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1

Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Economic Viability of Very Large Transport Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past few years, modem aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This report contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft concept may be assessed. The assessment is evaluated with the FPI technique to determine the cumulative probability distributions of the design space, as bound by economic objectives and performance constraints. These distributions were compared to established targets for a comparable large capacity aircraft, similar in size to the Boeing 747-400. The conventional baseline configuration design space was determined to be unfeasible and marginally viable, motivating the infusion of advanced technologies, including reductions in drag, specific fuel consumption, wing weight, and Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation costs. The resulting system design space was qualitatively assessed with technology metric "k" factors. The infusion of technologies shifted the VLT design into regions of feasibility and greater viability. The study also demonstrated a method and relationship by which the impact of new technologies may be assessed in a more system focused approach.

Mavris, Dimitri N.

1998-01-01

2

Economic viability of biogas technology  

SciTech Connect

Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

1983-12-01

3

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

4

Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.  

PubMed

Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

2013-12-01

5

Economic viability of rangeland based ranching enterprises  

E-print Network

the profitability of their enterprises by becoming more proactive in their management practices. An annual economic model is used to analyze the effects of using seasonal climate forecasts in cattle ranching enterprises in Sutton County, Texas. Unique...

Jochec, Kristi Gayle

2012-06-07

6

Economic Viability of Phytoremediation of a Cadmium Contaminated Agricultural Area Using Energy Maize. Part I: Effect on the Farmer's Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be

T. Thewys; N. Witters; S. Van Slycken; A. Ruttens; E. Meers; F. M. G. Tack; J. Vangronsveld

2010-01-01

7

Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells  

E-print Network

. It will focus on the application of multiple-lateral horizontal wells to reduce the risks of economic uncertainty associated with poor reservoir characterization in areally anisotropic reservoirs. Using a state-of-the-art productivity index model, the study...

Smith, Christopher Jason

2012-06-07

8

Economic viability of large-scale fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined.

Helsley, Charles E.; Burke, Robert J.

2014-01-01

9

CAN AUSTRALIAN AND ASIAN IRRIGATION AREAS BE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AND RETAIN THEIR ECONOMIC VIABILITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, about 10 million ha of agricultural land are lost annually due to salinisation of which about 1.5 million ha are irrigated. While some climate and management aspects are common to semi-arid regions the detailed mechanisms and options to secure ecological sustainability and economic viability may vary considerably from case to case. This paper applies a whole of the system

Shahbaz Khan; Rana Tariq; Cui Yuanlai; J. Blackwell

10

Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.  

PubMed

Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

2014-12-01

11

Economic viability of short rotation coppice for energy production for reuse of caesium-contaminated land in Belarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Chernobyl accident, changed land use such that the products of the land are radiologically acceptable and assure an economic return is a potentially sustainable remediation option. In this study, Short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production is evaluated as an alternative land use in contaminated areas. If the radiological and technical feasibility criteria are met, the economic viability

H. Vandenhove; F. Goor; S. O'Brien; A. Grebenkov; S. Timofeyev

2002-01-01

12

The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize. To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation. First, using real-time energy market price data from seven markets across the U.S. and the physical parameters of fourteen ESS technologies, the maximum potential IRR of each technology from price arbitrage was evaluated in each market, along with the optimal ESS system size. Additionally, the reductions in capital cost needed to achieve a 10% IRR were estimated for each ESS. The results indicate that the profit-maximizing size of an ESS is primarily determined by its technological characteristics (round-trip charge/discharge efficiency and self-discharge) and not market price volatility, which instead increases IRR. This analysis demonstrates that few ESS technologies are likely to be implemented by investors alone. Next, the effects of ESSs on system reliability are quantified. Using historic data for wind, solar, and conventional generation, a correlation-preserving, copula-transform model was implemented in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo framework for estimating system reliability indices. Systems with significant wind and solar penetration (25% or greater), even with added energy storage capacity, resulted in considerable decreases in generation adequacy. Lastly, rather than analyzing the reliability and costs in isolation of one another, system reliability, cost, and emissions were analyzed in 3-space to quantify and visualize the system tradeoffs. The modeling results implied that ESSs perform similarly to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems with respect to generation adequacy and system cost, with the primary difference being that the generation adequacy improvements are less for ESSs than that of NGCC systems and the increase in LCOE is greater for ESSs than NGCC systems. Although ESSs do not appear to offer greater benefits than NGCC systems for managing energy on time intervals of 1-hour or more, we conclude that future research into short-term power balancing applications of ESSs, in particular for frequency regulation, is necessary to understand the full potential of ESSs in modern electric interconnections.

Bradbury, Kyle Joseph

13

Viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the viability and economics of building or purchasing, driving and maintaining an electric car for commuting in the 90`s and beyond. Currently there are mandates in place that require that by the year 1998, two percent of the vehicles sold in California be {open_quotes}Zero Emission Vehicles{close_quotes} (ZEV). This same mandate has been imposed in many of the New England states as well. The {open_quotes}Big Three{close_quotes} automakers have answered with electric cars that surpass the $40,000 mark. What can the average person do, who wants to drive an electric car, but can`t afford these expensive prototypes? This paper will describe one approach to building an affordable electric car, with excellent performance and range. Additionally, there will be actual examples of these cars, using the design techniques outlined in this paper.

Tauber, L.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

14

Economical and Technical Viability of a Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater in Cote D` Ivoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a comparative study between solar water heater energy and classical sources of domestic hot water production. This study shows that Solar Water Heater (SWH) could be more competitive if the purchase price was reduced. In order to strengthen local technical capacity, to accelerate dissemination and insure appropriation of SWH technology as well as to stimulate acceptance of other solar technologies in Cote d`Ivoire, we propose an innovated design of a thermosyphon solar water heater, using available local materials in order to reduce cost. A prototype of the study SWH has been built and tested experimentally. The results show that the system is suitable for application in Cote d`Ivoire weather conditions. All those performances, combined with manufacturing simplicity and the absence of moving parts, make the system an interesting technological solution. The results can then be used for the dissemination of the system. The economic study confirms the viability and the real potential market of the locally manufactured SWH. The purchase cost is 2.0 times lower than the imported ones.

Sako, M. K.; N`Guessan, Y.; Andoh, H. Y.; Koffi, P. M. E.; Gbaha, P.; Sangare, M. K.

15

Tiller hierarchy and defoliation frequency determine bud viability in the grass Poa ligularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bud viability after various defoliation frequency treatments was determined in the perennial bunchgrass Poa ligularis under arid field conditions from 2002 to 2005. Bud respiratory activity was examined on various stem base hierarchies using\\u000a the tetrazolium test, as validated with the vital stain Evan’s blue. The hypothesis of this work was that the total and viable\\u000a axillary bud numbers on

C. A. Busso; C. Gittins; G. F. Becker; L. Ghermandi

16

Determination of periodontal ligament cell viability in long shelf-life milk.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of long shelf-life milk to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. Minimal Essential Medium was replaced with regular pasteurized milk (refrigerated milk), long shelf-life milk (Parmalat), or Save-A-Tooth. Tap water served as the negative control, and Minimal Essential Medium served as the positive control. The tissue culture plates were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined using a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay) and absorbance read at 490 nm. ANOVA indicated that all media performed significantly better than tap water at all time periods. At 8 h, PDL cell viability in regular pasteurized milk and long shelf-life milk were significantly greater than in Save-A-Tooth (p < or = 0.001). There was no significant difference between regular pasteurized milk and long shelf-life milk at any time period. These results suggest that long shelf-life milk, which has the advantage of not requiring refrigeration, is as effective a storage medium for avulsed teeth as regular pasteurized milk and more effective than Save-A-Tooth. PMID:11471636

Marino, T G; West, L A; Liewehr, F R; Mailhot, J M; Buxton, T B; Runner, R R; McPherson, J C

2000-12-01

17

Determinants of Economic Growth: Will Data Tell?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors inhibiting and facilitating economic growth have been suggested. Will international income data tell which matter when all are treated symmetrically a priori? We find that growth determinants emerging from agnostic Bayesian model averaging and classical model selection procedures are sensitive to income differences across datasets. For example, many of the 1975-1996 growth determinants according to World Bank income

Antonio Ciccone; Marek Jarocinski

2007-01-01

18

The economic viability of commercial wind plants in Greece A complete sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the governing techno-economic parameters on the economic behaviour of commercial wind parks is investigated. For this purpose, a complete cost–benefit analysis model, properly adapted for the Greek market, is developed in order to calculate the pay-back period and the economic efficiency of similar investments in the energy production sector. Moreover, the impact of various parameters — such

J. K. Kaldellis; Th. J. Gavras

2000-01-01

19

Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production  

SciTech Connect

While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

2005-11-30

20

ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF UNDER FLOOR HEATING SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY IN BEIRUT CLIMATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the economic feasibility of the underfloor heating system for the climatic conditions of Beirut. A case study of a typical residential room (150 m 2 ) is selected to compare its heating energy requirement when using either the conventional convective heating system or the underfloor heating system at similar comfort and indoor air quality conditions. Two mathematical

K. Ghali

21

The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.  

