 10 microg/kg per min of dobutamine while infarcted tissue WTI decreased 2.8 +/- 7.2% (P = 0.17). Thus regions of myocardium that were infarcted as defined by reduced 201Tl uptake and absent contractile reserve showed greatly increased MRI signal intensity during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA. The use of MRI during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA is accurate and feasible for the determination of myocardial necrosis in a clinical setting. PMID:11154951

Pereira, R S; Wisenberg, G; Prato, F S; Yvorchuk, K

2000-12-01

294

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M. R.; Hancock, S. H.; Wilson, S. J.; Patil, S. L.; Moridis, G. J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T. S.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2009-01-01

295

Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

1976-01-01

296

Ethanol Production in Northern New York: Technical and Economic Feasibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the technical and economic viability of converting cheese whey to ethanol, at a variety of scales and with two alternative technologies. In addition, the use of corn as a supplementary feedstock to extend economies of scale is investig...

E. C. Gabler L. P. Walker R. A. Pellerin R. J. Kalter R. N. Boisvert

1980-01-01

297

An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass

Kasturi

1980-01-01

298

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

299

Across the United States: field results and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results from 26 research projects in the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program are summarized. The program is designed to develop information about the production potential and economic viability of short rotation intensive silviculture. Research focused on species screening, genetic selection, stand establishment, and cultural treatments. First rotation productivity levels obtained under experimental conditions on good

J. H. Cushman; J. W. Ranney

1982-01-01

300

Emerging national space launch programs: Economics and safeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ballistic missile nonproliferation studies have focused on trends in the numbers and performance of missiles and the resulting security threats. This report concentrates on the economic viability of emerging national space launch programs and the prospects for imposing effective safeguards against the use of space launch technology for military missiles. For the convenience of discussion in this report, a

Brian G. Chow

1993-01-01

301

Power Electronic Enabled Active Hybrid Energy Storage System and its Economic Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the technology and value proposition for the active combination of the power dense ultracapacitor with an energy optimized lithium-ion battery. Aspects of the respective technologies that can be altered for the benefit of the active parallel energy storage system are noted. Energy management control strategies are investigated that show promise for dramatic reduction in lithium-ion peak and

J. M. Miller; U. Deshpande; T. J. Dougherty; T. Bohn

2009-01-01

302

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with each other and with the proposed development system. You can use up to three scenarios (conservative, most likely, and optimistic), but you must link each to a specific range on the distribution of resources from the RSVP Resource...

2010-07-01

303

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with each other and with the proposed development system. You can use up to three scenarios (conservative, most likely, and optimistic), but you must link each to a specific range on the distribution of resources from the RSVP Resource...

2009-07-01

304

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with each other and with the proposed development system. You can use up to three scenarios (conservative, most likely, and optimistic), but you must link each to a specific range on the distribution of resources from the RSVP Resource...

2013-07-01

305

Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep-basin gas resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry-gas deposits (methane ? 95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristic of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature

Leigh C. Price

1995-01-01

306

Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

Price, L. C.

1995-01-01

307

How to assess intestinal viability during surgery: A review of techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective and quantitative intraoperative methods of bowel viability assessment are essential in gastrointestinal surgery. Exact determination of the borderline of the viable bowel with the help of an objective test could result in a decrease of postoperative ischemic complications. An accurate, reproducible and cost effective method is desirable in every operating theater dealing with abdominal operations. Numerous techniques assessing various parameters of intestinal viability are described by the studies. However, there is no consensus about their clinical use. To evaluate the available methods, a systematic search of the English literature was performed. Virtues and drawbacks of the techniques and possibilities of clinical application are reviewed. Valuable parameters related to postoperative intestinal anastomotic or stoma complications are analyzed. Important issues in the measurement and interpretation of bowel viability are discussed. To date, only a few methods are applicable in surgical practice. Further studies are needed to determine the limiting values of intestinal tissue oxygenation and flow indicative of ischemic complications and to standardize the methods.

Urbanavicius, Linas; Pattyn, Piet; Van de Putte, Dirk; Venskutonis, Donatas

2011-01-01

308

Effect of octenidine dihydrochloride on viability of protoscoleces in hepatic and pulmonary hydatid diseases.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Use of effective scolicidal agents during puncture, aspiration or injection of a scolicidal agent and reaspiration (PAIR) and surgery for hydatid cysts are essential to reduce the recurrence rate. In this in vitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of a new agent, octenidine dihydrochloride, and of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were obtained from six patients with liver (n=3) and lung (n=3) hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of octenidine dihydrochloride (0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% diluted form), povidone iodine (10%, 1% and 0.1% diluted) and 20% saline were used in this study. Viability of protoscoleces was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% eosin) and flame cell activity. RESULTS: Octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1% had strong scolicidal effect in 15 min and octenidine dihydrochloride 0.01% in 30 min. Sixty percent of protoscoleces lost viability at 5 min with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1%. Viability ratio decreased to 20% at 10 min, and all of them died at 15 min. Povidone iodine 10% and 1% had strong scolicidal effects after 15- and 30 min of exposure, respectively. Saline 20% killed all the protoscoleces in 30-min exposure. CONCLUSION: Because of the rapid and strong scolocidal effectiveness of octenidine dihydrochloride on protoscoleces, it may be used as a scolocidal agent during both perioperative and in the PAIR method.

Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Solak, Okan; Sezer, Murat; Dilek, Osman Nuri

2007-01-01

309

IDSs reconsider the viability of risk contracting.  

PubMed

As financial success with risk contracting continues to elude many IDSs, some of these organizations have started questioning their overall mission as risk-bearing entities. To determine whether to continue to assume risk, an IDS should consider its market environment, the commitment of its provider constituents to the organization, its core competencies, the likelihood of success with risk contracting, and alternatives. To determine its future course, the IDS should engage in a strategic-planning process that includes all IDS stakeholders. Such a process can help build consensus regarding the IDS's market characteristics and benefits of IDS membership; determine the IDS's appropriate roles, services, and functions; and evaluate resources required to pursue the desired strategy. The process should include planning for various possible future scenarios, and results should be communicated to all IDS provider constituents. PMID:11066386

Benoff, M; Harris, J M

2000-09-01

310

Children's Economic Contributions in Peninsular Malaysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Do children's economic contributions to parents influence fertility rates in developing countries. As a first step toward answering this question, this study analyzes data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey to determine how economic transfers from...

D. N. DeTray

1983-01-01

311

Economic Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The economic impacts of computer crimes involving malicious code attacks, unauthorized intrusion into networks and computer\\u000a systems, denial of service of attacks, and others are substantial. In testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence\\u000a on 6 February 2002, Dale L. Watson, Executive Assistant Director, Counter-terrorism and Counterintelligence of the FBI, pointed\\u000a out that during the past several years the

Michael Erbschloe

312

Application of wide-field optical coherence tomography to monitoring of viability of rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the feasibility of OCT in monitoring the viability of the brain. It was confirmed that after an overdose of pentobarbital sodium salt for an euthanasia, the OCT signal intensity increased before cardiac arrest and finally became 2.7 times, and by periodically changing the tissue temperature from 20 to 32 °C in vivo, average correlation coefficients between the ratio of signal intensity (RSI) and temperature were determined to be -0:42 to -0:50. RSI reversibly changed with subsequent variations of temperatures and finally increased rapidly just before cardiac arrest. These results indicate that RSI could correspond to decreases in viability.

Sato, Manabu; Nishidate, Izumi

2014-05-01

313

Pilot-scale Production and Viability Analysis of Freeze-Dried Probiotic Bacteria Using Different Protective Agents  

PubMed Central

The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean®) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances.

Savini, Michele; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

2010-01-01

314

Selection of fluorescent probes for flow cytometric viability assessment of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to membrane-active and oxidizing disinfectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to select fluorescence methods for use as alternatives to plate counting to assess the viability of Listeria monocytogenes cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and hydrogen peroxide, two disinfectants with different mechanisms of action. A further aim of this study was to determine whether growth phase influences fluorescence labeling and whether it is possible

S. B. I. Luppens; B. Barbaras; P. Breeuwer; F. M. Rombouts; T. Abee

2003-01-01

315

Optimal time for predicting myocardial viability after successful primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: a study using myocardial contrast echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to elucidate serial changes in microvascular integrity during papaverine-induced hyperemia in the risk area for myocardial infarction. In addition, we attempted to determine the optimal time for predicting myocardial viability. Seventy-two patients who underwent serial myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) before and shortly after (day 1), 1 day (day 2), and 3 weeks (day 21) after recanalization were

Tadamichi Sakuma; Masaya Otsuka; Tomokazu Okimoto; Hitoshi Fujiwara; Kotaro Sumii; Michinori Imazu; Yasuhiko Hayashi

2001-01-01

316

Early systolic mitral annular motion velocities responses to dobutamine infusion predict myocardial viability in patients with previous myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study was undertaken for the determination of the correlation between myocardial viability and regional systolic mitral annular motion velocity (MAV) response to dobutamine stress in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) with pulsed tissue Doppler scan imaging. Methods The study included 45 patients (mean age, 65 ± 12 years) with previous MI with 1 major coronary lesion and

Masako Matsuoka; Takashi Oki; Yuichiro Mishiro; Hirotsugu Yamada; Tomotsugu Tabata; Tetsuzo Wakatsuki; Susumu Ito

2002-01-01

317

Latent period and viability of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis urediniospores: Implications for biological control of yellow starthistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis into California in 2003, multiple urediniospore generations have been observed, along with teliospores and pycnia, on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). A field and laboratory study of urediniospore viability was conducted to determine the potential of using infected plant material for redistribution of inoculum into new areas. To better understand the life history

Alison J. Fisher; Dale M. Woods; Lincoln Smith; William L. Bruckart

2008-01-01

318

Viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goat milk samples stored under different conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control programs for contagious agalactia (CA) involve monitoring milk samples to detect this disease. This study was designed to establish the effects of the preservatives generally used in dairy laboratories and storage temperature on the viability of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae (Ma) and M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in goat milk samples. In total, 1440 determinations were conducted for each mycoplasma

Joaquín Amores; Antonio Sánchez; Ángel Gómez Martín; Juan C. Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Christian de la Fe

2010-01-01

319

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1973-01-01

320

Myocardial viability: what we knew and what is new.  

