Sample records for determining economic viability

  1. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider...forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty...

  2. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider...forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty...

  3. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203...costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider...forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty...

  4. Economic viability of access broadband multiservice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Dammicco, Giacinto; Mocci, Ugo

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the economic viability of alternative architectures for optical access networks providing broad band services to different subscriber classes in a metropolitan environment, is investigated by a specific tool, NEVE (Network Economic Viability Evaluator), developed for broad band multiservice network planning, service evolutionary scenarios assessment, evaluation of tariff strategies and other actions taken at stimulating the demand growth. As the viability target can be achieved in different ways, different studies can be carried out by NEVE. In the paper some of them are discussed, particularly the ones addressed: to evaluate the impact on viability of alternative service scenarios; to determine the critical mass of broad band subscribers and the critical joint service adoption cost; to evaluate cross subsidiary policies among different subscriber classes and services; to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to variations of demand parameters and tariffs.

  5. Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Aircraft Economic Viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri N. Mavris; George C. Mantis; Michelle R. Kirby

    Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which

  6. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Economic viability of photovoltaic water pumping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Odeh; Y. G. Yohanis; Brian Norton

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of the economic viability of photovoltaic and diesel water pumping systems is presented for system sizes in the range 2.8kWp to 15kWp. Actual performance data from installed systems are employed for the base case. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to generalize results for other locations and conditions. The effect of system oversizing due to mismatch of water supply

  9. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.68 What pre-application...field, a development project, or an expansion project can become economic with full...field, a development project, or an expansion project economic (see §...

  10. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    PubMed

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

  11. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells

    E-print Network

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    May 1995 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF MULTIPLE-LATERAL HORIZONTAL WELLS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JASON SMITH Submitted to Texas Aft M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Michael J. Economides (Chair of Committee) Thomas A. Blasingame (Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) James E. ussell (Head of Department) May 1995 Ma)or Subject: Petroleum Engineering ABSTRACT Fconomic...

  12. Economic viability of the UCP semicrystalline silicon sheet technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putney, Z.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C.

    Lindmayer (1976) has reported the initial results of a new approach to the generation of silicon sheet for photovoltaic applications. The approach was named the Ubiquitous Crystallization Process (UCP) and the obtained product is called semicrystalline silicon. The term semicrystalline is employed to differentiate the middle ground between single-crystal material and fine-grained polycrystalline forms. A lower-purity silicon approach, termed the Simultaneously Present Large Impurity Technology (SPLIT), was developed to provide a low-cost UCP feedstock. In an economic analysis it is found that the projected cost for modules made with UCP silicon can closely approach $0.50/Wp with SPLIT silicon feedstock and $0.60/Wp with $14/kg feedstock. It is concluded that the UCP semicrystalline silicon sheet technology has the economic viability for low-cost photovoltaics.

  13. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    . It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

  14. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  15. The economic viability of pursuing a space power system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a space power system requires no fundamental technological breakthroughs. There are, however, uncertainties regarding the degree to which necessary developments can be achieved or exceeded. An analysis is conducted concerning the implementation of a 5000 MW space-based solar power system based on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. The solar array is about 13 km long and 5 km wide. Placed in geosynchronous orbit, it provides power to the earth for 30 years. Attention is given to the economic feasibility of a space power system, a risk analysis for space power systems, and the use of the presented methodology for comparing alternative technology development programs.

  16. Viability of Giardia intestinalis cysts and viability and sporulation state of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts determined by electrorotation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C; Goater, A D; Pethig, R; Smith, H V

    2001-02-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of C. cayetanensis oocysts (for which no vital dye assay is currently available) can also be determined by electrorotation, as can their sporulation state. Modeling of the electrorotational response of these organisms was used to determine their dielectric properties and to gain an insight into the changes occurring within them. Electrorotation offers a new, simple, and rapid method for determining the viability of parasites in potable water and food products and as such has important healthcare implications. PMID:11157220

  17. Viability of Giardia intestinalis Cysts and Viability and Sporulation State of Cyclospora cayetanensis Oocysts Determined by Electrorotation

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, C.; Goater, A. D.; Pethig, R.; Smith, H. V.

    2001-01-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of C. cayetanensis oocysts (for which no vital dye assay is currently available) can also be determined by electrorotation, as can their sporulation state. Modeling of the electrorotational response of these organisms was used to determine their dielectric properties and to gain an insight into the changes occurring within them. Electrorotation offers a new, simple, and rapid method for determining the viability of parasites in potable water and food products and as such has important healthcare implications. PMID:11157220

  18. Using Impedance Spectroscopy to Assess the Viability of the Rapid Chloride Test for Determining Concrete Conductivity

    E-print Network

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Impedance Spectroscopy to Assess the Viability of the Rapid Chloride Test for Determining Concrete test of electrical conduction through concrete, referred to here as the rapid chloride test (RCTUsing Impedance Spectroscopy to Assess the Viability of the Rapid Chloride Test for Determining

  19. Molecular Determination of Mycobacterium leprae Viability by Use of Real-Time PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alejandra N.; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Pittman, Tana L.; Scollard, David; Truman, Richard; Moraes, Milton O.; Williams, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy, is noncultivable on axenic media. Therefore, the viability of M. leprae for clinical or experimental applications is often unknown. To provide new tools for M. leprae viability determination, two quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed and characterized. M. leprae sodA mRNA and 16S rRNA were used as RNA targets, and M. leprae repetitive element (RLEP) DNA was used to determine relative bacterial numbers in the same purified bacterial preparations or from crude biological specimens. Results demonstrated that both assays were good predictors of M. leprae viability during short-term experiments (48 h) involving rifampin (rifampicin) treatment in axenic medium, within rifampin-treated murine macrophages (M?), or within immune-activated M?. Moreover, these results strongly correlated those of other M. leprae viability assays, including radiorespirometry-based and Live/Dead BacLight viability assays. The 16S rRNA/RLEP assay consistently identified the presence of M. leprae in eight multibacillary leprosy patient biopsy specimens prior to multidrug therapy (MDT) and demonstrated a decline in viability during the course of MDT. In contrast, the sodA/RLEP assay was able to detect the presence of M. leprae in only 25% of pretreatment biopsy specimens. In conclusion, new tools for M. leprae viability determination were developed. The 16S rRNA/RLEP RT-PCR M. leprae viability assay should be useful both for short-term experimental purposes and for predicting M. leprae viability in biopsy specimens to monitor treatment efficacy, whereas the sodA/RLEP RT-PCR M. leprae viability assay should be limited to short-term experimental research purposes. PMID:19439537

  20. Viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car

    SciTech Connect

    Tauber, L.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car for commuting in the 90`s and beyond. Currently there are mandates in place that require that by the year 1998, two percent of the vehicles sold in California be {open_quotes}Zero Emission Vehicles{close_quotes} (ZEV). This same mandate has been imposed in many of the New England states as well. The {open_quotes}Big Three{close_quotes} automakers have answered with electric cars that surpass the $40,000 mark. What can the average person do, who wants to drive an electric car, but can`t afford these expensive prototypes? This paper will describe one approach to building an affordable electric car, with excellent performance and range. Additionally, there will be actual examples of these cars, using the design techniques outlined in this paper.

  1. Impact of youth injuries on the uninsured farm family's economic viability.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the impact of youth injuries on the uninsured farm family's economic viability. Using farm prototypes, we compared farm profits with costs of farm youth injuries. We built profit models for two types of farms, dairy and soybean farms. Then we estimated the cost impact of farm youth injuries of different levels of severity on a farm family with no health insurance. A severe child injury that requires at least 10 days of hospitalisation would cost almost equal to the operating profit of the average dairy farm with no health insurance and would turn the operating profit of the average soybean farm into a severe loss of $99,499. Prevention of child agricultural injuries would significantly improve the financial situation for farm families that lack health insurance. PMID:21819178

  2. AUTONOMIC FUNCTION CAN EVALUATE BRAIN STEM FUNCTION TO DETERMINE VIABILITY OF LIFE.: 301

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Colombo; Kevan Iffrig; Elif Aysin; Ben Aysin; Charles C Wo; William C Shoemaker; Adam Colombo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Current methods in evaluating brain function to determine viability of life typically involves brain flow studies after cerebral edema or ischemia has occurred. We present data demonstrating earlier determination of lack of brain stem activity which can lead to earlier clinical decision-making, earlier family involvement in end-of-life issues, including organ donation, and decreased intensive care unit and ventilator-management time

  3. A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractTITLE: A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYSABSTRACT BODY: Microelectrode array (MEA) recordings are increasingly being used as an in vitro method to detect and characte...

  4. Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Farms. 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, James W.; Smith, Edward G.

    1985-01-01

    to the 20% acreage reduction program ranges from 1 % for the 5,570-acre farm to 4.9% for the 1,088-acre farm. Average annual government payments to all three farms are less than under the Base Scenario because higher mean cotton prices reduce deficiency...we fA245 .7 B73 0, )'505 Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of ' Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Farms ~ --rfii~tt'{ APR 201981 8-1505 August 1985 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION/Neville P...

  5. Uncertainty and indeterminacy in assessing the economic viability of energy options; A case study of solar heating systems in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Walley, P. (School of Electrical Engineering, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US)); Menezes, F.; De Souza, C. (Dept. de Electronica e Sistemas, Univ. Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Univ., 50741 Recife/PE (BR))

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a probabilistic, decision- theoretical model for the economic analysis of energy options is described. In decision problems with limited information, it is important to model both uncertainty and indeterminacy concerning the key variables, and to use all available information about them, including expert opinions. Lack of information and disagreement among experts should be reflected in imprecise probability assessments. This approach is applied to the problem of deciding whether to invest in a solar energy system. A consumer's net profit from using solar energy depends on variables such as the lifetime of the solar collector and the future cost of alternative energy, for which a probabilistic model is constructed. To illustrate how imprecise probability assessments can be made in a specific problem, the choice between solar energy and electricity for domestic water heating in Recife, Brazil is studied. Our model is used to investigate the effects of insurance, guarantees, mortgages, and subsidies on the economic viability of solar energy.

  6. The economic viability of commercial wind plants in Greece A complete sensitivity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Kaldellis; Th. J. Gavras

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the governing techno-economic parameters on the economic behaviour of commercial wind parks is investigated. For this purpose, a complete cost–benefit analysis model, properly adapted for the Greek market, is developed in order to calculate the pay-back period and the economic efficiency of similar investments in the energy production sector. Moreover, the impact of various parameters — such

  7. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg. PMID:24220544

  8. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse

    E-print Network

    into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae, Calvin Ng, Joseph Pateman University of British Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae Calvin Ng Joseph Pateman March. This investigation deals with the viability of building a waste heat powered greenhouse on the roof of the new SUB

  9. Reconstituted soils: a probabilistic approach to resolve aspects relating to the sustainability and economic viability of the rehabilitation of mined lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hattingh; Exxaro KZN; KwaZulu Natal; R. Krantz; Viljoen Viljoen; N. Jovanovic

    Exxaro KZN Sands is a heavy minerals mining and beneficiation operation on the east coast of South Africa. The pre-mining land use on the mineralised dunes consists of dryland commercial sugarcane farming. In terms of legislative requirements pertaining to mine closure several issues become evident when considering the concepts of sustainability and economic viability as applied to commercial dryland agriculture.

  10. Measuring Residual Feed Intake Traits on Pasture The long-term economic viability of the U.S. beef industry, which represents approxi-

    E-print Network

    Measuring Residual Feed Intake Traits on Pasture The long-term economic viability of the U.S. beef percent of the cost of producing beef is feed inputs and because many of the adverse environmental impacts of producing beef are due to manure output, improving feed efficiency is key to identifying cattle

  11. Assessment of the efficiency and economic viability of various methods of treatment of sanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2007-12-01

    This study assesses the efficiency of various physico-chemical, biological and other tertiary methods for treating leachate. An evaluation study on the treatability of the leachate from methane phase bed (MPB) reactor indicated that at an optimum hydraulic retention time of 6 days, the efficiency of the reactor in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 91.29 and 82.69%, respectively. Recycling of the treated leachate through the municipal solid waste layers in the leachate recycling unit (LRU) resulted in a significant increase in the biodegradation of organics present in the leachate. Optimum BOD and COD removal efficiencies were achieved at the third recycle; additional recycling of the leachate did not produce any significant improvement. Physico-chemical treatment of the leachate demonstrated that alum and lime (Option 2) were more economical than coagulants lime and MgCO(3). A cost analysis of the economics of the various treatments revealed that the alternative treatment consisting of a MPB bed followed by a LRU and aerated lagoon is the most cost-effective treatment. However, the alternative consisting of a MPB followed by the LRU and a soil column, which is slightly more costly, would be the most appropriate treatment when adequate land is readily available. PMID:17505905

  12. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

  13. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

  14. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

  15. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

  16. The determination of the viability of Schistosomal eggs by a novel technique: electrorotation.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Tang, J C; Zhang, F; Wang, X; Xu, B J

    2013-09-01

    Human schistosomiasis is widespread in tropical and subtropical environments. In this study, a novel open cell with liquid medium perfusion system for electrorotation measurement to detect the viability of schistosomal eggs is proposed. With no solid top or bottom surface, the liquid medium perfusion system solves some of the problems of conventional electrorotation testing systems. This kind of open cell successfully detect schistosome egg viability, most prominently, there can be no adhesion or friction of eggs on the surface to encumber their rotation. This newly proposed system can be used to test more types of biological particles compared to a conventional system used in electrorotation measurement, providing more exact results. The new system can be used for rapid analysis of various biological particles in water, which will be potentially significant to public health. PMID:24189668

  17. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  18. Cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin and its metabolites determined with the neutral red cell viability assay.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Borenfreund, E

    1991-01-01

    The neutral red (NR) cell viability assay was used with various cell types of human origin to quantitate the potency of T-2 mycotoxin and its metabolites. The human melanoma SK-Mel/27 cell line was the most sensitive, with a midpoint cytotoxicity value of 2.8 ng of T-2 per ml. With the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, the sequence of potency for a series of mycotoxins was T-2 greater than HT-2 greater than T-2 triol greater than T-2 tetraol. PMID:1892400

  19. Determinants of Achievement of Economics Concepts by Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosin, Kim; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Uses test questions from the Basic Economics Test (BET) to reveal that elementary students are capable of understanding economics concepts. Maintains that neither ethnic background nor parental income makes a difference in economic learning. The most statistically significant determinant of improved scores was the extent to which a concept was…

  20. Percent infarct mapping: an R1-map-based CE-MRI method for determining myocardial viability distribution.

    PubMed

    Surányi, Pál; Kiss, Pál; Brott, Brigitta C; Simor, Tamás; Elgavish, Ada; Ruzsics, Balázs; Saab-Ismail, Nada H; Elgavish, Gabriel A

    2006-09-01

    Viability detection is crucial for the management of myocardial infarction (MI). Signal intensity (SI)-based MRI methods may overestimate infarct size in vivo. In contrast to SI, the longitudinal relaxation-rate enhancement (DeltaR1) is an intrinsic parameter that is linearly proportional to the concentration of contrast agent (CA). Determining DeltaR1 in the presence of an infarct-avid persistent CA (PCA) allows determination of the per-voxel percentage of infarcted tissue. Introduced here is a DeltaR1-based CE-MRI method, termed percent infarct mapping (PIM), for quantifying myocardial viability following delayed PCA accumulation. In a canine MI model (N=6), PIMs were generated using a persistent CA (PCA) and validated using triphenyltetrazolium-chloride (TTC) histochemistry. Voxel-by-voxel R1 maps of the entire left ventricle (LV) were generated 24 and 48 hr after PCA administration using inversion recovery (IR) with multiple inversion times (TIs). PI values were calculated voxel by voxel. Significant correlations (P<0.01, R=0.97) were obtained for PI per slice (PIS) determined using PIM vs. corresponding TTC-based values. Median deviations of PIS with PIM from that with TTC were only 1.01% and -0.53%, at 24 hr and 48 hr. Median deviations from the true infarction fraction (IF) were 1.23% and 0.49% of LV at 24 hr and 48 hr, respectively. No significant difference was found between PIM24 hr and PIM48 hr. DeltaR1-based PIM is an accurate and reproducible method for quantifying myocardial viability distribution, and thus enhances the clinical utility of CE-MRI. PMID:16892184

  1. Potential minability and economic viability of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia; a prefeasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Douglas W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a coal resource assessment of several areas in Armenia from 1997 to 1999. This report, which presents a prefeasibility study of the economic and mining potential of one coal deposit found and studied by the USGS team, was prepared using all data available at the time of the study and the results of the USGS exploratory work, including core drilling, trenching, coal quality analyses, and other ongoing field work. On the basis of information currently available, it is the authors? opinion that a small surface coal mine having about a 20-year life span could be developed in the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, specifically at the Dzoragukh site. The mining organization selected or created to establish the mine will need to conduct necessary development drilling and other work to establish the final feasibility study for the mine. The company will need to be entrepreneurial, profit oriented, and sensitive to the coal consumer; have an analytical management staff; and focus on employee training, safety, and protection of the environment. It is anticipated that any interested parties will be required to submit detailed mining plans to the appropriate Armenian Government agencies. Further development work will be required to reach a final decision regarding the economic feasibility of the mine. However, available information indicates that a small, economic surface mine can be developed at this locality. The small mine suggested is a typical surface-outcropstripping, contour mining operation. In addition, auger mining is strongly suggested, because the recovery of these low-cost mining reserves will help to ensure that the operation will be a viable, economic enterprise. (Auger mining is a system in which large-diameter boreholes are placed horizontally into the coal seam at the final highwall set as the economic limit for the surface mining operation). A special horizontal boring machine, which can be imported from Russia, is required for auger mining. Although auger-mining coal reserves do exist, the necessary development work will further verify the extent of these reserves and all of the other indicated reserves. The following items are based on the detailed study reported in this publication. Initial investment.?Following an investment of US $85,000 over a 12-month period in mine development drilling and other activities, a decision must be taken regarding further investment in an ongoing mining operation. If the new data support the opening of the surface mine, __________________________ 1Consultant, 6024 Morning Dew Drive, Austin, TX 78749. 2 U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 1 2 MINABILITY AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY, ANTARAMUT-KURTAN-DZORAGUKH COAL FIELD the $85,000 development cost is amortized over the first 10 years of mine production. If the new data do not support the opening of the mine, the $85,000 is considered a business development expense that may be written off against profits from other operations for income or other tax purposes or simply as a business loss. Total capital required.?The equipment costs will reach a total of $900,500 which will be amortized over a 7-year period to establish estimated coal mining costs. Estimated working capital costs are $300,000, which will be borrowed. Surface mining reserves.?Approximately 840,200 metric tonnes of surface minable coal reserves at 9.3 m3 of overburden per metric tonne of minable coal is indicated. Recovery of the minable coal at 85 percent will yield 714,000 recoverable metric tonnes of marketable as-mined coal. Auger mining reserves.?Auger-mining reserves of 576,000 metric tonnes are indicated. Recoverable auger-mining reserves of 202,000 metric tonnes (at 35-percent recovery) can be expected. Auger-mining production will vary according to the hole size being used, but, in either case, augering is a very profitable addition to the mining oper

  2. The Determinants of Economic Growth in European Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Crespo Cuaresma; Gernot Doppelhofer; Martin Feldkircher

    2012-01-01

    Crespo Cuaresma J., Doppelhofer G. and Feldkircher M. The determinants of economic growth in European regions, Regional Studies. This paper uses Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to find robust determinants of economic growth between 1995 and 2005 in a new data set of 255 European regions. It finds that income convergence between countries is dominated by the catching-up of regions in

  3. Multiple Freezing Points as a Test for Viability of Plant Stems in the Determination of Frost Hardiness 1

    PubMed Central

    McLeester, R. C.; Weiser, C. J.; Hall, T. C.

    1969-01-01

    A technique is presented for a simple, rapid, and reliable means of determining the viability of plant tissue subjected to freezing temperatures. Freezing curves of excised stems of Cornus stolonifera Michx., and several other genera were studied. Tissue temperature was recorded during freezing of plant stem sections. The heat of crystallization deflected the resultant freezing curves at points where tissue froze. Living stem sections of all genera studied revealed 2 freezing points, while dead tissue exhibited only 1. The influence of variables such as moisture content, sample size, thermocouple placement, and cooling rate on freezing curves was analyzed. Stem samples wrapped in moisture-proof film with a thermocouple inserted into the pith were frozen to a predetermined test temperature, thawed, and subjected to a second freezing cycle. The presence or absence of 2 freezing points in the second freezing cycle was used as a criterion for establishing viability. The results were immediately available and identical to results from regrowth tests which took about 20 days. PMID:16657031

  4. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  5. Determining an economic fuel source for irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, G.J.; Manges, H.L.; Schrock, M.D.; Williams, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplan spread sheet was developed to evaluate the cost of switching power sources for pumping irrigation water. Fuel costs were estimated, assuming the power units are operated at Nebraska standard efficiency. Feasibility of switching power units is determined from expected dollar savings over a ten year period.

  6. New luminescence-based approach to measurement of luciferase gene expression reporter activity and adenosine triphosphate-based determination of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Konopka, R; Hýzdalová, M; Kubala, L; Pacherník, J

    2010-01-01

    The assay employing firefly luciferase as the end-point reporter is one of the most popular gene reporter systems. However, the physiological conditions of cells may affect the reporter gene expression, which makes an assessment of cell viability desirable. Estimates of cell viability may be based on different principles. We tested for correlations between various cell viability assessments, including luminescent determination of adenosine triphosphate in whole-cell lysate, and the reporter luciferase activity in pluripotent embryonic and colon adenocarcinoma cells. Luciferase activity in cell lysate from both cell lines cultured under different conditions correlated with the amount of viable cells assessed by all of the methods employed. Importantly, it was also possible to carry out adenosine triphosphate determination in cell lysates prepared in the buffer originally designed for determining luciferase activity; it correlated significantly with adenosine triphosphate determination in cells lysed in the buffer originally designed for adenosine triphosphate determination. The results suggest that the assessment of live cells by determining adenosine triphosphate can be multiplexed with a luciferase reporter gene assay, which allows independent monitoring of both reporter expression and cell viability. PMID:20492758

  7. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered...

  8. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered...

  9. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical...In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered...

  10. Determining the ecological viability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Kiehlmann, E.; Pinto, L.; Bendell-Young, L.; Moore, M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Nix, P. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    To determine the conditions for optimal degradation of naphthenic acids (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+z}O{sub 2}), the most toxic component of oil sands wastewater, the authors have monitored the mineralization of 2 representative naphthenic acids (NA), U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid (linear, Z = 0) and 8-{sup 14}C-decahydro-2-naphthoic acid (bicyclic, Z = {minus}4) under varying conditions of temperature, phosphate and oxygen. The radiolabeled NA was added to biometer flasks containing wastewater {+-} amendments and evolved {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2} was trapped in a side arm and counted by LSC. The results indicate that low temperature (5 C) and anaerobiasis greatly inhibited NA degradation over the four week incubation period. Addition of phosphate (as buffered KP{sub i}) significantly increased {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2} production for both Z = 0 and Z = {minus}4 compounds; however, the subsequent high microbial growth rates also decreased PO{sub 2} which limited NA mineralization. Effluent toxicity was monitored at week 0 and week 4 using Microtox and fathead minnow tests. Although there was increased survival of fathead minnows in the phosphate-amended effluent, the IC{sub 20} values of the Microtox assay showed no improvement in either the phosphate-treated or untreated effluents. These results show that naphthenic acid analogues are readily degraded by indigenous microorganisms in oil sands wastewater and that phosphate addition accelerated the mineralization of these compounds if PO{sub 2} remained high.

  11. Investigation to Determine the Validity and Viability of a Regional Biomedical Equipment Technician Program at the Community College Level. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mruk, Walter F.; Fenwick, Douglas E.

    A study was conducted to determine the validity and viability of a Southeastern Pennsylvania biomedical equipment technician program at the community college level. The results of a survey questionnaire, site visits, and interviews with administrators of existing health care facilities and ongoing biomedical curricula, indicated the following: (1)…

  12. PrestoBlue® and AlamarBlue® are equally useful as agents to determine the viability of Acanthamoeba trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso M; Maciver, Sutherland; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, Jose E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen which is the causal agent of several human infections such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis, Acanthamoeba keratitis and other disseminated infections. Furthermore, current therapeutic measures against Acanthamoeba infections are arduous, and show limited efficacy against the cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. There is a pressing need to search and evaluate new therapeutic agents against these protozoa. Our approach for evaluating possible new drugs is an initial in vitro screening assay based on general metabolic activity of the cells. In this study we compare two agents, AlamarBlue® and PrestoBlue® for this initial screen. Both reagents can be used to indicate metabolism by changes in their absorbance or fluorescence. The assay is carried out in a 96-well plate format and fluorescence can be measured after an inoculation period of as little as 10 min, but more typically 96 h. This to the best of our knowledge this is the first time that both compounds are directly compared using absorbance and fluorescence measurement. We conclude that for the specific case of Acanthamoeba both agents AlamarBlue® and PrestoBlue® are equally useful to determine cell viability. PMID:24703973

  13. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation device: applied to the concentration and viability determination of Cryptosporidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goater, Andrew D.; Burt, Julian P. H.; Pethig, Ronald

    1997-09-01

    We describe a microelectrode device, fabricated using photolithography and laser ablation, that combines the electrokinetic effects of travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Here it has been used to concentrate and then assay the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

  14. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

  15. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

  16. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

  17. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

  18. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Determining the economic interest of the United States...Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States...covered program would be in the economic interest of the United...

  19. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Determining the economic interest of the United States...Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States...covered program would be in the economic interest of the United...

  20. The Empirical Determination of Key Skills from an Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loo, Jasper B.; Toolsema, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Notwithstanding an impressive research tradition on key skills, no clear statistical criterion exists that is suitable to determine which skills may be considered key skills. This contribution proposes one possible methodology that can be used to identify key skills. Proposing an economic definition of the key skill concept and disentangling the…

  1. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

  2. NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

  3. Cable in Boston; A Basic Viability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauben, Jan Ward; And Others

    The viability of urban cable television (CATV) as an economic phenomenon is examined via a case study of its feasibility in Boston, a microcosm of general urban environment. To clarify cable's economics, a unitary concept of viability is used in which all local characteristics, cost assumptions, and growth estimates are structured dynamically as a…

  4. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  5. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Meers, E; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digesting the harvested contaminated biomass himself, by performing a Net Present Value (NPV) analysis on the digestion activity and by calculating the probability of a positive NPV of income resulting from the digestion installation. We investigate the trade off between the maximum price for energy maize that can be paid by the digestion activity and the minimum price that the farming activity needs to compensate for covering its production costs. Integrating the previous study in the current analysis results in an increase of total extra income for the farmer (i.e., from both growing energy maize and performing digestion). PMID:21166275

  6. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Determining the economic interest of the United States. 600...Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. ...company in a covered program would be in the economic interest of the United States...

  7. Determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-15

    A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8)} via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (NQ) was developed. Measurement conditions were optimized for the microbiological determination of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B(6), biotin, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid, using microorganisms that have a water-soluble vitamin requirement. A linear relationship between absorbance and water-soluble vitamin concentration was obtained. The proposed method was applied to determine the concentration of vitamin B(6) in various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between vitamin B(6) concentrations determined after 24h using the WST-8 colorimetric method and those obtained after 48h using a conventional method. The results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay is a useful method for the rapid determination of water-soluble vitamins in a 96-well microtiter plate. PMID:23140724

  8. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  9. Financial and Economic Determinants of Firm Default Giulio Bottazzi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    default might lead, through bankruptcy or radical restructuring, to firm's exit, our work also relates with previous contributions on industrial demography. Using non parametric tests we assess to what extent. Traditionally, industrial economic literature studied firm's death, using the "exit" event as reported

  10. Malthus, boserup and population viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noël Bonneuil

    1994-01-01

    The Malthus?Boserup explanatory framework is revisited from the point of view of viability theory. Instead of imposing a univocal relationship between population pressure and level of knowledge, the way technology will change is not determined, it is only constrained.This leads to regard any situation as associated to a set of reachable futures. When no possibility is left for systems to

  11. Determinants of risk-taking: Behavioral and economic views

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. H. Schoemaker

    1993-01-01

    The concept of risk-taking is examined from various perspectives: economic, decision theoretic, and psychological. Multiple factors are discussed as complicating the extraction of any presumed risk-taking propensity from a person's real-world behavior.Problem structuring, beliefs, andvalues (defined here as riskless as opposed to risky utility) may of course underlie differences in risk behavior. In addition,context andprocess factors can induce variance in

  12. Health economic perspectives of pediatric malnutrition: determinants of innovative progress.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly demonstrate that interventions are effective and efficient, but more data are needed to measure that efficiency. Initiatives to address microdeficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iodine, zinc, iron and folate. Iodine is often used as a best practice example. Two main institutions lead the efforts to address malnutrition throughout the world: the UN with its UN Millennium Development Goal project, and the Copenhagen Consensus. We consider micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in iodine, corresponding interventions, their effects and health economic data. We discuss how developing public/private partnership could boost the effectiveness of interventions by combining the competencies of both sides: credibility, national and international buy-in, experience of public institutions, commercial competencies, high penetration rate, and product knowledge of private industry. PMID:20664219

  13. Economics Modelling for the Determination of Test Strategies for Complex VLSI Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chryssa Dislis; J. H. Dick; I. D. Dear; I. N. Azu; Anthony P. Ambler

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the economics modeling techniques developed by the authors for the determination of optimal test strategies for board level testing. A number of interconnected economics models are used to describe the test process and the quality achieved, enabling the user to make predictive calculations for the effects of design and test choices. The results of sample runs presented,

  14. Determination of economic production-shipment policy for a single-vendor-single-buyer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh K. Goyal; Fassil Nebebe

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining economic production and shipment policy of a product supplied by a vendor to a single buyer. The objective is to minimise the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer.