PubMed

This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg. PMID:24220544

Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

2014-01-01

22

SocioEconomic Determinants of Abortion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abortion rates are increasing all around the world, especially for young women. Our proposals for public policies to reduce\\u000a unwanted pregnancies are based on an analysis of the socio-economic determinants of abortion rates. Special attention is paid\\u000a to regional levels of alcohol consumption, living conditions, and public spending on health and education. We carry out estimations\\u000a using data on regions

Ana I. Gil-Lacruz; Marta Gil-Lacruz; Estrella Bernal-Cuenca

23

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...oil and gas prices; (2) Real price growth; (3) Real cost growth or decline rate, if any; (4) Base...Range of discount rates; and (6) Tax rate (for use in determining after-tax sunk costs). (b) Analysis of...

2013-07-01

24

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...oil and gas prices; (2) Real price growth; (3) Real cost growth or decline rate, if any; (4) Base...Range of discount rates; and (6) Tax rate (for use in determining after-tax sunk costs). (b) Analysis of...

2011-07-01

25

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...oil and gas prices; (2) Real price growth; (3) Real cost growth or decline rate, if any; (4) Base...Range of discount rates; and (6) Tax rate (for use in determining after-tax sunk costs). (b) Analysis of...

2014-07-01

26

30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...oil and gas prices; (2) Real price growth; (3) Real cost growth or decline rate, if any; (4) Base...Range of discount rates; and (6) Tax rate (for use in determining after-tax sunk costs). (b) Analysis of...

2012-07-01

27

Accurate determination of the vapor-liquid-solid contact line tension and the viability of Young equation  

PubMed Central

In this work, we present a theoretical method to determine the line tension of nanodroplets on homogeneous substrates via decomposing the grand free energy into volume, interface and line contributions. With the obtained line tension, we check the viability of Young equation and find that the chemical potential dependence (or equivalently, droplet curvature dependence) of the interface tensions is crucial for the viability of modified Young equation at the nanometer scale. In particular, the linear relationship between the cosine of contact angle and the curvature of the contact line, which is often used to determine the line tension, is found to be incorrect at the nanometer scale. PMID:23774479

Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren

2013-01-01

28

Trypan blue dye is an effective and inexpensive way to determine the viability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospores.  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in hundreds of amphibian declines and is the focus of a vast amount of research. Despite this, there is no reported efficient way to assess Bd viability. Discriminating between live and dead Bd would help determine the dose of live Bd zoospores and whether factors have lethal or sublethal effects on Bd. We tested whether trypan blue, a common stain to discriminate live and dead cells, could be used to assess Bd viability. We show that the proportion of live zoospores (zoospores that excluded the trypan blue dye) matched the proportion of known live zoospores added to cultures. In contrast, all of the zoosporangia stages of Bd stained blue. These results demonstrate that trypan blue can be used to determine the viability of Bd zoospores but not zoosporangia. We recommend using trypan blue to report the number of live zoospores to which hosts are exposed. PMID:24519684

McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

2014-06-01

29

7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

2010-01-01

30

Bone viability determination in human cancellous bone from patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

In December 2000, Sulzer Orthopedics Inc. announced the recall of specific lots of Inter-Op acetabular components as a result of an adverse tissue response to a contaminant on the porous surface of the component. This study was initiated to assess bone viability surrounding the primary and revision components. Twelve patients were placed on a double-tetracycline labeling protocol before revision surgery. Initial and final acetabular reamings were frozen-sectioned using cryostat technology. A mineral apposition rate, preoperative and postoperative radiographs, and Harris Hip Scores were evaluated. The tetracycline data showed that bone viability was not compromised at initial or final reaming levels in this series of patients. Significant improvement was observed in postoperative Harris Hip Scores when compared with preoperative Harris Hip Scores. PMID:15343535

Bloebaum, Roy D; Ferguson, Ryan P; Neff, Christian M; Van Gorp, Cornell; Woolley, Douglas L; Hofmann, Aaron A

2004-09-01

31

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

32

SPECT imaging for detecting coronary artery disease and determining prognosis by noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion and myocardial viability.  

PubMed

Basic knowledge of active and passive transport mechanisms for concentrating monovalent cations in myocardial cells led to the investigation of the application of radioisotopes of potassium, thallium, rubidium, and ammonia to the in vivo noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial perfusion and viability utilizing gamma camera or positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging technology. Subsequently, technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled isonitriles (sestamibi and tetrofosmin), which bind to mitochondrial membranes, emerged as superior imaging agents with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging. When any of these imaging agents are injected intravenously during either exercise or pharmacologic stress, myocardial defects in tracer uptake represent either abnormal regional flow reserve or myocardial scar reflecting of coronary artery disease (CAD). The major clinical indications for stress SPECT or PET myocardial perfusion imaging are for detection of CAD as the cause of chest pain and risk stratification for prognostication. Patients with normal stress myocardial perfusion scans have an excellent prognosis with <1.0% annual rate future annual death or nonfatal infarction. The greater the extent and severity of ischemic perfusion defects (defects seen on stress images but improve on resting images), the greater the subsequent death or infarction rate during follow-up. Rest imaging alone is performed for determination of myocardial viability in patients with CAD and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Myocardial segments showing >50% uptake compared to normal uptake have a better long-term outcome with revascularization than with medical therapy with enhanced left ventricular function and improved survival. Other applications of SPECT imaging include the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic function, assessment of myocardial metabolism in health and disease, and molecular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial stem cell therapy. PMID:21732226

Beller, George A; Heede, Ruth C

2011-08-01

33

Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

34

Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health.  

PubMed

HEALTH ISSUE: The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. KEY FINDINGS: The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. RECOMMENDATIONS: Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

2004-08-25

35

System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.  

PubMed

Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

2013-05-15

36

Debilitation in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria and Metarhizium anisopliae and implications with respect to viability determinations and mycopesticide quality assessments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Viabilities of entomopathogenic fungal conidia comprising biopesticide products are most commonly determined by suspension of dry conidia from storage in a water/surfactant solution immediately before inoculation onto an agar-based germination substrate; conidia are then incubated at a moderate temp...

37

Rapid Microscopy and Use of Vital Dyes: Potential to Determine Viability of Cryptococcus neoformans in the Clinical Laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptococcus neoformans is the commonest cause of fungal meningitis, with a substantial mortality despite appropriate therapy. Quantitative culture of cryptococci in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during antifungal therapy is of prognostic value and has therapeutic implications, but is slow and not practicable in many resource-poor countries. Methods We piloted two rapid techniques for quantifying viable cryptococci using mixtures of live and heat-killed cryptococci cultured in vitro: (i) quantitative microscopy with exclusion staining using trypan blue dye, and (ii) flow cytometry, using the fluorescent dye 2?-7?-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). Results were compared with standard quantitative cryptococcal cultures. Quantitative microscopy was also performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Results Both microscopy and flow cytometry distinguished between viable and non-viable cryptococci. Cell counting (on log scale) by microscopy and by quantitative culture were significantly linearly associated (p<0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis showed a high level of agreement. Proportions of viable cells (on logit scale), as detected by flow cytometry were significantly linearly associated with proportions detected by microscopy (p<0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis showed a high level of agreement. Conclusions Direct microscopic examination of trypan blue-stained cryptococci and flow-cytometric assessment of BCECF-AM-stained cryptococci were in good agreement with quantitative cultures. These are promising strategies for rapid determination of the viability of cryptococci, and should be investigated in clinical practice. PMID:25625210

McMullan, Brendan J.; Desmarini, Desmarini; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Chen, Sharon C-A.; Roper, Michael; Sorrell, Tania C.