PubMed

Some patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have shown significant improvements of contractility with favorable long-term prognosis after revascularization. Several imaging techniques are available for the assessment of viable myocardium, based on the detection of preserved perfusion, preserved glucose metabolism, intact cell membrane and mitochondria, and presence of contractile reserve. Nuclear cardiology techniques, dobutamine echocardiography and positron emission tomography are used to assess myocardial viability. In recent years, new advances have improved methods of detecting myocardial viability. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology, methods, and impact of detection of myocardial viability, concentrating on recent advances in such methods. We reviewed the literature using search engines MIDLINE, SCOUPS, and EMBASE from 1988 to February 2012. We used key words: myocardial viability, hibernation, stunning, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies showed that the presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, but the assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with survival benefit from revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone. This topic is still debatable and needs more evidence. PMID:22988540

Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman

2012-01-01

321

Myocardial Viability: What We Knew and What Is New  

PubMed Central

Some patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have shown significant improvements of contractility with favorable long-term prognosis after revascularization. Several imaging techniques are available for the assessment of viable myocardium, based on the detection of preserved perfusion, preserved glucose metabolism, intact cell membrane and mitochondria, and presence of contractile reserve. Nuclear cardiology techniques, dobutamine echocardiography and positron emission tomography are used to assess myocardial viability. In recent years, new advances have improved methods of detecting myocardial viability. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology, methods, and impact of detection of myocardial viability, concentrating on recent advances in such methods. We reviewed the literature using search engines MIDLINE, SCOUPS, and EMBASE from 1988 to February 2012. We used key words: myocardial viability, hibernation, stunning, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies showed that the presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, but the assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with survival benefit from revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone. This topic is still debatable and needs more evidence.

Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman

2012-01-01

322

Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.  

PubMed

Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

2010-06-01

323

Rapid viability assessment of yeast cells using vital staining with 2-NBDG, a fluorescent derivative of glucose.  

PubMed

A fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), which had been developed previously for the analysis of glucose uptake activity by living cells, was investigated to evaluate its applicability for assaying the viability of yeasts. Fluorescence intensities of the yeast population were measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry upon exposure to antifungal agents after staining with 2-NBDG and were compared to the number of colony forming units (CFU). A good correlation was obtained between the yeast viability, determined by the CFU, and the accumulation of 2-NBDG by yeast cells (correlation constant: r=0.98). Susceptibility testing of amphotericin B and miconazole against yeast strains by plate count and 2-NBDG fluorescence method yielded corresponding results. In conclusion, we found that staining with 2-NBDG is a rapid and sensitive method for the assessment of yeast cell viability. PMID:12038577

Oh, Ki-Bong; Matsuoka, Hideaki

2002-06-01

324

Differential effects of fucoidans with low and high molecular weight on the viability and function of spleen cells.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is an edible sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae that has multiple biological activities. However, the effects of fucoidans of different molecular weights on immune cells have not been determined. Thus, we treated spleen cells with low- and high-molecular-weight fucoidans (LMF and HMF, respectively). Viability assays demonstrated that HMF enhanced the viability and prevented the death of spleen cells. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that HMF significantly increased the production of interferon-? and nitric oxide. In contrast, LMF had low activity and was relatively toxic to spleen cells. Taken together, these results indicate that HMF makes the greatest contribution to the immunostimulatory activity of fucoidan mixtures. Additionally, fucoidans with different molecular weights may have different effects on the viability and function of immune cells. This study increases our understanding of fucoidans, and may broaden their use in the basic research and clinical fields. PMID:24681238

Jang, Ji-Young; Moon, Sun-Young; Joo, Hong-Gu

2014-06-01

325

Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts.  

PubMed

Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study, the effect of MS on the viability and infectivity of ocysts was investigated. The development of isolated, unsporulated oocysts of both Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima was inhibited, in a dose-related manner (IC(50) 8 to 14 microg/ml), by exposure to aqueous MS. Most treated oocysts failed to develop beyond early stages of sporulation. To determine the effect of MS on infectivity, isolated oocysts of E. tenella , Eimeria acervulina , and E. maxima were exposed for 24 hr to aqueous concentrations of MS ranging from 0 to 1,000 microg/ml. Treated oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and parameters of coccidiosis infection were compared to chickens inoculated with equal numbers of untreated oocysts. In a dose-related manner, MS significantly reduced the infectivity of oocysts with maximum effect observed at a dose of 300 microg/ml. When a mixture of oocysts containing 3 coccidian species was exposed to 300 microg/ml MS, from 0 to 24 hr, infectivity of oocysts was significantly reduced after a minimum of 12 hr of exposure. Treatment of aqueous slurries of litter samples obtained from commercial poultry houses, with 300 microg/ml MS for 24 hr, prevented the sporulation of eimerian oocysts in the litter samples relative to untreated control samples. The results indicate that MS could be used to reduce coccidial contamination of poultry litter. PMID:20557209

Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Miska, K B; Cain, G D

2010-06-01

326

Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to management. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Perlut, N. G.; Strong, A. M.; Donovan, T. M.; Buckley, N. J.

2008-01-01

327

Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability.  

PubMed

The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

Partington, Sara L; Kwong, Raymond Y; Dorbala, Sharmila

2011-07-01

328

Species-specific viability analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial species coexist commonly in mixed communities, for instance those occurring in microbial infections of humans. Interspecies effects contribute to alterations in composition of communities with respect to species and thus, to the course and severity of infection. Therefore, knowledge concerning growth and viability of single species in medically-relevant mixed communities is of high interest to resolve complexity of interspecies dynamics and to support development of treatment strategies. In this study, a flow cytometric method was established to assess the species-specific viability in defined three-species mixed cultures. The method enables the characterization of viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus, which are relevant to lung infections of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The method combines fluorescence detection by antibody and lectin labeling with viability fluorescence staining using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide. In addition, species-specific cell enumeration analysis using quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (qT-RFLP) was used to monitor the growth dynamics. Finally, to investigate the impact of substrate availability on growth and viability, concentrations of main substrates and metabolites released were determined. Results For each species, the time course of growth and viability during mixed culture cultivations was obtained by using qT-RFLP analysis in combination with flow cytometry. Comparison between mixed and pure cultures revealed for every species differences in growth properties, e.g. enhanced growth of P. aeruginosa in mixed culture. Differences were also observed for B. cepacia and S. aureus in the time course of viability, e.g. an early and drastic reduction of viability of S. aureus in mixed culture. Overall, P. aeruginosa clearly dominated the mixed culture with regard to obtained cell concentrations. Conclusions In combination with qT-RFLP analysis, the methods enabled monitoring of species-specific cell concentrations and viability during co-cultivation of theses strains. Experimental findings suggest that the predominance of P. aeruginosa over B. cepacia and S. aureus in mixed culture under the chosen cultivation conditions is promoted by more efficient substrate consumption of P. aeruginosa, and antagonistic interspecies effects induced by P. aeruginosa.

2014-01-01

329

Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn  

PubMed Central

Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00?hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4?h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1?d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion.

Wang, Yan-Li; Guan, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

2012-01-01

330

Improved osteoblast viability in the presence of smaller nanometre dimensioned carbon fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanofibres have been proposed as a possible new orthopaedic/dental implant material due to their unique mechanical, electrical, and cytocompatibility properties. Specifically, these fibres have dimensions (diameters ranging between 60 and 200 nm and aspect ratios of about 500) similar to hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen fibres found in bone. More importantly, previous in vitro studies have provided evidence that nanophase ({\\le } 100 nm diameter) carbon fibres enhance osteoblast (the bone-producing cell) function over conventional (>100 nm diameter) carbon fibres and current orthopaedic implant materials such as titanium, Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo. However, articulating components of orthopaedic implant materials may generate harmful wear debris. To determine, for the first time, the influence of carbon nanofibre wear debris on osteoblast viability, direct contact toxicity studies were performed in the present in vitro study. Not surprisingly, the results from direct-contact toxicity studies over a 24 h time period provided evidence of time- and concentration-dependent cell viability decreases when exposed to carbon nanofibres. Most importantly, the results from this study provided the first evidence that nanophase carbon fibres were less detrimental to osteoblast viability compared to larger diameter conventional carbon fibres. For this reason, this in vitro study provided continuing evidence of the promise of nanophase materials (particularly, carbon nanofibres) in improving orthopaedic implant efficiency.

Price, Rachel L.; Haberstroh, Karen M.; Webster, Thomas J.

2004-08-01

331

A platinum-based covalent viability reagent for single-cell mass cytometry.  

PubMed

In fluorescence-based flow cytometry, cellular viability is determined with membrane-impermeable fluorescent reagents that specifically enter and label plasma membrane-compromised nonviable cells. A recent technological advance in flow cytometry uses antibodies conjugated to elemental metal isotopes, rather than to fluorophores, to allow signal detection by atomic mass spectrometry. Unhampered by the limitations of overlapping emission fluorescence, mass cytometry increases the number of parameters that can be measured in single cells. However, mass cytometry is unable to take advantage of current fluorescent viability dyes. An alternative methodology was therefore developed here in which the platinum-containing chemotherapy drug cisplatin was used to resolve live and dead cells by mass cytometry. In a 1-min incubation step, cisplatin preferentially labeled nonviable cells from both adherent and suspension cultures, resulting in a platinum signal quantifiable by mass cytometry. This protocol was compatible with established sample processing steps for intracellular cytometry. Furthermore, the live/dead ratios were comparable between mass- and fluorescence-based cytometry. Importantly, although cisplatin is a known DNA-damaging agent, a 1-min "pulse" of cisplatin did not induce observable DNA damage or apoptotic responses even within 6-h post-exposure. Cisplatin can therefore be used as a viability reagent for a wide range of mass cytometry protocols. PMID:22577098

Fienberg, Harris G; Simonds, Erin F; Fantl, Wendy J; Nolan, Garry P; Bodenmiller, Bernd

2012-06-01

332

Viability Is Associated with Melanin-Based Coloration in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response), sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies.

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Milzani, Aldo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Colombo, Graziano; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-01-01

333

Evaluation of myocardial ischemia and viability by noninvasive cardiac imaging.  

PubMed

Noninvasive cardiac imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy, as well as in the decision making for therapeutic interventions. Proper assessment of the degree of myocardial ischemia and viability is essential to aid in therapies that may improve patient outcomes. In addition, a wealth of evidence exists on the prognostic value of the information obtained from noninvasive imaging. One must utilize an imaging study or studies in an organized fashion, incorporating the latest scientific evidence, guidelines and appropriateness criteria. This review summarizes the advantages, disadvantages and relevant literature on various imaging modalities currently available for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia and viability. PMID:22149526

Katikireddy, Chandra K; Mann, Noelle; Brown, David; Van Tosh, Andrew; Stergiopoulos, Kathleen

2012-01-01

334

Is viability still viable after the STICH trial?  