  15. Assessment of the Long-Term Viability of the Myxospores of Myxobolus cerebralis as Determined by Production of the Actinospores by Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Nehring, R Barry; Schisler, George; Chiaramonte, Luciano; Horton, Annie; Poole, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    While whirling disease was first observed in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in 1893, the complete life cycle of Myxobolus cerebralis (Mc), the causative agent of the disease, was not understood until 1984, when it was shown to involve two obligate hosts, a salmonid fish and the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Tt). The viability of the triactinomyxon (TAM) actinospores produced by Tt has been well studied, and is known to be temperature dependent and measured in days and weeks. Assertions that Mc myxospores produced by infected fish remain viable for years or even decades were made during the mid-20th century, decades before the Mc life cycle was described. Moreover, the duration of myxospore viability has not been well studied since the life cycle was elucidated. In a series of time-delay treatments, we assessed the long-term viability of Mc myxospores by exposure to Mc-susceptible Tt oligochaetes and quantified TAM production. As the time delay between inoculation and incubation of Mc myxospores in sand and water and exposure to Tt oligochaetes increased, TAM production decreased exponentially. Production among the 15-d time-delay replicates was reduced 74.7% compared with the 0-d treatment. Likewise, total TAM production was reduced 94.5, 99.4, and 99.9%, respectively, in the 90-, 120-, and 180-d time-delay treatments. Linear regression analysis of our data and the absence of TAM production among replicates of Mc myxospores held at 5°C for 365 d prior to exposure to Mc-susceptible Tt oligochaetes indicate that the long-term viability of Mc myxospores is less than 1 year under the conditions of this study. Received May 14, 2014; accepted September 27, 2014. PMID:25706032

  16. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  17. The economic and demographic determinants of international migration in Rural Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Adams Jr

    1993-01-01

    This study uses data collected in rural Egypt to estimate a micro?level model of the economic and demographic determinants of international migration. This model uses predicted income functions to establish origin incomes (incomes excluding remittances). Three findings are noteworthy. First, the results suggest that education may not necessarily be positively correlated with migration. Second, the data indicate that the relationship

  18. The socio-economic determinants of maternal health care utilization in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patience Aseweh Abor; Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah; Kojo Sakyi; Charles K. D. Adjasi; Joshua Abor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to examine the socio-economic determinants of maternal health services utilization in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Probit and ordered probit models are employed in this study. Findings – The results generally indicate that most women in Ghana undertake the required visits for antenatal services and also take both doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine as required by

  19. Determinants of Bribery in International Business: The Cultural and Economic Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajib Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) scores for 47 countries reported by Transparency International were used to ascertain determinants of bribe taking in international business. Two sets of independent variables – economic and cultural – were used in a multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that bribe taking was more likely to be prevalent in countries with low per capita income and lower

  20. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. H. Hosseini; F. Forouzbakhsh; M. Fotouhi; M. Vakilian

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the “reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an HPP using the

  1. Political and economic determinants of budget deficits in the industrial democracies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nouriel Roubini; Jeffrey D. Sachs

    1989-01-01

    Given the large deficits in many OECD countries in recent years, and the resulting sharp rise in the public debt, it is important to determine the economic and political forces leading to such large deficits. We lind only partial support for the 'equilibrium approach to liscal policy', which assumes that tax rates are set over time in order to minimize

  2. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  3. Economic viability of rangeland based ranching enterprises

    E-print Network

    Jochec, Kristi Gayle

    2000-01-01

    to this study, is the use of stocking rate decision rules elicited from a focus group of ranchers, rather than decision rules derived from a modeling exercise. Decision rules from a previous focus group are used as the prior information scenario. A reconvened...

  4. Economic inequality in eye care utilization and its determinants: a Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Shariati, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current study aimed to determine eye care utilization, to assess the role of economic inequality in the utilization of eye care services, and to identify its determinants in Shahroud, North of Iran. Methods: Of the 6,311 invited people, 5,190 (82.24%) individuals aged 40 to 64 years old participated in the study. A history of a visit by an ophthalmologist or optometrist was considered as eye care utilization. The gap between low- and high-economic groups was decomposed into its determinants using the Oaxaca decomposition method. Results: Among the participants, 16.32% [95% Confidence Intervals (CI)= 15.31–17.33%] had never been examined by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, and 30.94% (95% CI= 29.69–32.20%) had not undergone an eye examination in the past 5 years. This negative history was significantly higher among female subjects [Odds Ratio (OR)= 1.79, 95% CI= 1.51–2.14], the low-economic group (OR= 2.33, 95% CI= 1.90–2.87), the visually impaired (OR= 1.41, 95% CI= 1.05–1.90), and the uninsured (OR= 1.93, 95% CI= 1.45–2.58). The negative history of eye examination decreased with increasing in age (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.93–0.96) and education (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.92–0.96). In this study, 24.72% (95% CI= 22.30–27.14) of the low-economic group and 9.94% (95% CI= 8.75–11.14) of the high-economic group had no history of eye examination. Decomposition of the gap between the two economic groups showed that education and gender were the most important determinants of inequality. Conclusion: A considerable percentage of adults, even those with visual impairment, do not receive appropriate eye care. There is a definite economic inequality in the community for which poverty per se could be the major cause. PMID:25396206

  5. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berenice Monna; Anne H. Gauthier

    2008-01-01

    Parental time has been identified as a key determinant in the healthy development of a child. The literature on this topic\\u000a has rapidly increased in recent years and has revealed large variations in the amount of time that parents devote to their\\u000a children, including variations over time and across social and economic subgroups of the population. This paper synthesizes\\u000a research

  6. Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.brunner@cemds.org [Center for Environmental Management and Decision Support, Gregor Mendel Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Starkl, Markus, E-mail: markus.starkl@boku.ac.at [Competence Centre for Decision-Aid in Environmental Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences/DIB, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, 1180 Wien (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users' self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A generic case study models collective action and funding in wastewater management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determinants of success: economic assessment, funding policy and self-organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success indicators: conflict rate, funds needed to make cost shares fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for analyzing centralized vs. decentralized disputes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If collective action has less benefits, innovative cost sharing may ensure success.

  7. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  8. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  9. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

  10. Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural extent of hyperenhancement was significantly related to the likelihood of improvement in contractility after revascularization. However, the LVEF in the patient population was 43% prior to revascularization. It is important to know whether the technique has the same degree of accuracy in patients who have more severe LV dysfunction and who would most benefit from an assessment of myocardial viability. “Substantial” viability used as a measure of a patient’s ability to recover after revascularization has not been definitively reported (how much viability is enough?). Patients with severe LV dysfunction are more likely to have mixtures of surviving myocardium, including normal, infarcted, stunned and hibernating myocardium (Cowley et al., 1999). This may lead to a lack of homogeneity of response to testing and to revascularization and contribute to inter- and intra-study differences. There is a need for a large prospective study with adequate follow-up time for patients with CAD and LV dysfunction (LVEF<35%) comparing MRI and an alternate imaging technique. There is some evidence that MRI has comparable sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to PET for determining myocardial viability. However, there is a lack of evidence comparing the accuracy of these two techniques to predict LV function recovery. In addition, some studies refer to PET as the gold standard for the assessment of myocardial viability. Therefore, PET may be an ideal noninvasive imaging comparator to MRI for a prospective study with follow-up. To date, there is a lack of cost-effectiveness analyses (or any economic analyses) of functional cardiac MRI versus an alternate noninvasive imaging method for the assessment of myocardial viability/perfusion. Conclusion There is some evidence that the accuracy of functional cardiac MRI compares favourably with alternate imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. There is insufficient evidence whether functional cardiac MRI can better select which patients [who have CAD and severe LV dysfuncti

  11. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  12. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES) as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI). Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p < .001) is established between Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and CI values for stunting; the development indicator is not always linearly correlated with intra-state inequality in malnutrition prevalence. Results from multi-level models however show children from highest SES quintile posses 50 percent better nutritional status than those from the poorest quintile. Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states. PMID:20701758

  13. Fibroblasts Determine the Fate of FcεRI+ Cell Populations in vitro by Selectively Supporting the Viability of Mast Cells while Internalizing and Degrading Basophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold S. Kirshenbaum; Julie P. Goff; John P. Albert; Steven W. Kessler; Dean D. Metcalfe

    1994-01-01

    To determine the fate of FcεRI+ cells on fibroblasts in vitro, human bone marrow derived CD34+ cells were cultured in the presence of recombinant human interleukin 3 and recombinant human hematopoietic stem cell factor for 3 weeks, and FcεRI+ cells were purified by immunomagnetic selection. This enriched FcεRI+ cell population consisted of 92–94% basophils and 3–5% mast cells as determined

  14. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used as an estimate of cellular activity. The state of cellular viability may be measured by the release of an enzyme such as lactate dehydrogenase or more directly from the intracellular adenylate energy charge from cell lysates. Alternatively, radioactive techniques may be used for an accurate determination of cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24297416

  15. Area at Risk and Viability after Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Can Be Determined by Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vosseler; N. Abegunewardene; N. Hoffmann; S. E. Petersen; D. Becker; D. Cleppien; P. Kunz; K.-F. Kreitner; M. Lauterbach; B. Bierbach; C. Düber; T. Gori; T. Münzel; L. M. Schreiber; G. Horstick

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Clinical differentiation between infarcted and viable myocardium in the ischemic area at risk is controversial. We investigated the potential of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (ceCMRI) in determining the area at risk 24 h after ischemia. Methods: Myocardial ischemia was induced by percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending coronary artery in pigs. Coronary occlusion time was 30

  16. Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country. PMID:24596838

  17. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

  18. Native Chondrocyte Viability during Cartilage Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Morgan, Roy E.; Augé, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early surgical intervention for articular cartilage disease is desirable before full-thickness lesions develop. As early intervention treatments are designed, native chondrocyte viability at the treatment site before intervention becomes an important parameter to consider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate native chondrocyte viability in a series of specimens demonstrating the progression of articular cartilage lesions to determine if the chondrocyte viability profile changes during the evolution of articular cartilage disease to the level of surface fibrillation. Design: Osteochondral specimens demonstrating various degrees of articular cartilage damage were obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three groups were created within a patient harvest based on visual and tactile cues commonly encountered during surgical intervention: group 1, visually and tactilely intact surfaces; group 2, visually intact, tactilely soft surfaces; and group 3, surface fibrillation. Confocal laser microscopy was performed following live/dead cell viability staining. Results: Groups 1 to 3 demonstrated viable chondrocytes in all specimens, even within the fibrillated portions of articular cartilage, with little to no evidence of dead chondrocytes. Chondrocyte viability profile in articular cartilage does not appear to change as disease lesion progresses from normal to surface fibrillation. Conclusions: Fibrillated partial-thickness articular cartilage lesions are a good therapeutic target for early intervention. These lesions retain a high profile of viable chondrocytes and are readily diagnosed by visual and tactile cues during surgery. Early intervention should be based on matrix failure rather than on more aggressive procedures that further corrupt the matrix and contribute to chondrocyte necrosis of contiguous untargeted cartilage.

  19. The Family Farm in California. Final Report of the Small Farm Viability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Economic Development, Sacramento. Community Services Administration.

    Most of California's farms are relatively small, family run operations, and their future has been called into question by current agricultural trends. The Small Farm Viability Planning Project was initiated to identify obstacles to small farm economic viability and make recommendations to the state on policies and actions that might reduce these…

  20. Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. Methods The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. Results There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p < 0.001) and by 39.3% (95%CI: 28.9-48.2, p < 0.001) in households with low and high coverage, respectively, compared to those without bed nets. Households with moderate and lower SES had risk of infection higher than 60% compared to those with higher SES; while inhabitants of houses built of mud walls were at 15.5% (95%CI: 0.1 - 33.3, p < 0.048) higher risk compared to those living in houses built by bricks. Individuals in houses with thatched roof had an excess risk of 17.3% (95%CI: 4.1 - 32.2, p < 0.009) compared to those living in houses roofed with iron sheet. Conclusions There was high spatial variation of risk of P. falciparum infection and urban area was at the lowest risk. High bed net coverage, better SES and good housing were among the important risk factors associated with low risk of P. falciparum infection. PMID:21612637

  1. Economic and technical feasibility of utilizing fish waste as organic nutrients for farm/horticultural use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gargasz, R.E.; Pye, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical and economic viability of utilizing fish wastes and other organic residues as organic peat nutrients for agriculture/horticulture applications are presented. The project tasks included: (1) Reputable analysis of the waste products to determine the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash as well as trace elements; (2) Technical feasibility of reducing these organic wastes into nutrients, valuable and assimilable by agricultural or horticultural crops or as a high protein animal feed; and (3) The economic viability of commercializing, manufacturing, and marketing these waste products as a specialty plant growth substance/high protein feed supplement.

  2. Application of Probabilistic Methods for the Determination of an Economically Robust HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Bandte, Oliver; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach for the determination of economically viable robust design solutions using the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) as a case study. Furthermore, the paper states the advantages of a probability based aircraft design over the traditional point design approach. It also proposes a new methodology called Robust Design Simulation (RDS) which treats customer satisfaction as the ultimate design objective. RDS is based on a probabilistic approach to aerospace systems design, which views the chosen objective as a distribution function introduced by so called noise or uncertainty variables. Since the designer has no control over these variables, a variability distribution is defined for each one of them. The cumulative effect of all these distributions causes the overall variability of the objective function. For cases where the selected objective function depends heavily on these noise variables, it may be desirable to obtain a design solution that minimizes this dependence. The paper outlines a step by step approach on how to achieve such a solution for the HSCT case study and introduces an evaluation criterion which guarantees the highest customer satisfaction. This customer satisfaction is expressed by the probability of achieving objective function values less than a desired target value.

  3. Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…

  4. The origins of terrorism: Cross-country estimates of socio-economic determinants of terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Freytag; Jens J. Krüger; Daniel Meierrieks; Friedrich Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has concluded that socio-economic development does not significantly affect terrorism. We take an alternative view. First, we note that a country's socio-economic circumstances affect terrorists' behavior through terrorism's opportunity costs. We argue that this reasoning also holds for the case of supreme value terrorism. Then, we run a series of negative binomial regressions for 110 countries between 1971

  5. Public health at a crossroads: assessing teaching on economic globalization as a social determinant of health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley K. White

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how public health faculty prepare students to respond to economic globalization, and more broadly considers the response of public health academics to structural challenges that fall within the realm of global economics, politics, and policy. At this moment, public health is at a crossroads of formalizing its education through graduate competencies and certifications. This research undertook in-depth

  6. Physical and Economic Potential of Geological CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORDAN K. E CCLES; LINCOLN P RATSON; RICHARD G. N EWELL; ROBERT B. J ACKSON

    2009-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied

  7. Determination of the effect of plant essential oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction on the growth and viability of Listeria monocytogenes in broth and food systems using flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muñoz; L. Guevara; A. Palop; J. Tabera; P. S. Fernández

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of oregano, rosemary and laurel extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were investigated by examining their influence on the growth and viability of Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory medium and broccoli juice at 30 and 8°C. Important decreases in the L. monocytogenes population were shown in presence of all the extracts obtained from rosemary and one oregano extract.

  8. The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Gaier; Marla E. Perez-Davis

    1994-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a

  9. Financial Viability of Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salant, Priscilla; Saupe, William

    1986-01-01

    Survey information from 1,616 farm families in Wisconsin, Mississippi, and Tennessee was used to construct a viability ratio measuring a family's ability to meet its obligations from total income. Coupled with other farm characteristics, the ratio allows policymakers to see why some farms are viable and others are not. (JHZ)

  10. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  11. An experimental analysis of receiver economics: cost, reliability and uncertainty interact to determine a signal's value

    E-print Network

    Stephens, David W.

    An experimental analysis of receiver economics: cost, reliability and uncertainty interact and experimental analysis of these questions. Following several theoretical (Wiley 1994, Stephens 1989, Bradbury@umn.edu), Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Univ. of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA

  12. HEALTH DISPARITIES IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Antonio Casas; J. Norberto; W. Dachs; Alexandra Bambas

    parities either between or within countries. Rather, improvements appear to be dispropor- tionately weighted toward those who already have a greater share of social and economic advantages in society, while the health of dis- advantaged groups improves less consistently and at much more modest rates.

  13. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas Beck; Thomas Bernauer; Anna Kalbhenn

    2010-01-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the

  14. Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis at the Kenya – Uganda Transboundary

    PubMed Central

    Rutto, Jane Jemeli; Osano, Odipo; Thuranira, Elias Gitonga; Kurgat, Richard Kiptum; Odenyo, Victor Agab Omondi

    2013-01-01

    Background Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.) infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. Results Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7%) applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a larger extent than Uganda (2.1%). Conclusion Knowledge on tsetse and its control methods, culture, farming practice, demographic and socio-economic variables explained occurrence of HAT better than landscape features. PMID:23638206

  15. The adoption of deferred share unit plans for outside directors: economic and social determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul André; Samer Khalil; Michel Magnan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the antecedents of adopting deferred compensation plans for corporate directors. Relying on agency\\u000a and network theories, we compare the economic and social characteristics of firms that have adopted a deferred share unit\\u000a plan for their directors over the 1997–2005 period (130 firms) to a control sample. Our findings show that firms where outside\\u000a directors have higher agency

  16. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  17. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  18. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

  19. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  20. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

  1. Nutritional Determinants of Urban Deprived Youth: An Economic and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the U.S., Columbia, and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the nutrition of North and South American urban youths from 14-21 years of age are examined. Economic factors which play a role in determining the demand for improved nutrition and the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in nutrition are assessed. The effectiveness of higher income as a solution to…

  2. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to significantly different results in regards to the relative profitability of the different technologies and configurations. This is the case both with a deterministic and a stochastic analysis, as shown in the tables below. The flexibility in output products clearly adds substantial value to the HPE-ALWR and HTE-HTGR plants. In fact, under the GBM assumption for prices, the HTE-HTGR plant becomes more profitable than the SI-HTGR configuration, although SI-HTGR has a much lower levelized cost. For the HTE-HTGR plant it is also profitable to invest in additional electric turbine capacity (Case b) in order to fully utilize the heat from the nuclear reactor for electricity production when this is more profitable than producing hydrogen. The technologies are all at the research and development stage, so there are significant uncertainties regarding the technology cost and performance assumptions used in this analysis. As the technologies advance, the designers need to refine the cost and performance evaluation to provide a more reliable set of input for a more rigorous analysis. In addition, the durability of the catalytic activity of the materials at the hydrogen plant during repetitive price cycling is of prime importance concerning the flexibility of switching from hydrogen to electricity production. However, given the potential significant economic benefit that can be brought from cogeneration with the flexibility to quickly react to market signals, DOE should consider R&D efforts towards developing durable materials and processes that can enable this type of operation. Our future work will focus on analyzing a range of hydrogen production technologies associated with an extension of the financial analysis framework presented here. We are planning to address a variety of additional risks and options, such as the value of modular expansion in addition to the co-generation capability (i.e., a modular increase in the hydrogen production capacity of a plant in a given market with rising hydrogen demand), and contrast that with economies-of-scale of large-unit designs.

  3. Viability of Milk Neutrophils and Severity of Bovine Coliform Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mehrzad; L. Duchateau; C. Burvenich

    2004-01-01

    To study the host-pathogen interactions during Esch- erichia coli mastitis, we first determined whether E. coli infection would change blood and milk polymorpho- nuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemiluminescence (CL) and viability. We then hypothesized that when E. coli in- vade the mammary gland, the viable PMN in milk would efficiently phagocytose and destroy E. coli before establishment of infection. We observed

  4. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...a case-by-case basis, using documentation and other information submitted by the claimant, regarding the actual amount of work that the claimant has missed or will miss without compensation. Alternatively, the Special Master may determine...

  5. HPC viability measurement: trypan blue versus acridine orange and propidium iodide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mascotti; J. McCullough; S. R. Burger

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A reliable, validated method for rapidly determining HPC viability is essential for clinical cell en- gineering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A fluorometric cell viability assay using acridine orange and propidium io- dide (AO\\/PI) was compared to the current standard, trypan blue (TB) exclusion. Viable cells stained with AO\\/ PI fluoresce green under darkfield fluorescence micros- copy, while nonviable cells

  6. Applications of a Rapid Endospore Viability Assay for Monitoring UV Inactivation and Characterizing Arctic Ice Cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah S. Shafaat; Adrian Ponce

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a rapid endospore viability assay (EVA) in which endospore germination serves as an indicator for viability and applied it to (i) monitor UV inactivation of endospores as a function of dose and (ii) determine the proportion of viable endospores in arctic ice cores (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) cores; 94 m). EVA is based on the

  7. Effect of storage time on the viability of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term cryopreserved semen viability can impact the National Animal Germplasm Program’s (NAGP) sampling strategy and ability to reconstitute livestock populations. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to determine if prolonged storage of cryopreserved sperm impacts cell viability. Cryoprese...

  8. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in rural northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of global decline in under-five mortality, the goal of achieving MDG 4 still remains largely unattained in low and middle income countries as the year 2015 closes-in. To accelerate the pace of mortality decline, proven interventions with high impact need to be implemented to help achieve the goal of drastically reducing childhood mortality. This paper explores the association between socio-economic and demographic factors and under-five mortality in an impoverished region in rural northern Ghana. Methods We used survey data on 3975 women aged 15–49 who have ever given birth. First, chi-square test was used to test the association of social, economic and demographic characteristics of mothers with the experience of under-five death. Subsequently, we ran a logistic regression model to estimate the relative association of factors that influence childhood mortality after excluding variables that were not significant at the bivariate level. Results Factors that significantly predict under-five mortality included mothers’ educational level, presence of co-wives, age and marital status. Mothers who have achieved primary or junior high school education were 45% less likely to experience under-five death than mothers with no formal education at all (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001). Monogamous women were 22% less likely to experience under-five deaths than mothers in polygamous marriages (OR = 0.78, p = 0.01). Similarly, mothers who were between the ages of 35 and 49 were about eleven times more likely to experience under-five deaths than those below the age of 20 years (OR = 11.44, p < 0.001). Also, women who were married had a 27% less likelihood (OR = 0.73, p = 0.01) of experiencing an under-five death than those who were single, divorced or widowed. Conclusion Taken independently, maternal education, age, marital status and presence of co-wives are associated with childhood mortality. The relationship of these indicators with women’s autonomy, health seeking behavior, and other factors that affect child survival merit further investigation so that interventions could be designed to foster reductions in child mortality by considering the needs and welfare of women including the need for female education, autonomy and socioeconomic well-being. PMID:25145383

  9. Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

  10. Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities. PMID:24991410

  11. Spatial and Temporal Measurements of Temperature and Cell Viability in Response to Nanoparticle Mediated Photothermal Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Jon R [ORNL; Rodgers, Amanda [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Harvie, Erica [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Carswell, William [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Torti, Suzy [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Rylander, Christopher [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Rylander, Nichole M [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Nanoparticle enhanced photothermal therapy is a promising alternative to tumor resection. However, quantitative measurements of cellular response to these treatments are limited. This paper introduces a Bimodal Enhanced Analysis of Spatiotemporal Temperature (BEAST) algorithm to rapidly determine the viability of cancer cells in vitro following photothermal therapy alone or in combination with nanoparticles. Materials & Methods: To illustrate the capability of the BEAST viability algorithm, single wall carbon nanohorns were added to renal cancer (RENCA) cells in vitro and time-dependent spatial temperature maps measured with an infrared camera during laser therapy were correlated with post-treatment cell viability distribution maps obtained by cell-staining fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: The BEAST viability algorithm accurately and rapidly determined the cell viability as function of time, space, and temperature.

  12. Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation. PMID:22239949

  13. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  14. Expanding Economic Viability for Sustainably Managed Indigenous Beech Forests

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    -market survey of the industry. The approach followed modern marketing concepts. It was "market that connected retailers to sawmillers and forest owners, including distributors/importers, architects, interior

  15. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bifano

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific PV development assistance field tests including water pumping\\/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of

  16. Economic viability of a commingled/backgrounded cattle sale 

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Jaret Roy

    2001-01-01

    to the Texas Combined Weighted Average. Statistical analysis found that the type of breed, color, muscle score, sex, and weight of the lot, along with the lot's size, impacted the sale price of a lot of cattle. Lastly, it was found that pro forma budgeting...

  17. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  18. Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H Plissner; Susan M Haig

    2000-01-01

    The metapopulation viability analysis package, vortex, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean

  19. ECONOMICS OF HERBICIDE CONTROL OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean A. Bangsund; Jay A. Leitch; F. Larry Leistritz

    1996-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), a widely established exotic, noxious, perennial weed, is a major threat to the viability of commercial grazing and to beneficial outputs of wildlands in the Upper Great Plains. Herbicide treatments are often recommended based upon measures of physical control rather than on economic criteria. A deterministic, bioeconomic model was developed to evaluate the economic viability

  20. Economic potential of vertical ground-source heat pumps compared to air-source air conditioners in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Petit; J. P. Meyer

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the economic viability in Johannesburg, R.S.A., of vertical ground-source and air-source systems. Capital costs and optimum borehole length of the ground system were determined. Monthly heating and cooling capacities, and COPs were evaluated to determine running costs. Payback periods, net present values and internal rates of return were computed. The vertical ground-source system was

  1. LIFE Economics and Delivery Pathway Presentation to

    E-print Network

    LIFE Economics and Delivery Pathway Presentation to National Research Council's review is necessary (but not sufficient) for economic viability Minimumforeconomics Cost and risk to buy additional systems approach is required to develop an economically viable plant design Anklam--NAS/NAE, January 29

  2. Role of Maxillofacial Trauma Scoring Systems in Determining the Economic Burden to Maxillofacial Trauma Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between severity of maxillofacial injuries determined by trauma scoring systems and its economic burden to patients in terms of cost and duration of hospitalization. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval a retrospective chart review was undertaken at Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital to identify patients admitted with maxillofacial injuries between January 2006 and December 2008. Patients with incomplete records, associated injuries, debilitating systemic diseases and patients treated under local anesthesia were excluded. Details regarding the nature and severity of injury and treatment were recorded in addition to the total treatment cost and duration of hospitalization. Maxillofacial injury severity was scored using maxillofacial injury severity score (MFISS) and facial injury severity scale (FISS). The MFISS and FISS scores were correlated with two surrogate markers of the economic burden namely cost and duration of hospitalization. Results: A total of 162 patients with maxillofacial injuries were identified (108 males, 54 females; mean age = 32.4 years). Road traffic accidents were the cause of injury in 114 patients (70.4%) and only 29 patients (17.9%) had medical insurance coverage. The mean MFISS and FISS scores were 14.04 (standard deviation [SD] = 9.19; range = 3-42) and 4.40 (SD = 3.17; range = 1-14), respectively. The mean cost and duration of hospitalization of the patients were Indian rupees (INR) 13877.28 (SD = 8252.59; range = INR 5250-42960) and 4.12 days (SD = 1.5; range = 2-8 days) respectively. Pearson’s correlation between the MFISS and FISS scores and the cost and duration of hospitalization, revealed statistically significant correlations (MFISS vs. cost - R = 0.862, P < 0.001; MFISS vs. duration - R = 0.828, P < 0.01; FISS vs. cost - R = 0.845, P < 0.01; FISS vs. duration - R = 0.819, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, maxillofacial injury severity measured by MFISS and FISS scores are predictable indicators of the economic burden to the patients. PMID:25954069

  3. Shadowing and the Viability Kernel Algorithm Janosch Rieger

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    as viability problems. A standard reference on viability theory is the book [2] by Aubin. The viability kernel and con- trol of unmanned vehicles, estimates for the accuracy of the algorithm are of practical

  4. Shadowing and the Viability Kernel Algorithm Janosch Rieger #

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    as viability problems. A standard reference on viability theory is the book [2] by Aubin. The viability kernel and con­ trol of unmanned vehicles, estimates for the accuracy of the algorithm are of practical

  5. Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

  6. Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gernot Klantschnig

    2003-01-01

    This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

  7. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

  8. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  9. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  10. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  11. Assessment of myocardial viability: review of the clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mark; DePasquale, Eugene; Coplan, Neil L

    2008-01-01

    The identification of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) has important clinical and prognostic implications. Two terms commonly used to define clinical conditions of potentially reversible contractile dysfunction are stunned myocardium and hibernating myocardium. Stunned myocardium refers to transient depression of contractile function secondary to an acute ischemic insult. Hibernating myocardium is a form of contractile dysfunction of living myocytes in the setting of chronic ischemia or chronically reduced flow reserve. Numerous observational studies have shown improved clinical outcomes after revascularization of patients with LVD and evidence of myocardial viability, although patients with nonviable myocardium have not been shown to have the same benefits. The use of noninvasive techniques to determine myocardial viability provides important information to guide clinicians in deciding which patients with LVD are likely to receive benefit from a revascularization procedure. Positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging each have advantages and limitations. PMID:19122580

  12. Metronidazole decreases viability of DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Anna; Kr?towski, Rafa?; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna; Car, Halina

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50??g/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250??g/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  13. Methodology to determine the economics of CO 2 storage in coal seams with enhanced coalbed methane recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sander; W. G. Allinson; L. D. Connell; P. R. Neal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to derive the economics of CO2 storage in coal with enhanced coalbed methane recovery. A significant difference between CO2 storage in coal seams and storage in saline aquifers is that the incrementally recovered natural gas constitutes an additional revenue stream. In the case of CO2 storage in coal it is necessary to distinguish between

  14. Economic Evaluations of Adult Weight Management Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review Focusing on Methods Used for Determining Health Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulla K. Griffiths; Benedict Anigbogu; Kiran Nanchahal

    2012-01-01

    Background:Background: One of the challenges when undertaking economic evaluations of weight management interventions is to adequately assess future health impacts. Clinical trials commonly measure impacts using surrogate outcomes, such as reductions in body mass index, and investigators need to decide how these can best be used to predict future health effects. Since obesity is associated with an increased risk of

  15. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  16. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  17. Theoretical Insights into the Population Viability

    E-print Network

    To conserve lynx we must rely on both applicable ecological theory and specific information about lynx ecology21 Chapter 2 Theoretical Insights into the Population Viability of Lynx Kevin S. McKelvey, USDA, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada Abstract--We discuss

  18. Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    The metapopulation viability analysis package, VORTEX, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean fecundity for a significant probability of persisting for the next 100 years. Metapopulation structure (i.e. the delineation of populations within the metapopulation) and interpopulation dispersal rates had varying effects on model results; however, spatially-structured metapopulations exhibited lower viability than that reported for single-population models. The models were most sensitive to variation in survivorship; hence, additional mortality data will improve their accuracy. With this information, such models become useful tools in identifying successful management objectives; and sensitivity analyses, even in the absence of some data, may indicate which options are likely to be most effective. Metapopulation viability models are best suited for developing conservation strategies for achieving recovery objectives based on maintaining an externally derived, target population size and structure.