2015-01-01

38

PrestoBlue® and AlamarBlue® are equally useful as agents to determine the viability of Acanthamoeba trophozoites.  

PubMed

Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen which is the causal agent of several human infections such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis, Acanthamoeba keratitis and other disseminated infections. Furthermore, current therapeutic measures against Acanthamoeba infections are arduous, and show limited efficacy against the cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. There is a pressing need to search and evaluate new therapeutic agents against these protozoa. Our approach for evaluating possible new drugs is an initial in vitro screening assay based on general metabolic activity of the cells. In this study we compare two agents, AlamarBlue® and PrestoBlue® for this initial screen. Both reagents can be used to indicate metabolism by changes in their absorbance or fluorescence. The assay is carried out in a 96-well plate format and fluorescence can be measured after an inoculation period of as little as 10min, but more typically 96h. This to the best of our knowledge this is the first time that both compounds are directly compared using absorbance and fluorescence measurement. We conclude that for the specific case of Acanthamoeba both agents AlamarBlue® and PrestoBlue® are equally useful to determine cell viability. PMID:24703973

Martķn-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, Marķa; Cabello-Vķlchez, Alfonso M; Maciver, Sutherland; Valladares, Basilio; Pińero, Jose E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

2014-11-01

39

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

40

Viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008 at different salinity concentrations determined by specific fluorochromes and CLSM-image analysis.  

PubMed

In previous studies, our group developed a method based on Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis (CLSM-IA) to analyze the diversity and biomass of cyanobacteria in microbial mats. However, this method cannot be applied to heterotrophic microorganisms, as these do not have autofluorescence. In this article, we present a method that combines CLSM-IA and Hoechst 33342 and SYTOX Green fluorochromes (FLU-CLSM-IA) to determine the viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008, isolated from a saline microbial mat (Ebro Delta, Tarragona, Spain). The method has been applied to assess the effect of salinity on this microorganism. A reduction in viability and biomass (live cells) was observed as the salt concentration increases. The largest effect was at 100‰ NaCl with a cell death of 27.25% and a decrease in total and individual biomass of 39.75 and 0.009 mgC/cm(3), respectively, both with respect to optimal growth (10 ‰ NaCl). On the other hand, another important contribution of this article was that combining the FLU-CLSM-IA results with those achieved by plate counts enabled us to determine, for first time, the viability and the total biomass of the "dormant cells" (66.75% of viability and 40.59 mgC/cm(3) of total biomass at 100‰ NaCl). FLU-CLSM-IA is an efficient, fast, and reliable method for making a total count of cells at pixel level, including the dormant cells, to evaluate the viability and the biomass of a hetetrophic microorganism, M. luteus DE2008. PMID:22006073

Puyen, Zully M; Villagrasa, Eduard; Maldonado, Juan; Esteve, Isabel; Solé, Antonio

2012-01-01

41

NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

42

Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs  

PubMed Central

Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

2011-01-01

43

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

2010-10-01

44

10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determining the economic interest of the United States. 600...Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. ...company in a covered program would be in the economic interest of the United States...

2010-01-01

45

Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

Ela, E.

2009-02-01

46

30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What pre-application costs will MMS consider in...and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.68 What pre-application costs will MMS consider...

2010-07-01

47

The social and economic context and determinants of schistosomiasis japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of biological and social factors govern schistosomiasis japonica in China. Social factors include those at a national and regional level, such as policies and patterns of development, which impact on local economic activities, and affect community, household and personal risk factors of infection. Drawing on research conducted in China, we illustrate how social structural and related factors influence

Huang Yi-Xin; Lenore Manderson

2005-01-01

48

Economics and the determination of Indian reserved water rights  

SciTech Connect

Economics plays a major role in the historically controversial Indian reserved water rights in which reserved rights differ from appropriated rights because Indian reservations predate other appropriated rights of settlers and miners. Other aspects of Indian reserved rights are their magnitude and their coexistence with the land regardless of use. Court decisions relating to practicably irrigable acres (PIA) are examined in terms of quantification of water rights and ethics. The legal analysis concludes that PIA will probably continue, but needs adjustments to the criteria to make them more strict and more appropriate. 62 references. (DCK)

Brookshire, D.S. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Merrill, J.L.; Watts, G.L.

1983-10-01

49

Appropriate DevR (DosR)-Mediated Signaling Determines Transcriptional Response, Hypoxic Viability and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background The DevR(DosR) regulon is implicated in hypoxic adaptation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study was designed to decipher the impact of perturbation in DevR-mediated signaling on these properties. Methodology/Principal Findings M. tb complemented (Comp) strains expressing different levels of DevR were constructed in Mut1* background (expressing DevR N-terminal domain in fusion with AphI (DevRN-Kan) and in Mut2?devR background (deletion mutant). They were compared for their hypoxia adaptation and virulence properties. Diverse phenotypes were noted; basal level expression (?5.3±2.3 µM) when induced to levels equivalent to WT levels (?25.8±9.3 µM) was associated with robust DevR regulon induction and hypoxic adaptation (Comp 9* and 10*), whereas low-level expression (detectable at transcript level) as in Comp 11* and Comp15 was associated with an adaptation defect. Intermediate-level expression (?3.3±1.2 µM) partially restored hypoxic adaptation functions in Comp2, but not in Comp1* bacteria that co-expressed DevRN-Kan. Comp* strains in Mut1* background also exhibited diverse virulence phenotypes; high/very low-level DevR expression was associated with virulence whereas intermediate-level expression was associated with low virulence. Transcription profiling and gene expression analysis revealed up-regulation of the phosphate starvation response (PSR) in Mut1* and Comp11* bacteria, but not in WT/Mut2?devR/other Comp strains, indicating a plasticity in expression pathways that is determined by the magnitude of signaling perturbation through DevRN-Kan. Conclusions/Significance A minimum DevR concentration of ?3.3±1.2 µM (as in Comp2 bacteria) is required to support HspX expression in the standing culture hypoxia model. The relative intracellular concentrations of DevR and DevRN-Kan appear to be critical for determining dormancy regulon induction, hypoxic adaptation and virulence. Dysregulated DevRN-Kan-mediated signaling selectively triggers the PSR in bacteria expressing no/very low level of DevR. Our findings illustrate the important role of appropriate two-component- mediated signaling in pathogen physiology and the resilience of bacteria when such signaling is perturbed. PMID:22563409

De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Vashist, Atul; Dhingra, Sakshi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Alka; Challu, Vijay K.; Ramanathan, V. D.; Kumar, Prahlad; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2012-01-01

50

Determination of economic production-shipment policy for a single-vendor-single-buyer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of determining economic production and shipment policy of a product supplied by a vendor to a single buyer. The objective is to minimise the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer.