PubMed

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability-guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review, we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. PMID:22080451

Cortigiani, Lauro; Bigi, Riccardo; Sicari, Rosa

2012-03-01

335

Multiple resource demands and viability in multiplex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems demand manifold resources to be supplied from distinct channels to function properly, e.g., water, gas, and electricity for a city. Here, we study a model for viability of such systems demanding more than one type of vital resource be produced and distributed by resource nodes in multiplex networks. We found a rich variety of behaviors such as discontinuity, bistability, and hysteresis in the fraction of viable nodes with respect to the density of networks and the fraction of resource nodes. Our result suggests that viability in multiplex networks is not only exposed to the risk of abrupt collapse but also suffers excessive complication in recovery.

Min, Byungjoon; Goh, K.-I.

2014-04-01

336

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1998-04-23

337

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1997-04-25

338

Forest management and economics  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides a survey of quantitative methods, guiding the reader through formulation and analysis of models that address forest management problems. The authors use simple mathematics, graphics, and short computer programs to explain each method. Emphasizing applications, they discuss linear, integer, dynamic, and goal programming; simulation; network modeling; and econometrics, as these relate to problems of determining economic harvest schedules in even-aged and uneven-aged forests, the evaluation of forest policies, multiple-objective decision making, and more.

Buongiorno, J.; Gilless, J.K.

1987-01-01

339

Visualizing Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

Mulbrandon, Catherine

340

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the economic affairs of China. The following sections are included: (1) national policy and issues, (2) provincial affairs, (3) economic development zones, (4) economic planning, (5) economic management, (6) fin...

1985-01-01

341

A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda  

PubMed Central

HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, and improved their self-esteem and status in the community. In addition, we also found significant positive knowledge spill-over and network effects in the program with regard to business management and support. However, more than half of the participants indicated experiencing repayment problems either personally or with other group members due to unexpected emergencies and sickness. These findings highlight that microcredit programs have the potential of being an economic support system for HIV clients trying to reestablish their livelihoods, especially in resource-constrained settings, though more research is needed to determine the overall economic viability of such programs.

Wagner, Glenn; Rana, Yashodhara; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Balya, James; Buzaalirwa, Lydia

2012-01-01

342

Viability changes: Microbiological analysis of dental casts  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the survival of the most prevalent oral bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) in dental casts, and compared changes in the amounts of these microorganisms at different time intervals to determine how long dental casts may pose threat to the health of dental personnel and patients. Material/Methods When manufacturing the casts, regular water was replaced with sterile distilled water, where suspensions of the studied bacteria or the fungus at certain concentrations were prepared. When the dental casts were fully set (solidified), plaster shavings were examined immediately after the contact of the studied microorganism with the plaster, as well as after 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Following that, we measured how the amount of the studied bacteria and fungi in 1 gram of the plaster changed within the studied period of time. Results Klebsiella pneumoniae survived in plaster for up to 4 days, and the reduction in the number of these bacteria became statistically significant after 1 day (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus remained viable in plaster for up to 4 days, and the number of these bacteria dropped after 1 day (p<0.05). Escherichia coli disappeared after 2 days, and a reduction was already observed after 2 hours (p<0.05). Candida albicans in plaster models died within 2 days, and a reduction in their number was observed after 1 day (p<0.05). Conclusions The microorganisms did not multiply in the gypsum casts and their number significantly dropped instead of increasing.

Zilinskas, Juozas; Junevicius, Jonas; Ramonaite, Agne; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Sakalauskiene, Jurgina

2014-01-01

343

Viability changes: Microbiological analysis of dental casts.  

PubMed

Background This study evaluated the survival of the most prevalent oral bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) in dental casts, and compared changes in the amounts of these microorganisms at different time intervals to determine how long dental casts may pose threat to the health of dental personnel and patients. Material and Methods When manufacturing the casts, regular water was replaced with sterile distilled water, where suspensions of the studied bacteria or the fungus at certain concentrations were prepared. When the dental casts were fully set (solidified), plaster shavings were examined immediately after the contact of the studied microorganism with the plaster, as well as after 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Following that, we measured how the amount of the studied bacteria and fungi in 1 gram of the plaster changed within the studied period of time. Results Klebsiella pneumoniae survived in plaster for up to 4 days, and the reduction in the number of these bacteria became statistically significant after 1 day (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus remained viable in plaster for up to 4 days, and the number of these bacteria dropped after 1 day (p<0.05). Escherichia coli disappeared after 2 days, and a reduction was already observed after 2 hours (p<0.05). Candida albicans in plaster models died within 2 days, and a reduction in their number was observed after 1 day (p<0.05). Conclusions The microorganisms did not multiply in the gypsum casts and their number significantly dropped instead of increasing. PMID:24902637

Zilinskas, Juozas; Junevi?ius, Jonas; Ramonait?, Agn?; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Sakalauskien?, Jurgina

2014-01-01

344

Interactions between Naïve and Infected Macrophages Reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intracellular bacillary load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages induces an atypical lysosomal cell death with early features of apoptosis that progress to necrosis within hours. Unlike classical apoptosis, this cell death mode does not appear to diminish M. tuberculosis viability. We previously reported that culturing heavily infected macrophages with naïve macrophages produced an antimicrobial effect, but only if

Michelle L. Hartman; Hardy Kornfeld

2011-01-01

345

QT dispersion variability and myocardial viability in acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate QT dispersion in acute and sub-acute stages of myocardial infarction and clarify the relationship between QT dispersion and myocardial viability. We studied 95 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The QT dispersion values were compared to those of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. In the patients with acute myocardial infarction dispersion

F Gabrielli; L Balzotti; A Bandiera

1997-01-01

346

Scale of Viability and Minimal Time of Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce and study the minimal time of a crisis map which measures the minimal time spent outside a given closed domain of constraints by trajectory solutions of a differential inclusion. The interest of such a notion is basically to tackle simultaneously viability and target issues. The main mathematical result characterizes the epigraph of the crisis map

L. Doyen; P. Saint-Pierre

1997-01-01

347

Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and

Yetta Jager; Mark S Bevelhimer; Douglas L. Peterson

2011-01-01

348

Melatonin reduces pancreatic tumor cell viability by altering mitochondrial physiology.  

PubMed

Melatonin reduces proliferation in many different cancer cell lines. Thus, melatonin is considered a promising antitumor agent, promoting apoptosis in tumor cells while preserving viability of normal cells. Herein, we examined the effects of melatonin on the pancreatic AR42J tumor cell line. We have analyzed cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c) ), mitochondrial-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](m) ), mitochondrial membrane potential (?m), mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) oxidative state, cellular viability and caspase-3 activity. Our results show that melatonin induced transient changes in [Ca(2+) ](c) and [Ca(2+) ](m) . Melatonin also induced depolarization of ?m and led to a reduction in the level of oxidized FAD. In addition, melatonin reduced AR42J cell viability. Finally, we found a Ca(2+) -dependent caspase-3 activation in response to melatonin. Collectively, these data support the likelihood that melatonin reduces viability of tumor AR42J cells via its action on mitochondrial activity and caspase-3 activation. PMID:21118301

Gonzalez, Antonio; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Miro-Moran, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose A; Salido, Gines M

2011-04-01

349

Developing a Predictive Metric to Assess School Viability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a wide range of parish school indicators that can be used to predict long-term viability. The study reported in this article explored the relationship between demographic variables, financial variables, and parish grade school closures in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. Specifically, this study investigated whether…

James, John T.; Tichy, Karen L.; Collins, Alan; Schwob, John

2008-01-01

350

Limitations of the MTT Assay in Cell Viability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The MTT assay is widely recommended for examining the cytotoxic effect of xenobiotics, assessing proliferation rates, and analyzing cell activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the MTT assay in examining human lymphocyte viability in own cell culture systems which contained fluphenazine (FPh), a suspected cancer chemopreventive agent, and doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug,

Silesian Piasts

2008-01-01

351

Effect of lanthanide complex structure on cell viability and association.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 ?M) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 ?M complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

Peterson, Katie L; Dang, Jonathan V; Weitz, Evan A; Lewandowski, Cutler; Pierre, Valérie C

2014-06-16

352

Tree Squirrel Introduction: A Theoretical Approach with Population Viability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reintroduction efforts require knowledge of how many animals are needed for successful establishment. Population viability analysis can be used to predict trajectories of introduced populations and tree squirrels provide an ideal model system to investigate this challenge. Conservation action is needed because more than 80% of species of tree squirrels are of precarious conservation status in some portion of their

David J. A. Wood; John L. Koprowski; Peter W. W. Lurz

2007-01-01

353

Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

2011-01-01

354

Use of Flow Cytometry To Monitor Legionella Viability?  

PubMed Central

Legionella viability was monitored during heat shock treatment at 70°C by a flow cytometric assay (FCA). After 30 min of treatment, for 6 of the 12 strains tested, the FCA still detected 10 to 25% of cells that were viable but nonculturable (VBNC). These VBNC cells were able to produce ATP and to be resuscitated after culture on amoebae.

Allegra, Severine; Berger, Francoise; Berthelot, Philippe; Grattard, Florence; Pozzetto, Bruno; Riffard, Serge

2008-01-01

355

Cryopreservation of Artificial Cartilage: Viability and Functional Examination after Thawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biomedical research and in reconstructive surgery, preservation of intact tissue has been an unsolved problem. In this study, we investigated the viability of cryopreserved artificial cartilage and its synthetic activity of cartilage-specific matrix proteins after thawing for in vitro use. A polymer fleece cylinder (diameter = 3 mm; height = 3 mm) was loaded with a suspension of bovine

C. Lübke; M. Sittinger; G.-R. Burmester; M. Paulitschke

2001-01-01

356

Analysis of the Competitive Viability of Independent Middle Distillate Marketers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viability of the home heating oil dealer is being threatened by changes in the basic conditions of the middle distillate industry. These changes, which were examined over the study period from 1972 through 1978, are summarized below. (1) The overall n...