  19. Spreadability, vulnerability, regional viability and protector control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdes Samed Bernoussi

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present some concepts recently introduced in the analysis and control of Distributed Parameter Systems: Spreadability, vulnerability, regional viability and protector control. These concepts permit to describe many bio- geographical phenomena, as those of pollution, desertification or epidemics, which are characterized by a spatio-temporal evolution. We give some connection between such concepts. To illustrate these concepts an

  20. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  1. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.001) indicated that at 1 h there was no difference in the effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h. PMID:12669877

  3. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) viability is, therefore, critical in deciding whether a patient with coronary artery disease and severe LV dysfunction should undergo revascularization, receive a heart transplant, or remain on medical therapy. Assessment of Left Ventricular Viability Techniques for assessing myocardial viability depend on the measurement of a specific characteristic of viable myocytes such as cell membrane integrity, preserved metabolism, mitochondria integrity, and preserved contractile reserve. In Ontario, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioactive 201thallium is the most commonly used technique followed by dobutamine echocardiography. Newer techniques include SPECT using technetium tracers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and PET, the subject of this review. Positron Emission Tomography PET is a nuclear imaging technique based on the metabolism of radioactive analogs of normal substrates such as glucose and water. The radiopharmaceutical used most frequently in myocardial viability assessment is F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog. The procedure involves the intravenous administration of FDG under controlled glycemic conditions, and imaging with a PET scanner. The images are reconstructed using computer software and analyzed visually or semi-quantitatively, often in conjunction with perfusion images. Dysfunctional but stunned myocardium is characterized by normal perfusion and normal FDG uptake; hibernating myocardium exhibits reduced perfusion and normal/enhanced FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism mismatch), whereas scar tissue is characterized by reduction in both perfusion and FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism match). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used a search strategy similar to that used in the 2001 ICES review to identify English language reports of health technology assessments and primary studies in selected databases, published from January 1, 2001 to April 20, 2005. Patients of interest were those with CAD and severe ventricular dysfunction being considered for revascularization that had under

  4. Limits of fetal viability and its enhancement.

    PubMed

    Breborowicz, G H

    2001-01-01

    According to Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, viable of a fetus it means having reached such a stage of development as to be capable of living, under normal conditions, outside the uterus. Viability exists as a function of biomedical and technological capacities, which are different in different parts of the world. As a consequence, there is, at the present time, no worldwide, uniform gestational age that defines viability. Viability is not an intrinsic property of the fetus because viability should be understood in terms of both biological and technological factors. It is only in virtue of both factors that a viable fetus can exist ex utero and thus later achieve independent moral status. Moreover, these two factors do not exist as a function of the autonomy of the pregnant woman. When a fetus is viable, that is, when it is of sufficient maturity so that it can survive into the neonatal period and later achieve independent moral status given the availability of the requisite technological support, and when it is presented to the physician, the fetus is a patient. In the United States viability presently occurs at approximately 24 weeks of gestational age (Chervenak, L.B. McCullough; Textbook of Perinatal Medicine, 1998). In Portugal, the mortality increase significantly with GA<25 weeks. At 25 weeks mortality was 44.4% and at 26 weeks was 24.4% (I. Macedo et al. Matemidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Lisbon, 2000). In Poland during last years we observe also a very significant decrease of perinatal mortality. There are several aspects of fetal viability: ethical, social, psychological and medical. Ethical aspects There is a compelling conceptual and clinical reason to reject Primum non nocere as the primary principle of perinatal ethics; virtually all medical interventions involve unavoidable risks of harm, for example, amniocentesis. If Primum non nocere were to be made the primary principle of perinatal ethics, virtually all of perinatal medicine would be unethical. Social aspects Greatly increased advances in perinatal medicine lead on one hand to a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Even in the high-income countries, the available resources are scarce in relation to these demands a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Medical aspects During the preconceptional period the most important actions are: family planning, education, analysis of previous obstetrical miscarriages and prevention of congenital malformations (folic acid). Pregnancy presents several problems, which can significantly influence fetal viability. Proper management of these problems can improve perinatal outcome. Among others prevention of prematurity is the most important goal of contemporary perinatal medicine. Enhancement of fetal viability There are several possibilities to enhance fetal viability. The most important are: organization of perinatal care, introduction of new technologies to perinatal medicine, intensive fetal therapy and early detection of fetal distress. Three levels system of perinatal care, transport in utero, introduction and promotion of new methods, continues education of staff are characteristic for the modern organization of perinatal medicine. Echocardiography, Color Doppler Energy, 3D sonography, prenatal diagnosis (cordocentesis, analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood,.), fetal pulse oximetry, mathematical analysis of the signal are the methods which should be used at the highest level of perinatal care. Today, the prospect of survival is only about 1 in 10 at 23 weeks, and if the child lives it is more likely to be handicapped that not. At 24 weeks the chance of a normal survivor is about 50%, and after this the o

  5. Political Economics: Explaining Economic Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Persson; Guido Tabellini

    2000-01-01

    What determines the size and form of redistributive programs, the extent and type of public goods provision, the burden of taxation across alternative tax bases, the size of government deficits, and the stance of monetary policy during the course of business and electoral cycles? A large and rapidly growing literature in political economics attempts to answer these questions. But so

  6. Economics of Installation of an Active Solar Heating System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARMEN HOVSEPIAN; MARK KAISER

    1997-01-01

    The American University of Armenia recently installed a shower system in the ground floor of its building. In this article we examine the economic viability of using an active solar system to heat the showers. Using conventional discounted cash flow analysis as welt as two other economic assessments of the capital investment, we demonstrate that it is economically justifiable to

  7. Economics of dual purpose production alternatives in the Mexican tropics 

    E-print Network

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Rene Federico

    1997-01-01

    Technological, marketing, and financial alternatives to the dual purpose production system in Central Veracruz, Mexico were analyzed to assess their economic viability. A large dual purpose production operation was ...

  8. Successful outcome following pre-viability amniorrhexis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Engemise; Emmanuel Kalu; Khalid Haque

    2007-01-01

    A 34-years-old primigravida conceived following a fourth attempt at in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer for severe\\u000a bilateral tubal disease and grade IV endometriosis. Pregnancy progressed well until 17 weeks gestation when she spontaneously\\u000a ruptured her membranes. She elected to continue with the pregnancy despite the significant risks associated with prolonged\\u000a rupture of membranes (PROM) and anhydramnion at extremes of viability.

  9. Determination of the existence of economic rents accruing in the United States coal industry and implications of increased coal severance taxation

    SciTech Connect

    Noser, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    To raise necessary revenues, many energy rich states have turned to greater utilization of severance taxation. Increases in oil and gas prices and the decline of nuclear power led to an increase in the competitiveness of coal, and perhaps to the generation of economic rents within the coal industry which state legislatures would hope to reappropriate via severance taxation. The purpose of this research is to determine if economic rents have been generated within the coal industry, and to analyze the implications of increased severance taxation. A mine simulation model was used to estimate the price per ton of coal a typical firm would have to charge in order to cover all operating costs and earn a normal rate or return. Such estimates were made for eleven major coal producing states and compared to actual price data for the years 1978 through 1981. For each year, actual selling prices exceeded the minimum acceptable selling price necessary for firms to earn a normal rate of return, i.e., economic rents were generated in each year, totalling nearly $2.5 billion in 1981. Regarding the implications of increased severance taxation, it was argued that will the exception of a pure profits tax, any tax imposed on a profit-maximizing firm would discourage production and investment.

  10. Social, economic, political and health system and program determinants of child mortality reduction in China between 1990 and 2006: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xing Lin; Theodoratou, Evropi; Liu, Li; Chan, Kit Yee; Hipgrave, David; Scherpbier, Robert; Brixi, Hana; Guo, Sufang; Chunmei, Wen; Chopra, Mickey; Black, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Guo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Between 1990 and 2006, China reduced its under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 64.6 to 20.6 per 1000 live births and achieved the fourth United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal nine years ahead of target. This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success. Methods For each of the years between 1990 and 2006, we obtained an estimate of U5MR for 30 Chinese provinces from the annual China Health Statistics Yearbook. For each year, we also obtained data describing the status of 8 social, 10 economic, 2 political, 9 health system and policy, and six health programmes and intervention indicators for each province. These government data are not of the same quality as some other health information sources in modern China, such as articles with primary research data available in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wan Fang databases, or Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system. Still, the comparison of relative changes in underlying indicators with the undisputed strong general trend of childhood mortality reduction over 17 years should still capture the main effects at the macro-level. We used multivariate random effect regression models to determine the effect of 35 indicators individually and 5 constructs defined by factor analysis (reflecting effects of social, economic, political, health systems and policy, and health programmes) on the reduction of U5MR in China. Results In the univariate regression applied with a one-year time lag, social determinants of health construct showed the strongest crude association with U5MR reduction (R2?=?0.74), followed by the constructs for health programmes and interventions (R2?=?0.65), economic (R2?=?0.47), political (R2?=?0.28) and health system and policy determinants (R2?=?0.26), respectively. Similarly, when multivariate regression was applied with a one-year time lag, the social determinants construct showed the strongest effect (beta?=?11.79, P?economic growth alone may all fail to achieve the desired reduction in child mortality when improvement of the key social determinants of health is lagging behind. To accelerate progress toward MDG4, low- and middle-income countries should undertake appropriate efforts to promote maternal education, reduce fertility rates, integrate minority populations and improve access to clean water and safe sanitation. A cross-sectoral approach seems most likely to have the greatest impact on U5MR. PMID:23198134

  11. Ideology and 'A' Level Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)

  12. Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

  13. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  14. The role of cultural and economic determinants in mortality decline in the Netherlands, 1875/1879-1920/1924: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, J H; van Poppel, F W; Looman, C W; Mackenbach, J P

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in mortality decline in the Netherlands in the periods 1875/1879-1895/1899 and 1895/1899-1920/1924. Mortality data by region, age, sex and cause of death as well as population data were derived from Statistics Netherlands for the years 1875/1879, 1885/1889, 1895/1899, 1910/1914, 1920/1924. Regional mortality declines were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models. In a multivariate analysis the estimated declines were associated with economic (wealth tax) and cultural variables (% Roman Catholics and secularisation) corrected for confounders (soiltype, urbanisation). In the period from 1875/1879-1895/1899, %Roman Catholics was significantly associated with all-cause mortality decline and with mortality decline from diseases other than infectious diseases. Mortality declined less rapidly in areas with a high percentage of Roman Catholics. Secularisation was significantly associated with infectious-disease mortality decline. In areas with a high percentage population without a religious affiliation, mortality declined more rapidly. In the period from 1895/1899 to 1920/1924, wealth tax was significantly associated with all-cause and infectious-disease mortality decline. Mortality declined more rapidly in wealthy areas. Intermediary factors in the relationship between cultural factors and mortality decline were fertility decline, but more importantly, the number of medical doctors per 100,000 inhabitants. No intermediary factors were found for the association between the economic variable and mortality decline. Cultural and economic factors both played an important role in mortality decline in The Netherlands, albeit in different periods of time. The analysis of intermediary factors suggests that the acceptance of new ideas on hygiene and disease processes was an important factor in the association between culture and mortality decline in the late 19th century. PMID:11710419

  15. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  16. Microbial and environmental effects on avian egg viability: do tropical mechanisms act in a temperate environment?

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer M; Firestone, Mary K; Beissinger, Steven R

    2011-05-01

    The viability of freshly laid avian eggs declines after several days of exposure to ambient temperatures above physiological zero, and declines occur faster in tropical than temperate ecosystems. Microbial infection during preincubation exposure has recently been shown as a second cause of egg viability decline in the tropics, but whether microbial processes influence the viability of wild bird eggs in temperate ecosystems is unknown. We determined the microbial load on eggshells, the incidence of microbial penetration of egg contents, and changes in the viability of wild bird eggs (Sialia mexicana, Tachycineta bicolor, Tachycineta thalassina) experimentally exposed to temperate-zone ambient conditions in situ in a mediterranean climate in northern California. Initial microbial loads on eggshells were generally low, although they were significantly higher on eggs laid in old boxes than in new boxes. Eggshell microbial loads did not increase with exposure to ambient conditions, were not reduced by twice-daily disinfection with alcohol, and were unaffected by parental incubation. The rate of microbial penetration into egg contents was low and unaffected by the duration of exposure. Nevertheless, egg viability declined very gradually and significantly with exposure duration, and the rate of decline differed among species. In contrast to studies performed in the tropics, we found little evidence that temperature or microbial mechanisms of egg viability decline were important at our temperate-zone site; neither temperatures above physiological zero nor alcohol disinfection was significantly related to hatching success. Delaying the onset of incubation until the penultimate or last egg of a clutch at our study site may maintain hatching synchrony without a large trade-off in egg viability. These results provide insight into the environmental mechanisms that may be responsible for large-scale latitudinal patterns in avian clutch size and hatching asynchrony. PMID:21661574

  17. Use of flow cytometry to assess chondrocyte viability after laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Charlton C.; Basu, Reshmi; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Lasers have been shown to cause permanent shape change in cartilage via photothermally induced mechanical stress relaxation. While the biophysical properties of cartilage during laser irradiation have been studied, tissue viability following laser irradiation has not been fully characterized. In this study, cell viability staining and flow cytometry were used to determine chondrocyte viability following photothermal stress relaxation. Porcine septal cartilage slabs (10 X 25 X 1.5 mm) were irradiated with light from a Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.32 micrometer, 25 W/cm2) while surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance were recorded. Each slab received one, two, or three laser exposures (respective exposure times of 6.7, 7.2, 10 s), determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance, which correlate with mechanical stress relaxation. Irradiated samples were then divided into two groups analyzed immediately and at five days following laser exposure (the latter group was maintained in culture). Chondrocytes were isolated following serial enzymatic digestion with hyaluronidase, protease, and collagenase II for a total of 17 hours. Chondrocytes were then stained using SYTOR/DEAD RedTM (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) wherein live cells stained green (530 nm) and dead cells stained red (630 nm) when excited at 488 nm. A flow cytometer (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) was then used to detect differential cell fluorescence; size; granularity; and the number of live cells, dead cells, and post irradiation debris in each treatment population. Nearly 60% of chondrocytes from reshaped cartilage samples isolated shortly after irradiation, were viable as determined using flow cytometry while non- irradiated controls were 100 percent viable. Specimens irradiated two or three times with the laser demonstrated increasing amounts of cellular debris along with a reduction in chondrocyte viability: 31 percent following two laser exposures, and 16 percent after three laser exposures. In those samples maintained in culture medium and assayed 5 days after irradiation, viability was reduced by 28 to 88 percent, with the least amount of deterioration in untreated and singly irradiated samples. Functional fluorescent dyes combined with flow cytometric analysis successfully determines the effect of laser irradiation on the viability of reshaped cartilage. The flow cytometric approach to viability is accurate, fast, and can handle large sample numbers and sizes. Most importantly, since the method reveals that a single laser exposure of 6.7 s (sufficient for sustained shape change) causes less than 40 percent acute reduction in viability, photothermal reshaping of cartilage may be further researched as a clinical alternative to conventional techniques.

  18. Glycosaminoglycans in porcine follicular fluid promoting viability of oocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Sato, E; Miyamoto, H; Koide, S S

    1990-08-01

    The viability of oocytes cultured in vitro was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test. Isolated porcine oocytes with or without cumulus cells cultured in modified Krebs-Ringer medium undergo cell death after 48 h. The addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) prepared from porcine follicular fluid (pFF) to the medium delayed or prevented the onset of cell death in vitro. GAGs at concentrations of 0.25 mg/ml or greater prevented cell death in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the active factor, GAGs were purified from pFF by ethanol precipitation, chromatography on Dowex 1-x2, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on TSK gel DEAE-2 SW column. The fraction with a retention time nearly coincident with that of hyaluronic acid possessed high oocyte viability promoting activity. The present results suggest that the viability of oocytes in vitro is influenced by the presence of specific GAGs separated from follicular fluid. PMID:2223089

  19. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    PubMed

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

  20. Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

    This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

  1. From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

  2. Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    ;Undergraduate Economics Economics helps us answer questions, such as how should the banking system be regulated assessment period. Our programmes of study are modular, consisting of self- contained units, taught (measured through the number of credits awarded) is proportional to the number of learning hours, which

  3. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  4. Quantifying spore viability of the honey bee pathogen Nosema apis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Heel, Kathy; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Honey bees are hosts to more than 80 different parasites, some of them being highly virulent and responsible for substantial losses in managed honey bee populations. The study of honey bee pathogens and their interactions with the bees' immune system has therefore become a research area of major interest. Here we developed a fast, accurate and reliable method to quantify the viability of spores of the honey bee gut parasite Nosema apis. To verify this method, a dilution series with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% live N. apis was made and SYTO 16 and Propidium Iodide (n = 35) were used to distinguish dead from live spores. The viability of spores in each sample was determined by flow cytometry and compared with the current method based on fluorescence microscopy. Results show that N. apis viability counts using flow cytometry produced very similar results when compared with fluorescence microscopy. However, we found that fluorescence microscopy underestimates N. apis viability in samples with higher percentages of viable spores, the latter typically being what is found in biological samples. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm that flow cytometry allows the use of additional fluorescent dyes such as SYBR 14 and SYTOX Red (used in combination with SYTO 16 or Propidium Iodide) to distinguish dead from live spores. We also show that spore viability quantification with flow cytometry can be undertaken using substantially lower dye concentrations than fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, our data show flow cytometry to be a fast, reliable method to quantify N. apis spore viabilities, which has a number of advantages compared with existing methods. PMID:24339267

  5. The Economics Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

  6. Extending the viability of acute brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  7. Financial viability, medical technology, and hospital closures.

    PubMed

    Prince, T R; Sullivan, J A

    2000-01-01

    Informed investments in medical technology and information systems are associated with the financial viability of community hospitals. Financially distressed facilities are 3 to 4 years behind proactive hospitals in supporting high-speed data, voice, and image transmissions to physicians in various locations. Impact of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, fraud and abuse activities, Y2K issues, and lack of information systems support for physicians will result in 800 hospital closures and mergers of distressed hospitals over the next 60 months. These findings are based on the application of an eight-step framework for classifying information systems in health care entities. This framework is validated by survey instruments, site visits, interviews with senior management in 44 health care entities containing 576 hospitals, and judgments on the financial status of the health care entities. PMID:10845382

  8. [Health Impact Assessments (HIA): an intersectoral process for action on the social, economic and environmental determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, Louise; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Simos, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a practice that has grown in popularity worldwide, since the end of the 1990s. Originally used in the framework of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), HIA has become enriched through the addition of knowledge and principles based on the social determinants of health and the tackling of health inequalities, and has been brought to bear on the policy-planning process at all levels of government. HIA has three overlapping objectives: to assess the potential effects of a policy on health, to encourage citizen and stakeholder participation in the impact analysis process, and to inform the decision-making process. This article briefly defines HIA; defines its standardized process in successive steps, which allows users to give structure to their actions and to establish the steps to be followed (detection, framing, analysis, recommendations and evaluation); and offers three examples of HIA in three different situations: the Geneva canton of Switzerland; Rennes, France; and in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. Together, these illustrations show that HIA is a promising strategy to influence local decisions and to integrate health into projects and policies at the local and regional levels. PMID:24737808

  9. Economics of residue harvest: Regional partnership evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic analyses on the viability of corn (Zea mays, L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production have largely been based on simulation modeling. While some studies have utilized field research data, most field-based analyses have included a limited number of sites and a narrow geographic distributi...

  10. The economic common sense of SDI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    The present development history and current status evaluation of the economic viability of SDI technologies suggests that much of the exaggeration of SDI costs has been due to an effort of the part of the program's opponents to consider only the most exotic, and commensurately expensive, options for orbital missile defense. It is noted that, by contrast, extraordinary advancements in

  11. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  12. Sociodemographic and Economic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity for Public-school Children in Geneva State, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Emilien; Mahler, Per; Elia, Nadia; Cerruti, Bernard; Chastonnay, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence, socioeconomic and demographic determinants of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from Geneva. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Public School of Geneva canton in Switzerland. A total of 8544 public school children were collected and analyzed: 2577 were in second grade, 2641 in fifth grade and 3326 in eighth grade. To identify overweight and obesity we used the definition issued by the International Obesity Task Force. Child characteristics included gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) of father and mother, and school grade. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine potential predictors of overweight/obesity. Results: The prevalence of overweight or obese children was 14.4% in second grade, 17.3% in fifth grade and 18.6% in eighth grade. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal that children that have a low economic status or certain citizenships are more likely to be overweight or obese. Children of Kosovar origin, have a higher risk of OBO in second grade (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–4.00), fifth grade (adjusted OR = 2.36 95% CI: 1.27–4.39) and in eighth grade (adjusted OR = 2.15 95% CI: 1.27–4.39). Association between SES and overweight was high with regards to the father's SES in fifth grade (adjusted OR = 4.21 95% CI: 2.83–6.25). Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is associated to socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. The analyzes reveals that children with a low economic status and/or from certain countries are more likely to be overweight or obese than Swiss children. There is an urgent need for action to prevent further increase in overweight or obesity among children. PMID:26015862

  13. Germination and viability of the pollen of Crocus sativus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Chichiricco; Maria Grilli Caiola

    1982-01-01

    Viability and germinability tests were carried out on the pollen of Crocus sativus L., a sterile triploid commonly known as saffron. Pollen taken from dehiscent anthers was examined by means of vital staining and cytochemical techniques in order to detect its viability; germination in vitro was evaluated. From the results obtained it is evident that saffron pollen is viable at

  14. Assessing the viability of tiger subpopulations in a fragmented landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW LINKIE; GUILLAUME CHAPRON; DEBORAH J. MARTYR; JEREMY HOLDEN; NIGEL LEADER-WILLIAMS

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. Conservation managers require accurate and timely information on the occurrence, size and viability of populations, but this is often difficult for cryptic species living at low densities over large areas. This study aimed to provide such information for tigers in the 36 400-km 2 Kerinci Seblat (KS) region, Sumatra, by identifying and assessing subpopu- lation viability under different

  15. Influence of electric current on bacterial viability in wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Wei; M. Elektorowicz; J. A. Oleszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Minimizing the influence of electric current on bacterial viability in the electro-technologies such as electrophoresis and electrocoagulation is crucial in designing and operating the electric hybrid wastewater treatment system. In this study the biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was subjected to constant direct current and the bacterial viability was monitored against electrical intensity, duration as well as the spatial

  16. Ingredient Supplementation Effects on Viability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yogurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Dave; N. P. Shah

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation studied the effects of cysteine, whey powder, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophi- lus, and bifidobacteria. Changes in pH, titratable acidity, redox potential, and viability of bacteria were monitored during 24 h of fermentation and refriger- ated storage ( 4°C) of yogurt for 35 d. The incubation

  17. Automated Quantification of Tumor Viability in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model after Chemoembolization Using Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'inca, Hadrien; Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saida Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Pascale, Florentina; Laurent, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The rabbit VX2 tumor is a fast-growing carcinoma model commonly used to study new therapeutic devices, such as catheter-based therapies for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The evaluation of tumor viability after such locoregional therapies is essential to directing hepatocellular carcinoma management. We used infrared microspectroscopy for the automatic characterization and quantification of the VX2 liver tumor viability after drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE). The protocol consisted of K-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The K-means clustering was used to classify the spectra from the infrared images of control or treated tumors and to build a database of many tissue spectra. On the basis of this reference library, the PCA-LDA analysis was used to build a predictive model to identify and quantify automatically tumor viability on unknown tissue sections. For the DEB group, the LDA model determined that the surface of tumor necrosis represented 91.6% ± 8.9% (control group: 33.1% ± 19.6%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004) and the viable tumor 2.6% ± 4% (control group: 62.2% ± 15.2%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004). Tissue quantification measurements correlated well with tumor necrosis (r = 0.827, P < 0.0001) and viable tumor (r = 0.840, P < 0.0001). Infrared imaging and PCA-LDA analysis could be helpful for easily assessing tumor viability. PMID:25979795

  18. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370?nm, 2?J/cm2) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGF?1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P < 0.05; P = 0.009), the percentage of apoptotic keratocytes increased (P < 0.05) significantly, and CD34 and ?-SMA expression remained unchanged (P > 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours. PMID:25699261

  19. A novel live-dead staining methodology to study malaria parasite viability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major health and socio-economical problem in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Several methodologies have been used to assess parasite viability during the adaption of field strains to culture or the assessment of drug potential, but these are in general not able to provide an accurate real-time assessment of whether parasites are alive or dead. Methods Different commercial dyes and kits were assessed for their potential to allow for the real-time detection of whether a blood stage malaria parasite is dead or alive. Results Here, a methodology is presented based on the potential-sensitive mitochondrial probe JC-1, which allows for the real-time visualization of live (red staining) and/or dead (absence of red staining) blood stage parasites in vitro and ex vivo. This method is applicable across malaria parasite species and strains and allows to visualize all parasite blood stages including gametocytes. Further, this methodology has been assessed also for use in drug sensitivity testing. Conclusions The JC-1 staining approach is a versatile methodology that can be used to assess parasite viability during the adaptation of field samples to culture and during drug treatment. It was found to hold promise in the assessment of drugs expected to lead to delayed death phenotypes and it currently being evaluated as a method for the assessment of parasite viability during the adaptation of patient-derived Plasmodium vivax to long-term in vitro culture. PMID:23758788

  20. INNOVATION IN HOME ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Home Economics, Washington, DC.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A SHORT COURSE IN HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM FOR 11TH AND 12TH GRADE BOYS AND GIRLS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY ARLINGTON COUNTY SCHOOLS, VIRGINIA, AND THE CONTENT WAS DETERMINED BY A COMMITTEE OF HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS, A PRINCIPAL, AND A FEW SELECTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE IS TO PROVIDE A SERIES OF…

  1. VARIABILITY AND VIABILITY OF SEED PLANT POPULATIONS AROUND THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. KOROGODINA; V. P. BAMBLEVSKY; B. V. FLORKO; V. I. KOROGODIN

    Earlier was shown that in populations around the Nuclear Power Plant, the seed survival can decrease by up to 20%, statistical\\u000a simulations showed that CAs can appear independently and Poisson-distributed (P) as well as correlative enhanced and geometrical-distributed\\u000a (G) (Korogodina et al., 2004). Our aim was to determine the regulatory mechanisms of viability and variability of seed plant populations. We

  2. Influence of storage method on the viability, mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Pottinger; H. J. Ridgway; G. W. Bourdôt; A. Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The effect of three storage methods on the viability, mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (isolate S36) sclerotia was determined with a view towards establishing an optimal method for storing this pathogen during\\u000a its mass production as a mycoherbicide for controlling the weed Ranunculus acris. Sclerotia were stored at ?80°C, 4°C after desiccation, or at room temperature after freeze-drying

  3. CHONDROCYTE VIABILITY IS HIGHER AFTER PROLONGED STORAGE AT 37°C THAN AT 4°C FOR OSTEOCHONDRAL GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, Andrea L.; Bae, Won C.; Chen, Albert C.; Görtz, Simon; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteochondral allografts are currently stored at 4°C for 2–6 weeks before implantation. At 4°C, chondrocyte viability, especially in the superficial zone, deteriorates starting at 2 weeks. Alternative storage conditions could maintain chondrocyte viability beyond 2 weeks, and thereby facilitate increased graft availability and enhanced graft quality. Purpose Determine effects of prolonged 37°C storage compared to traditional 4°C storage on chondrocyte viability and cartilage matrix content. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Osteochondral samples from humeral heads of adult goats were analyzed (i) fresh, or after storage in medium for (ii) 14d at 4°C including 10% FBS, (iii) 28d at 4°C including 10% FBS, (iv) 28d at 37°C without FBS, (v) 28d at 37°C including 2% FBS, or (vi) 28d at 37°C including 10% FBS. Portions of samples were analyzed by microscopy after LIVE/DEAD® staining to determine chondrocyte viability and density, both en face (to visualize the articular surface) and vertically (overall and in superficial, middle, and deep zones). The remaining cartilage was analyzed for sulfated-glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Results 37°C storage maintained high chondrocyte viability compared to 4°C storage. Viability of samples after 28d at 37°C was ~80% at the cartilage surface en face, ~65% in the superficial zone, and ~70% in the middle zone, which was much higher than ~45%, ~20%, and ~35%, respectively, in 4°C samples after 28d, and slightly decreased from ~100%, ~85%, and ~95%, respectively, in fresh controls. Cartilage thickness, glycosaminoglycan content, and collagen content were maintained for 37°C and 4°C samples compared to fresh controls. Conclusion 37°C storage of osteochondral grafts supports long-term chondrocyte viability, especially at the vulnerable surface and superficial zone of cartilage. Clinical Relevance Storage of allografts at physiological temperature of 37°C may prolong storage duration, improve graft availability, and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:19861697

  4. Medicine prices in urban Mozambique: a public health and economic study of pharmaceutical markets and price determinants in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that medicines are unaffordable in low-income countries and that world manufacturing and trade policies are responsible for high prices. This research investigates medicine prices in urban Mozambique with the objective of understanding how prices are formed and with what public health implications. The study adopts an economic framework and uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse local pharmaceutical prices and markets. The research findings suggest that: (a) local mark-ups are responsible for up to two-thirds of drugs' final prices in private pharmacies; (b) statutory profit and cost ceilings are applied unevenly, due to lack of government control and collusion among suppliers; and (c) the local market appears to respond effectively to the urban population's diverse needs through its low-cost and high-cost segments, although uncertainty around the quality of generics may be inducing consumers to purchase less affordable drugs. We conclude that local markets play a larger than expected role in the determination of prices in Mozambique, and that more research is needed to address the complex issue of affordability of medicines in low-income countries. We also argue that price controls may not be the most effective way to influence access to medicines in low-income countries, and managing demand and supply towards cheaper effective drugs appears a more suitable policy option. PMID:19843636

  5. Socio-Economic and Health Access Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries: Analysis of the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast and Cervical cancer are the two most common cancers among women in developing countries. Regular screening is the most effective way of ensuring that these cancers are detected at early stages; however few studies have assessed factors that predict cancer screening in developing countries. Purpose To assess the influence of household socio-economic status (SES), healthcare access and country level characteristics on breast and cervical cancer screening among women in developing countries. Methods Women ages 18–69 years (cervical cancer screening) and 40–69 years (breast cancer screening) from 15 developing countries who participated in the 2003 World Health Survey provided data for this study. Household SES and healthcare access was assessed based on self-reported survey responses. SAS survey procedures (SAS, Version 9.2) were used to assess determinants of breast and cervical cancer screening in separate models. Results 4.1% of women ages 18–69 years had received cervical cancer screening in the past three years, while only 2.2% of women ages 40–69 years had received breast cancer screening in the past 5 years in developing countries. Cancer screening rates varied by country; cervical cancer screening ranged from 1.1% in Bangladesh to 57.6% in Congo and breast cancer screening ranged from 0% in Mali to 26% in Congo. Significant determinants of cancer screening were household SES, rural residence, country health expenditure (as a percent of GDP) as well as healthcare access. Discussion A lot more needs to be done to improve screening rates for breast and cervical cancer in developing countries, such as increasing health expenditure (especially in rural areas), applying the increased funds towards the provision of more, better educated health providers as well as improved infrastructure. PMID:23155413

  6. Microwave inactivation of Cyclospora cayetanensis sporulation and viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ynes R; Liao, Jyeyin

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of microwave heating on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and on the sporulation of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts for various periods of cooking times (0, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 s) at 100% power was determined. Cyclospora oocysts were stored in 2.5% dichromate at 23 degrees C for 2 weeks, and sporulation rates were then determined. The 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide vital stain and the neonate animal infectivity assay determined Cryptosporidium oocyst viability. Cryptosporidium oocysts could be completely inactivated with as little as 20 s of cooking time, whereas Cyclospora sporulation was observed up to 45 s. Two of the examined microwave ovens were more effective at reducing sporulation and viability than the third one. Because of the variability of temperature achieved by the various ovens, cooking time was not an accurate parameter for parasite inactivation. Cryptosporidium oocysts could be inactivated only when temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher were reached in the microwave ovens. PMID:16924923

  7. Non-destructive monitoring of viability in an ex vivo organ culture model of osteochondral tissue.

    PubMed

    Elson, K M; Fox, N; Tipper, J L; Kirkham, J; Hall, R M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2015-01-01

    Organ culture is an increasingly important tool in research, with advantages over monolayer cell culture due to the inherent natural environment of tissues. Successful organ cultures must retain cell viability. The aim of this study was to produce viable and non-viable osteochondral organ cultures, to assess the accumulation of soluble markers in the conditioned medium for predicting tissue viability. Porcine femoral osteochondral plugs were cultured for 20 days, with the addition of Triton X-100 on day 6 (to induce necrosis), camptothecin (to induce apoptosis) or no toxic additives. Tissue viability was assessed by the tissue destructive XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide tetrazolium salt) assay method and LIVE/DEAD® staining of the cartilage at days 0, 6 and 20. Tissue structure was assessed by histological evaluation using haematoxylin & eosin and safranin O. Conditioned medium was assessed every 3-4 days for glucose depletion, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Necrotic cultures immediately showed a reduction in glucose consumption, and an immediate increase in LDH, GAG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Apoptotic cultures showed a delayed reduction in glucose consumption and delayed increase in LDH, a small rise in MMP-2 and MMP-9, but no significant effect on GAGs released into the conditioned medium. The data showed that tissue viability could be monitored by assessing the conditioned medium for the aforementioned markers, negating the need for tissue destructive assays. Physiologically relevant whole- or part-joint organ culture models, necessary for research and pre-clinical assessment of therapies, could be monitored this way, reducing the need to sacrifice tissues to determine viability, and hence reducing the sample numbers necessary. PMID:26122871

  8. Essays in labor economics

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tyler (Tyler Kenneth)

    2013-01-01

    I addressed three questions in Labor Economics, using experimental and quasi-experimental variation to determine causality. In the first chapter, I ask whether playing longer in the NFL increases mortality in retirement. ...