Suresh K. Goyal; Fassil Nebebe

2000-01-01

51

Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were

Vanessa Lemos; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Margarida Alves; Maria Luķsa Lobo; Maria C. Sousa; Francisco Antunes; Olga Matos

2005-01-01

52

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

53

Economic Education in the Middle East: Are the Determinants of Success in Introductory Economics Any Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the determinants of success in introductory microeconomics, in the context of a Middle Eastern society but within an American educational setting. The data set is rich and covers over 3,500 students in one regional campus, allowing control for a wide range of student and class characteristics, one of which, nationality, is…

Kherfi, Samer

2008-01-01

54

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

55

Economics, adoption determinants, and impacts of micro-irrigation technologies: empirical results from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-irrigation technologies are promoted for various reasons in India. Despite the reported significant economic advantages,\\u000a and the concerted support of the government and NGOs, the current micro-irrigation area in India remains an insignificant\\u000a proportion of its potential. This paper analyzes: (1) the economics of alternative micro-irrigation technologies, (2) the\\u000a determinants of adoption, (3) the poverty outreach of the different micro-irrigation

R. E. Namara; R. K. Nagar; B. Upadhyay

2007-01-01

56

APPLICATION OF PROBABILISTIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AN ECONOMICALLY ROBUST HSCT CONFIGURATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an approach for the determination of economically viable robust design solutions using the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) as a case study. Furthermore, the paper states the advantages of a probability based aircraft design over the traditional point design approach. It also proposes a new methodology called Robust Design Simulation (RDS) which treats customer satisfaction as the

Dimitri N. Mavris; Daniel P. Schrage

1996-01-01

57

Political and economic determinants of budget deficits in the industrial democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the large deficits in many OECD countries in recent years, and the resulting sharp rise in the public debt, it is important to determine the economic and political forces leading to such large deficits. We lind only partial support for the 'equilibrium approach to liscal policy', which assumes that tax rates are set over time in order to minimize

Nouriel Roubini; Jeffrey D. Sachs

1989-01-01

58

Economic inequality in eye care utilization and its determinants: a Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition  

PubMed Central

Background: The current study aimed to determine eye care utilization, to assess the role of economic inequality in the utilization of eye care services, and to identify its determinants in Shahroud, North of Iran. Methods: Of the 6,311 invited people, 5,190 (82.24%) individuals aged 40 to 64 years old participated in the study. A history of a visit by an ophthalmologist or optometrist was considered as eye care utilization. The gap between low- and high-economic groups was decomposed into its determinants using the Oaxaca decomposition method. Results: Among the participants, 16.32% [95% Confidence Intervals (CI)= 15.31–17.33%] had never been examined by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, and 30.94% (95% CI= 29.69–32.20%) had not undergone an eye examination in the past 5 years. This negative history was significantly higher among female subjects [Odds Ratio (OR)= 1.79, 95% CI= 1.51–2.14], the low-economic group (OR= 2.33, 95% CI= 1.90–2.87), the visually impaired (OR= 1.41, 95% CI= 1.05–1.90), and the uninsured (OR= 1.93, 95% CI= 1.45–2.58). The negative history of eye examination decreased with increasing in age (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.93–0.96) and education (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.92–0.96). In this study, 24.72% (95% CI= 22.30–27.14) of the low-economic group and 9.94% (95% CI= 8.75–11.14) of the high-economic group had no history of eye examination. Decomposition of the gap between the two economic groups showed that education and gender were the most important determinants of inequality. Conclusion: A considerable percentage of adults, even those with visual impairment, do not receive appropriate eye care. There is a definite economic inequality in the community for which poverty per se could be the major cause. PMID:25396206

Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Shariati, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

2014-01-01

59

Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients undergoing viability assessment. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities. After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies that can be used for the assessment of myocardial viability: positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, dobutamine echocardiography, and dobutamine echocardiography with contrast, and single photon emission computed tomography. A 2005 review conducted by MAS determined that positron emission tomography was more sensitivity than dobutamine echocardiography and single photon emission tomography and dominated the other imaging modalities from a cost-effective standpoint. However, there was inadequate evidence to compare positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, this report focuses on this comparison only. For both technologies, an economic analysis was also completed. The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Objective The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and safety of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of FDG PET viability imaging, the following outcomes are examined: the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for predicting functional recovery; the impact of PET viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes); and the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD)1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option, revascularization, is used to restore the flow of blood t

2010-01-01

60

Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management  

SciTech Connect

Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users' self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A generic case study models collective action and funding in wastewater management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determinants of success: economic assessment, funding policy and self-organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success indicators: conflict rate, funds needed to make cost shares fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for analyzing centralized vs. decentralized disputes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If collective action has less benefits, innovative cost sharing may ensure success.

Brunner, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.brunner@cemds.org [Center for Environmental Management and Decision Support, Gregor Mendel Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Starkl, Markus, E-mail: markus.starkl@boku.ac.at [Competence Centre for Decision-Aid in Environmental Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences/DIB, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, 1180 Wien (Austria)

2012-01-15

61

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia  

E-print Network

's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

62

CYTOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia lamblia is the most common human intestinal protozoan parasite reported in the United States and England. The objective of the study was to develop a practical, reliable, rapid, microscopically-read method, comparable to excystation for determining the viability of Giardi...

63

Analysis of economic determinants of fertility in Iran: a multilevel approach  

PubMed Central

Background: During the last three decades, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Iran has fallen considerably; from 6.5 per woman in 1983 to 1.89 in 2010. This paper analyzes the extent to which economic determinants at the micro and macro levels are associated with the number of children in Iranian households. Methods: Household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) is linked to provincial data from the 2010 Iran Multiple-Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS), the National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011, and the 1985–2010 Iran statistical year books. Fertility is measured as the number of children in each household. A random intercept multilevel Poisson regression function is specified based on a collective model of intra-household bargaining power to investigate potential determinants of the number of children in Iranian households. Results: Ceteris paribus (other things being equal), probability of having more children drops significantly as either real per capita educational expenditure or real total expenditure of each household increase. Both the low- and the high-income households show probabilities of having more children compared to the middle-income households. Living in provinces with either higher average amount of value added of manufacturing establishments or lower average rate of house rent is associated to higher probability of having larger number of children. Higher levels of gender gap indices, resulting in household’s wife’s limited power over household decision-making, positively affect the probability of having more children. Conclusion: Economic determinants at the micro and macro levels, distribution of intra-household bargaining power between spouses and demographic covariates determined fertility behavior of Iranian households. PMID:25197678

Moeeni, Maryam; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Torabi, Fatemeh; Heydari, Hassan; Mahmoudi, Mahmood

2014-01-01

64

Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural extent of hyperenhancement was significantly related to the likelihood of improvement in contractility after revascularization. However, the LVEF in the patient population was 43% prior to revascularization. It is important to know whether the technique has the same degree of accuracy in patients who have more severe LV dysfunction and who would most benefit from an assessment of myocardial viability. “Substantial” viability used as a measure of a patient’s ability to recover after revascularization has not been definitively reported (how much viability is enough?). Patients with severe LV dysfunction are more likely to have mixtures of surviving myocardium, including normal, infarcted, stunned and hibernating myocardium (Cowley et al., 1999). This may lead to a lack of homogeneity of response to testing and to revascularization and contribute to inter- and intra-study differences. There is a need for a large prospective study with adequate follow-up time for patients with CAD and LV dysfunction (LVEF<35%) comparing MRI and an alternate imaging technique. There is some evidence that MRI has comparable sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to PET for determining myocardial viability. However, there is a lack of evidence comparing the accuracy of these two techniques to predict LV function recovery. In addition, some studies refer to PET as the gold standard for the assessment of myocardial viability. Therefore, PET may be an ideal noninvasive imaging comparator to MRI for a prospective study with follow-up. To date, there is a lack of cost-effectiveness analyses (or any economic analyses) of functional cardiac MRI versus an alternate noninvasive imaging method for the assessment of myocardial viability/perfusion. Conclusion There is some evidence that the accuracy of functional cardiac MRI compares favourably with alternate imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. There is insufficient evidence whether functional cardiac MRI can better select which patients [who have CAD and severe LV dysfuncti

2003-01-01

65

Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.  

PubMed

The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures, experience and economic factors are significantly influencing behaviour (overall explaining 64% of the variance in behaviour). Three other models were run for the individual regions (England, Scotland and Wales). A smaller number of variables were included in each model to account for the smaller sample sizes. Results show lower but still high levels of variance explained for the individual models (about 40% for each country). The individual models' results are consistent with those of the total sample model. The results might suggest that ways to achieve behavioural change could include ensuring increased access of farmers to biosecurity information and advice sources. PMID:23194894

Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siān; Gunn, George J

2013-03-01

66

Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis.  