1979-01-01

357

On the viability of FPGA-based integrated coprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the viability of using integrated programmable logic as a coprocessor to support a host CPU core. This adaptive coprocessor is compared to a VLIW machine in term of both die area occupied and performance. The parametric bounds necessary to justify the adoption of an FPGA-based coprocessor are established. An abstract field programmable gate array model is used

Osama T. Albaharna; Peter Y. K. Cheung; Thomas J. Clarke

1996-01-01

358

Continued Viability of Universities as Centers for Basic Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings and 13 recommendations of a NSF Advisory Council task force that evaluated universities as centers of basic research are presented. Listed are the major strengths of universities as centers for basic research (including continuity and tradition, freedom of research, interactions among disciplines) and such threats to their viability

Carter, Lisle C., Jr.; And Others

359

Continuous alcoholic fermentation process: model considering loss of cell viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of loss of cell viability was introduced into a model previously developed for a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a tower reactor with recycling of flocculating yeasts. The two models take into account substrate limitation and inhibition phenomena linked to ethanol and biomass. The kinetic parameters were estimated from steady-state data of several sugar concentrations in feeding stream

S. C. Oliveira; T. C. B. Paiva; A. E. S. Visconti; R. Giudici

1999-01-01

360

Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egg production, egg viability and fecal pellet production were determined for individual Acartia omorii, which were fed diets of two species of diatoms ( Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and three species of dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella trochoidea, Heterocapsa triquetra and Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Diets were analyzed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Depending on the diet, egg production of A. omorii varied over time, diminishing with some diets ( S. trochoidea, C. polykrikoides, P. tricornutum). This rate of reduction was much more rapid for a diet of C. polykrikoides, which caused egg production to decrease to ca. 2.4 eggs f -1 d -1 in only four days. As for all diets, egg viability was high at the beginning but with the C. polykrikoides and P. tricornutum diets, it rapidly decreased with time. Fecal pellet production also varied with time, depending on the diet. Egg production rate was closely correlated with fecal pellet production. There was no direct relationship between egg viability and egg production rate, but both egg production and viability were affected by the nutritional quality of food. Egg viability was also highly dependent on the composition of fatty acids in the eggs. Egg viability showed positive correlation with the ratio of ?3:?6 groups among egg fatty acids, and negative correlation with the ratio of 20:5 ( n-3) : 22:6 ( n-3). While comparing several diets, egg production rate was higher on diets ( H. triquetra and S. trochoidea) containing ample amounts of essential fatty acids such as 18:4 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3). The results suggest that fertility of A. omorii was dependent upon the quality of the food, and dinoflagellate diets, with the exception of C. polykrikoides, were preferable to diatom diets.

Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jang, Min-Chul; Jang, Pung-Kuk; Ju, Se-Jong; Lee, Tea-Kyun; Chang, Man

2003-06-01

361

Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells  

PubMed Central

We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s?1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s?1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining optimal operating conditions for laser microbeam-based pallet release systems for the isolation and selection of adherent cells.

Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan

2012-01-01

362

Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells.  

PubMed

We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass-pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s(-1) through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s(-1) and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining optimal operating conditions for laser microbeam-based pallet release systems for the isolation and selection of adherent cells. PMID:22158840

Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L; Sims, Christopher E; Venugopalan, Vasan

2012-06-01

363

Aspirin Blocks EGF-stimulated Cell Viability in a COX-1 Dependent Manner in Ovarian Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although aspirin has been associated with a reduction of the risk of cancer when used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, its use to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer is controversial. Ovarian cancer cells usually express high levels of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX)-1. Because aspirin is a rather selective inhibitor of COX-1, the ability of aspirin to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer may be dependent on the level of COX-1 expression in those cells. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer leading to increased cell proliferation and survival. Here we investigated if aspirin attenuates EGFR-activated ovarian cancer cell growth in a COX-1 dependent manner. Methods: Cell viability assays and Western blot analyses were used to determine the effect of aspirin on EGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Gene silencing and gene expression techniques were employed to knockdown or to express COX-1, respectively. Results: Aspirin inhibited cell viability induced by EGF in a dose dependent manner in COX-1 positive ovarian cancer cells. On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on cell viability in COX-1 negative ovarian cancer cells. In particular, aspirin decreased phosphorylated Akt and Erk activated by EGF. COX-1 silencing in COX-1 positive cells attenuated the inhibitory effect of aspirin on EGF-stimulated cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a COX-1 expressing cell line (SKCOX-1) by stably transfecting COX-1 expression vector into COX-1 negative SKOV-3 cells. SKCOX-1 cells were more responsive to aspirin when compared to cells transfected with empty vector, and decreased EGF-activated Akt and Erk as well as cell viability. Conclusions: Taken together, aspirin inhibits viability of ovarian cancer cells by blocking phosphorylation of Akt and Erk activated by EGF. Thus it may potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of drugs used to treat COX-1 positive ovarian cancer subsets.

Cho, May; Kabir, Syeda M.; Dong, Yuanlin; Lee, Eunsook; Rice, Valerie Montgomery; Khabele, Dineo; Son, Deok-Soo

2013-01-01

364

Religion and Economic Growth across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth typically neglects the influence of religion. To fill this gap, this study uses international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, the estimation relies on

Rachel McCleary; Robert Barro

2003-01-01

365

Viability of free and encapsulated Escherichia coli overexpressing cyclopentanone monooxygenase monitored during model Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation by confocal laser scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation of 4-methylcyclohexanone-5-methyloxepane-2-one catalysed by recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing cyclopentanone monooxygenase encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules was used to investigate effect of substrate conversion on the viability of cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to assess cell viability using propidium iodide fluorescence marker for necrosis, and flavin autofluorescence to identify living bacteria. Viability of encapsulated cells decreased with increasing substrate concentration from 99 ± 1 to 83 ± 4%, while substrate conversions from decreased 100 to 6 ± 1%. Storage stabilization of encapsulated cells was observed by increased substrate conversion form 68 ± 2 to 96 ± 3%. Measurements by CLSM with standard deviations up to 5% may be regarded as powerful tool for recombinant cell viability determination during Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations. PMID:21983971

Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Bu?ko, Marek; Gemeiner, Peter; Chorvát, Dušan; Lacík, Igor

2012-02-01

366

ECONOMIC POLICY REGIMES AND INDIAN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has tried some economic policy models since independence to spread the benefits of development to all her people. This paper examines the implications of economic policy shifts on economic activities in India based on select macroeconomic indicators for a period from January 1966 to January 2007. Findings suggest that, to some extent, the policy shifts positively influenced the economic

Hirak Ray

2007-01-01

367

The Economic history and the economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author attempts to show areas in which historical research and historical facts affected economic thinking and knowledge in economics. We may meet with a similarity of an historical approach to reality at some schools of economic thinking based on empirical inductive research approach and on historicism in the sense of evolutionary character of economic laws. History in this sense

Ji?í Schwarz

2005-01-01

368

A Combined Approach for the Assessment of Cell Viability and Cell Functionality of Human Fibrochondrocytes for Use in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Temporo-mandibular joint disc disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-established method for the treatment of several chondral defects. However, very few studies have been carried out using human fibrous chondrocytes from the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). One of the main drawbacks associated to chondrocyte cell culture is the possibility that chondrocyte cells kept in culture tend to de-differentiate and to lose cell viability under in in-vitro conditions. In this work, we have isolated human temporo-mandibular joint fibrochondrocytes (TMJF) from human disc and we have used a highly-sensitive technique to determine cell viability, cell proliferation and gene expression of nine consecutive cell passages to determine the most appropriate cell passage for use in tissue engineering and future clinical use. Our results revealed that the most potentially viable and functional cell passages were P5–P6, in which an adequate equilibrium between cell viability and the capability to synthesize all major extracellular matrix components exists. The combined action of pro-apoptotic (TRAF5, PHLDA1) and anti-apoptotic genes (SON, HTT, FAIM2) may explain the differential cell viability levels that we found in this study. These results suggest that TMJF should be used at P5–P6 for cell therapy protocols.

Garzon, Ingrid; Carriel, Victor; Marin-Fernandez, Ana Belen; Oliveira, Ana Celeste; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Campos, Antonio; Sanchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel

2012-01-01

369

Impact of thermal effects induced by ultrasound on viability of rat C6 glioma cells.  

PubMed

In order to have consistent and repeatable effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on various cancer cells or tissue lesions we should be able to control a delivered ultrasound energy and thermal effects induced. The objective of this study was to investigate viability of rat C6 glioma cells in vitro depending on the intensity of ultrasound in the region of cells and to determine the exposure time inducing temperature rise above 43°C, which is known to be toxic for cells. For measurements a planar piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 20mm and a resonance frequency of 1.06MHz was used. The transducer generated tone bursts with 94?s duration, 0.4 duty-cycle and initial intensity ISATA (spatial averaged, temporal averaged) varied from 0.33W/cm(2) to 8W/cm(2) (average acoustic power varied from 1W to 24W). The rat C6 glioma cells were cultured on a bottom of wells in 12-well plates, incubated for 24h and then exposed to ultrasound with measured acoustic properties, inducing or causing no thermal effects leading to cell death. Cell viability rate was determined by MTT assay (a standard colorimetric assay for assessing cell viability) as the ratio of the optical densities of the group treated by ultrasound to the control group. Structural cellular changes and apoptosis estimation were observed under a microscope. Quantitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to determine the maximal exposure time that does not lead to the thermal effects above 43°C in the region of cells for each initial intensity of the tone bursts used as well as the threshold intensity causing cell death after 3min exposure to ultrasound due to thermal effects. The averaged threshold intensity was found to be about 5.7W/cm(2). PMID:24589258

Kujawska, T; Secomski, W; Bilmin, K; Nowicki, A; Grieb, P

2014-07-01

370

Socio-economic Determinants of Household Fertilizer Use Intensity for Maize-based Production Systems in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at understanding current status of soil fertility management and the identification of socio-economic characteristics influencing the decision of households on fertilizer use intensity in maize-based production systems in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty households involved in maize-based production system (2003/2004) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logit model. Analysis revealed that households combine techniques like application of organic and mineral fertilizer and crop planting pattern in maintaining the fertility of their soils. The ratio of N: P2O5: K2O per hectare from both organic and inorganic sources were 49.5:98.3:56.7 kg in Katsina State and 58.7: 109.4: 53.6 kg in Kaduna State. The estimated logit models revealed that fertilizer use intensity is significantly influenced by previous year`s income, land ownership, engagement in off farm activities and years of experience in maize farming.