  9. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

  10. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0 4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  11. Cell viability monitoring using Fano resonance in gold nanoslit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-Han; Hsieh, Shu-Yi; Lee, Kuang-Li; Weng, Ruei-Hung; Chiou, Arthur; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2013-09-01

    Cell viability is a crucial issue in biological research. We present label-free monitoring of adhesion cells viability by gold nanoslits-based Fano resonance biosensors. Plastic multiple wells with gold nanoslits substrate were made using a thermal nanoimprint method. Adhesion cells in the wells were treated with doxorubicin for inducing cell death and compared with conventional colorimetric assay. The nanoslits method shows better respones of viability tests under low concentration and short interaction time due to its high surface sensitivies. The vinculin labelling indicates that the measured signals are in good agreement with the adhesion abilities of cells.

  12. Quantification of cellular viability by automated microscopy and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Sauvat, Allan; Wang, Yidan; Segura, Florian; Spaggiari, Sabrina; Müller, Kevin; Zhou, Heng; Galluzzi, Lrenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Cellular viability is usually determined by measuring the capacity of cells to exclude vital dyes such as 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or by assessing nuclear morphology with chromatinophilic plasma membrane-permeant dyes, such as Hoechst 33342. However, a fraction of cells that exclude DAPI or exhibit normal nuclear morphology have already lost mitochondrial functions and/or manifest massive activation of apoptotic caspases, and hence are irremediably committed to death. Here, we developed a protocol for the simultaneous detection of plasma membrane integrity (based on DAPI) or nuclear morphology (based on Hoechst 33342), mitochondrial functions (based on the mitochondrial transmembrane potential probe DiOC6(3)) and caspase activation (based on YO-PRO®-3, which can enter cells exclusively upon the caspase-mediated activation of pannexin 1 channels). This method, which allows for the precise quantification of dead, dying and healthy cells, can be implemented on epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry platforms and is compatible with a robotized, high-throughput workflow. PMID:25816366

  13. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions. PMID:22161315

  14. Light exposure and cell viability in fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schneckenburger, H; Weber, P; Wagner, M; Schickinger, S; Richter, V; Bruns, T; Strauss, W S L; Wittig, R

    2012-03-01

    Test systems for measuring cell viability in optical microscopy (based on colony formation ability or lysosomal integrity) were established and applied to native cells as well as to cells incubated with fluorescence markers or transfected with genes encoding for fluorescent proteins. Human glioblastoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated by various light doses, and maximum doses where at least 90% of the cells survived were determined. These tolerable light doses were in the range between 25 J cm?² and about 300 J cm?² for native cells (corresponding to about 250-3000 s of solar irradiance and depending on the wavelength as well as on the mode of illumination, e.g. epi- or total internal reflection illumination) and decreased to values between 50 J cm?² and less than 1 J cm?² upon application of fluorescent markers, fluorescent proteins or photosensitizers. In high-resolution wide field or laser scanning microscopy of single cells, typically 10-20 individual cell layers needed for reconstruction of a 3D image could be recorded with tolerable dose values. Tolerable light doses were also maintained in fluorescence microscopy of larger 3D samples, e.g. cell spheroids exposed to structured illumination, but may be exceeded in super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule detection. PMID:22126439

  15. Quantification of cellular viability by automated microscopy and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sauvat, Allan; Wang, Yidan; Segura, Florian; Spaggiari, Sabrina; Müller, Kevin; Zhou, Heng; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-04-20

    Cellular viability is usually determined by measuring the capacity of cells to exclude vital dyes such as 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or by assessing nuclear morphology with chromatinophilic plasma membrane-permeant dyes, such as Hoechst 33342. However, a fraction of cells that exclude DAPI or exhibit normal nuclear morphology have already lost mitochondrial functions and/or manifest massive activation of apoptotic caspases, and hence are irremediably committed to death. Here, we developed a protocol for the simultaneous detection of plasma membrane integrity (based on DAPI) or nuclear morphology (based on Hoechst 33342), mitochondrial functions (based on the mitochondrial transmembrane potential probe DiOC6(3)) and caspase activation (based on YO-PRO®-3, which can enter cells exclusively upon the caspase-mediated activation of pannexin 1 channels). This method, which allows for the precise quantification of dead, dying and healthy cells, can be implemented on epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry platforms and is compatible with a robotized, high-throughput workflow. PMID:25816366

  16. Health Services & Economics Research: Economics of Cancer & Cancer Trials

    Cancer.gov

    The Health Services and Economics Branch supports several activities related to the economics of cancer. These include developing data resources and methods to produce estimates of the Economic Burden of Cancer, developing detailed estimates of and determinants of The Cost of Cancer Care, and estimating The Cost of Cancer Care in Clinical Trials.

  17. Viability Kernels for Nonlinear Control Systems Using Bang Controls

    E-print Network

    Broucke, Mireille E.

    .-P. Aubin and his co-workers [1]. It has numerous applications in diverse disciplines such as ecology on numerical methods to compute viability kernels [3], [4], [5], [10], [12]. The present paper is among

  18. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  19. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Willem Visser, Claas; Henke, Sieger; Leijten, Jeroen; Saris, Daniël B F; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here, we present an analytical model describing the cell viability after impact as a function of the cell-surrounding droplet characteristics. The model connects (1) the cell survival as a function of cell membrane elongation, (2) the membrane elongation as a function of the cell-containing droplet size and velocity, and (3) the substrate properties. The model is validated by cell viability measurements in cell spraying, which is a method for biofabrication and used for the treatment of burn wounds. The results allow for rational optimization of any droplet-based cell deposition technology, and we include practical suggestions to improve the cell viability in cell spraying. PMID:26065378

  20. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

  1. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

  2. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

  3. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

  4. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

  5. How to assess intestinal viability during surgery: A review of techniques

    PubMed Central

    Urbanavi?ius, Linas; Pattyn, Piet; Van de Putte, Dirk; Venskutonis, Donatas

    2011-01-01

    Objective and quantitative intraoperative methods of bowel viability assessment are essential in gastrointestinal surgery. Exact determination of the borderline of the viable bowel with the help of an objective test could result in a decrease of postoperative ischemic complications. An accurate, reproducible and cost effective method is desirable in every operating theater dealing with abdominal operations. Numerous techniques assessing various parameters of intestinal viability are described by the studies. However, there is no consensus about their clinical use. To evaluate the available methods, a systematic search of the English literature was performed. Virtues and drawbacks of the techniques and possibilities of clinical application are reviewed. Valuable parameters related to postoperative intestinal anastomotic or stoma complications are analyzed. Important issues in the measurement and interpretation of bowel viability are discussed. To date, only a few methods are applicable in surgical practice. Further studies are needed to determine the limiting values of intestinal tissue oxygenation and flow indicative of ischemic complications and to standardize the methods. PMID:21666808

  6. Impact of anthropogenic transportation to Antarctica on alien seed viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hughes; J. E. Lee; C. Ware; K. Kiefer; D. M. Bergstrom

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are at risk from the introduction of invasive species. The first step in the process of invasion is the\\u000a transportation of alien species to Antarctic in a viable state. However, the effect of long-distance human-mediated dispersal,\\u000a over different timescales, on propagule viability is not well known. We assessed the viability of Poa trivialis seeds transported to Antarctica from

  7. Cellular viability effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on cerebellar neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA) participates in the control of cell death inducing the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ANA degrading enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), would induce cellular death. Experiments were performed in cerebellar granule neurons cultured with the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) as well as endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and cellular viability was determined by MTT test. Neurons cultured with URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) displayed a decrease in cellular viability. In addition, if cultured with OEA (25 nM) or PEA (100 nM), cellular death was found. These results further suggest that URB597, OEA or PEA promote cellular death. PMID:21854612

  8. Polyphenolic extracts of edible flowers incorporated onto atelocollagen matrices and their effect on cell viability.

    PubMed

    López-García, Jorge; Kuceková, Zdenka; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Ml?ek, Ji?i; Sáha, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen. PMID:24177700

  9. The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Crispin Y

    2015-02-01

    Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems. PMID:25448089

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  11. CARATTERIZZAZIONE E VITALITÀ DEI TRICOMI IN FRUTTI DI ACTINIDIA CHARACTERIZATION AND VIABILITY OF HAIRS IN KIWIFRUIT FRUITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hair density and viability at the surface of kiwifruit fruits (Zespri Gold™ and Hayward) were investigated to determine their contribution to fruit transpiration and thus to the xylematic flux in the fruit. These features are essential to complete knowledge on the transportation mechanisms of slightly mobile elements with special reference to calcium accumulation and distribution in kiwifruit fruits. The results

  12. Latent period and viability of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis urediniospores: Implications for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison J. Fisher; Dale M. Woods; Lincoln Smith; William L. Bruckart

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis into California in 2003, multiple urediniospore generations have been observed, along with teliospores and pycnia, on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). A field and laboratory study of urediniospore viability was conducted to determine the potential of using infected plant material for redistribution of inoculum into new areas. To better understand the life history

  13. Viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goat milk samples stored under different conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín Amores; Antonio Sánchez; Ángel Gómez Martín; Juan C. Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Christian de la Fe

    2010-01-01

    Control programs for contagious agalactia (CA) involve monitoring milk samples to detect this disease. This study was designed to establish the effects of the preservatives generally used in dairy laboratories and storage temperature on the viability of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae (Ma) and M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in goat milk samples. In total, 1440 determinations were conducted for each mycoplasma

  14. Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Wennekers; Roy Thurik

    1999-01-01

    In the 1980s stagflation and high unemployment caused a renewed interest in supply side economics and in factors determining economic growth. Simultaneously, the 1980s and 1990s have seen a reevaluation of the role of small firms and a renewed attention for entrepreneurship. The goal of this survey is to synthesize disparate strands of literature to link entrepreneurship to economic growth.

  15. Status and economics of SRC-I coal liquefaction development

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, J.C.; Jones, J.P. III

    1982-11-01

    The results of commercial plant economic analysis indicate that the SRC-I technology is economically viable in the long-term. To achieve commercialization by the mid-1990s, it is necessary to proceed with the design, construction, and operation of the demonstration plant to prove the technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the SRC-I technology. Today, synthetic fuels development no longer holds the urgency that elevated it to a position of national prominence a few years ago. However, most analysts agree that the underlying circumstances that will determine the U.S. energy future are unchanged. World oil supplies are dwindling, and the largest source of U.S. petroleum supplies remains one of the most politically volatile regions. In fact, the oil glut proclaimed only a few months ago shows signs of evaporating. Already, spot shortages of crucial energy products have been reported-most notably transportation fuels. The U.S. still has within its borders the largest coal reserves in the free world.

  16. Viability of Giardia cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water.

    PubMed Central

    deRegnier, D P; Cole, L; Schupp, D G; Erlandsen, S L

    1989-01-01

    Numerous waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have occurred since 1965, yet little or no information has been reported on the viability of Giardia cysts in different aquatic environments. We have studied the viability of Giardia muris cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water, while also monitoring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and other water quality parameters. Fecal pellets containing G. muris cysts were placed in glass vials covered with filter paper and exposed to (i) lake water at 15 ft (ca. 4.6 m) and 30 ft (ca. 9.2 m), (ii) river water, (iii) tap water, and (iv) distilled water stored under laboratory conditions. At 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84 days, two vials from each environment were removed, and cyst viability was determined by (i) fluorogenic dye exclusion, (ii) production of giardiasis in an animal, and (iii) cyst morphology by Nomarski microscopy. In the fall, the cysts suspended at 30 ft in lake water remained viable for up to 56 days whereas cysts stored at 15 ft were nonviable after day 28. The G. muris cysts exposed to river water remained viable up to 28 days as determined by the production of giardiasis in mice. G. muris cysts suspended in tap water showed no signs of viability after 14 days, while cysts serving as controls (exposed to refrigerated distilled water) remained viable for up to 56 days. In the winter, Giardia cysts suspended in either lake or river water were viable for 56 to 84 days whereas cysts exposed to tap water were nonviable by day 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757381

  17. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruwez, R.; De Frenne, P.; De Schrijver, A.; Leroux, O.; Vangansbeke, P.; Verheyen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. Methods In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11 943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Key Results Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Conclusions Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. PMID:24284814

  18. Human sperm DNA oxidation, motility and viability in the presence of L-carnitine during in vitro incubation and centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Banihani, S; Sharma, R; Bayachou, M; Sabanegh, E; Agarwal, A

    2012-05-01

    In vitro incubation and centrifugation is known to decrease human sperm quality. In the human body, besides its antioxidant effects, L-carnitine (LC) facilitates the transport of activated fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix. In this study, we investigated the effect of LC on human sperm motility, viability and DNA oxidation after incubation and centrifugation, following the sperm preparation protocols of assisted reproduction. Normozoospermic semen samples (n = 55) were analysed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. LC concentrations that are not toxic to spermatozoa as determined by sperm motility and viability were standardised after 2 and 4 h of incubation at 37 °C. Semen samples to which the optimal LC concentrations were added were also centrifuged for 20 min at 300 g and analysed for sperm motility, viability and DNA oxidation. Sperm motility was improved at 0.5 mg ml(-1) LC after incubation and centrifugation with 5 × 10(6) sperm ml(-1). Higher concentration of LC (50 mg ml(-1)) significantly decreased sperm motility and viability. LC did not alter the baseline of sperm DNA oxidation during both incubation and centrifugation. In conclusion, LC may enhance sperm motility following incubation and centrifugation, while it might not affect sperm viability and DNA oxidation. PMID:21950483

  19. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Li; Guan, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00?hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4?h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1?d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion. PMID:22629182

  1. Effect of different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm viability of liquid ram semen.

    PubMed

    Paulenz, Heiko; Söderquist, Lennart; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Berg, Kjell Andersen

    2002-01-15

    Semen was collected with an artificial vagina from four adult rams. The ejaculates were pooled and diluted, using a split-sample technique, in four different extenders: one for milk (Mi), one for sodium citrate (Na), and two for Tris-based extenders (T1 and T2) including egg yolk. Thereafter, the diluted semen was stored at 5 and 20 degrees C, respectively. We evaluated sperm viability after 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of storage. We assessed sperm motility subjectively, and we determined sperm membrane integrity using both the hypo-osmotic resistance test (ORT) and a fluorophore staining (SYBR-14 and propidium iodide) technique. We evaluated acrosomal status with Spermac and capacitation status with Chlortetracycline (CTC assay). All sperm viability parameters were influenced by storage time and extender, while sperm motility was the only evaluated parameter that was influenced by the interaction between extender and temperature. Semen that was diluted and stored in the commercially available Tris-based extender (T2) maintained sperm motility for a longer period of time, and acrosome and membrane integrity was higher during storage for up to 30 h as compared to the other extenders independent of storage temperature. In general, however, storage of ram semen at 5 degrees C seemed to influence sperm viability parameters less than storage at 20 degrees C. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Tris-based extenders, especially T2, preserved sperm viability better than both the sodium citrate- and the milk-based extender did when liquid ram semen was stored up to 30 h at 5 and 20 degrees C. Whether the differences found between the extenders will be reflected in the fertility results after AI is yet unknown and needs to be further studied. PMID:11991386

  2. Coiled tubing drilling (CTD) moves to commercial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Romagno, R. (Shell Western E and P, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Walker, R. (Schlumberger Dowell, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Shell Western E and P, Inc. (SWEPI) California Drilling Operations was interested in coiled tubing (CT) for drilling slimhole steam injectors. A four-well pilot project at South Belridge field, Kern County, Calif., was targeted for immediate CT use. Well programs included completion, a goal not previously attempted on wells drilled from surface with CT. This paper reviews the primary project focus which was to develop slimhole steam injectors and improve injection profiles in lower Tulare formation E and G sands. Feasibility of drilling wells with CT and having CT crews run and cement completion tubulars in place was an issue to be determined. Conventional tubing installation is usually outside the scope of CT operations, so it was not known if this would be technically or economically feasible. Another goal was to refine personnel expertise to further develop CTD services as a successful business line. Other items targeted for investigation were: deviation control; lost circulation solutions; WOB optimization to obtain maximum ROP; potential steam blowout intervals; and high temperature. Finally, economic feasibility of using CTD as a rotary rig alternative for specific applications like slimhole wells on sites where surface location is limited was to be determined.

  3. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-11-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  4. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  5. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  6. Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadèr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

    2011-02-01

    Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

  7. Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Holton, Gregory A [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Allison, Martin R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of nanomaterial interactions in the environment.

  8. Tissue viability 2010 -2015:from good to great.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jeanette; Ousey, Karen

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the challenges of the changing face of the NHS with specific relation to the challenges for community-based tissue viability services following the publication of government documents that identify the need to provide a quality service for all patients in health-care settings. Patients receiving care in the community is paramount to the success of the NHS going forward; service redesign, improvements in quality, outcome tracking, seamless discharge and patient satisfaction/responsibilities has been heralded as the core prerequisites of successful services. Tissue viability is a relatively young specialism, with most services being nurse led and established less than 15 years. It is argued that in order to continue to be successful as a specialism, tissue viability has to challenge traditional patient and nursing beliefs and values. PMID:20852531

  9. Trk receptors need neutral sphingomyelinase activity to promote cell viability.

    PubMed

    Candalija, Ana; Cubí, Roger; Ortega, Arturo; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a group of secreted polypeptides, which comprises Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Each neurotrophin can bind specifically to a tyrosine kinase Trk receptor (TrkA, TrkB or TrkC), while all of the neurotrophins can bind, with similar affinity, to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). Experiments on cell viability promotion by BDNF in granule neurons or by NGF in PC12 cells show that neurotrophin-exerted cell viability is neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-dependent, since GW4869 or siRNA knockdown abrogates the protective effects, as well as neurotrophin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Finally, the assessment of nSMase activity promotion drives to the conclusion that neurotrophins can promote cell viability through Trk receptors in a manner depending on basal nSMase but not through SMase activity enhancement. PMID:24316227

  10. Environment dependence of mutational parameters for viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, James D; Heinsohn, Stefanie L

    2002-01-01

    The genomic rate of mildly deleterious mutations (U) figures prominently in much evolutionary and ecological theory. In Drosophila melanogaster, estimates of U have varied widely, from <0.1 to nearly 1 per zygote. The source of this variation is unknown, but could include differences in the conditions used for assaying fitness traits. We examined how assay conditions affect estimates of the rates and effects of viability-depressing mutations in two sets of lines with accumulated spontaneous mutations on the second chromosome. In each set, the among-line variance in egg-to-adult viability was significantly greater when viability was assayed using a high parental density than when it was assayed using a low density. In contrast, the proportional decline in viability due to new mutations did not differ between densities. Two other manipulations, lowering the temperature and adding ethanol to the medium, had no significant effects on either the mean decline or among-line variance. Cross-environment genetic correlations in viability were generally close to one, implying that most mutations reduced viability in all environments. Using data from the low-density, lower-bound estimates of U approached the classic, high values of Mukai and Ohnishi; at the high density, U estimates were similar to recently reported low values. The difference in estimated mutation rates, taken at face value, would imply that many mutations affected fitness at low density but not at high density, but this is shown to be incompatible with the observed high cross-environment correlations. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Regardless of the interpretation, the results show that assay conditions can have a large effect on estimates of mutational parameters for fitness traits. PMID:12136018

  11. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

  12. Viability of bifidobacteria in commercial dairy products during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Lee, J H; Pestka, J J; Ustunol, Z

    2000-03-01

    Commercial milk and two brands of yogurt containing bifidobacteria were obtained from retail outlets. All products were evaluated for viability of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. Milk was evaluated at 9, 6, and 3 days prior and past its expiration date. The yogurts were evaluated at 3, 2, and 1 week prior and past their expiration. Viability of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in milk and yogurt remained above 10(6) CFU/ml or g until the expiration date of the respective products. This microbial concentration is the recommended minimum dose to receive the health benefits of these organisms. PMID:10716560

  13. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  14. [working paper] Regional Economic Capacity, Economic Shocks,

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    1 [working paper] Regional Economic Capacity, Economic Shocks, and Economic that makes them more likely to resist economic shocks or to recover quickly from of resilience capacity developed by Foster (2012) is related to economic resilience

  15. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  16. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  17. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells on viability, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (D'm), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium) as determined by flow cy...

  18. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells (Morone saxatilis) on viability, intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial membrane potential (''m), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as determined by flow cytometry; motion activati...

  19. The reference installation approach for the techno-economic assessment of emission abatement options and the determination of BAT according to the IPPC-directive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Geldermann; O. Rentz

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the realisation of the IPPC-Directive, the techniques and the possible abatement options have to be characterised on a process level with regard to environmental benefits, technical practicability and especially economic feasibility. Therefore, the reference installation approach, which has been developed within the preparation framework of the new “multi-pollutant and multi-effects” protocol of the UN\\/ECE and which

  20. Identification of a DNA marker linked to sex determination in Calamus tenuis Roxb., an economically important rattan species in northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabalee Sarmah; Ramendra Nath Sarma

    2011-01-01

    Calamus tenuis (Roxb.), a versatile, dioecious rattan species predominant in northeast India, has emerged as an economical material for\\u000a light furniture and cottage industries. For the genetic improvement of the species, it is essential to be able to recognize\\u000a male and female plants at the seedling stage. Screening of genomic DNA with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was\\u000a used to

  1. A Temperature-sensitive Calmodulin Mutant Loses Viability during Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Davis, Trisha N.

    A Temperature-sensitive Calmodulin Mutant Loses Viability during Mitosis Trisha N. Davis Department and the large bud. After nuclear movement, mitosis and could form colonies in G1 and mitosis (Rasmussen and Means, 1989). Consistent with a role in mitosis, calmodulin

  2. Improving viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in yogurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulsuriya E. V. Lankaputhra

    1997-01-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria was assessed in yogurt prepared using ruptured or whole cells of yogurt bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 2515 and Streptococcus thermophilus 2010), and whole cells of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus 2409 and one species of Bifidobacterium; B. longum 1941, B. pseudolongum 20099, B. infantis 1912, B. bifidum 1900 or B. bifidum 1901). Yogurt bacterial cells were

  3. AMPHIBIAN UPLAND HABITAT USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR POPULATION VIABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Trenham; H. Bradley Shaffer

    2005-01-01

    To predict the effects of habitat alteration on population size and viability, data describing the landscape-scale distribution of individuals are needed. Many amphibians breed in wetland habitats and spend the vast majority of their lives in nearby upland habitats. However, for most species, the spatial distribution of individuals in upland habitats is poorly understood. To estimate the upland distribution of

  4. Probiotic fermented Sausage: Viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rouhi; A. M. Mortazavian

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the

  5. EFFECT OF FUMIGATION ON VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBERSOUM) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of volunteer potato requires an integrated approach and soil fumigation is one tactic known to reduce population densities of certain weeds. The effect of 1,3-D and metham sodium on potato tuber viability were tested in sealed glass jars at various doses, incubation temperatures, and tim...

  6. ICln Is Essential for Cellular and Early Embryonic Viability*

    E-print Network

    Clapham, David E.

    , we disrupted the ICln gene in embryonic stem cells. We found that murine embryos lacking ICln die for embryonic stem cell viability. Previously, we showed that pICln interacts directly with a homolog of a yeastICln participates in critical cel- lular pathways, including regulation of the cell cycle and RNA processing. p

  7. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yetta Jager; Mark S Bevelhimer; Douglas L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and

  8. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC4(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the ...

  9. Evaluating Genetic Viability of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park

    E-print Network

    155 Evaluating Genetic Viability of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park JONATHAN A. JENKS1 Cave National Park, 26611 U.S. Highway 385, Hot Springs, SD 57747 (DER) ABSTRACT -- The pronghorn existence of pronghorn inside Wind Cave National Park. Historically, pronghorn numbers reached greater than

  10. On the viability of FPGA-based integrated coprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osama T. Albaharna; Peter Y. K. Cheung; Thomas J. Clarke

    1996-01-01

    The paper examines the viability of using integrated programmable logic as a coprocessor to support a host CPU core. This adaptive coprocessor is compared to a VLIW machine in term of both die area occupied and performance. The parametric bounds necessary to justify the adoption of an FPGA-based coprocessor are established. An abstract field programmable gate array model is used

  11. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays

    E-print Network

    Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays Mandana Veiseh, Omid demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern, and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell

  12. SEED GERMINATION AND VIABILITY OF WYOMING SAGEBRUSH IN NORTHERN NEVADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Busso; Mónica Mazzola; Barry L. Perryman

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Seed size and germination behavior affect performance of early seedlings. The purpose of this study was to investigate rela- tionships between seed size and germination percentage, germina- tion rate, time course of germination and seed viability in Wyo- ming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young). Working hypotheses were: 1) for single seeds, germination percentages and rates

  13. Effect of Lanthanide Complex Structure on Cell Viability and Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 ?M) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 ?M complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

  14. Assessment of Myocardial Viability in Patients with Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arend F. L. Schinkel; Don Poldermans; Abdou Elhendy; Jeroen J. Bax

    The prognosis for patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction is poor, despite advances in different therapies. Noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability may guide pa- tient management. Multiple imaging techniques have been developed to assess viable and nonviable myocardium by eval- uating perfusion, cell membrane integrity, mitochondria, glucose metabolism, scar tissue, and contractile reserve. PET, 201Tl and 99mTc scintigraphy, and

  15. Nuclear power options viability: Oak Ridge National Laboratory's study

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Seven criteria, augmented by desired characteristics, were established to assess the viability of nuclear reactors for the timeframe beginning at 2005 for the United States. Earlier nuclear power needs will be filled by LWRs. Several advanced concepts were selected, based on three ground rules, and assessed. It was concluded that there are several acceptable and viable concepts.

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Viability of Bifidobacterium longum in cheddar cheese

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    on the viability of probiotic bacteria during cheddar cheese manufacture as well as their stability during storage.champagne@agr.gc.ca #12;the benefit of pressing the curds in order to ensure high levels of probiotics in fresh cheddar (14d) ATCC 15708, ( ) , , , ATCC 15708 Keywords Probiotic bacteria . Stability

  17. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  18. Economic Feasibility of Commercial Algae Oil Production in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart L. Fischer; James W. Richardson; Joe L. Outlaw; Marc S. Allison

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to analyze the economic feasibility of growing algae as a renewable fuel source. Increasing growth rates, pond water depth, oil content, and facility size are important for ensuring the economic viability of a commercial algae facility.

  19. 5 CFR 841.405 - Economic assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic assumptions. 841.405 Section 841...ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.405 Economic assumptions. The determinations of...normal cost percentage will be based on the economic assumptions determined by the...

  20. 5 CFR 841.405 - Economic assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic assumptions. 841.405 Section 841...ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.405 Economic assumptions. The determinations of...normal cost percentage will be based on the economic assumptions determined by the...