PubMed

The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used as an estimate of cellular activity. The state of cellular viability may be measured by the release of an enzyme such as lactate dehydrogenase or more directly from the intracellular adenylate energy charge from cell lysates. Alternatively, radioactive techniques may be used for an accurate determination of cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24297416

Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin

2014-01-01

67

Socio-Economic and Nutritional Determinants of Low Birth Weight in India  

PubMed Central

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years) who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included in this study. Infant's LBW (<2500 grams) as outcome variable was examined in association with all independent predictors as infant's sex, maternal household wealth status, caste, age, education, body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia level, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, antenatal care received, and living place. Results: Almost 20% of the infants were born with LBW. Mother's low education level, BMI <18.5, short stature (height <145 centimeters) and lack of antenatal visits (<4 visits) were significant predictors of LBW. Male gender has a protective effect against LBW. Conclusion: Maternal education, nutritional status and antenatal care received are key determinants that need to be addressed to reduce prevalence of LBW in India. Continue implementation of multifaceted health promotion interventions are needed to address these factors effectively. PMID:25077077

Kader, Manzur; Perera, Nirmala K P Perera

2014-01-01

68

Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country. PMID:24596838

Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

2013-01-01

69

Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.  

PubMed

Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

2014-05-01

70

Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Methods A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. Conclusions When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for, precipitation and temperature in the months prior to the malaria season of interest are found to significantly determine spatial and temporal variations of malaria incidence. Climate information was found to improve the estimation of malaria relative risk in 41% of the districts in Malawi, particularly at higher altitudes where transmission is irregular. This highlights the potential value of climate-driven seasonal malaria forecasts. PMID:24228784

2013-01-01

71

Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

72

Application of Probabilistic Methods for the Determination of an Economically Robust HSCT Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines an approach for the determination of economically viable robust design solutions using the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) as a case study. Furthermore, the paper states the advantages of a probability based aircraft design over the traditional point design approach. It also proposes a new methodology called Robust Design Simulation (RDS) which treats customer satisfaction as the ultimate design objective. RDS is based on a probabilistic approach to aerospace systems design, which views the chosen objective as a distribution function introduced by so called noise or uncertainty variables. Since the designer has no control over these variables, a variability distribution is defined for each one of them. The cumulative effect of all these distributions causes the overall variability of the objective function. For cases where the selected objective function depends heavily on these noise variables, it may be desirable to obtain a design solution that minimizes this dependence. The paper outlines a step by step approach on how to achieve such a solution for the HSCT case study and introduces an evaluation criterion which guarantees the highest customer satisfaction. This customer satisfaction is expressed by the probability of achieving objective function values less than a desired target value.

Mavris, Dimitri N.; Bandte, Oliver; Schrage, Daniel P.

1996-01-01

73

Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

Oketch, Moses O.

2006-01-01

74

Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techniques. Plating methods provide information about cell viability, but are generally laborious and time-consuming.

L. G. Chitarra

2001-01-01

75

Economic and technical feasibility of utilizing fish waste as organic nutrients for farm/horticultural use. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study to determine the technical and economic viability of utilizing fish wastes and other organic residues as organic peat nutrients for agriculture/horticulture applications are presented. The project tasks included: (1) Reputable analysis of the waste products to determine the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash as well as trace elements; (2) Technical feasibility of reducing these organic wastes into nutrients, valuable and assimilable by agricultural or horticultural crops or as a high protein animal feed; and (3) The economic viability of commercializing, manufacturing, and marketing these waste products as a specialty plant growth substance/high protein feed supplement.

Gargasz, R.E.; Pye, E.K.

1985-01-01

76

Coal-fueled diesel locomotive economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial effort in determining the eonomic viability of a coal-fueled diesel locomotive for the time period 1995 to 2010. The criteria used for determining the economic viability of a coal-fueled diesel is the internal rate of return on investment (IRR). The coal-fueled diesel locomotive is compared to a baseline petroleum-fueled diesel. The coal-fueled diesel locomotive is still very much conceptual, therefore many assumptions are made with regard to cost, operating procedure, fuel form, fuel cost, maintenance, etc. The assumptions are discussed and the spreadsheet calculation procedure used for determining the IRR is presented. Conclusions based on the assumptions and calculations are given.

Not Available

1986-10-01

77

Understanding socio-economic determinants of childhood mortality: a retrospective analysis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a view of suggesting strategies for reducing childhood mortality. Methods We compared the childhood mortalities and their average annual reduction rate (AARR) of Teso sub-region with those of Uganda for the period 1959 to 1969. We also compared indicators of social economic well being (such as livestock per capita and per capita intake of protein/energy). In addition data was compared on other important determinants of child survival such as level of education and rate of urbanisation. Findings In 1969 the infant mortality rate (IMR) for Teso was 94 per 1000 live births compared to the 120 for Uganda. Between 1959 and 1969 the AARR for IMR for Teso was 4.57% compared to 3% for Uganda. It was interesting that the AARR for Teso was higher than that that of 4.4.% required to achieve millennium development goal number four (MDG4). The rate of urbanisation and the level of education were higher in Uganda compared to Teso during the same period. Teso had a per capita ownership of cattle of 1.12 compared to Uganda's 0.44. Teso sub region had about 3 times the amount of protein and about 2 times the amount of calories compared to Uganda. Conclusions We surmise that higher ownership of cattle and growing of high protein and energy foods might have been responsible for better childhood survival in Teso compared to Uganda. PMID:22070908

2011-01-01

78

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco(13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed. PMID:18254981

Alam, Ali Yawar; Iqbal, Azhar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Laporte, Ronald E; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Nishtar, Sania

2008-01-01

79

The Changing Economic Status of Disabled Women, 1982–1991: Trends and Their Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an assessment of the intertemporal economic well-being of a representative sample of women who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) in 1980–81. We compare their economic circumstances over the 1982–1991 period with those of disabled men who also began receiving SSDI in those years and with those of a matched sample of nondisabled women who had

Robert Haveman; Karen Holden; Barbara Wolfe; Paul Smith; K. Wilson

80

Gender and viability selection on morphology in fledgling pied flycatchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, analyses of gender-dependent differences in viability selection and the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism have been plagued by difficulties in determining the sex of nestling birds on the basis of morphology. Recently, this problem was overcome using molecular sex identification to report for the first time body-size-mediated anta- gonistic selection on the viability of male and female collared

J. Potti; J. A. Davila; J. L. Tella; O. Frias; S. Villar

2002-01-01

81

Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.  

PubMed

The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

Kabir, Zubair

2003-07-01

82

Assessment of Campus Viability. Report of the Viability Study Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a format for evaluating the viability of individual campuses in the Pennsylvania State University System (PSUS) including criteria and a process to apply them. A viable campus is defined as having a clear mission with a demonstrable agreement among administrative and faculty visions, having adequate resources, involving the…

Pennsylvania State Univ., Allentown.

83

An economic spreadsheet model to determine optimal breeding and replacement decisions for dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe a user-friendly spreadsheet culling model that was constructed to support economical, optimal breeding and replacement decisions on dairy farms. The model was based on the marginal net revenue technique. Inputs for the model can be entered for specific farm conditions, and the output is easily accessible. In the model, the retention pay-off

H. Groenendaal; D. T. Galligan; H. A. Mulder

2004-01-01

84

A Systematic Approach to Determine Economic Potential and Environmental Impact of Biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated biorefinery has the potential to provide a strong, self-dependent alternative to the use of fossil fuels for the production of chemicals and energy, but difficulties arise in measuring the potential economic and environmental benefit of the biorefinery. A myriad of products and production pathways are possible in this growing field of biorefining, and the production path with maximum

Norman Sammons; Wei Yuan; Susilpa Bommareddy; Mario Eden; Burak Aksoy; Harry Cullinan

2009-01-01

85

An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

2007-01-01

86

Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the

Lucas Beck; Thomas Bernauer; Anna Kalbhenn

2010-01-01

87

Determining the economic liability of implementing irrigation on small-scale farming systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small, limited resource farmers are often the primary providers of fresh foods for rural communities. However, they face often insurmountable economic challenges to staying in business. The small and limited resource farmer has declined at an alarming rate. The reasons for the decline or disappearan...