Adunni Sanni, S.; Doppler, Werner

371

Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

1971-01-01

372

A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

2001-01-01

373

Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation; viability and motility results were correlated, but independent of fertilization. For pallid sturgeon sperm (experiment 4), MT with 5-10% MeOH showed significantly higher sperm quality and fertilization parameters. Membrane integrity can be used as a predictor of fertilization by cryopreserved sperm, however additional sperm quality parameters, supplementary to motility and membrane integrity, would be useful in the refining and optimizing cryopreservation protocols with acipenseriform sperm. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Horvath, A.; Wayman, W. R.; Dean, J. C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T. R.; Mims, S. D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J. A.

2008-01-01

374

Selective, sensitive and economical method for the adsorptive voltammetric determination of trace amounts of Mo(VI) in organic matter rich environmental samples.  

PubMed

A differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric method has been developed for molybdenum trace determination in environmental water samples containing organic compounds. It was proved that interferences from the organic matrix such as surface active substances and humic substances could be removed by the addition of resin to the analysed sample prior to voltammetric measurement. The parameters for Mo(VI) determination in the presence of resin, using a hanging mercury drop as the working electrode, were examined systematically for two complexing agents: cupferron and chloranilic acid. The detection limits estimated from 3 times the standard deviation for a low Mo(VI) concentrations were equal to 5 × 10(-11) and 3 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) for cupferron and chloranilic acid, respectively. At the optimized conditions the quantitative Mo(VI) determination in the presence of even 50 mg L(-1) of surface active compounds can be performed. The proposed procedures were validated in the course of Mo(VI) determination in certified reference material NASS-5 and in the course of studying recovery of Mo(VI) from spiked river water samples. PMID:21376963

Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Koper, Anna

2011-04-15

375

Fiber-Optic Telecommunications Technical Assistance to Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica, Honduras (ENEE). Final Report. Task 5: Economic and Financial Feasibility. Volume 2: Financial Projections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attached are schedules and figures from Project Finance Advisors, LLC ('PFA's') economic model (the Model) developed to measure the viability Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica's (ENEE) sponsorship and support for a fiber optic communications initiativ...

2004-01-01

376

Economic benefits of supersonic overland operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental concerns are likely to impose some restrictions on the next generation of supersonic commercial transport. There is a global concern over the effects of engine emissions on the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from ultraviolet radiation. There is also some concern over community noise. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) must meet at least the current subsonic noise certification standards to be compatible with the future subsonic fleet. Concerns over sonic boom represent another environmental and marketing challenge to the HSCT program. The most attractive feature of the supersonic transport is speed, which offers the traveling public significant time-savings on long range routes. The sonic boom issue represents a major environmental and economic challenge as well. Supersonic operation overland produces the most desirable economic results. However, unacceptable overland sonic boom raise levels may force HSCT to use subsonic speeds overland. These environmental and economic challenges are likely to impose some restrictions on supersonic operation, thus introducing major changes to existing route structures and future supersonic network composition. The current subsonic route structure may have to be altered for supersonic transports to avoid sensitive areas in the stratosphere or to minimize overland flight tracks. It is important to examine the alternative route structure and the impact of these restrictions on the economic viability of the overall supersonic operation. Future market potential for HSCT fleets must be large enough to enable engine and airframe manufacturers to build the plane at a cost that provides them with an attractive return on investment and to sell it at a price that allows the airlines to operate with a reasonable margin of profit. Subsonic overland operation of a supersonic aircraft hinders its economic viability. Ways to increase the market potential of supersonic operation are described.

Metwally, Munir

1992-01-01

377

The social and economic origins of genetic determinism: a case history of the American Eugenics Movement, 1900–1940 and its lessons for today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eugenics, the attempt to improve the genetic quality of the human species by ‘better breeding’, developed as a worldwide movement\\u000a between 1900 and 1940. It was particularly prominent in the United States, Britain and Germany, and in those countries was\\u000a based on the then-new science of Mendelian genetics. Eugenicists developed research programs to determine the degree to which\\u000a traits such

Garland E. Allen

1997-01-01

378

A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Social, Institutional, Cultural, and Economic Supports for Autonomy and Their Importance for Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the authors discuss modern conceptions of happiness, including hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. They distinguish\\u000a happiness as a symptom rather than sine qua non of well-being, and they relate the later to the human capability for autonomous\\u000a self-regulation. Using a self-determination framework they define autonomy and detail its essential functional role in allowing\\u000a individuals within any culture to

Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

379

A mixture of antioxidants and fatty acids improves the viability of cultured rat hepatocytes untreated or treated with doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether medium supplementation by antioxidants and fatty acids would improve the viability of cultured rat hepatocytes and protect them against doxorubicin toxicity. We examined the effects of three agents: vitamin E, sodium pyruvate and egg yolk (the combination of vitamin E, sodium pyruvate and fatty acids is a proprietary, patented technology of Warner Lambert called CRT) 0.3% (v/v) as a source of fatty acids, on cell viability measured by the dehydrogenase-dependent bioreduction of a tetrazolium salt (MTS). Untreated hepatocytes and hepatocytes treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4), EC(50) 5.7 mm) or doxorubicin (1 and 30 mum) were exposed to different amounts of a mixture of antioxidants and fatty acids. The mixture, identified as 1X, provided a final concentration of 5 units of vitamin E, 0.1% egg yolk and 10 mm sodium pyruvate while the 3X and 5X mixtures contained proportionately higher concentrations of these components. The mixtures were added 18 hr prior to, simultaneously with or following treatment with doxorubicin and just simultaneously with CCl(4). Neither vitamin E, sodium pyruvate nor egg yolk alone improved viability. However, the viability of untreated hepatocytes improved significantly when the 3X mixture was added after 18 hr as indicated by determination of MTS reduction activity 24 hr later. The viability of doxorubicin treated cultures (1 and 30 mum) increased significantly when exposed either to the 3X or 5X mixtures simultaneously. A significant increase in viability was also seen when cells were exposed to the 3X mixture following doxorubicin (1 mum). The mixtures did not protect against toxicity caused by CCl(4), perhaps due to the overwhelming level of damage at its EC(50) concentration. It is proposed that the antioxidant properties of vitamin E and sodium pyruvate protect the cells from low levels of reactive oxygen species generated spontaneously in culture and by doxorubicin metabolism while the fatty acids help to maintain the integrity of hepatocyte membranes, resulting in greater viability of the hepatocytes. PMID:20654380

Gokhale, M S; Lin, J R; Yager, J D

1997-12-01

380

Functional maturation of neocortex: a base of viability.  

PubMed

The term "viability" is not simply a synonymous with being "born alive," but is closely related to the capability of having a "meaningful life" and having a reasonable period of survival. The definition of "viability" is generally based on two major criteria: the biological, which takes into consideration the maturity of the foetus, and the epidemiological, which is based on the survival rates reported in literature. The neuromaturation of the cerebral cortex is a dynamic process promoted by the subplate, a transient population of neurons that guides the development of cortical and thalamocortical connections. These connections are for example fundamental for cortical processing of sensory information and mental processes. The first thalamocortical and cortico-cortical connections grows at 23-24 postconceptional weeks, which coincides with the age limit for premature baby survival. PMID:22393933

Gatti, M G; Becucci, E; Fargnoli, F; Fagioli, Massimo; Ådén, U; Buonocore, G

2012-04-01

381

Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

2012-12-01

382

F-18 fluoro deoxyglucose SPECT for assessment of myocardial viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Identification of myocardial viability in hypokinetic segments is important in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy because\\u000a systolic dysfunction improves with revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) F-18 fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake\\u000a has been demonstrated as an accurate indicator of metabolically active and thus viable myocardium. F-18 FDG single photon\\u000a emission computed tomography (SPECT) has recently been introduced and offers a technically easier

James Fitzgerald; J. Anthony Parker; Peter G. Danias

2000-01-01

383

Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. BACKGROUND: Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. METHODS: Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100,

Ana Djordjevic-Dikic; Miodrag Ostojic; Branko Beleslin; Ivana Nedeljkovic; Jelena Stepanovic; Sinisa Stojkovic; Zorica Petrasinovic; Milan Nedeljkovic; Jovica Saponjski; Vojislav Giga

2003-01-01

384

Long-term viability of preserved eukaryotic algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of viability of Chlorella emersonii after storage of dried material for one year were 0.1% on rehydration, all other\\u000a dried organisms examined in this study failed to recover after prolonged storage. In addition, no detectable recovery was\\u000a observed in any of the algae tested after storage of freeze-dried cultures. Methods have also been developed to cryopreserve\\u000a a range of

John G. Day; Makoto M. Watanabe; G. John Morris; Roland A. Fleck; Mark R. McLellan

1997-01-01

385

Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station,

Kevin A. Hughes

2005-01-01

386

Rapid fluorescence assessment of the viability of stressed Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish the use of the fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein (cF) and propidium iodide (PI) for rapid assessment of viability, using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 exposed to different stress treatments. The cF labeling indicated the reproductive capacity of mixtures of nontreated cells and cells killed at 70°C very well. However, after treatment up to

CHRISTINE J. BUNTHOF; SABINA VAN DEN BRAAK; PIETER BREEUWER; FRANK M. ROMBOUTS; TJAKKO ABEE

1999-01-01

387

Abscisic acid, gibberellin and cell viability in cereal aleurone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aleurone layer of cereals is a secretory tissue whose activity is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs).\\u000a Whereas GA triggers enzyme synthesis and secretion and initiates a program that culminates in cell death, ABA prevents enzyme\\u000a production and cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in regulating cell viability and GA sensitizes the\\u000a aleurone cell

Paul C. Bethke; Angelika Fath; Yoav N. Spiegel; Yong-sic Hwang; Russell L. Jones

2002-01-01

388

Viability of Homozygous Deficiencies in Somatic Cells of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

PubMed Central

The viability of cells made homozygous for different deficiencies by induced mitotic recombination was examined. The deficiencies varied in length from two to 30 polytene chromosome bands and were distributed over the five major chromosome arms. Among a sample of 30, ten deficiencies were cell viable. Our results show that 12% of the genome is necessary for cell survival, supporting previous estimates of about 5,000 genes in the genome of Drosophila.

Ripoll, Pedro; Garcia-Bellido, A.