  1. Effect of oxytocin on neuroblastoma cell viability and growth.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Jan; Strbak, Vladimir; Ratulovska, Nina; Bacova, Zuzana

    2012-07-01

    Oxytocin, released in response to different physiological stimuli, could play a key role in reducing stress reaction. It was suggested that it has protective effect against inflammation and consequences of oxidative stress. Mechanisms how oxytocin effects mediated in the brain tissue are unclear. In this study, oxytocin effect on cell growth and neuronal viability was examined. Human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were exposed to different concentrations of oxytocin for 12-96 h. Potential protective effect of oxytocin treatment was investigated after exposing cells to oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (50 mM, 2 h) or 6-hydroxydopamine (25 ?M, 24 h). Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting and cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Protein expression of selected neurotrophic factors was measured as an additional parameter. Oxytocin (1 ?M) significantly increased cell number in all three cell types. Viability of SH-SY5Y cells was increased in the presence of oxytocin without significant effect of dose (0.01-1 ?M). Cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide was not prevented by incubation with oxytocin. Oxytocin pretreatment blunted neurotoxin 6-OHDA reduction of cell viability in SH-SY5Y cells. Oxytocin (1 ?M, 12 h) elevated amount of total proteins without increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophic growth factor. In conclusion, oxytocin increases growth and viability of neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells without activation of neurotrophic factors. Oxytocin does not have protective effect in oxidative stress; however, it might be important for neuroprotection to dopaminergic neurons. Its proliferative effect might be important in native cell life, euplastic processes, and tumor progression. PMID:22252786

  2. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

  3. Presentation 3: Economic Viability of the Cancer Survivor: Implications for Employment - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer occurs most frequently in those aged 65 and older. Increases in life expectancies will result in more and more Americans in this category, and therefore higher rates of cancer incidence in the U.S. population.

  4. Economic & commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturer perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Frenette; Daniel Forthoffer

    2009-01-01

    Ford Motor Company's experience with Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) technology began over ten years ago with the P2000 concept. Development of this vehicle demonstrated technological feasibility of, and revealed a number of challenges to, automotive fuel cell commercialization. By 2005, Ford launched the Focus FCV fleet in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Canada (now Hydrogen and

  5. Effects of corticosteroid on the expressions of neuropeptide and cytokine mRNA and on tenocyte viability in lateral epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the reaction mechanism of corticosteroid by analyzing the expression patterns of neuropeptides (substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)) and of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor growth factor (TGF)-?) after corticosteroid treatment in lateral epicondylitis. In addition, we also investigated whether corticosteroid influenced tenocyte viability. Methods The corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) was applied to cultured tenocytes of lateral epicondylitis, and the changes in the mRNA expressions of neuropeptides and cytokines and tenocyte viabilities were analyzed at seven time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and an MTT assay were used. Results The expression of SP mRNA was maximally inhibited by TAA at 24 hours but recovered at 72 hours, and the expressions of CGRP mRNA and IL-1? mRNA were inhibited at 24 and 3 hours, respectively. The expression of TGF-? mRNA was not significant. Tenocyte viability was significantly reduced by TAA at 24 hours. Conclusions We postulate that the reaction mechanism predominantly responsible for symptomatic relief after a corticosteroid injection involves the inhibitions of neuropeptides and cytokines, such as, CGRP and IL-1?. However the tenocyte viability was compromised by a corticosteroid. PMID:23107345

  6. Economic Convergence and Economic Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

    1995-01-01

    Many of the crucial debates in development economics are encapsulated in the question of economic convergence. Is there a tendency for the poorer countries to grow more rapidly than the richer countries, and thereby to converge in living standards? Some recent research on endogenous growth has emphasized increasing returns as a possible reason not to expect convergence. Other research has

  7. FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    ECONOMICS FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY Program of Study The School of Economics at the University of Maine provides excellent opportunities for graduate students to study applied economics, financial economics, and policy analysis. The School of Economics administers the Master

  8. A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn; Rana, Yashodhara; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Balya, James; Buzaalirwa, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, and improved their self-esteem and status in the community. In addition, we also found significant positive knowledge spill-over and network effects in the program with regard to business management and support. However, more than half of the participants indicated experiencing repayment problems either personally or with other group members due to unexpected emergencies and sickness. These findings highlight that microcredit programs have the potential of being an economic support system for HIV clients trying to reestablish their livelihoods, especially in resource-constrained settings, though more research is needed to determine the overall economic viability of such programs. PMID:22778923

  9. Hydroxyethyl disulfide as an efficient metabolic assay for cell viability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Donglan; Ward, Kathleen M.; Prendergast, George C.; Ayene, Iraimoudi S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate (PMS). However, sensitivity is inherently limited because their reduction relies on mitochondrial bioreduction and cellular transport of PMS, as well as accessibility to tetrazolium chemicals. In this study, we identify hydroxethyldisulfide (HEDS) as an inexpensive probe that can measure cellular metabolic activity without the need of PMS. In tissue culture medium, HEDS accurately quantitated metabolically active live cells in a linear manner superior to tetrazolium based and other assays. Cell toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, etoposide), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, acetaminophen), toxins (Phenyl arsine oxide, arsenite) or ionizing radiation was rapidly determined by the HEDS assay. We found that HEDS was superior to other commonly used assays for cell viability determinations in its solubility, membrane permeability, and intracellular conversion to a metabolic reporter that is readily transported into the extracellular medium. Our findings establish the use of HEDS in a simple, rapid and low cost assay to accurately quantify viable cells. PMID:22321380

  10. Preoperative Positron Emission Tomographic Viability Assessment and Perioperative and Postoperative Risk in Patients With Advanced Ischemic Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Haas; Christoph J Haehnel; Wolfgang Picker; Stephan Nekolla; Stefan Martinoff; Hans Meisner; Markus Schwaiger

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to investigate whether determination of tissue viability by means of positron emission tomography (PET) before coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) affects clinical outcome with respect to both in-hospital mortality and 1-year survival rate.Background. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are at higher risk for perioperative complications associated with CABG.

  11. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population?s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  12. Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.

    PubMed

    Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model. PMID:25384723

  13. 12 CFR 357.1 - Economically depressed regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Economically depressed regions. 357.1 Section 357.1 Banks and Banking...POLICY DETERMINATION OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED REGIONS § 357.1 Economically depressed regions. (a) Purpose. Section...

  14. Centre for Economic Performance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established by the Economic and Social Research Council in 1990, the Centre for Economic Performance CEP at the London School of Economics and Political Science is one of the most prominent and established economic research groups in Europe. By focusing on the major links between globalization, technology and institutions, the CEP studies the determinants of economic performance at the level of the company, the nation, and the global economy. Broadly, CEP's research programs are divided into five groups that include research into labor markets, technology and growth, and education and skills. From the prodigious site, visitors can read about CEP In the News, learn about the various staff members' research areas of expertise, and browse their related publications (including occasional papers, working papers, and the like) back to 1990. Overall, this site will merit more than one visit, as it will be of substantial interest to persons interested in the intersections between economics, education, and globalization, to name but a few of the topical areas covered under the remit of the CEP.

  15. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). MDA content in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). The cryomedia added 15% trehalose exhibited the greatest percentage of cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, GSH content was the lowest among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significance differences in MDA content among the groups added 10, 15 and 20% trehalose (P>0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. PMID:25818604

  16. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E., E-mail: esarant@eie.gr; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S. [N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Institute for Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, Patriarchou Gregoriou Str. Aghia Paraskevi, Athens 15310 (Greece); Velentzas, A. D. [University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Athens 15784 (Greece)

    2014-09-14

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm?²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, ?-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  17. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, ?-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  18. Song Diversity Predicts the Viability of Fragmented Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Vögeli, Matthias; Serrano, David; Tella, José L.

    2008-01-01

    In the global scenario of increasing habitat fragmentation, finding appropriate indicators of population viability is a priority for conservation. We explored the potential of learned behaviours, specifically acoustic signals, to predict the persistence over time of fragmented bird populations. We found an association between male song diversity and the annual rate of population change, population productivity and population size, resulting in birds singing poor repertoires in populations more prone to extinction. This is the first demonstration that population viability can be predicted by a cultural trait (acquired via social learning). Our results emphasise that cultural attributes can reflect not only individual-level characteristics, but also the emergent population-level properties. This opens the way to the study of animal cultural diversity in the increasingly common human-altered landscapes. PMID:18350158

  19. What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Economics Essentials What economics courses are there? BA Economics Economics and International Development Economics and International Relations Economics and Politics Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics

  20. Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37°C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1) steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ?30 g after 6 h (high bile output group), and (2) a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group). Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial. PMID:25369327

  1. Factors affecting cytotrophoblast cell viability and differentiation: Evidence of a link between syncytialisation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y X; Allars, M; Maiti, K; Angeli, G L; Abou-Seif, C; Smith, R; Nicholson, R C

    2011-05-01

    A relationship between cytotrophoblast differentiation (syncytialisation) and apoptosis is hypothesised to exist, but has not been clearly determined. To address this, we explored the effects of cAMP, an inducer of syncytialisation, on human choriocarcinoma cell differentiation and viability under three different culture conditions related to diverse survival status: no serum, 10% fetal calf serum or 10% charcoal-stripped fetal calf serum. 8-Br-cAMP increased BeWo cell viability in culture media without serum, but viability was decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner when serum was present. The appearance of apoptotic nuclei fragments were only observed when BeWo cells were cultured in media containing serum combined with 8-Br-cAMP treatment. In addition, the ratio of FasL to Fas expression following treatment with 8-Br-cAMP increased by 20-fold in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal calf serum media and 65-fold 10% fetal calf serum media, and activation of caspase-3 also required media with serum. The markers of syncytialisation (syncytin 1 expression and human chorionic gonadotropin secretion) were induced significantly by 8-Br-cAMP, and were higher in 10% fetal calf serum media than in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal calf serum media, than in the absence of serum. Syncytia formation was stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and this required serum in the media. We now show that factors contained within serum are necessary for cAMP-stimulated cytotrophoblast differentiation, that syncytialisation involves apoptotic events, and that a lack of serum based factors could switch the cellular program away from differentiation. PMID:21352948

  2. Research paper: Characteristics associated with Regional Health Information Organization viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Adler-Milstein; John Landefeld; Ashish K. Jha

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveRegional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability.DesignUsing data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational

  3. Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah G. Perlut; Allan M. Strong; Therese M. Donovan; Neil J. Buckley

    2008-01-01

    Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (?150,000ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally)

  4. Automated Selection of Interaction Effects in Sparse Kernel Methods to Predict Pregnancy Viability

    E-print Network

    Automated Selection of Interaction Effects in Sparse Kernel Methods to Predict Pregnancy Viability the viability of pregnancies at the end of the first trimester based on initial scan findings. I. INTRODUCTION the proposed method on the prediction of the viability of pregnancies at the end of the first trimester, based

  5. Different effects of sonoporation on cell morphology and viability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Zhen; Saggar, Jasdeep K.; Zhou, Zhao-Li; Bing-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate changes in cell morphology and viability after sonoporation. Sonoportion was achieved by ultrasound (21 kHz) exposure on adherent human prostate cancer DU145 cells in the cell culture dishes with the presence of microbubble contrast agents and calcein (a cell impermeant dye). We investigated changes in cell morphology immediately after sonoporation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and changes in cell viability immediately and 6 h after sonoporation under fluorescence microscope. It was shown that various levels of intracellular calcein uptake and changes in cell morphology can be caused immediately after sonoporation: smooth cell surface, pores in the membrane and irregular cell surface. Immediately after sonoporation, both groups of cells with high levels of calcein uptake and low levels of calcein uptake were viable; 6 h after sonoporation, group of cells with low levels of calcein uptake still remained viable, while group of cells with high levels of calcein uptake died. Sonoporation induces different effects on cell morphology, intracellular calcein uptake and cell viability PMID:22642588

  6. Some economic tables for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    During the course of the Southern California Aviation Council study on lighter than air it was determined that some form of economic base must be developed for estimation of costs of the airship. The tables are presented.

  7. Monitoring water supplies for weaponized bacteria and bacterial toxins using rapid fluorescence-based viability and affinity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tassell, Roger L.; Evans, Mishell

    2004-03-01

    The rapid detection of weaponized bacteria and toxins is a major problem during a biological attack. Although sensitive detection formats exist for many biowarfare agents, they often require advanced training and complex procedures. Luna has developed simple, rapid means for determining the presence of pathogens and bacterial toxins in water supplies using fluorescence-based assays that can be adapted for field use. The batteries of rapid assays are designed for i) determining cell viability and bacterial loads by exploiting metabolic markers (e.g., acid-production, redox potentials, etc) and ii) detecting bacterial toxins using fluorescent, polymerized affinity liposomes (fluorosomes). The viability assays were characterized using E. coli, S. aureus and the anthrax simulant, B. globigii. The viability assays detected bacterial loads of ~ 104 CFU/ml and with simple filtration ~ 100CFU/ml could be detected. The affinity fluorosomes were characterized using cholera toxin (CT). Affinity liposomes displaying GM1 and anti-CT antibodies could detect CT at determined the responses of bacterial loads in the fluorescent viability assays. Using this two-tiered approach, Luna demonstrated that water susceptible to sabotage could be easily monitored and confirmed for specific agents using simple, general and specific fluorescence-based detection schemes based on metabolism and ligand-target interactions.

  8. Economics of installation of an active solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hovsepian, A.; Kaiser, M. [American Univ. of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The American University of Armenia recently installed a shower system in the ground floor of its building. In this article the authors examine the economic viability of using an active solar system to heat the showers. Using conventional discounted cash flow analysis as well as two other economic assessments of the capital investment, the authors demonstrate that it is economically justifiable to invest in a solar heating system on the basis of the anticipated savings in heating costs over the lifetime of the system.

  9. Airship economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  10. Many families of Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs are not essential for development or viability

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Saavedra, Ezequiel; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 23 nt regulatory RNAs that posttranscriptionally inhibit the functions of protein-coding mRNAs. We previously found that most C. elegans miRNAs are individually not essential for development or viability and proposed that paralogous miRNAs might often function redundantly 1. To test this hypothesis, we generated mutant C. elegans strains that each lack multiple or all members of one of 15 miRNA families. Mutants for 12 of these families did not display strong synthetic abnormalities, suggesting that these miRNA families have subtle roles during development. By contrast, mutants deleted for all members of the mir-35 or mir-51 families died as embryos or early larvae, and mutants deleted for four members of the mir-58 family showed defects in locomotion, body size and egg laying and an inability to form dauer larvae. Our findings indicate that the regulatory functions of most individual miRNAs and most individual families of miRNAs related in sequence are not critical for development or viability. Conversely, because in some cases miRNA family members act redundantly, our findings emphasize the importance of determining miRNA function in the absence of miRNAs related in sequence. PMID:20096582

  11. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

  12. Effect of Selenate on Viability and Selenomethionine Accumulation of Chlorella sorokiniana Grown in Batch Culture

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Torronteras, Rafael; Vigara, Javier; Gómez-Jacinto, Veronica; Janzer, Nora; Gómez-Ariza, José-Luis; Márová, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Se(+VI) on viability, cell morphology, and selenomethionine accumulation of the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana grown in batch cultures. Culture exposed to sublethal Se concentrations of 40 mg·L?1 (212??M) decreased growth rates for about 25% compared to control. A selenate EC50 value of 45?mg·L?1 (238.2??M) was determined. Results showed that chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were not affected by Se exposure, while oxygen evolution decreased by half. Ultrastructural studies revealed granular stroma, fingerprint-like appearance of thylakoids which did not compromise cell activity. Unlike control cultures, SDS PAGE electrophoresis of crude extracts from selenate-exposed cell cultures revealed appearance of a protein band identified as 53?kDa Rubisco large subunit of Chlorella sorokiniana, suggesting that selenate affects expression of the corresponding chloroplast gene as this subunit is encoded in the chloroplast DNA. Results revealed that the microalga was able to accumulate up to 140?mg·kg?1 of SeMet in 120?h of cultivation. This paper shows that Chlorella sorokiniana biomass can be enriched in the high value aminoacid SeMet in batch cultures, while keeping photochemical viability and carbon dioxide fixation activity intact, if exposed to suitable sublethal concentrations of Se. PMID:24688385

  13. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:24843386

  14. Application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessment in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Youn, Hyun-Yi; McCanna, David J; Sivak, Jacob G; Mikkelsen, Susan R

    2013-05-01

    The application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessments of human corneal epithelial cells has been investigated. Electrochemical measurements have been compared in PBS containing 5.0 mM glucose and minimal essential growth medium. Three different lipophilic mediators including dichlorophenol indophenol, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (also called menadione or vitamin K3) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine have been evaluated for shuttling electrons across the cell membrane to the external medium. Transfer of these electrons to ferricyanide in the extra cellular medium results in the accumulation of ferrocyanide. The amount of ferrocyanide is then determined using cyclic biamperometry and is related to the extent of cell metabolic activity and therefore cell viability. To illustrate cytotoxicity assessment of chemicals, hydrogen peroxide, benzalkonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate have been chosen as sample toxins, the cytotoxicities of which have been evaluated and compared to values reported in the literature. Similar values have been reported using colorimetric assays; however, the simplicity of this electrochemical assay can, in principle, open the way to miniaturization onto lab-on-chip devices and its incorporation into tiered-testing approaches for cytotoxicity assessment. PMID:23443523

  15. Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Constantine, Ryan S.; Harrison, Bridget; Davis, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fat grafting has been increasingly utilized in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures, yet the basic scientific understanding of fat grafting has lagged behind the pace of clinical innovation and utilization. This lack of basic scientific understanding has perhaps manifested itself in the wide range of graft viability reported across the literature. This study attempts to further the underlying mechanisms of fat graft take and viability through the comparison of the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in athymic rats. Methods: Lipoaspirate from a consenting patient was grafted into 2 locations in the subcutaneous plane and into the 2 inguinal fat pads in each of 4 athymic rats. Specimens were then collected after 47 days, and immunohistochemistry was utilized to determine angiogenesis in the fat grafts as a measure of fat graft take. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t test and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.2913) between the inguinal fat pad and the subcutaneous plane when measuring neovascularization. Analysis of variance comparing the graft locations also indicated no statistically significant difference when comparing each of the rats. Conclusions: Investigation into fat graft injection location indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in angiogenesis signals between the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in the athymic rat model. Further research should aim to continue to close the gap between clinical practice and basic scientific understanding of fat grafting. PMID:25587494

  16. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  17. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01), except for BriB that was safe at concentrations up to 0.25mg/mL and CR up to 0.05mg/mL, while LG was safe in all concentrations. Toxicity was higher after 30 minutes of exposure. Expression of Bax was upregulated after all dyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (p<0.01). Conclusions Overall the safest dye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  18. Which of the following statement is most closely associated with positive economics? a. Determining the impact of government spending on the actual level of total employment.

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haimei

    the impact of government spending on the actual level of total employment. b. Determining the best level consumption by about 10%.The increase causes householdsto a. spend more on sugar. b. spend less on sugar. c. spend the same amount on sugar. d. consume more goods like coffee and tea that complements of sugar

  19. Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

  20. HaCaT Keratinocytes Response on Antimicrobial Atelocollagen Substrates: Extent of Cytotoxicity, Cell Viability and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    López-García, Jorge; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Sáha, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The effective and widely tested biocides: Benzalkonium chloride, bronopol, chitosan, chlorhexidine and irgasan were added in different concentrations to atelocollagen matrices. In order to assess how these antibacterial agents influence keratinocytes cell growth, cell viability and proliferation were determined by using MTT assay. Acquired data indicated a low toxicity by employing any of these chemical substances. Furthermore, cell viability and proliferation were comparatively similar to the samples where there were no biocides. It means that regardless of the agent, collagen-cell-attachment properties are not drastically affected by the incorporation of those biocides into the substrate. Therefore, these findings suggest that these atelocollagen substrates enhanced by the addition of one or more of these agents may render effectiveness against bacterial stains and biofilm formation, being the samples referred to herein as “antimicrobial substrates” a promising view in the design of novel antimicrobial biomaterials potentially suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24956439

  1. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  2. Basketball Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinman, Daniel; Scheinman, Ted

    This teaching unit offers five economics lessons related to basketball. Lessons include: (1) "Money, Money, Money in the Basketball Player's World"; (2) "Take Me to the Basketball Game Lesson"; (3) "What Does It Take?"; (4) "Productivity of a Basketball Player"; and (5) "Congratulations! You Just Won the NBA Championships." Most of the lessons…

  3. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  4. Viability of Carbon Dioxide Storage in Deep Sea Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Despite the public's general aversion to using the ocean to dispose of captured carbon dioxide (CO2), recent revisions of the London Protocol have removed a hurdle to subsea injection of CO2. This paper constructs a map of the worldwide "prospectivity" of CO2 storage in deep sea sediment, i.e. amenable locations are determined and storage capacities estimated. CO2 injected into deep sea sediment is expected to be gravitationally trapped and secondarily capped by CO2 hydrate formation. Capture, transport, and storage costs are estimated and a mixed-integer linear programming model that generates spatially optimized infrastructure networks is applied. The model captures CO2 from fixed point sources, uses minimum cost routing paths, aggregates CO2 flow into trunk distribution pipelines where appropriate, and injects the CO2 in potential deep sea injection sites. Economies of scale for this climate change mitigation intervention in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone are discussed, including provisions for destabilizing and/or harvesting methane from in situ gas hydrates.

  5. Prediction of fertility by centrifugal countercurrent distribution (CCCD) analysis: correlation between viability and heterogeneity of ram semen and field fertility.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pé, R; Martí, J I; Sevilla, E; Fernández-Sánchez, M; Fantova, E; Altarriba, J; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2002-06-01

    The prediction of the fertilizing ability of a sire or a given insemination dose is a primary aim in the field of artificial insemination. Centrifugal countercurrent distribution analysis (CCCD) was used to determine the relationship between some sperm parameters and the in vivo fertility rate obtained with the same sample after cervical artificial insemination. A total of 522 ewes from 26 different farms was inseminated with 53 ejaculates obtained from 25 mature Rasa aragonesa rams. Semen was diluted to 1.6 x 10(9) cells ml-1 and doses of 0.25 ml were prepared and kept at 15 degrees C until used for insemination. The same ejaculates were used for analysis of standard semen parameters and CCCD analysis. Sperm motility, concentration and viability were determined before and after CCCD. Post-CCCD parameters were derived from the analysis of the profile obtained after CCCD. The recovered viability showed the highest correlation with fertility, especially in the central chambers (V2), r = 0.415, P < 0.005). The ejaculate heterogeneity also showed a positive correlation with field fertility (r = 0.23), with a tendency towards significance (P < 0.1). The mean fertility value of all ejaculates used in this study was 46.75%, ranging from 12.5% to 75.0%. Ejaculates were classified into two categories according to their fertility: higher and lower than the mean value. Only the viability recovered in the central chambers (V2) was a parameter with a predictive capacity to discriminate between the two groups (P < 0.05). A predictive equation for field fertility with a correlation coefficient r = 0.488 and a very high level of significance (P < 0.005) was deduced by multiple analysis: PF = 6.02 + 0.069V2 + 0.315H (where PF is predictive fertility, V2 is the recovered viability in the CCCD profile central chambers and H is heterogeneity). PMID:12052241

  6. A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Social, Institutional, Cultural, and Economic Supports for Autonomy and Their Importance for Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

    \\u000a In this chapter the authors discuss modern conceptions of happiness, including hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. They distinguish\\u000a happiness as a symptom rather than sine qua non of well-being, and they relate the later to the human capability for autonomous\\u000a self-regulation. Using a self-determination framework they define autonomy and detail its essential functional role in allowing\\u000a individuals within any culture to

  7. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control. PMID:1030807

  8. Comparative study of rest technetium-99m sestamibi SPET and low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography for the early assessment of myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction: importance of the severity of the infarct-related stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Claeys; Frank E. Rademakers; Chris J. Vrints; Bruno Krug; Johan M. Bosmans; Viviane Conraads; Leo L. Bossaert; Jo P. Snoeck; Pierre P. Blockx

    1996-01-01

    Rest technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography (SPET) has been shown to under-estimate viability in some patients with chronic ischaemic myocardial dysfunction. The present study was designed to appraise the value of99mTc-sestamibi as a viability tracer in patients with a recent myocardial infarction and to determine factors that might influence its accuracy in assessing infarct size. Therefore, rest99mTc-sestamibi SPET, low-dose dobutamines

  9. Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, J F; Shahamat, M; Levin, M; Rahman, I; Stelma, G; Grim, C; Colwell, R R

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of the bacterial content of air can be more easily made now than a decade ago, with colony formation the method of choice for enumeration of airborne bacteria. However, plate counts are subject to error because bacteria exposed to the air may remain viable yet lose the ability to form colonies, i.e., they become viable but nonculturable. If airborne bacteria exhibit this phenomenon, colony formation data will significantly underestimate the bacterial populations in air samples. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effect of aerosolization on viability and colony-forming ability of Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella planticola, and Cytophaga allerginae. A collision nebulizer was used to spray bacterial suspensions into an aerosol chamber, after which duplicate samples were collected in all-glass impingers over a 4-h period. Humidity was maintained at ca. 20 to 25%, and temperature was maintained at 20 to 22 degrees C for each of two replicate trials per microorganism. Viability was determined by using a modified direct viable count method, employing nalidixic acid or aztreonam and p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT). Cells were stained with acridine orange and observed by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate total and viable cells. Viable cells were defined as those elongating in the presence of antibiotic and/or reducing INT. CFU were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar and R2A agar. It was found that culture techniques did not provide an adequate description of the bacterial burdens of indoor air (i.e., less than 10% of the aerosolized bacteria were capable of forming visible colonies). It is concluded that total cell count procedures provide a better approximation of the number of bacterial cells in air and that procedures other than plate counting are needed to enumerate bacteria in aerosol samples, especially if the public health quality of indoor air is to be estimated. PMID:9293010

  10. New Directions for Vocational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fane, Xenia F.

    A 2-day conference jointly sponsored by the American Home Economics Association and the American Vocational Association was attended by approximately 400 home economists who sought to determine new directions for vocational home economics. Some presentations were: (1) -The Cooperative Role of AHEA" by D. Hanson, (2) "Vocational Home Economics in…

  11. Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species. PMID:22976116

  12. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  13. Applied studies on the viability of El Tor vibrios*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Plantilla, J.; Rolda, M.

    1967-01-01

    The viability of El Tor vibrios was tested at various temperatures in foodstuffs, kitchen utensils, and water after these materials had been directly contaminated with stools of cholera patients or carriers from the Philippines, collected in 1963-64. The period of survival of vibrios in foodstuffs was 2-5 days at room temperature (30°C-32°C) and as long as 9 days under refrigeration (5°C-10°C). Vibrios survived even longer in refrigerated water. The period of survival was shorter for all materials contaminated with carriers' stools, which contain fewer vibrios. Chlorinated lime was more effective than potassium permanganate as a decontaminant. PMID:4870081

  14. WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT twenty thirteen- fourteen Prospectus #12;WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT-being worldwide." "Economics is the issue of the times in which we live." Contents ninety-four The percent Inspirational instruction 11 Highlighted Research 13 Behavioural Economics 14 Development 16 Economic History 18

  15. Discussion Papers in Economics Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    Discussion Papers in Economics Department of Economics University of Surrey Guildford Surrey GU2 7 participants at Aberdeen, Essex, LSE, UCL, the Paris School of Economics and from participants in the 2007 Royal Economic Society annual conference held in Warwick, the 2007 American Law and Economics

  16. Managerial Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This Principles of Macroeconomics course page was developed by Robert Forsythe, Associate Professor of Economics at University of Iowa. The course introduces students to basic concepts in macroeconomics such as GDP, inflation and interest rates. Visitors to the site can either view the lecture notes in slide form or listen to lectures via RealAudio. Exams and quizzes (including answers) are also available at the site.