88

DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED FOR A PROPOSED INVESTMENT IN NEW MANUFACTURING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a measure for estimating the wealth creation potential of capital investments in manufacturing. The measure, called “Economic Value Added,” has recently become popular in the United States and can be derived from an after-tax analysis of cash flows generated by a capital investment. A proposed investment in manufacturing capacity is analyzed to illustrate the after-tax cash flow

WILLIAM G. SULLIVAN; KIM LASCOLA NEEDY

2000-01-01

89

The theory of economic regulation and public choice and the determinants of public sector bargaining legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used the theory of economic regulation and public choice to derive a model to explain the pattern of public sector bargaining laws among the states. We find this type of legislation is influenced by the following demand factors: (1) the extent of public sector union membership, which represents the interest group hypothesis, has a positive influence

Melissa Waters; William J. Moore

1990-01-01

90

Economic development as a determinant of injury mortality - a longitudinal approach.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have produced clear inverted U-shaped curves between injury mortality and economic development; yet, this does not mean that single countries will necessarily follow similar curves as they grow richer over time. This study was conducted to examine whether previous cross-sectional findings can be verified using a longitudinal approach. Data for both injury mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita were obtained from an official health database for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for the period of 1960-1999. Regression models were then used to examine the longitudinal relationship between these two variables. Substantial improvements in injury mortality were observed in all income categories in the selected countries. For higher and middle high-income countries, injury mortality rates (all causes) increased until 1972, peaking in 1972 and then declining. For industrialized countries with relatively low GDP, injury mortality rates increased until 1977 and then declined. Using cubic regression lines for injury mortality rates, for all income categories, injury mortality rates increased up to a GDP per capita of USD 3,000-USD 4,000, then decreased significantly. The rising trends of suicide and homicide rates were observed until countries attained a GDP per capita of around USD 13,000-USD 14,000 for all income categories. It is noteworthy that compared to the intentional injury categories, mortality due to road traffic accidents and injuries from falls declined earlier on in the economic development process. Longitudinal analysis among high-income countries confirms earlier cross-sectional findings; that is, most injury categories seem to follow inverted U-shaped trend lines, with declining trends after peaking at various stages of temporal and economical development. A comparison between time and economy suggests that differences in peaking time between countries for the same injury category is partly a reflection of temporal differences in economic development. PMID:18308440

Moniruzzaman, Syed; Andersson, Ragnar

2008-04-01

91

The Validity of Economic Value Added as a Metric for Determining Intrinsic Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic Value Added has been discussed as a financial metric since its creation by Stern Stewart & Co. in the 1980s. Closely tied to value investing, which was pioneered by Benjamin Graham in the late 1920s and early 1930s, E.V.A. has been applied both as a tool for valuation by investors and as a tool for managers to measure the

Brad Wilson

2008-01-01

92

Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

2010-11-01

93

Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service  

SciTech Connect

Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

2010-10-11

94

Technique to determine contamination exposure routes and the economic efficiency of folded paper-towel dispensing.  

PubMed

Handwashing and hand drying are key elements of infection control. Paper towels are generally accepted as the most hygienic means of drying hands and are often distributed from generic dispensers. Effective dispensing of towels is of importance economically and may influence infection control objectives if hands become contaminated during hand drying. In this study, a method to identify potential exposure routes for hand contamination and evaluate the efficiency of paper-towel dispensing is described and applied to 5 different folded paper towels using a generic wall-mounted dispenser. A total of 18 male and female participants of varying heights participated in pull testing of 400 paper towels each, in controlled hand-drying simulations. All events having the potential for hand contamination, including towel jamming, towels falling onto the floor, and incidental contact of paper exits, were monitored and documented. There was considerable variation in dispensing efficiency between different towel brands. One towel (Z) had significantly (P <.05) superior dispensing properties from the generic dispenser. Participants of a shorter height obtained a lower incidence of dispensing malfunctions using all towel products and type. The results indicated likely contamination exposure routes and wastage levels for each towel type. Environmental service managers and infection control practitioners should carefully consider, for economic and infection control reasons, the siting and design of towel dispensers and the types of towel purchased. PMID:12665744

Harrison, Wendy A; Griffith, Christopher J; Michaels, Barry; Ayers, Troy

2003-04-01

95

Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.  

SciTech Connect

This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

2005-12-01

96

Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and EconomicGrowth, Volume 22 Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional Economies: Determinants and  

E-print Network

Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional Economies: Determinants and Policy Implications Chapter 9Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and EconomicGrowth, Volume 22-4Sep2012 Author manuscript, published in "Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional

Boyer, Edmond

97

A metasynthesis of qualitative studies regarding opinions and perceptions about barriers and determinants of health services’ accessibility in economic migrants  

PubMed Central

Background Access to health services is an important health determinant. New research in health equity is required, especially amongst economic migrants from developing countries. Studies conducted on the use of health services by migrant populations highlight existing gaps in understanding which factors affect access to these services from a qualitative perspective. We aim to describe the views of the migrants regarding barriers and determinants of access to health services in the international literature (1997–2011). Methods A systematic review was conducted for Qualitative research papers (English/Spanish) published in 13 electronic databases. A selection of articles that accomplished the inclusion criteria and a quality evaluation of the studies were carried out. The findings of the selected studies were synthesised by means of metasynthesis using different analysis categories according to Andersen’s conceptual framework of access and use of health services and by incorporating other emergent categories. Results We located 3,025 titles, 36 studies achieved the inclusion criteria. After quality evaluation, 28 articles were definitively synthesised. 12 studies (46.2%) were carried out in the U.S and 11 studies (42.3%) dealt with primary care services. The participating population varied depending mainly on type of host country. Barriers were described, such as the lack of communication between health services providers and migrants, due to idiomatic difficulties and cultural differences. Other barriers were linked to the economic system, the health service characteristics and the legislation in each country. This situation has consequences for the lack of health control by migrants and their social vulnerability. Conclusions Economic migrants faced individual and structural barriers to the health services in host countries, especially those with undocumented situation and those experimented idiomatic difficulties. Strategies to improve the structures of health systems and social policies are needed. PMID:23245431

2012-01-01

98

Viability and maturation of Aphanomyces cochlioides oospores.  

PubMed

Plasmolysis, tetrazolium bromide staining and microscopic appearance were tested for their usefulness in determining viability of oospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides. For comparison, three lethal treatments were employed to contrast the reaction of dead oospores and untreated, presumably viable oospores. Few oospores stained with tetrazolium bromide, even though plasmolysis and microscopic appearance indicated that 85% were viable. Cytoplasm of viable oospores was densely organized and uniformly granular (DOUG), whereas cytoplasm of oospores exposed to lethal treatments was loosely organized and non-uniformly granular (LONG). Dose-response bioassay experiments were conducted with untreated oospores of varying inoculum densities or with mixtures of untreated DOUG and heat-treated LONG oospores in varying proportions. The number of DOUG oospores was correlated (R(2) = 0.62, P < 0.001) with severity of damping-off of sugar beet seedlings caused by A. cochlioides. Thus, the granular appearance of cytoplasm offered a fast, easy and reliable indicator of viability of A. cochlioides oospores. Tests with newly formed oospores/oogonia showed that >80% harvested at 3-4 d after inoculation of hypocotyls stained with tetrazolium, but by 8-9 d <10% stained, apparently because of declining permeability of the spore wall to tetrazolium as oospores matured. PMID:21156618