1979-01-01

389

Optical Wireless for Intravehicle Communications: A Channel Viability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an initial analysis into the viability of implementing an optical wireless system for intravehicle communications. Based on the use of a simple linearly scalable infrared light-emitting-diode transmitter, the results for received power, bandwidth, and root-mean-square (RMS) delay spread are shown at more than 3000 locations within a sports utility vehicle. Several of these locations, including the rear

Matthew D. Higgins; Roger J. Green; Mark S. Leeson

2012-01-01

390

Two portraits of economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an assessment of two recent philosophical accounts of the nature of economics, those given in Alexander Rosenberg's Economics - Mathematical Politics or the Science of Diminishing Returns? (1992) and in Daniel Hausman's The Inexact and Separate Science of Economics (1992). The focus is on how they portray the predictive capabilities of economics and the links between economic theory

Uskali Mäki

1996-01-01

391

Strategies for periodontal ligament cell viability: An overview  

PubMed Central

The long-term success of the reimplanted teeth is related to the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Dental tissues are unique in comparison to most other tissues in the body due to their marked capacity for regeneration. Understanding the circumstances leading to repair and regeneration in oral tissues has been a formidable challenge. Numerous storage media have been introduced by many authors that help to maintain the PDL cell viability. To present an overview of the various available storage media. A literature search for the past 20 years was performed across the Internet database (Pubmed) and relevant citations using the keywords PDL cell viability, tooth avulsion, storage media, and the combination of all to retrieve around (n=225) citations. Articles that included follow-up of intervention for avulsed and re-implanted teeth were considered (n=44) and some literature review from well-known text books were considered. Literature supports that moist storage appears to be a more productive approach to optimize PDL cell survival. However, no medium is ideal and in vivo studies are inadequate.

Goswami, Mousumi; Chaitra, TR; Chaudhary, Seema; Manuja, Naveen; Sinha, Ashish

2011-01-01

392

Inhibiting ice recrystallization and optimization of cell viability after cryopreservation.  

PubMed

The ice recrystallization inhibition activity of various mono- and disaccharides has been correlated with their ability to cryopreserve human cell lines at various concentrations. Cell viabilities after cryopreservation were compared with control experiments where cells were cryopreserved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The most potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization were 220 mM solutions of disaccharides; however, the best cell viability was obtained when a 200 mM d-galactose solution was utilized. This solution was minimally cytotoxic at physiological temperature and effectively preserved cells during freeze-thaw. In fact, this carbohydrate was just as effective as a 5% DMSO solution. Further studies indicated that the cryoprotective benefit of d-galactose was a result of its internalization and its ability to mitigate osmotic stress, prevent intracellular ice formation and/or inhibit ice recrystallization. This study supports the hypothesis that the ability of a cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallization is an important property to enhance cell viability post-freeze-thaw. This cryoprotective benefit is observed in three different human cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ability of a potential cryoprotectant to inhibit ice recrystallation may be used as a predictor of its ability to preserve cells at subzero temperatures. PMID:21852258

Chaytor, Jennifer L; Tokarew, Jacqueline M; Wu, Luke K; Leclère, Mathieu; Tam, Roger Y; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Guolla, Louise; von Moos, Elisabeth; Findlay, C Scott; Allan, David S; Ben, Robert N

2012-01-01

393

Strategies for periodontal ligament cell viability: An overview.  

PubMed

The long-term success of the reimplanted teeth is related to the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Dental tissues are unique in comparison to most other tissues in the body due to their marked capacity for regeneration. Understanding the circumstances leading to repair and regeneration in oral tissues has been a formidable challenge. Numerous storage media have been introduced by many authors that help to maintain the PDL cell viability. To present an overview of the various available storage media. A literature search for the past 20 years was performed across the Internet database (Pubmed) and relevant citations using the keywords PDL cell viability, tooth avulsion, storage media, and the combination of all to retrieve around (n=225) citations. Articles that included follow-up of intervention for avulsed and re-implanted teeth were considered (n=44) and some literature review from well-known text books were considered. Literature supports that moist storage appears to be a more productive approach to optimize PDL cell survival. However, no medium is ideal and in vivo studies are inadequate. PMID:22025820

Goswami, Mousumi; Chaitra, Tr; Chaudhary, Seema; Manuja, Naveen; Sinha, Ashish

2011-07-01

394

Viability of fastidious Phytophthora following different cryopreservation treatments.  

PubMed

Living stock cultures with constant phenotypes and genotypes are required for a wide range of research and industrial applications; however, long-term, stable preservation of fastidious Phytophthora strains has been challenging. In this study, we systematically evaluated different cryopreservation treatments to identify and clarify freezing, thawing, and other conditions appropriate for long-term maintenance. Optimal preservation conditions were largely strain-specific, with robust strains remaining fully viable and the fastidious yielding lower recovery under all test conditions. Nevertheless, several procedures were shown to be generally applicable for effective cryopreservation of most Phytophthora organisms. Fastidious strains retained higher viability following the -1 °C min(-1) freezing protocol (Mr Frosty's) than either of two widely used programmed freezing procedures. Revival was higher when frozen mycelium plugs were thawed at 37 °C for 2 min or 25 °C for 5 min, while lower viability was apparent for fastidious strains thawed at 55 °C for 1.5 min. Among 15 cryoprotective solutions assessed, 5 % dimethyl sulfoxide produced the highest viability for all fastidious strains. The effect of prefreeze and postfreeze treatments on revival was mild, if any, and strain-dependent. This study has generated reliable, practical, long-term preservation solutions applicable to a majority of Phytophthora species. It also has revealed a need for in-depth physiological and morphological investigations to further enhance the preservation methods for fastidious strains. PMID:23063187

Houseknecht, Janice L; Suh, Sung-Oui; Zhou, Jianlong Jim

2012-10-01

395

Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Slart, R.H.J.A.; Bax, J.J.; van der Wall, E.E.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Jager, P.L.; Dierckx, R.A.

2005-01-01

396

75 FR 48739 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability; Notice of Meeting...meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability, which will be held...Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry...

2010-08-11

397

75 FR 60492 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability; Notice of Meeting...meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability, which will be held...Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry...

2010-09-30

398

75 FR 34202 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability; Notice of Meeting...meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability, which will be held...Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry...

2010-06-16

399

Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population?s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

400

Comparative study of classical, colorimetric and immunologic staining methods for the assessment of tumor cell viability.  

PubMed

The trypan blue exclusion test, the MTT test and an immunostaining test for apoptosis were performed before and after incubation of SW620 human colonic carcinoma cells with different cytotoxic agents (CTAs) in order to assess tumor cell viability and CTA efficacy in vitro. A modified MTT test using light microscopy was also performed. A good correlation was found between the trypan blue assay and the MTT test, as determined by spectrophotometry. There was no 'overestimation' of cell viability as measured by the trypan blue test. The monitoring of formazan formation by light microscopy was feasible, but not very reliable since it did not show a good correlation with findings determined by spectrophotometry. The apoptosis test failed to show good correlation with other tests. Distilled water had no relevant cytotoxic effect, while chlorhexidine cetrimide (HAC 3.5%), chloramine 0.5% and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVP-I) > or = 0.05% damaged a large majority of cells. PVP-I at a concentration of > or = 5% was found to be the most effective CTA. PMID:8938951

Basha, G; Yap, P; Penninckx, F

1996-01-01

401

The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability.

Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

2014-01-01

402

Hydroxyethyl disulfide as an efficient metabolic assay for cell viability in vitro.  

PubMed

Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate (PMS). However, sensitivity is inherently limited because their reduction relies on mitochondrial bioreduction and cellular transport of PMS, as well as accessibility to tetrazolium chemicals. In this study, we identify hydroxethyldisulfide (HEDS) as an inexpensive probe that can measure cellular metabolic activity without the need of PMS. In tissue culture medium, HEDS accurately quantitated metabolically active live cells in a linear manner superior to tetrazolium based and other assays. Cell toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, etoposide), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, acetaminophen), toxins (phenyl arsine oxide, arsenite) or ionizing radiation was rapidly determined by the HEDS assay. We found that HEDS was superior to other commonly used assays for cell viability determinations in its solubility, membrane permeability, and intracellular conversion to a metabolic reporter that is readily transported into the extracellular medium. Our findings establish the use of HEDS in a simple, rapid and low cost assay to accurately quantify viable cells. PMID:22321380

Li, Jie; Zhang, Donglan; Ward, Kathleen M; Prendergast, George C; Ayene, Iraimoudi S

2012-06-01

403

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issue with different topics on People's Republic of China: Provincial affairs, Economic Development Zones, Economic Management, Energy, Industry, Domestic Trade, Foreign Trade and Investment, ...

1984-01-01

404

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from China on economic affairs. Topics include: economic development zones, economic management, construction, finance and banking, foreign trade and investment, Chinese media ...

1984-01-01

405

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report from China contains articles on National Policy and Issues; Provincial Affairs; Aggregate Economic Data; Economic Management; Industry and Construction; Foreign Trade and Investment; Transportation; Chinese Media on Foreign Economic Affairs; T...

1985-01-01

406

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains articles from China which deal with Economic Affairs. Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Provincial Affairs, Economic Zones, Domestic Trade, Industry, Agriculture, and Chinese Media on Foreign Economics.

1987-01-01

407

Population and Economic Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Population and Economic Study is an analysis of past, present, and future trends in population and economic growth. The Study presents a brief discussion of the historical, geographic, and socio-economic characteristics of the area. The population sec...

1972-01-01

408

Overall Economic Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed background picture is presented of the Meramec region's physical geography, population, labor force, natural and manmade resources, as well as economic and social activities and problems that retard economic growth. The OEDP outlines economic d...

1973-01-01

409

Economic Development Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Development Academy established in 1978 was developed out of the need to provide broader economic development training to career professionals working in local place community economic development. The Academy objectives were one, to deliver ...

1981-01-01

410

45 CFR 1302.20 - Grantee to show both legal status and financial viability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to show both legal status and financial viability. 1302.20 Section 1302.20 Public...show both legal status and financial viability. (a) Upon the occurrence...continue to have legal status and financial viability. Failure to make this showing may...