  17. Economic Consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Erbschloe

    \\u000a The economic impacts of computer crimes involving malicious code attacks, unauthorized intrusion into networks and computer\\u000a systems, denial of service of attacks, and others are substantial. In testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence\\u000a on 6 February 2002, Dale L. Watson, Executive Assistant Director, Counter-terrorism and Counterintelligence of the FBI, pointed\\u000a out that during the past several years the

  18. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  19. Limitations in the Use of Fluorescein Diacetate/Propidium Iodide (FDA/PI) and Cell Permeable Nucleic Acid Stains for Viability Measurements of Isolated Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Vinc; Cholewa, Olivia Maria; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Background A review of current literature shows that the combined use of the cell permeable esterase-substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and the cell impermeant nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI) to be one of the most common fluorescence-based methods to assess the viability of isolated islets of Langerhans, and it is currently used for islet product release prior to transplantation in humans. However, results from this assay do not correlate with islet viability and function or islet transplantation success in animals or humans (Eckhard et al. 2004; Ricordi et al. 2001). This may be in part attributed to considerable differences as well as discrepancies in the use of these reagents on islets. We critically surveyed the literature and evaluated the impact of a number of variables associated with the use of FDA/PI to determine their reliability in assessing islet cell viability. In addition, we evaluated other fluorescent stains, such as SYTO®13, SYTO®24 and SYBR®14 as possible alternatives to FDA. Results We found that the stability of stains in storage and stock solutions, the number of islets stained, concentration of stains, staining incubation time, the buffer/media used, and the method of examining islets were significant in the final scoring of viability. For archival file photos, the exposure time and camera/software settings can also impact interpretation of viability. Although our results show that FDA does detect intracellular esterase activity and staining with PI does assess cell membrane integrity, the results obtained from using these stains did not correlate directly with expected islet function and viability per transplantation into diabetic athymic nude mice (Papas et al. 2007). In addition, the use of two nucleic acid stains, such as SYTO®13 and PI, for live/dead scoring exhibited staining anomalies which limit their accuracy in assessing islet viability. Conclusions From a review of the literature and from our observations on the impact of reagent handling and various staining and imaging parameters used to visually evaluate islets, consistent interpretation of islet cell membrane integrity and viability is dependent upon a number of factors. We discuss the utility and limitations of these reagents in evaluating islet cell membrane integrity and viability. PMID:20814586

  20. Small molecules inhibit growth, viability and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Sandeep B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-Candida efficacy of twenty five molecules of plant origin. Based on their MICs, effective molecules were categorized into four categories. Susceptibility testing of test compounds was carried out by standard methodology (M27-A2) as per CLSI guidelines. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined as the lowest concentration of drug killing 99.9% cells. Effect on sterol profile was evaluated by sterol quantitation method. Among the screened molecules, cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde and indole were potent inhibitors of growth and viability. Exposure of Candida cells to cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde, indole, ?- and ?- pinene at MIC's, altered ergosterol profile. Our results indicate that the molecules altering sterol profile may exert their antifungal effect through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis and could be good candidates for fungal specific drug development. PMID:23449869

  1. The nucleolar protein SURF-6 is essential for viability in mouse NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Polzikov, Mikhail; Magoulas, Charalambos; Zatsepina, Olga

    2007-09-01

    SURF-6 is a bona fide nucleolar protein comprising an evolutionary conserved family that extends from human to yeast. The expression of the mammalian SURF-6 has been recently found to be regulated during the cell cycle. In order to determine the importance of SURF-6 in mammalian cells, we applied the Tet-On system to regulate conditionally, in response to tetracycline, the expression of an antisense RNA (asRNA) that targets Surf-6 mRNA in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. Induced Surf-6 asRNA caused an effective depletion of SURF-6 protein resulted in cell death and in an apparent arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These results provide for the first time evidence that expression of SURF-6 is essential for mammalian cell viability, and suggest that SURF-6 might participate in the progression of cell cycle. PMID:17086444

  2. Viability of ram spermatozoa in relation to the abstinence period and successive ejaculations.

    PubMed

    Ollero, M; Muiño-Blanco, T; López-Pérez, M J; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    1996-10-01

    For successful fertilization, a functionally constituted sperm plasma membrane is necessary, and this is clearly dependent on the sperm maturation process. The latter involves a series of complex changes which result from a sequence of events occurring at different points within the epididymis. The transit time through the epididymis can be influenced by external factors such as sexual stimulus and ejaculatory frequency. The present work was undertaken to determine changes in ram sperm viability and other sperm quality characteristics in relation to ejaculatory frequency. Three successive ejaculates were collected from rams during three different abstinence periods (collected every day, every 2 days and every 3 days). Cell viability (membrane integrity determined by fluorescence staining), progressive individual motility, and other in vitro parameters of sperm quality were evaluated. Second ejaculates showed the highest cell viability of the three periods studied, and increased as the abstinence period lengthened. The maximum proportion of viable cells (average 60%) was obtained in the second ejaculate after an abstinence period of 3 days. Likewise, overall and progressive individual motilities were higher in second ejaculates, the maximum value being 70% after 3 days of abstinence. The percentage of damaged or acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was greater after 1 day of abstinence than after the other periods analysed, whereas the first ejaculate showed the highest value in all periods. Differences in ejaculate volume were correlated strongly with both variables considered (abstinence period and ejaculate number). In the third ejaculate, about 27% more volume was obtained after 3 days of abstinence than after abstinence for 1 or 2 days. Sperm concentration increased significantly as the abstinence period lengthened, and also decreased significantly with ejaculate number in all cases. Therefore, the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate was clearly dependent on the abstinence period and the ejaculate number. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that using the second and/or a mixture of second and third ejaculates would improve the results in artificial insemination and in fertility studies. In addition, the use of better quality semen would facilitate progress in semen cryopreservation studies. PMID:8985777

  3. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  4. New Small Molecules Targeting Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Maugg, Doris; Rothenaigner, Ina; Schorpp, Kenji; Potukuchi, Harish Kumar; Korsching, Eberhard; Baumhoer, Daniel; Hadian, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the option of multimodal therapy in the treatment strategies of osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary malignant bone tumor, the standard therapy has not changed over the last decades and still involves multidrug chemotherapy and radical surgery. Although successfully applied in many patients a large number of patients eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease in which current therapeutic regimens often lack efficacy. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we performed a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign using a 25,000 small-molecule diversity library to identify new small molecules selectively targeting osteosarcoma cells. We could identify two new small molecules that specifically reduced cell viability in OS cell lines U2OS and HOS, but affected neither hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) nor primary human osteoblasts (hOB). In addition, the two compounds induced caspase 3 and 7 activity in the U2OS cell line. Compared to conventional drugs generally used in OS treatment such as doxorubicin, we indeed observed a greater sensitivity of OS cell viability to the newly identified compounds compared to doxorubicin and staurosporine. The p53-negative OS cell line Saos-2 almost completely lacked sensitivity to compound treatment that could indicate a role of p53 in the drug response. Taken together, our data show potential implications for designing more efficient therapies in OS. PMID:26039064

  5. A temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutant loses viability during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Although rare, a recessive temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutant has been isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant carries two mutations in CMD1, isoleucine 100 is changed to asparagine and glutamic acid 104 is changed to valine. Neither mutation alone conferred temperature sensitivity. A single mutation that allowed production of an intact but defective protein was not identified. At the nonpermissive temperature, the temperature-sensitive mutant displayed multiple defects. Bud formation and growth was delayed, but this defect was not responsible for the temperature-sensitive lethality. Cells synchronized in G1 progressed through the cell cycle and retained viability until the movement of the nucleus to the neck between the mother cell and the large bud. After nuclear movement, less than 5% of the cells survived the first mitosis and could form colonies when returned to permissive conditions. The duplicated DNA was dispersed along the spindle, extending from mother to daughter cell. Cells synchronized in G2/M lost viability immediately upon the shift to the nonpermissive temperature. At a semipermissive temperature, the mutant showed approximately a 10-fold increase in the rate of chromosome loss compared to a wild-type strain. The mitotic phenotype is very similar to yeast mutants that are defective in chromosome disjunction. The mutant also showed defects in cytokinesis. PMID:1639846

  6. Cell Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Binetti, Ana; Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its immunomodulating capacity, the functionality being affected without changes in cell viability. This could imply that the control of cell viability is not always enough to guarantee the functionality (probiotic capacity) of a strain. Therefore, a new challenge arises for food technologists and microbiologists when it comes to designing and monitoring probiotic food: to be able to monitor the functionality of a probiotic microorganism throughout all the stages the strain goes through from the moment it is produced and included in the food vehicle, until the moment of consumption. Conventional methodological tools or others still to be developed must be used. The application of cell membrane functionality markers, the use of tests of resistance to intestinal barriers, the study of surface properties and the application of in vivo models come together as complementary tools to assess the actual capacity of a probiotic organism in a specific food, to exert functional effects regardless of the number of viable cells present at the moment of consumption. PMID:21833320

  7. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  8. Kentucky Annual Economic Report

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; and economic growth and development, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors affecting Kentucky

  9. Kentucky Annual Economic Report

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    ; transportation economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; technology use and adoption-term economic, education, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors

  10. Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

    2011-03-01

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

  11. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ?

    PubMed Central

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

  12. Viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goat milk samples stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Amores, Joaquín; Sánchez, Antonio; Martín, Angel Gómez; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; de la Fe, Christian

    2010-10-26

    Control programs for contagious agalactia (CA) involve monitoring milk samples to detect this disease. This study was designed to establish the effects of the preservatives generally used in dairy laboratories and storage temperature on the viability of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae (Ma) and M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in goat milk samples. In total, 1440 determinations were conducted for each mycoplasma species in milk samples subjected to different storage temperatures (refrigeration at 4°C or freezing at -20°C), preservation strategies (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR) and storage times at each temperature (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24h at 4°C and 48h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks at -20°C). Our findings reveal the similar viability of Mmc in milk samples stored at 4°C for 24h under the three preservation conditions examined. In contrast, the isolation of Ma in refrigerated milk samples was compromised by the presence of BR, and in smaller measure by the treatments AZ and NP. Freezing milk samples considerably reduced the viability of both mycoplasmas. Given the different sensitivity of the two mycoplasma species to BR, refrigerated milk samples treated with AZ could be used to detect infections caused by both species through culture-based methods. PMID:20413227

  13. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence. PMID:25700743

  14. The effect of human serum albumin on the extended storage of human oral keratinocyte viability under mild hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung-Ae; Kim, Jin

    2005-02-01

    Isolated oral keratinocytes in suspension provide a number of advantages for use in maxillofacial surgery, however, the poor stability of this cell preparation at physiological temperatures is an apparent barrier preventing their use. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether human serum albumin (HSA) could serve as an effective constituent of a storage medium to enhance human oral keratinocyte (HOK) viability under conditions of mild hypothermia. Primary human oral keratinocytes were isolated from small pieces of the non-inflamed gingival tissues obtained during the extraction of the third molars of patients. HOK were cultured on collagen type I-coated culture dishes in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). After the trypsinization of a culture dish (passage 2 or 3), freshly isolated HOK were stored for 24, 48, and 72 h at 4 degrees C or at room temperature in KGM, saline, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), saline supplemented with 10% HSA or DMEM supplemented with 10% (v/v) HSA under one atmosphere pressure. After storage, HOK cell survival was determined by dye exclusion using trypan blue and colony-forming assay and cell cycle change was obtained by flow cytometry. Highest cell viability was obtained in saline supplemented with 10% HSA and DMEM supplemented with 10% (v/v) HSA at 4 degrees C and at room temperature. Under these conditions no significant decline in keratinocyte viability was observed for at least 48 h. The cell cycle profiles of these cells were also maintained for at least 48 h at room temperature. These observations demonstrate that HSA might be better at preserving the viability of HOK stored under hypothermic and mild hypothermic conditions up to 48 h. PMID:15710374

  15. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey formation siliceous shales. Quarterly report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, M.F.

    1997-07-25

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO(2) Enhanced Oil Recovery in California`s Monterey formation Siliceous Shales. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, M.F.

    1997-07-25

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a C0{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills Pilot C0{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and C0{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  17. ToHajiilee Economic Development, Inc.(TEDI) Feasibility Study for Utility-Scale Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Burpo, Rob

    2012-02-29

    ToÃ?Â?Hajiilee Economic Development, Inc. (TEDI) is the economic development entity representing the ToHajiilee Chapter of the Navajo Nation, also known as the CaÃ?Â?oncito Band of Navajo (CBN). Using DOE funding, TEDI assembled a team of qualified advisors to conduct a feasibility study for a utility-scale 30 MW Photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation facility on TEDI trust lands. The goal for this project has been to gather information and practical business commitments to successfully complete the feasibility analysis. The TEDI approach was to successively make informed decisions to select an appropriate technology best suited to the site, determine environmental viability of the site, secure options for the sale of generated power, determine practicality of transmission and interconnection of power to the local grid, and secure preliminary commitments on project financing. The feasibility study has been completed and provides TEDI with a practical understanding of its business options in moving forward with developing a solar project on CBN tribal lands. Funding from DOE has allowed TEDI and its team of professional advisors to carefully select technology and business partners and build a business model to develop this utility-scale solar project. As a result of the positive feasibility findings, TEDI is moving forward with finalizing all pre-construction activities for its major renewable energy project.

  18. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  19. Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development? 

    E-print Network

    Saldana, Luis

    2003-03-30

    A critical step in initiating or facilitating an effective economic development project is to determine if the community is actually prepared to take on such a difficult task. This publication can help community leaders determine how "prepared a...

  20. Economic History Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Despite its reputation as â??the dismal scienceâ?, economics continues to attract new scholars in great numbers every year, and a number of websites provide high-quality materials for those interested in the subject. The Economic History Services website began life in 1994 as a mere discussion list, and since then has grown to include numerous resources that include book reviews, a collection of course syllabi, a directory of economic historians, along with the ever-popular â??How Much is That?â? service. The â??How Much is That?â? area is quite useful, as visitors can use it to determine historical prices for goods and services, interest rates, wage rates, and inflation rates. Budding economic historians will want to check out the â??Ask The Professorâ? feature, which allows users to submit queries related to the subject. The section also contains an archive of answered questions, which include such enigmas as â??Is deflation bad for the economy?â? The site also includes a calendar of events for persons interested in learning about upcoming lectures, conferences, workshops, and the like.

  1. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Braid, R.B.; Cantor, R.A.; Daniels, L.; Davis, R.M.; Delene, J.G.; Gat, U.; Hood, T.C.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  2. Comparison of assays for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts viability after chemical disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kathleen Black; Gordon R Finch; Ruhi Taghi-Kilani; Miodrag Belosevic

    1996-01-01

    In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4?, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)), and infeictivity in neonatal CD-1 mice were used to assess the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after chemical disinfection. In vitro excystation and DAPI\\/PI staining provided similar estimates of viability in bench-scale experiments, but both of these methods significantly overestimated the viability when compared with infectivity (Pr ?

  3. Effects of different vascular patterns and the delay phenomenon on rat ventral island flap viability.

    PubMed

    Adanali, Gokhan; Seyhan, Tamer; Turegun, Murat; Senen, Dilek; Sensoz, Omer

    2002-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate flap viability and to determine optimal delay time by designing various blood flow patterns in the superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) artery (A) and vein (V) flap model. Flaps measuring 7 x 7 cm were created in 42 Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into six groups. In group I rats (AV-AV), the flap was elevated based on the bilateral SIE vessels. In group II rats (AV-A), the flap was elevated based on the right SIE vessels and the left artery. In group III rats (V-AV), the flap was elevated based on the left-side vein whereas the SIE artery and vein were the pedicle on the right side. In group IV rats (V-A), the flap was elevated as a venous flap on the left side and was SIE artery based on the right side. In group V rats (AV-) the flap was elevated based on the right SIE artery and vein. In group VI rats (delay), the SIA artery and vein on the left side were ligated without elevation during the first session. The flap was elevated on the right SIE artery and vein 7 days after the delay procedure. Percentages of viable flap surface area were measured in millimeters with acetate paper on day 5 after surgery. The highest viability was seen in group I rats (96.14%), and the delay group had the second highest viable area (88.56%). The area that remained viable in group II was larger than that of group III (87.41% vs. 72.84%; p < 0.05). The least viable areas were observed in group IV. The percentage of viable flap area was significantly higher in the delay group when compared with group V rats (88.56 +/- 1.06% vs. 60.01 2.58%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, if the contralateral pedicle is ligated 7 days before SIE vessel-based island flap elevation, the flap can be used safely in a manner that crosses the median. Artery inflow of the flap is more important than venous outflow for improvement of flap viability on the contralateral side. PMID:12055438

  4. WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2009 BUREAU OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH College of Business and Economics West Virginia University #12;West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 George W. Hammond, Associate Director, BBER, and Associate Professor of Economics West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 is published

  5. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  6. Viability selection on prey morphology by a generalist predator.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Couderc, G; Nielsen, J T

    2009-06-01

    Prey use their locomotory capacity to escape predators, and there should thus be strong viability selection on locomotory morphology of prey. We compared feather morphology of wood pigeons Columba palumbus killed by goshawks Accipiter gentilis with that of survivors to quantify directional and quadratic selection on primary and rectrix feathers. The goshawk is mainly a predator attacking by surprise, leaving wood pigeons with an ability to accelerate fast at a selective advantage. There was directional selection for light primary feathers with a narrow calamus. In addition, there was directional selection for increased area of rectrices. These patterns of natural selection were confirmed in multivariate analyses of selection that showed selection for light primary feathers with a large area and narrow calamus and for a large area of rectrix feathers. These results provide evidence of selection on different aspects of feather morphology directly related to flight performance and thus escape ability from predators. PMID:19344382

  7. Abundance, diversity, viability, and factorial ecology of fungi in peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchenko, A. V.; Kurakov, A. V.; Semenova, T. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an analysis of the results of mycological investigations of peat obtained by the authors and other Russian and foreign scientists. High-moor peat, unlike low-moor peat, is shown to contain great reserves of fungal biomass mainly represented by mycelium. The viability of the mycelium and spores is high in the upper peat horizons and does not exceed 50% in the lower ones. In high-moor peat, fungi that are capable of destroying the complex structural polymers composing up to 50% of the peat rarely occur. The analysis of the factors limiting the activity of fungi in the high-moor peatbogs showed that, in the upper layers, the main factor was the strength of the sphagnum cellular walls. In the lower layers, the significant oxygen deficit and the accumulation of sphagnans, sphagnols, phenol-containing compounds, and antioxidants that block the activity of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes are of great importance.

  8. Sensitive fluorometric nanoparticle assays for cell counting and viability.

    PubMed

    Pihlasalo, Sari; Pellonperä, Lotta; Martikkala, Eija; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

    2010-11-15

    We have developed easy-to-use homogeneous methods utilizing time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and fluorescence quenching for quantification of eukaryotic cells. The methods rely on a competitive adsorption of cells and fluorescently labeled protein onto citrate-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles or carboxylate-modified polystyrene nanoparticles doped with an Eu(III) chelate. In the gold nanoparticle sensor, the adsorption of the labeled protein to the gold nanoparticles leads to quenching of the fluorochrome. Eukaryotic cells reduce the adsorption of labeled protein to the gold particles increasing the fluorescence signal. In the Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor, the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the nanoparticles and an acceptor-labeled protein is detected; a decrease in the magnitude of the time-resolved energy transfer signal (sensitized time-resolved fluorescence) is proportional to the cell-nanoparticle interaction and subsequent reduced adsorption of the labeled protein. Less than five cells were detected and quantified with the nanoparticle sensors in the homogeneous microtiter assay format with a coefficient of variation of 6% for the gold and 12% for the Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor. The Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor was also combined with a cell impermeable nucleic acid dye assay to measure cell viability in a single tube test with cell counts below 1000 cells/tube. This sensitive and easy-to-use nanoparticle sensor combined with a viability test for a low concentration of cells could potentially replace existing microscopic methods in biochemical laboratories. PMID:20954745

  9. Viability and Detectability of Photosynthesis on Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Ramon; Raven, John

    Based on current understanding of how photosynthesis arose and developed on Earth,we consider what factors would limit or encourage the viability of photosynthetically energized organisms on Earth-like planets (ELP's) orbiting nearby ms stars with a range of surface temperature. Assuming that the ELP originally had an atmosphere similar to that of the early Earth and orbited within the parent star's habitable zone ,the main factors are: (1) an adequate photon flux incident on the organism in the photosynthetically active region (400 to 700nm on Earth); and (2) the need to avoid UV-B radiation - prior to the production of an atmospheric UV screen of ozone - which would damage the organism's DNA. Significant photosynthesis with the generation of molecular oxygen could take place with an incident photon flux at the organism of at least ten times that on today's Earth. If the parent star is hot enough for there to be appreciable levels of UV radiation, photosynthetic organisms can seek lower UV light levels in the ELP ocean with the benefit of the greater attenuation of UV-B radiation than of the 400-700nm radiation. In the case of cool stars where the flux of photosynthetically active photons may be too low, a major change in the photosynthetic apparatus would be required from the two-photon photosystem of terrestrial photosynthesis, which energises the electron transfer needed in photosynthesis, to a three- or four-photon photosystem which can make use of lower energy photons. The implications for the viability and spectroscopic detectability of photosynthetic organisms on ELP's will be discussed.

  10. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  11. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Díez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamaño, J. N.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  12. In vivo viability of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs in a rodent model after different thermo-treatments.

    PubMed

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a serious and emerging zoonotic disease in many parts of the northern hemisphere. Humans but also primates and other accidental hosts can acquire the infection by the ingestion of eggs excreted by the carnivore definitive hosts, e.g. after hand contact with egg-contaminated environments or by consumption of contaminated food or beverages. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive in vivo method to determine the viability of E.?multilocularis eggs and to establish suitable conditions (optimal temperature, exposure time and humidity) for their (prophylactic) inactivation. The sensitivity of a rodent model was evaluated and, conclusively, C57Bl/6 mice were most susceptible to subcutaneous inoculation of small numbers of sodium hypochlorite-resistant oncospheres, even more than to oral inoculation of mature eggs. In the second part of the study, various combinations of exposure temperature (between 45?°C and 80?°C), times (between 30?min and 180?min) and relative humidity (70% vs. suspended in water) were tested. After heat treatment in an incubator, the sodium hypochlorite resistance test was used to assess in vitro egg viability at the time of inoculation. Subsequently, the infectivity of the oncospheres was evaluated by subcutaneous inoculation in mice. Eggs exposed to increasing temperatures were more resistant to heat if suspended in water as compared to eggs exposed on a filter paper at 70% relative humidity. As survival of eggs in water droplets on the vegetables cannot be excluded, further experiments were performed with eggs suspended in water only. Eggs were infectious after heat exposure at 65?°C for up to 120?min, however, no echinococcosis developed after treatment of the eggs at 65?°C for 180?min or at 70, 75 and 80?°C for 7.5, 15 or 30?min. PMID:25816971

  13. Viability and Regeneration of Chondrocytes after Laser Cartilage Reshaping Using 1,460 nm Diode Laser

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cartilage reshaping by laser irradiation is used to correct septal and auricular cartilage deformities. Chondrocyte viability following laser irradiation and reshaping has been well established. However, the regeneration process of chondrocyte after laser irradiation has not been revealed yet. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of cartilaginous thermal injury and the regenerative process of damaged cartilage following laser irradiation. Methods Laser irradiation was performed on human septal cartilage and rabbit auricular cartilage using a 1,460-nm diode laser. We observed change in the shape of cartilage and evaluated the extent of cartilage injury using live/dead cell assay via confocal microscopy. Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the mechanism of chondrocyte injury after laser irradiation. To evaluate the regeneration of cartilage, laser irradiated cartilages were reimplanted into a subperichondrial pocket and were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after reimplantation for viability assessment and histologic examination. Results Laser irradiation using a 1,460-nm diode laser produced a marked shape change in both human septal and rabbit auricular cartilages. Thermal damage on cartilage was correlated with the exposure time and the laser power. Hoechst and PI staining showed that chondrocyte death by laser irradiation was due to mainly necrosis, rather than apoptosis. In lower power treatment group (0.3 W and 0.5 W), all the chondrocytes regenerated within 4 weeks, however, in 1 W treatment group, chondrocytes could not regenerate until 4 weeks. Conclusion Reshaping of cartilage using 1,460 nm diode laser was attained concurrently with the thermal injury to the chondrocytes. The extent of thermal damage on chondrocytes was dependent on the exposure time and the laser power and the damaged chondrocytes irradiated with lower level of laser power could be regenerated after reimplantation into subperichondrial pocket. PMID:23799165

  14. A multi-parametric approach assessing microbial viability and organic matter characteristics during managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Noh, Jin Hyung; Chae, So-Ryong; Choi, Jaewon; Lee, Yunho; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2015-08-15

    Soil column (SC) experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as microbial inhibitors; the microbial viability affecting the degradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and the characteristics of organic matter during managed aquifer recharge were specifically evaluated. Natural surface water samples treated with AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10mgL(-1)) were continually fed into the soil columns for 2years. The adverse impact of AgNPs on the cell membrane integrity and microbial enzymatic activity was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry and adenosine triphosphate analysis. The increase in AgNP concentration in the feed water (up to 10mgL(-1)) resulted in a corresponding deterioration in the performance of the managed aquifer recharge (MAR), with respect to the removal of organic carbon, oxidation of nitrogenous compounds, and PhAC attenuation. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of feed water and treated water showed the favorable removal of protein-like substances compared to humic-like substances regardless of the AgNP concentrations; however, the extent of removed fractions decreased noticeably when the microbial viability was lowered via AgNP treatment. The biological oxidation of organic nitrogen was almost completely inhibited when 10mgL(-1) AgNP was added during soil passage. The attenuation of bezafibrate, ketoprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, and gemfibrozil was strongly associated with the significant deterioration in biodegradation as a result of AgNP activity. PMID:25897734

  15. Spatially and Financially Explicit Population Viability Analysis of Maculinea alcon in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background The conservation of species structured in metapopulations involves an important dilemma of resource allocation: should investments be directed at restoring/enlarging habitat patches or increasing connectivity. This is still an open question for Maculinea species despite they are among the best studied and emblematic butterfly species, because none of the population dynamics models developed so far included dispersal. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed the first spatially and financially explicit Population Viability Analysis model for Maculinea alcon, using field data from The Netherlands. Implemented using the RAMAS/GIS platform, the model incorporated both local (contest density dependence, environmental and demographic stochasticities), and regional population dynamics (dispersal rates between habitat patches). We selected four habitat patch networks, contrasting in several basic features (number of habitat patches, their quality, connectivity, and occupancy rate) to test how these features are affecting the ability to enhance population viability of four basic management options, designed to incur the same costs: habitat enlargement, habitat quality improvement, creation of new stepping stone habitat patches, and reintroduction of captive-reared butterflies. The PVA model was validated by the close match between its predictions and independent field observations on the patch occupancy pattern. The four patch networks differed in their sensitivity to model parameters, as well as in the ranking of management options. Overall, the best cost-effective option was enlargement of existing habitat patches, followed by either habitat quality improvement or creation of stepping stones depending on the network features. Reintroduction was predicted to generally be inefficient, except in one specific patch network. Conclusions/Significance Our results underline the importance of spatial and regional aspects (dispersal and connectivity) in determining the impact of conservation actions, even for a species previously considered as sedentary. They also illustrate that failure to account for the cost of management scenarios can lead to very different conclusions. PMID:22719922

  16. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  17. Visualizing Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mulbrandon, Catherine

    Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

  18. Sizing the earth: Recognition of economic carrying capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt R. Wetzel; John F. Wetzel

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that the biophysical properties of a finite earth and the realities of economic transformation determine the economic carrying capacity of our planet. Economic carrying capacity takes the form of maximum global economic welfare derivable from the sustainable throughput flows of the ecosphere. This is fleshed out by development of a welfare return curve plotted as a function

  19. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of

  20. ABOUT THE JOURNAL A multidisciplinary journal of development economics,

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    ABOUT THE JOURNAL A multidisciplinary journal of development economics, Economic Development determinants and effects of various dimensions of economic development and cultural change. EDCC's empirical related to a broad range of topics within the field of economic development. EDCC publishes both papers

  1. In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and ?-III tubulin) was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important in vivo for the promotion of normal brain development. There were significant differences in the effects on PC12 cells compared to primary cortical cells. This suggests there is an interaction in vivo between developmental stage of cells and the composition of CSF. The data presented here support an important, perhaps driving role for CSF composition, specifically neurotrophic factors, in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. The effects of CSF on PC12 cells can thus be used to further investigate the role of CSF in driving development without the confounding issues of using primary cells. PMID:22494846

  2. Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Canada: Economics and GHG Reduction Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Hanova; Hadi Dowlatabadi; Lynn Mueller

    2007-01-01

    Climate stabilization requires greenhouse gas reductions (GHG) in excess of 60 percent. Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) hold the promise of meeting heating and cooling loads much more efficiently than conventional technologies. The economic viability of their widespread adoption depends on the costs of energy. Their impact on GHG reduction depends on fuel choices both in electricity generation and on

  3. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen – an economic assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Licht; Olivia Chitayat; Harry Bergmann; Andrew Dick; Hina Ayub; Susanta Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low

  4. Reliability improvement and economic benefits of online monitoring systems for large induction machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. T. Siyambalapitiya; P. G. McLaren

    1990-01-01

    Microprocessor-based monitoring systems are being developed for the regular analysis of large induction machine variables and to predict possible fault conditions, so that preventive maintenance can be organized in a cost-effective manner. A method for the evaluation of the improvement of machine reliability made by such monitoring systems is presented. An economic and financial analysis to examine the viability of

  5. Economics in the Kingdom of Loathing: Analysis of Virtual Market Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Safferling; Aaron Lowen

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a unique data set from a massively-multiplayer online video game economy called The Kingdom of Loathing to assess the viability of these markets in conducting economic research. The data consist of every transaction in a market with over one million players over three years of real time. We find that 1) the game markets are efficient, 2) the

  6. Safety and Economical Requirements of Conceptual Fusion Power Reactors in Co-Existing Advanced Fission Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Salomaa; S. Sipilä; V. Tulkki; G. Zemulis

    An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advanced fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability in the competitive socio-economic environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR,

  7. Effect of freeze drying and protectants on viability of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Abadias; A Benabarre; N Teixidó; J Usall; I Viñas

    2001-01-01

    The effects of freezing method, freeze drying process, and the use of protective agents on the viability of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake were studied. Freezing at ?20°C was the best method to preserve the viability of C. sake cells after freeze drying using 10% skim milk as a protectant (28.9% survival). Liquid nitrogen freezing caused the highest level of

  8. Influence of Palea and Lemma Removal on Seed Viability in Long Term Storage of Paspalum spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the greatest challenges in managing a germplasm collection is the loss of seed viability during long term storage. Many factors influence viability in long term storage including seed condition at harvesting (ripeness, vigor), drying seed prior to storage, and storage conditions (temperature...

  9. Identification, Description, and Perceived Viability of K-12 Consolidated Catholic School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Kenith C.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on Catholic school viability (James, Tichy, Collins, & Schwob, 2008; Lundy, 1999) and Catholic school systems (Goldschmidt, O'Keefe, & Walsh, 2004). But no research studies have investigated the viability of the consolidated Catholic school system (DeFiore, Convey, & Schuttloffel, 2009). This study investigates…

  10. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future introduces far less CO2 and GHGs into the atmosphere. Cellulosic ethanol in particular has garnered much

  11. Discontinuous control problems for non-convex dynamics and near viability for singularly perturbed control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Goreac; Oana-Silvia Serea

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study two classes of discontinuous control problems without any convexity assumption on the dynamics. In the first part we characterize the value function for the Mayer problem and the supremum cost problem using viscosity tools and the notion of ?-viability (near viability). These value functions are given with respect to discontinuous cost functionals.

  12. Viability principles for constrained optimization using a (1+1)-CMA-ES

    E-print Network

    Floreano, Dario

    Viability principles for constrained optimization using a (1+1)-CMA-ES Andrea Maesani and Dario of constraints. In this work, we test Viability Evolution principles on a modi ed (1+1)-CMA-ES for constrained+1)-CMA-ES for Constrained Optimisation, Genetic and Evol. Comput. Conf. (GECCO'12), pages 297

  13. The Viability of UML Models in Small Web Applications Jason Dudley and Devon M. Simmonds

    E-print Network

    Simmonds, Devon M.

    The Viability of UML Models in Small Web Applications Jason Dudley and Devon M. Simmonds Department such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML) in the development of very large systems, research is needed to delineate study that examined the viability of using UML to model web based applications that require 20 - 50

  14. EXTENDED EVALUATION OF AN 'IN VIVO' TERATOLOGY SCREEN UTILIZING POSTNATAL GROWTH AND VIABILITY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A teratology test system proposed by Chernoff and Kavlock (3,4) utilizes growth and viability for 3 days after birth to prioritize chemicals for standard teratology testing. The present study is an extended observation of the growth and viability of Chernoff and Kavlock's animals...

  15. Viability, Quality and Protein Content Associated with Sorghum Caryopses Infected with Grain Mold Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain mold (GM) of sorghum is a yield-limiting disease that impacts caryopsis viability and quality. Several fungi, including Fusarium thapsinum (FT) and Curvularia lunata (CL), colonize the caryopsis during development. The viability of caryopses (including Sureno, Tx2911, SC170, BTx623, BTx631, an...