Dyer, Alan T; Windels, Carol E

2003-01-01

99

Socio-economic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in rural northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of global decline in under-five mortality, the goal of achieving MDG 4 still remains largely unattained in low and middle income countries as the year 2015 closes-in. To accelerate the pace of mortality decline, proven interventions with high impact need to be implemented to help achieve the goal of drastically reducing childhood mortality. This paper explores the association between socio-economic and demographic factors and under-five mortality in an impoverished region in rural northern Ghana. Methods We used survey data on 3975 women aged 15–49 who have ever given birth. First, chi-square test was used to test the association of social, economic and demographic characteristics of mothers with the experience of under-five death. Subsequently, we ran a logistic regression model to estimate the relative association of factors that influence childhood mortality after excluding variables that were not significant at the bivariate level. Results Factors that significantly predict under-five mortality included mothers’ educational level, presence of co-wives, age and marital status. Mothers who have achieved primary or junior high school education were 45% less likely to experience under-five death than mothers with no formal education at all (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001). Monogamous women were 22% less likely to experience under-five deaths than mothers in polygamous marriages (OR = 0.78, p = 0.01). Similarly, mothers who were between the ages of 35 and 49 were about eleven times more likely to experience under-five deaths than those below the age of 20 years (OR = 11.44, p < 0.001). Also, women who were married had a 27% less likelihood (OR = 0.73, p = 0.01) of experiencing an under-five death than those who were single, divorced or widowed. Conclusion Taken independently, maternal education, age, marital status and presence of co-wives are associated with childhood mortality. The relationship of these indicators with women’s autonomy, health seeking behavior, and other factors that affect child survival merit further investigation so that interventions could be designed to foster reductions in child mortality by considering the needs and welfare of women including the need for female education, autonomy and socioeconomic well-being. PMID:25145383

2014-01-01

100

Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities. PMID:24991410

2014-01-01

101

Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become

Matthew D. W. Schneider; Nancy B. Valentine; Timothy J. Johnson

2011-01-01

102

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education. PMID:21492493

Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari

2011-10-01

103

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

104

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

105

Economic viability of a commingled/backgrounded cattle sale  

E-print Network

e TX Combined Avara e San Saba Wgt Avg Head Pnce 50 96 97 93 IO $95 50 $98 50 $92 71 $88 38 $78 94 $72 00 $88, 19 $102 89 $101 49 $97 16 $93 15 $87 73 $66 04 $83 04 $83 29 $80 57 $78 Zo $77 88 $73 22 $73 64 September... Pnce Avera e December 14 2000 TX Combined Avara e 60 14 15 35 $97 00 $87 25 $88 88 sse25 $80 75 $91 37 Sl lg 13 $11285 $109 13 $107 81 $98OB $94 90 $89 78 $90 18 $84 61 $84 05 $78 82 $77 00 $77 67 San Saba Wgt. Avg Head...

Schulte, Jaret Roy

2001-01-01

106

Economic viability of solar home systems: Case study of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh is richly endowed with solar energy. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) system seems to be an appropriate form of renewable energy despite the monsoon type of climate in Bangladesh. The most attractive use of solar home system (SHS) in Bangladesh is the lighting system. People in rural Bangladesh predominantly use kerosene oil based lamps for illuminating their homes at night. Dry

2010-01-01

107

Comparison of Cryptosporidium parvum Viability and Infectivity Assays following Ozone Treatment of Oocysts  

PubMed Central

Several in vitro surrogates have been developed as convenient, user-friendly alternatives to mouse infectivity assays for determining the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Such viability assays have been used increasingly to determine oocyst inactivation following treatment with chemical, physical, or environmental stresses. Defining the relationship between in vitro viability assays and oocyst infectivity in susceptible hosts is critical for determining the significance of existing oocyst inactivation data for these in vitro assays and their suitability in future studies. In this study, four viability assays were compared with mouse infectivity assays, using neonatal CD-1 mice. Studies were conducted in the United States and United Kingdom using fresh (<1 month) or environmentally aged (3 months at 4°C) oocysts, which were partially inactivated by ozonation before viability and/or infectivity analyses. High levels of variability were noted within and between the viability and infectivity assays in the U.S. and United Kingdom studies despite rigorous control over oocyst conditions and disinfection experiments. Based on the viability analysis of oocyst subsamples from each ozonation experiment, SYTO-59 assays demonstrated minimal change in oocyst viability, whereas 4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole–propidium iodide assays, in vitro excystation, and SYTO-9 assays showed a marginal reduction in oocyst viability. In contrast, the neonatal mouse infectivity assay demonstrated significantly higher levels of oocyst inactivation in the U.S. and United Kingdom experiments. These comparisons illustrate that four in vitro viability assays cannot be used to reliably predict oocyst inactivation following treatment with low levels of ozone. Neonatal mouse infectivity assays should continue to be regarded as a “gold standard” until suitable alternative viability surrogates are identified for disinfection studies. PMID:10877794

Bukhari, Z.; Marshall, M. M.; Korich, D. G.; Fricker, C. R.; Smith, H. V.; Rosen, J.; Clancy, J. L.

2000-01-01

108

ECONOMICS OF HERBICIDE CONTROL OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), a widely established exotic, noxious, perennial weed, is a major threat to the viability of commercial grazing and to beneficial outputs of wildlands in the Upper Great Plains. Herbicide treatments are often recommended based upon measures of physical control rather than on economic criteria. A deterministic, bioeconomic model was developed to evaluate the economic viability

Dean A. Bangsund; Jay A. Leitch; F. Larry Leistritz

1996-01-01

109

Luminescent multiplex viability assay for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense  

PubMed Central

Background New compounds for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are urgently required. Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense is the leading cause of HAT, yet T.b. gambiense is often not the prime target organism in drug discovery. This may be attributed to the difficulties in handling this subspecies and the lack of an efficient viability assay to monitor drug efficacy. Methods In this study, a T.b. gambiense strain, recently isolated in the D.R. Congo, was made bioluminescent by transfection with Renilla luciferase (RLuc) without altering its in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics. A luminescent multiplex viability assay (LMVA), based on measurement of the Renilla luciferase activity and the ATP content of the cells within the same experiment, was investigated as an alternative to the standard fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of T.b. gambiense. Results In a 96-well format, the RLuc transfected strain showed a detection limit of 2 × 104 cells ml-1 for the Renilla luciferase measurement and 5 × 103 cells ml-1 for the ATP measurement. Both assays of the LMVA showed linearity up to 106 cells ml-1 and correlated well with the cell density during exponential growth of the long slender bloodstream forms. The LMVA was compared to the fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of pentamidine, eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol with both the wild type and the RLuc transfected population. For each drug, the IC50 value of the RLuc population was similar to that of the wild type when determined with either the fluorimetric resazurin method or the LMVA. For eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol we found no difference between the IC50 values in both viability assays. In contrast, the IC50 value of pentamidine was higher when determined with the fluorimetric resazurin method than in both assays of the LMVA. Conclusions LMVA has some advantages for viability measurement of T.b. gambiense: it requires less incubation time for viability detection than the fluorimetric resazurin assay and in LMVA, two sensitive and independent viability assays are performed in the same experiment. PMID:23856321

2013-01-01

110

Ecological economics and economic growth.  

PubMed

Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain. PMID:20146773

Victor, Peter A

2010-01-01

111

Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

1982-01-01

112

Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

Gernot Klantschnig

2003-01-01

113

Factors which can influence the quality related to cell viability of the umbilical cord blood units.  