2009-10-01

411

Homocysteine affects cardiomyocyte viability: concentration-dependent effects on reversible flip-flop, apoptosis and necrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHC) is thought to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. While numerous studies have analyzed the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in the vasculature, only a few studies investigated the role of Hcy in the heart. Therefore we have analyzed the effects of Hcy on isolated cardiomyocytes. Methods H9c2 cells (rat cardiomyoblast cells) and adult rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with Hcy and were analyzed for cell viability. Furthermore, we determined the effects of Hcy on intracellular mediators related to cell viability in cardiomyocytes, namely NOX2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and ATP concentrations. Results We found that incubation of H9c2 cells with 0.1 mM D,L-Hcy (= 60 ?M l-Hcy) resulted in an increase of ??m as well as ATP concentrations. 1.1 mM d,l-Hcy (= 460 ?M l-Hcy) induced reversible flip-flop of the plasma membrane phospholipids, but not apoptosis. Incubation with 2.73 mM d,l-Hcy (= 1.18 mM l-Hcy) induced apoptosis and necrosis. This loss of cell viability was accompanied by a thread-to-grain transition of the mitochondrial reticulum, ATP depletion and nuclear NOX2 expression coinciding with ROS production as evident from the presence of nitrotyrosin residues. Notably, only at this concentration we found a significant increase in S-adenosylhomocysteine which is considered the primary culprit in HHC. Conclusion We found concentration-dependent effects of Hcy in cardiomyocytes, varying from induction of reversible flip-flop of the plasma membrane phospholipids, to apoptosis and necrosis.

Krijnen, Paul A. J.; Meischl, Christof; Cillessen, Saskia A. G. M.; Smulders, Yvo M.; Smith, Desiree E. C.; Giroth, Cindy P. E.; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Musters, Rene J. P.; Muller, Alice; Jakobs, Cornelis; Roos, Dirk; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Rauwerda, Jan A.; van Hinsbergh, Victor W. M.; Niessen, Hans W. M.

2007-01-01

412

Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies ?HB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood ?HB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p?determine potential for future clinical use. PMID:24615175

Poff, A M; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, T N; D'Agostino, D P

2014-10-01

413

Compatibility of SYTO 13 and Hoechst 33342 for longitudinal imaging of neuron viability and cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous use of cell-permeant and impermeant fluorescent nuclear dyes is a common method to study cell viability and cell death progression. Although these assays are usually conducted as end-point studies, time-lapse imaging offers a powerful technique to distinguish temporal changes in cell viability at single-cell resolution. SYTO 13 and Hoechst 33342 are two commonly used cell-permeant nuclear dyes; however their suitability for live imaging has not been well characterized. We compare end-point assays with time-lapse imaging studies over a 6?h period to evaluate the compatibility of these two dyes with longitudinal imaging, using both control neurons and an apoptotic neuron model. Findings In longitudinal assays of untreated neurons, SYTO 13 addition caused acute necrosis within 3?h, whereas neurons imaged with Hoechst remained viable for at least 6?h. In a staurosporine-induced apoptotic model of neurotoxicity, determinations of the mode of cell death and measurements of nuclear size were identical between longitudinal studies using Hoechst and end-point assays. Alternatively, longitudinal studies using 500 nM or 5 nM SYTO 13 were not consistent with end-point assays. Conclusions SYTO 13 is acutely neurotoxic and when used in longitudinal studies, masked end-stage morphologic evidence of apoptotic cell death. In contrast, a single application of Hoechst evoked no evidence of toxicity over a 6?h period, and was consistent with end-point characterizations of cell viability and nuclear morphology. For longitudinal characterization of acute cell death, Hoechst is a superior option.

2012-01-01

414

Economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness thresholds: signals to firms and implications for R & D investment and innovation.  

PubMed

In this article we describe how reimbursement cost-effectiveness thresholds, per unit of health benefit, whether set explicitly or observed implicitly via historical reimbursement decisions, serve as a signal to firms about the commercial viability of their R&D projects (including candidate products for in-licensing). Traditional finance methods for R&D project valuations, such as net present value analyses (NPV), incorporate information from these payer reimbursement signals to help determine which R&D projects should be continued and which should be terminated (in the case of the latter because they yield an NPV < 0). Because the influence these signals have for firm R&D investment decisions is so significant, we argue that it is important for reimbursement thresholds to reflect the economic value of the unit of health benefit being considered for reimbursement. Thresholds set too low (below the economic value of the health benefit) will result in R&D investment levels that are too low relative to the economic value of R&D (on the margin). Similarly, thresholds set too high (above the economic value of the health benefit) will result in inefficiently high levels of R&D spending. The US in particular, which represents approximately half of the global pharmaceutical market (based on sales), and which seems poised to begin undertaking cost effectiveness in a systematic way, needs to exert caution in setting policies that explicitly or implicitly establish cost-effectiveness reimbursement thresholds for healthcare products and technologies, such as pharmaceuticals. PMID:19803536

Vernon, John A; Goldberg, Robert; Golec, Joseph

2009-01-01

415

Effects of High Pressure on the Viability, Morphology, Lysis, and Cell Wall Hydrolase Activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability, morphology, lysis, and cell wall hydrolase activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 and SK11 were determined after exposure to pressure. Both strains were completely inactivated at pressures of 400 to 800 MPa but unaffected at 100 and 200 MPa. At 300 MPa, the MG1363 and SK11 populations decreased by 7.3 and 2.5 log cycles, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy

A. S. Malone; T. H. Shellhammer; P. D. Courtney

2002-01-01

416

The effects of some storage conditions on viability of Lecanicillium lecanii conidia to whitefly (Homoptera: Trialeurodes vaporariorum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the survival of Lecanicillium lecanii conidia in storage at room temperature was carried out. Firstly, drying methods of conidia powder were compared. Vacuum-freeze drying (VFD) was more suitable for drying conidia as compared to vacuum drying (VD) at room temperature. Vacuum-freeze drying for 24-h resulted in a water content of 5.4%, and a viability, determined as germination

Aidong Chen; Zhangyan Shi; Long Zhang

2008-01-01

417

Blastocyst viability and generation of transgenic cattle following freezing of in vitro produced, DNA-injected embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the viability, determined in vitro, of DNA-injected bovine embryos produced in vitro was affected by freezing, and if the frozen embryos developed to term following transfer to recipients. In vitro fertilized zygotes were injected with the pBL1 gene and then co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in CR1aa medium. Embryos were prepared for cryopreservation by exposure

Y. M Han; S. J Kim; J. S Park; I. Y Park; Y. K Kang; C. S Lee; D. B Koo; T. H Lee; D. Y Yu; Y. H Kim; K. J Lee; K. K Lee

2000-01-01

418

Preoperative Positron Emission Tomographic Viability Assessment and Perioperative and Postoperative Risk in Patients With Advanced Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to investigate whether determination of tissue viability by means of positron emission tomography (PET) before coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) affects clinical outcome with respect to both in-hospital mortality and 1-year survival rate.Background. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are at higher risk for perioperative complications associated with CABG.

Felix Haas; Christoph J Haehnel; Wolfgang Picker; Stephan Nekolla; Stefan Martinoff; Hans Meisner; Markus Schwaiger

1997-01-01

419

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

420

Effect of autophagy inhibition on cell viability and cell cycle progression in MDA?MB?231 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Atg7 is an autophagy?related gene, and is involved in two ubiquitin?like conjugation systems in the process of autophagy. It is well established that 3?methyladenine (3Ma) is an autophagy inhibitor. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of autophagy inhibition on the cell viability and cell cycle progression of human breast cancer cells. MDA?MB?231 human breast cancer cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with high glucose, then divided into six groups. The six groups included the three fundamental groups as follows: The control group (untreated); the starvation group (high?glucose DMEM replaced with glucose?free minimal essential medium); and the starvation 3Ma group (maintained in glucose?free culture medium and treated with the autophagy inhibitor 3Ma). The three fundamental groups were further divided into Atg7 siRNA?transfected and non?transfected groups. The cell viability and apoptosis of each group was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results of the current study demonstrated that Atg7 deficiency alone had no statically significant effect on the cell viability of MDA?MB?231 human breast cancer cells, while 3Ma reduced the cell viability and its effect was potentiated by Atg7 deficiency. Atg7 deficiency was more intense than 3Ma in the promotion of apoptosis and cell arrest in G0/G1?phase in the absence of glucose and its effect was reduced by 3Ma. In conclusion, 3Ma and Atg7 may be involved in different pathways in the process of autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy may influence the cell viability and cell cycle through different pathways in MDA?MB?231 human breast cancer cells. PMID:24898397

Liu, Qiujun; Shi, Xinli; Zhou, Xianyao; Wang, Da; Wang, Li; Li, Changlong

2014-08-01

421

Spore Density and Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungal Isolates from Indonesia, and Their Virulence against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was on quantifying fitness attributes, such as spore density and viability, and determining the virulence level against aphid (Aphis gossypii) nymphs of isolates from the fungal species Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungal isolates were obtained from several insects, including Plutella xylostella, Hypothenemus hampei, Bronstispa longissima, A. gossypii, Tenebrio molitor, and Leptocorisa acuta, that were collected from Indonesian islands, such as Sumatera, Java, and Sulawesi. Third instar aphid nymphs were inoculated via topical application of 106 conidia ml?1 of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates could produce very dense spores. The M. anisopliae isolate MaAg, which was obtained from the aphid, had the highest spore density at 6.70 × 108 conidia ml?1. Among the B. bassiana isolates, the highest conidial viability belonged to isolate CPJW8, which was obtained from Chrysodeixis chalcites, with a 39% average viability. Among the M. anisopliae isolates, the highest viabilities belonged to the isolates MaAg and MaLa, which were obtained from L. acuta, with a 33% and 32% average viabilities, respectively. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates were virulent against aphid nymphs, with mortality rates ranging from 64% to 94%. The three most virulent isolates were BBY715 (94%), MPx (92%), and MaTm (92%), and the least virulent isolate was MaLa (64%). BBY715, the most virulent isolate, had the shortest lethal time median (LT50) against aphid nymphs at 2.97 hours, and MaLa had the longest LT50 at 61.81 hours.

Herlinda, Siti

2010-01-01

422

Turkmenistan: An Economic Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Geography and Climate; History and Government; Population and Labor Force; Structure and Performance of the Economy; Economic Reform; Foreign Economic Relations; Living Standards and Social Indicators; Appendix.

1993-01-01

423

45 CFR 1302.23 - Suspension or termination of grantee which shows legal status but not financial viability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which shows legal status but not financial viability. 1302.23 Section 1302.23 Public...which shows legal status but not financial viability. (a) If the date of change of financial viability precedes or will precede the end...