  16. A Reliable Tool to Determine Cell Viability in Complex 3-D Culture: The Acid Phosphatase Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Friedrich; Wolfgang Eder; Juana Castaneda; Markus Doss; Elisabeth Huber; Reinhard Ebner; Leoni A. Kunz-Schughart

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based assays are more complex than cell-free test systems but still reflect a highly artificial cellular environment. Incorporation of organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D) culture systems into mainstream drug development processes is increasingly discussed but severely limited by complex methodological requirements. The objective of this study was to explore a panel of standard assays to provide an easy-handling, standardized protocol for rapid

  17. DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA MURIS' CYST VIABILITY BY DIFFERENTIAL INTERFERENCE CONTRAST, PHASE, OR BRIGHTFIELD MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that fluorogenic substrates are taken up by Giardia cysts and that an excellent correlation exists between animal infectivity and vital staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) for viable cysts and propidium iodide (PI) for non-viable cysts. ...

  18. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means. PMID:20415136

  19. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  20. Solar power generation using high altitude platforms feasibility and viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Aglietti; T. Markvart; A. R. Tatnall; S. J. Walker

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility and economical advantages that could be offered by a new facility for the production of solar energy. The basic concept is to exploit a high altitude aerostatic platform to support Photovoltaic (PV) modules to substantially increase their output by virtue of the significantly enhanced solar radiation at the operating altitude of the aerostat. The electric

  1. Validation of a Clostridium Endospore Viability Assay and Analysis of Greenland Ices and Atacama Desert Soils? †

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan-Wan; Ponce, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    A microscopy-based endospore viability assay (micro-EVA) capable of enumerating germinable Clostridium endospores (GCEs) in less than 30 min has been validated and employed to determine GCE concentrations in Greenland ices and Atacama Desert soils. Inoculation onto agarose doped with Tb3+ and d-alanine triggers Clostridium spore germination and the concomitant release of ?108 molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) per endospore, which, under pulsed UV excitation, enables enumeration of resultant green Tb3+-DPA luminescent spots as GCEs with time-gated luminescence microscopy. The intensity time courses of the luminescent spots were characteristic of stage I Clostridium spore germination dynamics. Micro-EVA was validated against traditional CFU cultivation from 0 to 1,000 total endospores/ml (i.e., phase-bright bodies/ml), yielding 56.4% ± 1.5% GCEs and 43.0% ± 1.0% CFU. We also show that d-alanine serves as a Clostridium-specific germinant (three species tested) that inhibits Bacillus germination of spores (five species tested) in that endospore concentration regime. Finally, GCE concentrations in Greenland ice cores and Atacama Desert soils were determined with micro-EVA, yielding 1 to 2 GCEs/ml of Greenland ice (versus <1 CFU/ml after 6 months of incubation) and 66 to 157 GCEs/g of Atacama Desert soil (versus 40 CFU/g soil). PMID:21296951

  2. Dicer regulates differentiation and viability during mouse pancreatic cancer initiation.

    PubMed

    Morris, John P; Greer, Renee; Russ, Holger A; von Figura, Guido; Kim, Grace E; Busch, Anke; Lee, Jonghyeob; Hertel, Klemens J; Kim, Seung; McManus, Michael; Hebrok, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    miRNA levels are altered in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most common and lethal pancreatic malignancy, and intact miRNA processing is essential for lineage specification during pancreatic development. However, the role of miRNA processing in PDA has not been explored. Here we study the role of miRNA biogenesis in PDA development by deleting the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in a PDA mouse model driven by oncogenic Kras. We find that loss of Dicer accelerates Kras driven acinar dedifferentiation and acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that has been shown to precede and promote the specification of PDA precursors. However, unconstrained ADM also displays high levels of apoptosis. Dicer loss does not accelerate development of Kras driven PDA precursors or PDA, but surprisingly, we observe that mouse PDA can develop without Dicer, although at the expense of proliferative capacity. Our data suggest that intact miRNA processing is involved in both constraining pro-tumorigenic changes in pancreatic differentiation as well as maintaining viability during PDA initiation. PMID:24788257

  3. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

  4. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08-0.12-0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

  5. Fenretinide inhibits myeloma cell growth, osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast viability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Khan, Sharmin; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    Fenretinide (4HPR), a nontoxic analog of ATRA, has been investigated in various malignancies but not in multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy associated with induction of osteolytic bone disease. Here we show that 4HPR induces apoptosis through increased level of ROS and activation of caspase-8, 9 and 3, and inhibits growth of several MM cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Serum or co-culture with the supportive osteoclasts partially protects MM cells from 4HPR-induced growth inhibition. Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) significantly protects MM cells from 4HPR-induced apoptosis suggesting that as in other malignancies, this drug up-regulates ceramide in MM cells. 4HPR has no toxic effects on non-malignant cells such as blood mononucleated cells, mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts, but markedly reduces viability of endothelial cells and mature osteoclasts and inhibits differentiation of osteoclasts and MM-induced tube formation. 4HPR is a potential anti-MM agent, affecting MM cells and MM-induced bone disease and angiogenesis. PMID:19446953

  6. Tissue viability imaging for assessment of microvascular events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Doherty, Jim; Nilsson, Gert E.; Henricson, Joakim; Sjoberg, Folke; Leahy, Martin J.

    2005-08-01

    A new technique for the investigation of microvascular tissue blood concentration is presented, based on the method of polarisation spectroscopy of blood in superficial skin tissue. Linearly polarised light incident on the skin is partly reflected by the surface layers, and partly backscattered from the dermal tissue. Use of orthogonal polarisation filters over both a light source and a CCD suppresses the reflections from the surface, and only the depolarised light backscattered from the dermal matrix reaches the CCD array. By separating the colour planes of an image acquired in this manner and applying a dedicated image processing algorithm, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the underlying area of tissue can be discovered. The algorithm incorporates theory that utilises the differences in light absorption of RBCs and dermal tissue in the red and green wavelength regions. In vitro fluid models compare well to computer simulations in describing a linear relationship between output signal (called TiViindex) and RBC concentration in the physiological range of 0%-4%. In vivo evaluation of the technique via transepidermal application of acetylcholine by iontophoresis displayed a heterogeneity pattern of vasodilation, which is typical of the vasoactive agent. Extension of the technique to capture and process continuous real-time data creates a new possibility of online real-time image processing. Application of tissue viability (TiVi) imaging include skin care products and drug development, as well as investigations of microvascular angiogenesis.

  7. Taxation and economic development: the state of the economic literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Wasylenko

    1997-01-01

    What conclusions, if any, can be drawn about the impact of state and local tax policy on economic development relative to other factors? What tax characteristics appear to be the most significant determinants? Are certain industries more sensitive to tax policy than others? Are business taxes more important than personal taxes? Paper: Michael Wasylenko

  8. Economics is philosophy, economics is not science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupert Read

    2007-01-01

    An environmentalist's outlook is typically claimed to be based on or even constituted by sound science. It would be natural then for a version of economics based on such insights to claim to be 'even more' scientific than traditional economics. I argue for a conclusion radically opposed to this. I suggest that a genuinely green economics will\\/should eschew any claims

  9. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  10. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  11. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-print Network

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  12. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Booth, R.S.; Bowers, H.I.; Braid, R.B.; Cantor, R.A.; Cleveland, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Gat, U.; Hood, T.C.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were selected on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000 to 2010, (2) economic competitiveness with coal, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high-temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. Although the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of economic competitiveness, all of the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected. Public and institutional acceptance of nuclear power was found to be affected primarily by four issues: (1) operational safety, (2) waste handling and disposal, (3) construction and operating costs, and (4) the adequacy of management and regulatory controls.

  13. IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board

    E-print Network

    with advice and an increased analytical capability to help bring economics to bear in determining and summarize the activities and contributions of the IEAB to the Council's fish and wildlife planning process categories. Table 1 summarizes the IEAB tasks included in each of these categories and indicates

  14. Calculating Economic Levels of Leakage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Pearson; S W Trow

    The paper outlines the approach to determining the economic level of leakage for a water supply and distribution system, which is being developed by a UK based sub-group of the IWA Water Losses Task Force (IWLTF). Each of the principal methods of controlling leakage is considered as either a short run or long run factor, and a methodology is proposed

  15. Cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation capability of human mesenchymal stem cells after iron labeling with iron sucrose.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Thorfve, Anna; Brantsing, Camilla; Junevik, Katarina; Baranto, Adad; Barreto Henriksson, Helena

    2014-11-01

    For evaluation of cell therapy strategies using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), it is important to be able to trace transplanted cells and their distribution in tissues, for example, cartilage, over time. The aim of the study was to determine effects on cell viability, traceability, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs after iron labeling with iron sucrose. hMSCs were collected (seven donors, 13-57 years) from patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two subsets of experiments were performed. (1) Iron labeling of hMSCs: 1 mg/mL of Venofer(®) (iron sucrose) was added (16 h) to cultures. hMSCs were examined for uptake of iron sucrose (Prussian blue staining) and cell viability (flow cytometry). (2) Iron-labeled hMSCs (passage 4) (n=4, pellet mass), 200,000 cells/tube, were cultured (DMEM-HG) with 10 ng/mL TGF? and compared with controls (from each donor). The pellets were harvested at days 7, 14, and 28. Real-time PCR, IHC, and histology were used to evaluate SOX9, ACAN, C6S, and COL2A1 expression. Mean number of cells containing iron deposits was 98.1% and mean cell viability was 92.7% (no significant difference compared with unlabeled control cells). Pellets containing iron-labeled cells expressed COL2A1 on protein level (all time points), in similar levels as controls, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was observed in iron-labeled pellets (day 14 or day 28). Results were supported by the expression of chondrogenic genes SOX9, ACAN, and COL2A1. The results in vitro indicate that iron sucrose can be used as a cell tracer for evaluation of cellular distribution in vivo after transplantation of MSCs and thus contribute with important knowledge when exploring new treatment strategies for degenerated cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25036548

  16. Using a family-based structure to detect the effects of genomic inbreeding on embryo viability in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Coburn, A D; Wilson, R D

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that some of the decline in reproductive ability in dairy cattle has been caused by embryonic death. The current study compared expected genomic inbreeding from sire-dam mating pairs to genomic inbreeding from live progeny in an attempt to determine how embryonic inbreeding may affect fertility. A total of 11,484 Holstein cattle with 43,485 SNP markers and pedigree information were available for analysis. A total of 412 sire-dam-progeny trios in which all animals had reliable genotypes were discovered. After removal of trios because of parentage errors, 374 remained for analysis. Additionally, a total of 3,031 animals comprising 3,906 genotyped full-sibling pairs were available for comparison. Expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated by predicting homozygosity independently per SNP (FPHE) in sire-dam mating pairs and by simulating progeny using phased haplotype information (FROHE and FPHE). Actual genomic inbreeding measures were calculated using the percent homozygosity of all SNP (FPH) and using runs of homozygosity (FROH). Average FPHE values (62.8±0.78%) were slightly lower than FPH (63.1±1.12%), when considering each SNP independently. After phasing haplotypes, FPHE (62.5±0.83%) was again slightly lower than FPH (62.7±1.16%), and FROHE (3.46±1.54%) was slightly lower than FROH (3.53±2.17%). Results suggest increases in expected genomic inbreeding do not explain a large effect on embryo viability at average levels of expected inbreeding. Higher variation in FROH values was present with sire-dam mating pairs exhibiting high FROHE, which may suggest high levels of genomic inbreeding are required for a noticeable effect on overall embryo viability. Genomic inbreeding between full siblings was also compared with moderate correlations (0.47-0.52) present. Overall, expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated, but results did not suggest a large effect of expected inbreeding on embryo viability. PMID:25958282

  17. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kaba?a-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bu?dak, Rafa? J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 ?mol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

  18. Viability assessment of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-01

    Based on the viability assessment, DOE believes that Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository. Over 15 years, extensive research has validated many of the expectations of the scientists who first suggested that remote, desert regions of the Southwest are well-suited for a geologic repository. Engineered barriers can be designed to contain waste for thousands of years, and the natural barriers can delay and dilute any radioactive material that migrates from the waste packages. Current models indicate that the possible radiation exposure to future populations living nearby could be comparable to present-day exposure levels from natural background radiation. Design alternatives that may improve performance and reduce remaining uncertainties are now being evaluated. The performance of a geologic repository over such long time periods--longer than recorded human history--cannot be proven beyond all doubt. Forecasts about future geologic and climatic conditions and engineering estimates of how long the waste packages will remain intact cannot be directly validated. The mathematical models used in the performance assessment are subject to uncertainties that can be reduced but never completely eliminated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's general standard for meeting geologic repository regulatory criteria and objectives is reasonable assurance. While considerable uncertainties remain today, DOE believes that reasonable assurance should be achievable in the licensing process after the planned work is completed. The DOE believes, therefore, that ongoing work at Yucca Mountain should proceed as planned.

  19. Environment, human development and economic growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

  20. Environment, human development and economic growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

  1. Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

  2. Self-rated economic welfare in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

    2002-01-01

    Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

  3. An Integrated Biogeochemical, Biophysical, and Economic Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    An Integrated Biogeochemical, Biophysical, and Economic Analysis of Bioenergy Crops Yang Song bioenergy crops Determines spatial variability of this potential in the US. Integrate biophysical model of bioenergy crop yields with economic analysis of the costs of bioenergy crops Assess how the yields and costs

  4. The Economics of Networking and Technology Lawrence A. GordonLawrence A. Gordon

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    , forthcoming. "Evaluating Information Security Investments Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process;Economics of Information Security Investments and Breaches Economic Impact of Government, Industry, Academic the economic cost of security breaches · Determine the optimal amount to invest in information security

  5. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. PMID:25887694

  6. Single cell viability observation in cell dielectrophoretic trapping on a microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengjun; Liu, Chengxun; Loo, Josine; Stakenborg, Tim; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-01-01

    We reported a microfluidic integrated dielectrophoretic (DEP) device for single MCF-7 cell trapping and studied the different effects of applied electric field on the viability of the trapped cell. The cell remained alive when DEP voltage was 3 V. Above 3 V, cell viability significantly decreased when increasing stimulation time. At 8 V, the cell was rapidly lysed by the electric field. The high transmembrane potential induced was found to be the major cause of cell damage. The obtained results indicated that an operational electric field below than 2 kV/cm was safe for cell viability when using DEP for cell manipulation.

  7. Economic Goods and Services: Economic and Non-Economic Methods for Valuing

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the greatest problems that global society faces in the 21st century is to accurately determine the value of the work contributions that the environment makes to support society. This work can be valued by economic methods, both market and nonmarket, as well as by accounti...

  8. Using digital inline holographic microscopy and quantitative phase contrast imaging to assess viability of cultured mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missan, Sergey; Hrytsenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    Digital inline holographic microscopy was used to record holograms of mammalian cells (HEK293, B16, and E0771) in culture. The holograms have been reconstructed using Octopus software (4Deep inwater imaging) and phase shift maps were unwrapped using the FFT-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The unwrapped phase shifts were used to determine the maximum phase shifts in individual cells. Addition of 0.5 mM H2O2 to cell media produced rapid rounding of cultured cells, followed by cell membrane rupture. The cell morphology changes and cell membrane ruptures were detected in real time and were apparent in the unwrapped phase shift images. The results indicate that quantitative phase contrast imaging produced by the digital inline holographic microscope can be used for the label-free real time automated determination of cell viability and confluence in mammalian cell cultures.

  9. Effectiveness of Common Household Cleaning Agents in Reducing the Viability of Human Influenza A/H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Greatorex, Jane S.; Page, Rosanna F.; Curran, Martin D.; Digard, Paul; Enstone, Joanne E.; Wreghitt, Tim; Powell, Penny P.; Sexton, Darren W.; Vivancos, Roberto; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the event of an influenza pandemic, the majority of people infected will be nursed at home. It is therefore important to determine simple methods for limiting the spread of the virus within the home. The purpose of this work was to test a representative range of common household cleaning agents for their effectiveness at killing or reducing the viability of influenza A virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Plaque assays provided a robust and reproducible method for determining virus viability after disinfection, while a National Standard influenza virus RT-PCR assay (VSOP 25, www.hpa-standardmethods.org.uk) was adapted to detect viral genome, and a British Standard (BS:EN 14476:2005) was modified to determine virus killing. Conclusions/Significance Active ingredients in a number of the cleaning agents, wipes, and tissues tested were able to rapidly render influenza virus nonviable, as determined by plaque assay. Commercially available wipes with a claimed antiviral or antibacterial effect killed or reduced virus infectivity, while nonmicrobiocidal wipes and those containing only low concentrations (<5%) of surfactants showed lower anti-influenza activity. Importantly, however, our findings indicate that it is possible to use common, low-technology agents such as 1% bleach, 10% malt vinegar, or 0.01% washing-up liquid to rapidly and completely inactivate influenza virus. Thus, in the context of the ongoing pandemic, and especially in low-resource settings, the public does not need to source specialized cleaning products, but can rapidly disinfect potentially contaminated surfaces with agents readily available in most homes. PMID:20126543

  10. Effects of rice straw on the cell viability, photosynthesis, and growth of Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wen; Hagström, Johannes A.; Jia, Yuhong; Lu, Yaping; Kong, Fanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be an environment-friendly biomaterial for inhibiting the growth of harmful blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. However, its potential mechanism is not well known. To explore this mechanism, the growth, cell viability (esterase activity, membrane potential, and membrane integrity), photosynthesis, and cell size of M. aeruginosa were determined using flow cytometry and Phyto-PAM after exposure to rice straw extracts (RSE). The results show that doses from 2.0 to 10.0 g/L of RSE efficiently inhibited the alga for 15 days, while the physiologic and morphologic responses of the cyanobacteria were time-dependent. RSE interfered with the cell membrane potential, cell size, and in vivo chlorophyll- a fluorescence on the first day. After 7 days of exposure, RSE was transported into the cytosol, which disrupted enzyme activity and photosynthesis. The cyanobacteria then started to repair its physiology (enzyme activity, photosynthesis) and remained viable, suggesting that rice straw act as an algistatic agent.

  11. Growth factor/heparin-immobilized collagen gel system enhances viability of transplanted hepatocytes and induces angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yung-Te; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Takei, Takayuki; Kawakami, Koei

    2011-09-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is being explored as a treatment strategy for end-stage liver disease; however, the main limitation is the insufficient vascularization of transplanted hepatocytes. To overcome this problem, a suitable 3D microenvironment and the types of transplanted cells must be considered for hepatocyte transplantation. In this study, a growth factor (GF)/heparin-immobilized collagen gel-filled polyurethane foam (PUF) scaffold was developed for angiogenesis induction and hepatocyte transplantation. First, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/heparin-immobilized, collagen-gel-filled PUF scaffold was developed to establish a prevascularized cavity in the subcutaneous space in rats. Second, accompanied by 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), hepatocytes were embedded inside heparin-immobilized, collagen-gel-filled PUF scaffolds, and were transplanted into the VEGF-induced prevascularized cavity. The benefits of using this system were confirmed by using three types of hepatocytes, namely single hepatocyte, hepatocyte spheroids, and fetal hepatocytes. The normalized hemoglobin content and live nucleus numbers were determined separately to evaluate the angiogenesis and viability of transplanted hepatocytes. In summary, after PH pretreatment, transplantation of fetal hepatocyte-embedded, heparin-immobilized, collagen-gel-filled PUF scaffold into a VEGF-induced prevascularized cavity appears to be a promising strategy for future liver tissue engineering. PMID:21640648

  12. Ecological Succession and Viability of Human-Associated Microbiota on Restroom Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Sean M.; Schwartz, Tara; Fouquier, Jennifer; Mitchell, Michelle; Sangwan, Naseer; Kelley, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    Human-associated bacteria dominate the built environment (BE). Following decontamination of floors, toilet seats, and soap dispensers in four public restrooms, in situ bacterial communities were characterized hourly, daily, and weekly to determine their successional ecology. The viability of cultivable bacteria, following the removal of dispersal agents (humans), was also assessed hourly. A late-successional community developed within 5 to 8 h on restroom floors and showed remarkable stability over weeks to months. Despite late-successional dominance by skin- and outdoor-associated bacteria, the most ubiquitous organisms were predominantly gut-associated taxa, which persisted following exclusion of humans. Staphylococcus represented the majority of the cultivable community, even after several hours of human exclusion. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated virulence genes were found on floors but were not present in assembled Staphylococcus pan-genomes. Viral abundances, which were predominantly enterophages, human papilloma virus, and herpesviruses, were significantly correlated with bacterial abundances and showed an unexpectedly low virus-to-bacterium ratio in surface-associated samples, suggesting that bacterial hosts are mostly dormant on BE surfaces. PMID:25398865

  13. The quantification of cellular viability and inflammatory response to stainless steel alloys.

    PubMed

    Bailey, LeeAnn O; Lippiatt, Sherry; Biancanello, Frank S; Ridder, Stephen D; Washburn, Newell R

    2005-09-01

    The biocompatibility of metallic alloys is critical to the success of many orthopedic therapies. Corrosion resistance and the immune response of the body to wear debris products ultimately determine the performance of these devices. The establishment of quantitative tests of biocompatibility is an important issue for biomaterials development. We have developed an in vitro model to measure the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and in this study investigated the cellular responses induced by nitrogenated and 316L stainless steel alloys in both particulate and solid form. We utilized a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, to characterize and compare the mRNA profiles of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in these cells using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to probe the viability of the population and to examine the apoptotic pathway. The goals of this work were to develop improved measurement methods for the quantification of cellular inflammatory responses to biomaterials and to obtain data that leads to an enhanced understanding of the ways in which the body responds to biomaterials. Using these techniques, we observed evidence for an association between the upregulation of IL-1beta and reversible apoptosis, and the upregulation of TNF-alpha and irreversible apoptosis. PMID:15814127

  14. MiR-92a regulates viability and angiogenesis of endothelial cells under oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Zhou, Mi; Qin, Gangjian; Weintraub, Neal L.; Tang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, which is prevalent in ageing and atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a key role in fine-tuning EC functional responses, including apoptosis and angiogenesis. MiR-92a is highly expressed in young endothelial cells in comparison with senescent endothelial cells, which exhibit increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, the impact of miR-92a treatment on EC viability and angiogenesis under oxidative stress is unknown. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Pre-miR-92a treatment decreased H2O2–induced apoptosis of HUVEC as determined by TUNEL assay. Pre-miR-92a treatment enhanced capillary tube formation by HUVEC under oxidative stress, which was blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, we also observed that inhibition of miR-92a by anti-miR-92a antisense can also enhance angiogenesis in HUVEC with and without oxidative stress exposure. Our results show that perturbation of miR-92a levels outside of its narrow “homeostatic” range may trigger endothelial cell angiogenesis, suggesting that the role of miR-92a in regulating angiogenesis is controversial and may vary depending on the experimental model and method of regulating miR-92a. PMID:24650666

  15. Hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis involved in volatile phenol production: relationship with cell viability.

    PubMed

    Laforgue, R; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2012-12-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis populations have been correlated with an increase in phenolic off-flavors in wine. The volatile phenols causing the olfactory defect result from the successive decarboxylation and reduction of hydroxycinnamic acids that are normal components of red wines. The growth of B. bruxellensis is preventable by adding sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), with variable effectiveness. Moreover, it was hypothesized that SO(2) was responsible for the entry of B. bruxellensis into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of SO(2) on the remaining enzyme activities of B. bruxellensis populations according to their viability and cultivability, focusing on the hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase enzyme, the first enzyme needed, rather than the metabolites produced. Enzyme activity was determined both in cell-free extracts and resting cells after various SO(2) treatments in synthetic media. After slight sulfiting (around 50 mg/L total SO(2)), the yeasts had lost part of their enzyme activity but not their cultivability. At higher doses (at least 75 mg/L total SO(2)) the majority of yeasts had lost their cultivability but still retained part of their enzyme activity. These results suggested that non culturable cells retained some enzyme activity. PMID:22986185

  16. Vemurafenib Synergizes with Nutlin-3 to Deplete Survivin and Suppress Melanoma Viability and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhenyu; Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Rajadurai, Anpuchchelvi; Marzuka-Alcalá, Alexander; Chen, Y. Erin; Njauw, Ching-Ni Jenny; Flaherty, Keith; Jönsson, Goran; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with advanced melanoma, primary and secondary resistance to selective BRAF inhibition remains one of the most critically compelling challenges. One rationale argues that novel biologically-informed strategies are needed to maximally cripple melanoma cells up front before compensatory mechanisms emerge. Since p53 is uncommonly mutated in melanoma, restoration of its function represents an attractive adjunct to selective BRAF inhibition. Experimental Design Thirty-seven BRAF(V600E)-mutated melanoma lines were subjected to synergy studies in vitro using a combination of vemurafenib and nutlin-3 (Nt-3). In addition, cellular responses and in vivo efficacy were also determined. We also analyzed changes in the levels of canonical apoptotic/survival factors in response to vemurafenib. Results Dual targeting of BRAF(V600E) and HDM2 with vemurafenib and Nt-3, respectively, synergistically induced apoptosis and suppressed melanoma viability in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Suppression of p53 in melanoma cells abrogated Nt-3?s effects fully and vemurafenib’s effects partially. A survey of canonical survival factors revealed that both vemurafenib and Nt-3 independently attenuated levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin. Genetic depletion of survivin reproduces the cytotoxic effects of the combination strategy. Conclusion These results demonstrate preclinical feasibility for overcoming primary vemurafenib resistance by restoring p53 function. Moreover, it identifies survivin as one downstream mediator of the observed synergism and a potential secondary target. PMID:23812671

  17. Effects of exposure to heavy metals on viability, maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Selvaraju, S; Roy, S C; Ravindra, J P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of heavy metals, cadmium and lead, on buffalo oocyte viability and in vitro development. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes. Only viable and metabolically active oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cell layers and homogeneous ooplasm were selected. Effects of nine concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg/mL) of cadmium or lead on buffalo oocyte viability, morphological abnormities, maturation, and embryonic development in vitro were studied. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and then checked for viability (0.05% trypan blue staining for 2 min), morphological abnormalities, and reduction assay by MTT test in experiment 1. The doses of cadmium and lead causing 100% oocyte death (1-day culture) were determined (experiment 2). In experiment 3, viable oocytes were matured in vitro in media containing different levels of cadmium or lead and then inseminated in vitro with frozen-thawed spermatozoa, and the resultant cleaved embryos were cultured in a control embryo culture medium for 8 days. In experiment 4, oocytes were cultured in control oocyte maturation medium, then fertilized, and the resultant embryos were cultured in media containing different levels of cadmium or lead for 8 days. The number of cells in the trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) and the total cell counts (TCN) of blastocysts derived by in vitro culture of two- to four-cell-stage embryos (produced in control medium) in media containing 0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/mL of cadmium or lead were analyzed by differential staining technique (experiment 5). Cadmium and lead were found to have a dose-dependent effect on viability, morphological abnormities, maturation, cleavage and morula/blastocyst yield, and blastocyst hatching. A significant decline in viability of oocytes was observed at 1.0 mg/mL cadmium or lead compared to the control group. The doses of cadmium and lead causing 100% oocyte death (1-day culture) were 18 and 32 microg/mL, respectively. Cadmium and lead at 1.0 and 2.5 microg/mL, respectively, caused a significant reduction of maturation of oocytes compared to the lower concentrations. No cleavage or morulae/blastocysts were produced when the oocytes/embryos were cultured in media containing 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL of either cadmium or lead, respectively. Similarly, no morulae/blastocysts were produced from cleaved embryos cultured in media containing 2.5 and 5.0 microg/mL cadmium and lead, respectively. The developmental block, degeneration, and asynchronous divisions were higher in embryos exposed to cadmium than in those exposed to lead. TCN and number of cells in ICM were significantly lower in blastocysts derived from two- to four-cell-stage embryos cultured in media containing heavy metals. In conclusion, cadmium and lead lowered the viability and development of buffalo oocytes but at a concentration higher than that estimated in the body fluids and environment. Cadmium was found to be more ovotoxic than lead. PMID:19475365

  18. The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia Alexander P. Miller Hang T. Nguyen Samantha D, and the recycling contacts from the participating Solid Waste Planning Units discussed in this study. #12;3 Table Determinants of Recycling_______________________________ 12 State Reports

  19. Economic assessment of CO? capture and disposal

    E-print Network

    Eckaus, Richard S.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Leung, Wing-Chi.; Yang, Zili.

    A multi-sector multi-region general equilibrium model of economic growth and emissions is used to explore the conditions that will determine the market penetration of CO2 capture and disposal technology.

  20. Focus: Economic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Odorzynski, Sandra J.; Schug, Mark C.; Watts, Michael

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  1. 2014 REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    2014 REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK #12;2014 REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2014 Overview The Cincinnati USA Partnership for Economic Development and the Northern Kentucky Chamber of Commerce are pleased to present the 2014 Regional Economic Outlook. This report was prepared by the Cincinnati USA Partnership's Regional

  2. Economics Department Mission Statement

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Economics Department Mission Statement The mission of the Economics Department at the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown is to develop the ability of our students to understand economic concepts, and in public policy. The central goals of an education in economics are to acquire: -- an understanding of how

  3. Introduction to Environmental Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Hanley; Jason F. Shogren; Ben White

    2001-01-01

    Understanding why environmental problems occur and what best to do about them is much facilitated by an understanding of economics. This book provides an introduction to the subject of environmental economics which does not assume an in-depth prior understanding of economics. Part one explains the fundamental economic concepts, using environmental examples, including markets, environmental evaluation, risk, and trade. Part two

  4. Analysis of the socio-cultural and economic determinants of adoption of soil and water conservation measures by farmers in villages participating in a farmer field school project near Lake Bunyonyi, Uganda 

    E-print Network

    Flechet, Charlotte

    The aim of this paper is to understand what socio-cultural and economic factors influence farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation measures in villages participating to a farmer field school (FFS) project around Lake Bunyonyi in Uganda...

  5. Distinguish on the viability of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells using delayed luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Li, Xing; Wang, Yan; Bai, Hua; Lin, Lie

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the discrimination of the viability of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) with photo-induced delayed luminescence (DL). We measure the DL decay kinetics of hUC-MSCs using an ultraweak luminescence detection system, and find the significant difference in the weight distributions of the decay rate for hUC-MSCs with high and low viabilities. Spectral discrimination of hUC-MSCs with high and low viabilities is thus carried out by comparing the DL kinetics parameters, including the initial intensity, the peak decay rate and the peak weight value. Our results show that the novel optical method for the viability diagnosis of hUC-MSCs has a promising prospect.

  6. Tocopherol and ascorbate have contrasting effects on the viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Ying, Danyang; Sanguansri, Luz; Weerakkody, Rangika; Singh, Tanoj K; Leischtfeld, Susette Freimüller; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2011-10-12

    The antioxidants, sodium ascorbate and tocopherol, have contrasting effects on the viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) spray-dried powders during storage (4 and 25 °C; 32, 57, and 70% relative humidity). The addition of tocopherol improved probiotic viability during storage, while the incorporation of Na-ascorbate alone or in combination with tocopherol had detrimental effects on probiotic survival. The beneficial effect of tocopherol is a consequence of its chemical antioxidative action. The reduced viability in Na-ascorbate containing microcapsule formulations is hypothesized to be due primarily to the production of acetic acids arising from chemical degradation reactions and the catabolism of ascorbate by LGG. This study highlights the importance of considering the detrimental consequences of degradative chemical reactions and the metabolic fate of additives on the viability of probiotics when designing probiotic encapsulant formulations. PMID:21842832

  7. USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current reserve selection algorithms have difficulty evaluating connectivity and other factors necessary to conserve wide-ranging species in developing landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data but often lack sufficient spa...

  8. 1 Economics The study of economics investigates the consequences of

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Economics ECONOMICS The study of economics investigates the consequences of scarcity, which forces people, organizations and governments to choose among competing objectives. Economics looks, unemployment, inflation, economic growth and the use and distribution of resources within and across nations

  9. Thermal injury prediction during cryoplasty through in vitro characterization of smooth muscle cell biophysics and viability.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Saravana Kumar; Venkatasubramanian, Ramji T; Menon, Arjun; Bischof, John C

    2008-01-01

    Restenosis in peripheral arteries is a major health care problem in the United States. Typically, 30-40% of angioplasties result in restenosis and hence alternative treatment techniques are being actively investigated. Cryoplasty, a novel technique involving simultaneous stretching and freezing of the peripheral arteries (e.g., femoral, iliac, popliteal) using a cryogen-filled balloon catheter, has shown the potential to combat restenosis. However, evaluation of the thermal and biophysical mechanisms that affect cellular survival during cryoplasty is lacking. To achieve this, the thermal history in arteries was predicted for different balloon temperatures using a thermal model. Cellular biophysical responses (water transport (WT) and intracellular ice formation (IIF)) were then characterized, using in vitro model systems, based on the thermal model predictions. The thermal and biophysical effects on cell survival were eventually determined. For this study, smooth muscle cells (SMC) isolated from porcine femoral arteries were used in suspensions and attached in vitro systems (monolayer and fibrin gel). Results showed that for different balloon temperatures, the thermal model predicted cooling rates from 2200 to 5 degrees C/min in the artery. Biophysical parameters (WT & IIF) were higher for SMCs in attached systems as compared to suspensions. The "combined" fit WT parameters for SMCs in suspension (at 5, 10, and 25 degrees C/min) are L (pg) = 0.12 microm/(min atm) and E (Lp) = 24.1 kcal/mol. Individual WT parameters for SMCs in attached cell systems at higher cooling rates are approximately an order of magnitude higher compared to suspensions (e.g., at 130 degrees C/min, WT parameters in monolayer and fibrin TE systems are L (pg) = 18.6, 19.4 microm/(min atm) and E (Lp) = 112, 127 kcal/mol, respectively). Similarly, IIF parameters assessed at 130 degrees C/min are higher for SMCs in attached systems than suspensions (Omega 0 = 1.1, 354, 378 (x 10(8) (1/m(2) s)) and kappa(o) = 1.6, 1.8, 2.1 (x 10(9) K(5)) for suspensions, monolayer, and fibrin TE, respectively). One possible reason for the differences in IIF kinetics was verified to be the presence of gap junctions, which facilitate cell-cell connections through which ice can propagate. This is reflected by the change in the predicted IIF parameters when a gap junction inhibitor was added and tested in monolayer (Omega 0 (1/m(2) s)); kappa(o) = 2.1 x 10(9) K(5)). SMC viability was affected by the model system (lower viability in attached systems), the thermal conditions and the biophysics. For e.g., IIF is lethal to cells and SMC viability was verified to be the least in fibrin TE (most % IIF) and the most in suspensions (least % IIF) at all cooling rates. Using the results from the fibrin TE (suggested as the best in vitro system to mimic a restenosis environment), conservative estimates of injury regimes in the artery during cryoplasty is predicted. The results can be used to suggest future optimizations and modifications during cryoplasty and also to design future in vivo studies. PMID:17943447

  10. Cell viability, collagen synthesis and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts following incubation with generated wear particles using different bone cements.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Lochner, Katrin; Jonitz, Anika; Lenz, Robert; Duettmann, Oliver; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2013-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, wear particles generated at articulating surfaces and interfaces between bone, cement and implants have a negative impact on osteoblasts, leading to osteolysis and implant loosening. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effects of particulate wear debris generated at the interface between straight stainless steel hip stems (Exeter(®)) and three different bone cements (Palacos(®) R, Simplex™ P and Cemex(®) Genta) on cell viability, collagen synthesis and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts. Primary osteoblasts were treated with various concentrations of wear particles. The synthesis of procollagen type I and different cytokines was analysed, and markers for apoptosis and necrosis were also detected. The cytokine synthesis rates in the osteoblasts were initially increased and varied, depending on incubation time and particle concentration. Specific differences in the synthesis rates of interleukin (IL)?6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were observed with the different bone cements examined. The negative effect of the particles on the synthesis of procollagen type I and increased rates of cell apoptosis and necrosis were observed with all three cements analysed. Our present data suggest that wear particles from the interface between the total hip stem and bone cement have a significant effect on viability, cytokine expression and collagen synthesis in human osteoblasts, depending on the bone cement used. PMID:23677027

  11. Bacteria screening, viability, and confirmation assays using bacteriophage-impedimetric/loop-mediated isothermal amplification dual-response biosensors.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Sokullu, Esen; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Tolba, Mona; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-05-21

    Here, we integrate two complementary detection strategies for the identification and quantification of Escherichia coli based on bacteriophage T4 as a natural bioreceptor for living bacteria cells. The first approach involves screening and viability assays, employing bacteriophage as the recognition element in label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The complementary approach is a confirmation by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to amplify specifically the E. coli Tuf gene after lysis of the bound E. coli cells, followed by detection using linear sweep voltammetry. Bacteriphage T4 was cross-linked, in the presence of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate, on a cysteamine-modified gold electrode. The impedimetric biosensor exhibits specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 10(3)-10(9) cfu/mL, while the linear response of the LAMP approach was determined to be 10(2)-10(7) cfu/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) of 8 × 10(2) cfu/mL in less than 15 min and 10(2) cfu/mL within a response time of 40 min were achieved for the impedimetric and LAMP method, respectively. This work provides evidence that integration of the T4-bacteriophage-modified biosensor and LAMP can achieve screening, viability, and confirmation in less than 1 h. PMID:23510137

  12. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring <5 mm. The canopy tree Laetia procera was the most abundant species in the samples. Of all small seeds found, 69% contained an intact endosperm and appeared viable. This suggests that small seeds, like large seeds, often pass through the digestive tract of T. bairdii intact. Thus, tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species. PMID:23586560

  13. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in amphipod prey and sturgeon eggs. These did not exceed EPA guidelines. Finally, we developed a PVA model that including linkages between shortnose sturgeon growth, reproduction, and survival and each remaining threat; All three had significant influences. Preliminary simulations suggest that elevated temperatures under future climate will extirpate this population and add support to the hypothesis that this species requires access to spawning habitat far upstream to persist.

  14. [Influence of suture materials on cell viability: a comparative experimental study].

    PubMed

    Buscaroli, S; Arciola, C R; Mancini, I; Farinetti, A; Fini, M; Rocca, M; Giardino, R

    1990-03-01

    Among the conditions that a material must satisfy to be considered biocompatible, most important is the non negative influence on the cellular viability of the surrounding tissue (cytocompatibility). The aim of our work was to evaluate in vitro, whether different types of materials (usually used in surgery), alter the viability parameters or the morphological characteristics of the cultured cells in contact with them. PMID:2223485

  15. Metapopulation viability analysis of the greater glider Petauroides volans in a wood production area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Possingham; D. B. Lindenmayer; T. W. Norton; I. Davies

    1994-01-01

    Successful forest wildlife management is dependent on information that estimates long-term viability of popu- lations in response to different management practices. In this paper we couple information captured in a GIS database, relationships between habitat attributes and habitat quality, and the dynamics of those habitat at- tributes, to assess the long-term metapopulation viability of a forest-dependent arboreal marsupial, greater glider

  16. Assessment of intestinal viability using a non-contact laser tissue blood flowmeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Ando; Masashi Ito; Zenro Nihei; Kenichi Sugihara

    2000-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative assessment of small intestinal viability following ischemic insult from arterial occlusion has remained difficult. The purpose of the present study was to assess the applicability of non-contact tissue blood flowmeter (NCLBF) with regard to intraoperative assessment of intestinal viability.Methods: Using the ischemia-reperfusion model of rabbits, the relationship between the records of NCLBF, pulse oximetry (PO), and histological grade

  17. Intraspecific variation in the viability of soredia in Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (Ascomycota: Lecanorales)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Buldakov

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of morphological features of parent thalli, substrate and climatic factors, and their seasonal fluctuations\\u000a to variation in the viability of vegetative diaspores has been studied on the model of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Seasonal trends in viability have been revealed only in certain types of biotopes. Hygrothermal conditions and substrate\\u000a properties in the biotope have proved to have

  18. Improvement of Longevity and Viability of Sperm Cells Isolated from Pollen of Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guichang; Williams, Connie M.; Campenot, Mary K.; McGann, Locksley E.; Cass, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the common maize (Zea mays L.) sperm isolation medium (Brewbaker and Kwack salts in 0.44 m sucrose without buffering) caused cell lysis in vitro. In an attempt to remedy this situation, 6 sugars, 10 buffers, 5 pH values, and 3 membrane protective agents were screened to improve longevity and viability of isolated Zea mays sperm cells as estimated by hemacytometry and flow cytometry. Use of 0.55 m galactose in the isolation solution increased sperm yield by 2.5-fold compared with sucrose, and suspension of isolated sperm cells in the galactose solution gave the best longevity among the six sugars. Buffering the galactose solution with 2 mm 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid significantly improved longevity, whereas other buffers had no effect or decreased the longevity and/or viability. Among the five pH values tested (5.0, 6.0, 6.7, 7.0, and 8.0), pH 6.7 appeared to be optimal for maintenance of both longevity and viability. Screening of membrane protectants showed that cysteine caused a rapid decrease in cell viability and increased lysis, whereas dithiothreitol increased the cell numbers but lowered their viability. Addition of 0.1% bovine serum albumin increased cell numbers and viability, and about 70% of the cells remained viable after 72 h of suspension. Cell longevity and viability were also improved in 0.44 m sucrose when the solution was conditioned with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and bovine serum albumin. Use of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and bovine serum albumin inthe isolation and suspension medium significantly improved the viability and longevity of sperm cells isolated from Zea mays pollen. PMID:16652985

  19. Hospital board effectiveness: relationships between board training and hospital financial viability.

    PubMed

    Molinari, C; Morlock, L; Alexander, J; Lyles, C A

    1992-01-01

    This study examined whether hospital governing boards that invest in board education and training are more informed and effective decision-making bodies. Measures of hospital financial viability (i.e., selected financial ratios and outcomes) are used as indicators of hospital board effectiveness. Board participation in educational programs was significantly associated with improved profitability, liquidity, and occupancy levels, suggesting that investment in the education of directors is likely to enhance hospital viability and thus increase board effectiveness. PMID:1399591

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  1. The Transposon impala Is Activated by Low Temperatures: Use of a Controlled Transposition System To Identify Genes Critical for Viability of Aspergillus fumigatus ? †

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Paul D.; Tuckwell, Danny; Hey, Peter M.; Simon, Laurence; d'Enfert, Christophe; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.; Bromley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Genes that are essential for viability represent potential targets for the development of anti-infective agents. However, relatively few have been determined in the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. A novel solution employing parasexual genetics coupled with transposon mutagenesis using the Fusarium oxysporum transposon impala had previously enabled the identification of 20 essential genes from A. fumigatus; however, further use of this system required a better understanding of the mode of action of the transposon itself. Examination of a range of conditions indicated that impala is activated by prolonged exposure to low temperatures. This newly identified property was then harnessed to identify 96 loci that are critical for viability in A. fumigatus, including genes required for RNA metabolism, organelle organization, protein transport, ribosome biogenesis, and transcription, as well as a number of noncoding RNAs. A number of these genes represent potential targets for much-needed novel antifungal drugs. PMID:20097738

  2. 40 CFR 227.17 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values ...determination. (a) The impact of dumping on esthetic, recreational and economic values...given to such nonquantifiable aspects of esthetic, recreational and economic impact...

  3. 40 CFR 227.17 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values ...determination. (a) The impact of dumping on esthetic, recreational and economic values...given to such nonquantifiable aspects of esthetic, recreational and economic impact...

  4. Economics 364: Survey of International Economics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LeBaron, Blake Dean, 1961-.

    1998-01-01

    The Economics 364: Survey of International Economics web site was developed by Blake LeBaron, Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The class aims to explain finance and macroeconomic policies in the world economy and trade patterns among countries. Topics covered include the foreign exchange market, balance of payments accounting, arbitrage in the foreign exchange market, monetary policy, trade models and trade policies. At the site users can find lecture notes, assignments and past exams.

  5. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  6. Development of a thermal sensor to probe cell viability and concentration in cell suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Dongsik

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel biothermal sensor to probe cell viability and concentration of a cell suspension. The sensing technique exploits the thermophysical properties of the suspension, so no labeling of suspended cells is required. When the sensor is periodically heated, the amplitude and phase of the thermal signal are dependent on the thermal properties of the cell suspension, particularly the thermal conductivity k. We measured k of HeLa, hepatocyte, and NIH-3T3 J2 cell suspensions with various concentrations and viabilities. The results demonstrate that the k of a cell suspension has a strong correlation with its concentration and viability. Accordingly, k can be employed as an index of cell concentration and viability. Furthermore, without data processing to obtain k, the electric signal that reflects the thermal response of the sensor can be used as a tool to probe viability of a cell suspension in real time. The proposed thermal sensing technique offers label-free, non-invasive, long-term, and real-time means to probe the viability and concentration of cells in a suspension.

  7. Cardiac magnetic resonance for the assessment of myocardial viability: from pathophysiology to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Guarini, Pasquale; Savarese, Gianluigi; Gambardella, Francesco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Cirillo, Annapaola; Vitagliano, Alice; Formisano, Tiziana; Pellegrino, Angela M; Bossone, Eduardo; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly applied for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic ventricular dysfunction, and it holds potential advantages over more traditional imaging modalities, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). CMR-based techniques for viability assessment include the evaluation of transmural extent of the scar using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, the evaluation of end-diastolic wall thickness from resting cine images and the study of inotropic reserve during low-dose dobutamine infusion. During the past decade, the diffusion of the use of CMR for viability assessment confirmed the clinical strengths of this modality and, at the same time, helped to use old techniques with an increased level of awareness. With LGE CMR, both viable and nonviable dysfunctional myocardium can be visualized in a single image, allowing a direct quantification of the amount of regional viability, with a significant impact on the estimation of chance for recovery. As well, studies with CMR applied in the setting of ischemic heart disease allowed a better understanding of the best way to apply and interpret other tests for viability evaluation. For instance, it has been demonstrated that the transmural extension of the scar may influence the level of concordance between SPECT and DSE in assessing myocardial viability. The transmural extent of scar on LGE CMR also correlates with the timing of postrevascularization recovery of systolic function, with significant impact on the diagnostic accuracy of any applied imaging modality. PMID:23756415

  8. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  9. Direct in situ viability assessment of bacteria in probiotic dairy products using viability staining in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy.

    PubMed

    Auty, M A; Gardiner, G E; McBrearty, S J; O'Sullivan, E O; Mulvihill, D M; Collins, J K; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2001-01-01

    The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (<30 min) and clearly differentiated live from heat-killed bacteria. The microscopic enumeration of various proportions of viable to heat-killed bacteria was then compared with conventional plating on nutrient agar. Direct microscopic enumeration of bacteria indicated that plate counting led to an underestimation of bacterial numbers, which was most likely related to clumping. Similarly, LIVE/DEAD BacLight staining yielded bacterial counts that were higher than cell numbers obtained by plate counting (CFU) in milk and fermented milk. These results indicate the value of the microscopic approach for rapid viability testing of such probiotic products. In contrast, the numbers obtained by direct microscopic counting for Cheddar cheese and spray-dried probiotic milk powder were lower than those obtained by plate counting. These results highlight the limitations of LIVE/DEAD BacLight staining and the need to optimize the technique for different strain-product combinations. The minimum detection limit for in situ viability staining in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy enumeration was approximately 10(8) bacteria/ml (equivalent to approximately 10(7) CFU/ml), based on Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 counts in maximum-recovery diluent. PMID:11133474

  10. Histopathological validation of electromechanical mapping in assessing myocardial viability in a porcine model of chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Fernandes, Marlos R; Silva, Guilherme V; Cardoso, Cristiano O; Canales, John; Gahramenpour, Amir; Baimbridge, Fred; da Graça Cabreira-Hansen, Maria; Perin, Emerson C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular electromechanical mapping (EMM) determines myocardial viability on the basis of endocardial electrograms. The aim of the present study was to validate EMM in differentiating infarcted myocardium from viable myocardium by histopathological analysis. METHODS: Sixty days after implanting an ameroid constrictor over the left circumflex artery to create chronic ischemia in 19 pigs, EMM was performed to construct unipolar voltage (UPV), bipolar voltage (BPV) and linear local shortening (LLS) maps. Noninfarcted and infarcted myocardium were identified by histopathology. Threshold determinations comparing noninfarcted tissue with scarred tissue were made by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: From the 19 hearts, 149 myocardial segments were divided into noninfarcted myocardium (n=128) and transmural infarct (n=21). UPV, BPV and LLS values (4.7±1.2 mV, 2.8±2.5 mV and 10.0±5.1%, respectively) of infarcted segments were significantly lower than those in noninfarcted myocardium (10.9±3.4 mV, 4.5±2.4 mV and 15.7±9.5%, respectively; P<0.01 for each comparison). The threshold values of UPV, BPV and LLS differentiating noninfarcted from infarcted myocardium were 6.2 mV (98% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 97% accuracy), 2.8 mV (80% sensitivity, 72% specificity, 79% accuracy) and 12.3% (68% sensitivity, 67% specificity, 68% accuracy), respectively. The relative dispersion of voltage was lower for UPV versus BPV. CONCLUSION: UPV can accurately differentiate infarcted from noninfarcted tissue in the chronic ischemic heart of pigs; however, BPV and LLS results were less accurate. PMID:19343167

  11. The economic common sense of SDI

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.O. (High Frontier, Inc., Arlington, VA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The present development history and current status evaluation of the economic viability of SDI technologies suggests that much of the exaggeration of SDI costs has been due to an effort of the part of the program's opponents to consider only the most exotic, and commensurately expensive, options for orbital missile defense. It is noted that, by contrast, extraordinary advancements in microelectronics have made possible the creation of 20-100 lb devices which detect hostile missile launches, calculate the paths of enemy missiles and warheads through space, and fly to pinpoint accuracy to intercept targets and destroy them by means of high-speed collision. This 'Brilliant Pebbles' scheme has reduced the cost of an effective SDI system to below 25 billion.

  12. Technical and economic evaluation of ten high temperature, high pressure particulate cleanup systems for pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Rubow; M. Borden; T. L. Buchanan; J. A. C. Cramp; W. H. Fischer; M. G. Klett; S. M. Maruvada; E. T. Nelson; R. E. Weinstein; R. Zaharchuk

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to provide a technical and economic evaluation of the ten high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) systems for the purpose of prioritizing them according to performance, cost, and general viability of achieving commercial status. The scope primarily included reviewing\\/normalizing test experience to date, normalizing commercial designs, developing normalized capital and operating costs for each system,

  13. Advanced reservoir characterizstion in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey formation siliceous shales. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.C.

    1996-09-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills field. The Buena Vista Hills Pilot CO{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shales reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and, CO{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills field. The project took a major step in the third quarter of 1996 with the drilling of the pilot injector well. The well spudded on July 1 and was completed on July 29 at a total measured depth of 4907 ft. The well was cored continuously through the entire Brown Shale and the productive portion of the Antelope Shale to just below the P2 e-log marker. The reservoir matrix and fluid characterization are discussed in this report.

  14. The economic viability of micro units in New York City : when the market wants to build big

    E-print Network

    Disbrow, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Lynn)

    2013-01-01

    Micro-Units are tiny apartments which are currently being discussed, developed, or prototyped in several major American cities. This thesis examines the assumption underlying the push to change regulations to allow micro ...

  15. Economic Impacts of Changes in United States Rice Price Variability on Market Efficiency, Marketing Margin and Producer Viability.

    E-print Network

    Grant, W.R.; Richardson, J.W.; Brorsen, B.W.; Rister, M.E

    1984-01-01

    (California and Louisiana) were more variable than the long-grain mill prices (Arkansas and Texas) during both policy periods. In accordance with Gardner's model, an attempt was made to associate the observed widening of the Texas mill-farm gate marketing..., a continuous milling cost statistic is not available. 5Estimating the margin equation with price/cost variables deflated by the Consumer Price Index results in an even higher impact on mill farm margins ($1.11 when reinflated to the average price...

  16. Impacts of Farm Policies and Technology on the Economic Viability of Texas Southern High Plains Wheat Farms. 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, James W.; Smith, Edward G.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation is focused on understanding the structure-activity relationship in heterogeneous catalysis by studying model catalytic systems. The catalytic oxidation of CO was chosen as a model reaction for studies on ...

  17. The potential economic viability of using the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative route between Asia and Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miaojia Liu; Jacob Kronbak

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation. Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe

  18. Economic Impacts of Changes in United States Rice Price Variability on Market Efficiency, Marketing Margin and Producer Viability

    E-print Network

    Grant, W.R.; Richardson, J.W.; Brorsen, B.W.; Rister, M.E

    1984-01-01

    present values for part and full owners due to these operators receiving all or most of the benefits from defiCiency payments, while the tenant shares this program benefit with his landowner. The 1970's rice policy resulted in greater absolute... to a different marketing alternative or lowered his variable cost of production. Full and part owners would be better off with the 1970's program if relative marketing margins are at the same level as under the 1960's policy or variable production...

  19. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1995-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This report measures the five-year (1995-2000) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College (PSTCC) on Knox and Blount counties in Tennessee. Results are based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges. The model uses conservative income and employment multipliers to determine PSTCC's economic…

  20. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1996-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fred

    This economic impact study examines the ways in which Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee) is a major contributor to the economic base of Knox and Blount Counties. The report is based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges, and it uses conservative income and employment modifiers to determine…

  1. Path to Prosperity: The Dynamics of Freedom and Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Feng; Jacek Kugler; Siddharth Swaminathan; Paul J. Zak

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamic general equilibrium model that formalizes the political mechanisms that prompt demographic change and augment economic development. We demonstrate that in addition to well-established economic determinants, fertility decisions, human capital accumulation and economic development are altered by three fundamental political variables: political freedom, political stability, and political capacity. Using the model, we derive a set of conditions

  2. The role of the telephone in economic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Hardy

    1980-01-01

    The author investigates the telephone's role as a contributory agent in economic development. Cross-sectional time series data for 60 nations over 13 years were used to determine how the telephone might make its contribution to economic development. Path analysis and cross-lagged correlation techniques indicate that the telephone does contribute to economic development. This contribution appears to come from the telephone's

  3. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  4. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

    2011-11-10

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  5. Viability of organic wastes and biochars as amendments for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2015-01-01

    Composts derived from municipal (MOW and MSW) and domestic wastes (DOM), wastes from the olive oil industry (OWH and OP), green waste (GW), and biochars (BF and BS) were investigated to test their viability for remediating metal-contaminated soils. In addition to common analyses, the characterisation included structural analyses (FTIR and (13)C NMR), determination of the acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and the construction of sorption isotherms for target metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu). MOW and GW had the highest ANC values (4280 and 7100 meq kg(-1), respectively), and MOW, GW, DOM, BF and BS exhibited the highest solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) with maximum values in the 10(4) L kg(-1) range. Sorption isotherms were fitted using linear and Freundlich models for better comparison of the sorption capacities of the materials. Based on their basic pH, high ANC and high sorption capacity, MOW, GW and biochars are the most promising materials. PMID:24995385

  6. Multiple Applications of Alamar Blue as an Indicator of Metabolic Function and Cellular Health in Cell Viability Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Rampersad, Sephra N.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the adverse effects of test compounds on living systems, detection of toxic thresholds, and expansion of experimental data sets to include multiple toxicity end-point analysis are required for any robust screening regime. Alamar Blue is an important redox indicator that is used to evaluate metabolic function and cellular health. The Alamar Blue bioassay has been utilized over the past 50 years to assess cell viability and cytotoxicity in a range of biological and environmental systems and in a number of cell types including bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa and cultured mammalian and piscine cells. It offers several advantages over other metabolic indicators and other cytotoxicity assays. However, as with any bioassay, suitability must be determined for each application and cell model. This review seeks to highlight many of the important considerations involved in assay use and design in addition to the potential pitfalls. PMID:23112716

  7. DILIP MOOKHERJEE Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    09/09 DILIP MOOKHERJEE OFFICE: Department of Economics 270 Bay State Road Boston, MA 02215. Tel: Development, Microeconomics. EDUCATION: Ph.D. (Economics), London School of Economics, 1982. M.Sc.(Econometrics and Mathematical Economics), London School of Economics, 1980. M.A . (Economics), Delhi School of Economics, 1978

  8. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  9. Biofuel, Economics, and Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel De La Torre Ugarte (Department of Agricultural Economics of the University of Tennessee; )

    2010-03-11

    Biofuels may be an important economic contributor in the coming decades. Proper biofuel management can provide economical, more environmentally friendly fuel worldwide; decrease world poverty; decrease food insecurity; and increase the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.

  10. Economic Assessment Environmental impact

    E-print Network

    - ". Economic Assessment Environmental impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides Background Economic Assessment Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 3 BACKGROUND Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS

  11. Membrane damage and viability loss of Escherichia coli K-12 in apple juice treated with radio frequency electric field.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Geveke, David J; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2008-04-01

    The need for a nonthermal intervention technology that can achieve microbial safety without altering nutritional quality of liquid foods led to the development of a radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) process. In order to understand the mechanism of inactivation of bacteria by RFEF, apple juice purchased from a wholesale distributor was inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12 at 7.8 log CFU/ml and then treated with RFEF. The inoculated apple juice was passed through an RFEF chamber operated at 20 kHz, 15 kV/cm for 170 micros at a flow rate of 540 ml/min. Treatment condition was periodically adjusted to achieve outlet temperatures of 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 degrees C. Samples at each outlet temperature were plated (0.1 ml) and the number of CFU per milliliter determined on nonselective and selective agar media was used to calculate the viability loss. Bacterial inactivation and viability loss occurred at all temperatures tested with 55 degrees C treatment, leading to 4-log reductions. No significant effect was observed on bacterial population in control samples treated at 55 degrees C with a low-RFEF (0.15 kV/cm) field strength. These observations suggest that the 4-log reduction in samples treated at 15 kV/cm was entirely due to nonthermal effect. RFEF treatment resulted in membrane damage of the bacteria, leading to the efflux of intracellular ATP and UV-absorbing materials. Populations of injured bacteria recovered immediately (<30 min) from the treated apple juice averaged 0.43 log and were below detection after 1 h of RFEF treatment and determination using selective plates (tryptic soy agar containing 5% sodium chloride). The results of this study suggest that mechanism of inactivation of RFEF is by disruption of the bacterial surface structure leading to the damage and leakage of intracellular biological active compounds. PMID:18468020

  12. The Viability of Merging Three Academic Libraries in Worcester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, David; Davis, Jinnie Y.

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the libraries of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the College of the Holy Cross, and Clark University should be merged. Four types of data were collected: (1) objective--quantitative analyses of faculty and student use of the libraries and collection duplication/triplication; (2) subjective--opinions…

  13. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  14. Economic Sociology Editorial Series

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of editorials was first published on the economic-sociology electronic mailing list. Written by academics from such institutions as Northwestern University, the University of Pennsylvania, Stockholm University, and Princeton University, these editorials cover a range of ideas in the field of economic sociology including globalization, immigration, and the future of economic sociology. Generally informational in tone and easy to read, these short pieces offer excellent snapshots into some of the most pressing issues in economic sociology.

  15. Essays on economic cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Groot de E. A

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Netherlands. It is remarkable that the lengths in years of the

  16. Economic Evaluation of Radiopharmaceutical

    E-print Network

    97-2 Planning Report Economic Evaluation of Radiopharmaceutical Research at NIST U.S Department Radiation Division Physics Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology #12;Economic Evaluation of Standards and Technology by Albert N. Link Professor of Economics University of North Carolina at Greensboro

  17. Fabricating Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Brownlow

    2010-01-01

    Much of the literature, regardless of academic discipline, presents the publication of Economic Development in 1958 as analogous to a “big bang” event in the creation of modern Ireland. However, such a “big bang” perspective misrepresents the sophistication of economic debates prior to Whitaker’s report as well as distorting the interpretation of subsequent developments. This paper reappraises Irish economic thinking

  18. DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE ANNUAL REPORT AY 2013-2014 School of Business 5 Liberty St;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Page 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STRATEGIC HIGHLIGHTS Academic year 2013-2014 brought improvement and change to the Department of Economics and Finance. A revised economics curriculum, a new finance major

  19. Home Economics Unlimited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkin, Doris

    This publication advocates the teaching of home economics to both boys and girls, and describes some home economics programs that provide meaningful learning experiences for students of both sexes. The philosophy and legal considerations behind teaching home economics to boys are examined. Changing life styles and social pressures are considered.…

  20. in Economics and Finance

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    Master in Economics and Finance ­ #12;2 3 "A research-centred institution with a personal to Study The Master in Economics and Finance is aimed at students wishing to obtain a comprehensive and high-quality education in economics and finance. The course highlights the complementary nature