2009-10-01

424

New methodology for viability testing in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Environmental samples can be complex and are comprised of microorganisms and a matrix of decaying organic matter as well as an inorganic phase such as sand or precipitated material (waste water, sludge, soils, etc.). Nucleic acid dyes have recently been developed to address the growing need for environmental analyses (cell staining, counting, viability testing and specific organism identification). However, certain dyes may not be ideally suited for testing of environmental samples, because they readily adhere to the substrate material as well as their target molecule, resulting in increased non-specific binding and background fluorescence. The aim of this study was to address the limitations of the widely used and commercially available Live/Dead BacLight Bacterial Viability kit (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). A new combination of nucleic acid dyes, i.e. SYTO13 and SYTOX Orange (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), was proposed as an alternative. The dyes were carefully chosen for their spectral separation and increase of fluorescence quantum yield. A protocol for this combination was first designed and optimized and the two staining assays were compared against suspensions of live and dead E. coli, mixed in different proportions and it was shown that both protocols performed equally on pure cultures. However, when testing activated sludge samples, the commercial kit showed greater background fluorescence and non-specific binding than the alternate combination. Therefore, the proposed dye combination and its corresponding protocol are deemed more suitable for use on complex environmental samples than the Live/Dead BacLight Bacterial Viability kit. PMID:16481147

Biggerstaff, J P; Le Puil, M; Weidow, B L; Prater, J; Glass, K; Radosevich, M; White, D C

2006-04-01

425

Heterodera glycines Infectivity and Egg Viability Following Nonhost Crops and During Overwintering.  

PubMed

The most effective management program for soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is a crop rotation that uses nonhost crops and resistant soybean cultivars. However, little is known about the effects of rotation crops and overwintering on H. glycines biology. These experiments were initiated to determine the effects of seven alternative crops on H. glycines' ability to infect and mature on subsequent soybean crops, and to assess the viability of eggs during the overwintering months. Rotation studies were conducted for 2 years in each of two naturally infested fields, and overwintering tests were conducted in three consecutive growing seasons in one naturally infested field. Rotation crop and fallow treatments did not have a consistent effect on the ability of H. glycines to infect soybean or mature. Soybean yields were often higher following fallow or a nonhost crop than following soybean, although not usually significantly so. Heterodera glycines egg viability did not differ (P < 0.05) between overwintering months at 0-to-10 or 10-to-20-cm soil depths. These results suggest that H. glycines' ability to infect a subsequent soybean crop and develop to maturity is not diminished by nonhost crops or during the winter months. PMID:19262870

Jackson, T A; Smith, G S; Niblack, T L

2005-09-01

426

Flow cytometric lifetime-based cell viability assay using propidium iodide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assays which discriminate and enumerate dying or dead cells are important in various types of cellular studies. In many instances, there is a need to identify dead cells that interfere with fluorescent probes which are used to measure functional and physiological properties in viable cells. For example, dead cells can introduce analytical errors arising from (1) nonspecific uptake of fluorescent probes, leading to erroneous percentages of positive labeled cells, (2) increased autofluorescence, and (3) altered antigen expression. The ability to detect dead cells is also of importance in determining the effectiveness of cytotoxic agents. Propidium iodide (PPI) exclusion, which is analogous to the non- fluorescent trypan blue dye test for viability, is used extensively in flow cytometry assays. However, the use of PI can potentially limit the application of additional fluorescent probes due to spectral overlap of the probe with PI. In this report we present phase-resolved fluorescence studies on rat and murine thymus cells labeled with phycoerythrin-antiThy 1.1 and phycoerythrin/Texas Red-antiThy 1.2 immunofluorescence markers, respectively, and PI. Overlapping emission spectra are resolved based on differences in fluorescence lifetimes of the probes and PI. These studies demonstrate a new lifetime-based viability method for use in analysis of immunofluorescent probes and for assaying the dynamics of cell killing.

Steinkamp, John A.; Lehnert, Bruce E.; Lehnert, Nancy M.

1999-05-01

427

Effects of borate-based bioactive glass on neuron viability and neurite extension.  

PubMed

Bioactive glasses have recently been shown to promote regeneration of soft tissues by positively influencing tissue remodeling during wound healing. We were interested to determine whether bioactive glasses have the potential for use in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. In these experiments, degradable bioactive borate glass was fabricated into rods and microfibers. To study the compatibility with neurons, embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were cultured with different forms of bioactive borate glass. Cell viability was measured with no media exchange (static condition) or routine media exchange (transient condition). Neurite extension was measured within fibrin scaffolds with embedded glass microfibers or aligned rod sheets. Mixed cultures of neurons, glia, and fibroblasts growing in static conditions with glass rods and microfibers resulted in decreased cell viability. However, the percentage of neurons compared with all cell types increased by the end of the culture protocol compared with culture without glass. Furthermore, bioactive glass and fibrin composite scaffolds promoted neurite extension similar to that of control fibrin scaffolds, suggesting that glass does not have a significant detrimental effect on neuronal health. Aligned glass scaffolds guided neurite extension in an oriented manner. Together these findings suggest that bioactive glass can provide alignment to support directed axon growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2767-2775, 2014. PMID:24027222

Marquardt, Laura M; Day, Delbert; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Harkins, Amy B

2014-08-01

428

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.  

PubMed

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-10-01

429

Heterodera glycines Infectivity and Egg Viability Following Nonhost Crops and During Overwintering  

PubMed Central

The most effective management program for soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is a crop rotation that uses nonhost crops and resistant soybean cultivars. However, little is known about the effects of rotation crops and overwintering on H. glycines biology. These experiments were initiated to determine the effects of seven alternative crops on H. glycines' ability to infect and mature on subsequent soybean crops, and to assess the viability of eggs during the overwintering months. Rotation studies were conducted for 2 years in each of two naturally infested fields, and overwintering tests were conducted in three consecutive growing seasons in one naturally infested field. Rotation crop and fallow treatments did not have a consistent effect on the ability of H. glycines to infect soybean or mature. Soybean yields were often higher following fallow or a nonhost crop than following soybean, although not usually significantly so. Heterodera glycines egg viability did not differ (P < 0.05) between overwintering months at 0-to-10 or 10-to-20-cm soil depths. These results suggest that H. glycines' ability to infect a subsequent soybean crop and develop to maturity is not diminished by nonhost crops or during the winter months.

Jackson, T. A.; Smith, G. S.; Niblack, T. L.

2005-01-01

430

Effect of Selenate on Viability and Selenomethionine Accumulation of Chlorella sorokiniana Grown in Batch Culture  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the effect of Se(+VI) on viability, cell morphology, and selenomethionine accumulation of the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana grown in batch cultures. Culture exposed to sublethal Se concentrations of 40 mg·L?1 (212??M) decreased growth rates for about 25% compared to control. A selenate EC50 value of 45?mg·L?1 (238.2??M) was determined. Results showed that chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were not affected by Se exposure, while oxygen evolution decreased by half. Ultrastructural studies revealed granular stroma, fingerprint-like appearance of thylakoids which did not compromise cell activity. Unlike control cultures, SDS PAGE electrophoresis of crude extracts from selenate-exposed cell cultures revealed appearance of a protein band identified as 53?kDa Rubisco large subunit of Chlorella sorokiniana, suggesting that selenate affects expression of the corresponding chloroplast gene as this subunit is encoded in the chloroplast DNA. Results revealed that the microalga was able to accumulate up to 140?mg·kg?1 of SeMet in 120?h of cultivation. This paper shows that Chlorella sorokiniana biomass can be enriched in the high value aminoacid SeMet in batch cultures, while keeping photochemical viability and carbon dioxide fixation activity intact, if exposed to suitable sublethal concentrations of Se.

Vilchez, Carlos; Torronteras, Rafael; Vigara, Javier; Gomez-Jacinto, Veronica; Janzer, Nora; Gomez-Ariza, Jose-Luis; Marova, Ivana

2014-01-01

431

Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

2013-01-01

432

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

433

UXT is a novel centrosomal protein essential for cell viability.  

PubMed

Ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT) is a prefoldinlike protein that has been suggested to be involved in human tumorigenesis. Here, we have found that UXT is overexpressed in a number of human tumor tissues but not in the matching normal tissues. We demonstrate that UXT is located in human centrosomes and is associated with gamma-tubulin. In addition, overexpression of UXT disrupts centrosome structure. Furthermore, abrogation of UXT protein expression by small interfering RNA knockdown leads to cell death. Together, our findings suggest that UXT is a component of centrosome and is essential for cell viability. We propose that UXT may facilitate transformation by corrupting regulated centrosome functions. PMID:16221885

Zhao, Huiwu; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongtao; Liu, Qingdu; Du, Xiulian; Richter, Mark; Greene, Mark I

2005-12-01

434

Viability by MRI or PET would not have changed the results of the STICH trial.  

PubMed

The assessment of myocardial viability in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy did not identify patients who had a survival benefit from coronary artery bypass grafting compared to medical therapy alone. Viability testing was performed with either single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), dobutamine echocardiography (DE), or both. The question has been raised as to whether the addition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging may have changed these results. Comparisons of the important similarities and differences of these viability imaging techniques, as well as of the design and limitations of the STICH viability substudy, suggest that the addition of MRI or PET imaging for viability assessment would not change the study results. The results of the STICH viability substudy are probably not a reflection of the modality of viability testing used, but rather an indication of the substantive effect of optimal medical therapy. PMID:23518378

Asrani, Nina S; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya; Pellikka, Patricia A

2013-01-01

435

Estimation of Fitness Components in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER . I. Heterozygote Viability Indices  

PubMed Central

We examine the assumption of "dominance" with regard to viability of the Cy and Pm marker chromosomes in D. melanogaster . This assumption is often invoked for the extraction of wild-type second chromosomes from natural populations and for the calculation of relative viability indices. Significant genotypic variances for viability are found among both Cy/+j and Pm/+i heterozygotes in California and Japanese populations. The magnitude of the Pm/+ i genotypic variance is substantially less than that of the Cy/+j heterozygotes (less than one half). Significant reciprocal effects are also found to influence Cy/+j, Pm/+i and +i/+j viabilities. We conclude that viability indices of heterozygotes based on the Curly method are biased. We suggest that viability indices in the future be expressed relative to the viability of the Cy/Pm genotype (Curly-Plum method) or possibly that of the Pm/+i genotype (Plum method).

Katz, Alan J.; Cardellino, Ricardo A.

1978-01-01

436

Energy and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the relation between energy and economic growth and more generally the role of energy in economic production. While business and financial economists pay significant attention to the impact of oil and other energy prices on economic activity, the mainstream theory of economic growth pays little or no attention to the role of energy or other natural resources

L Brookes

1971-01-01

437

Focus: International Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

438

On Ethics and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this elegant critique, Amartya Sen argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention fo ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economics. Predicitive and descriptive economics can be helped by making room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour. In this context, he explores the rationality of

Amaryta Sen

1987-01-01

439