PubMed

Cell viability is an important indicator for the quality of umbilical cord blood (UCB) units that can influence the transplant final outcome. Thus, it is particularly important to identify the factors that may affect the cell quality during the banking process. The present study is a first attempt to correlate the impact of exogenous factors (time from collection to processing, collected UCB volume) and endogenous factors (TNCC - total nucleated cell count, CD34(+)cell count) on cell viability assessed before UCB units cryopreservation within a banking standardized process. Three thousand UCB units collected in 35?ml CPDA containing bags were processed by HES sedimentation within 48 h. TNCC, CD34(+) cell counts and total cell viability were determined after processing. Cell viability of 94.37?±?4.67%, TNCC of 73.17?±?36.73?×?10(7) and CD34(+)cell count of 2.61?±?2.29?×?10(6) was obtained after processing of units with UCB collected volume of 80.23?±?28.52?ml. A significant negative correlation was found between cell viability and the time from collection to processing (r?=?-0.7228; P?viability decreasing rate of 20.54%, 15.18% and 3-10% were achieved for units with collected UCB volume <40?ml, (40-80?ml) and >80?ml, to 48?h versus 12?h. There were no differences considering cell viability for the UCB units with similar collected UCB volume that had various CD34(+)cell count or TNCC (P?>?0.05). The extension of the time from collection to processing of UCB units can reduce the quality by decreasing cell viability. The cell viability decreasing rate owing to the time influence is determined by the collected UCB volume being inversely proportional to it. Endogenous factors do not affect the cell viability. PMID:25219638

Dulugiac, Magda; Horeanga, Ionela; Torcatoru, Andrei; Bardas, Alexandru; Matei, Georgiana; Zarnescu, Otilia

2014-12-01

114

Insecticide Resistance and Malaria Vector Control: The Importance of Fitness Cost Mechanisms in Determining Economically Optimal Control Trajectories  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of knowing whether insecticide resistance mutations involve fitness costs. Using a theoretical model, this article investigates economically optimal strategies for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes when there is the potential for mosquitoes to evolve resistance to insecticides. Consistent with previous literature, we find that fitness costs are a key element in the computation of economically optimal resistance management strategies. Additionally, our models indicate that different biological mechanisms underlying these fitness costs (e.g., increased adult mortality and/or decreased fecundity) can significantly alter economically optimal resistance management strategies. PMID:23448053

Brown, Zachary S.; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Kramer, Randall A.

2014-01-01

115

Modeling the determinants of industry political power: industry winners in the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981  

E-print Network

, supporting a combined model. Strong PAC contributions, number of registered lobbyists, and outside lobby firms in association with a strong federal relationship, and either total economic strength or strong inter-industry relations produced the specific...

Kardell, Amy Louise

2004-09-30

116

Historical notes on immaturity. Part 1: measures of viability.  

PubMed

The interest in the limit of viability originated from various sources, including legal requirements, the rejection of mechnical life support, competition for resources, concerns about handicaps, and proximity to the fetus with its limited rights. Gestational age was determined from menstrual history by Hippocratic writers, who established the tenacious idea that 7-, but not 8-month infants could survive. Naegele's rule, already published by Boerhaave in 1744, was correct when applied to the last day of menstruation. Birth weight and length were not measured until the end of the 18(th) century. This remarkable disinterest resulted from superstition, grossly inaccurate measurements by the authorities Mauriceau and Smellie, and the conversion chaos of the pre-metric era. A table is provided with historic mass and length units allowing to determine birth weight and body length in the older literature. The idea of viability is a remnant of vitalism, a medical doctrine popularized in 1780 by Brown. Many short-lived statements defined its limit, but until now what was meant by viability remained nebulous. PMID:21726180

Obladen, Michael

2011-09-01

117

Economics of Distance Education Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Gartner a certain hype of e-Learning was followed by a downturn but eLearning will continue to be an important factor in learning scenarios. However the economic viability of e-learning projects will be questioned with more scrutiny than in earlier periods. Therefore it seems to be a good opportunity to see what can be learned from…

Laaser, Wolfram

2008-01-01

118

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-06-01

119

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-02-01

120

Viabilities of Third Chromosomes of DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA Differing in Relative Competitive Fitness  

PubMed Central

Arrowhead (AR) third chromosome arrangements of Drosophila pseudoobscura, whose competitive fitnesses had been determined in population cages, were tested for their genetic loads in homozygous, heterozygous (homokaryotypic), and heterokaryotypic (AR/CH) combinations. The results showed that their competitive population cage performances were correlated to their viabilities as homozygotes but were not correlated to their viabilities as heterozygotes or as heterokaryotypes. However, the results do not fit in too simply with the mutational model of population structure, since the improvement of homozygous viability with increased competitive fitness was not accompanied by a significant degree of dominance as measured by the regression of viabilities of heterozygotes on homozygotes. Only the AR chromosomes derived from the population with poorest competitive fitness showed marked partial dominance (h=.35). The viabilities of heterokaryotypes were markedly uniform for all chromosomes tested and produced significantly greater numbers of flies per culture than the homokaryotypes. In general, the results show that the ranking of relative competitive fitnesses of these chromosomes is not a simple extrapolation of their viabilities, although marked changes in the populations tested have occurred. It is proposed that the differences in competitive fitness, homozygous viability, and degree of dominance observed among these chromosomes, arise from differences in genetic variability which enable different linkage relationships to be established for genes affecting these attributes. PMID:4652876

Strickberger, Monroe W.

1972-01-01

121

Effect of relative humidity on viability of primary conidia of Zoophthora radicans.  

PubMed

Four isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Zoophthora radicans were compared in a laboratory study to evaluate the effect of relative humidity (RH) on duration of primary conidial viability. Primary conidia were showered onto agar-coated glass microscope slides within an enclosed chamber equilibrated to one of five test RH levels (60, 75, 80, 95, or 100%). Target RH levels were achieved by recirculating air through a glycerin/water solution, of controlled specific gravity, contained in a reservoir within the chamber. Conidial samples of each isolate incubated for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, or 240 min at each RH were removed and inspected using a technique of simultaneous vital fluorochrome staining to determine percentage conidial viability. At 60% RH, isolates did not differ significantly and average viability dropped to less than 10% within the first 60 min. At 75% RH, viability did not change significantly over 4 h. However, average viabilities at 75% RH differed significantly for the four isolates and ranged from 24 to 63%. At 80% RH, viability differed significantly among isolates and declined slowly over time, remaining above 80% for 2 h and above 50% for 4 h. At 95 and 100% RH, average viability was near 95% and did not vary significantly with time or isolate. These data can be used to assist selection of appropriate isolates for biological control. PMID:10222187

Griggs, M H; Vandenberg, J D; Sawyer, A J

1999-05-01

122

Viability of cartilage grafts in various forms.  

PubMed

The viability of cartilage grafts, in many forms, has been researched since the using of cartilage grafts in surgical procedures. Cryopreservation period and viability of cartilage grafts have remained unclear. This study was performed to investigate the durability, viability, and behavior of fresh or cryopreserved cartilage grafts when used as autografts or allografts in various forms.Six cartilage grafts (1 of each preparation type; 3 blocks and 3 diced) were prepared by wrapping with Surgicel or autogenous fascia, or they were left bare. After the graft preparation stage, the cartilage grafts were inserted into pockets prepared on the dorsum of each rabbit. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (6 rabbits in each group) received autogenous fresh grafts, allogenous fresh grafts, autogenous cryopreserved grafts, and allogenous cryopreserved grafts, respectively. All cartilage grafts were implanted for 2 months.At the end of the second month, specimens were harvested and analyzed. The bare grafts provided the most viable specimens. There was no significant difference between the frozen or fresh and allograft or autograft groups with respect to viability and resorption ratios. The bare block graft, in all groups, survived significantly more than the other graft types.Allografts (homografts), similar autografts, did not create major problems, and they had excellent host tolerance and low antigenicity, especially when the perichondrium was removed. Viability and durability of the bare grafts (diced and block) were better than fascia or Surgicel-wrapped cartilage graft forms. PMID:21959409

Firat, Cemal; Gurlek, Ali; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Aydn, Nasuhi Engin

2011-09-01

123

Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics  

PubMed Central

Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

2014-01-01

124

Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics.  

PubMed

Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

2014-02-01

125

Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

Vever, Daniel; And Others

1991-01-01

126

Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

127

Economic status as a determinant of national PCDD/PCDF releases and implications for PCDD/PCDF reduction.  

PubMed

The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolkit, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDD/PCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19, 31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction. PMID:23280065

Cao, Zhiguo; Fiedler, Heidelore; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo

2013-04-01

128

Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores  

SciTech Connect

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-10-06

129

Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-11-01

130

Localization of determinants of fertility through measurement adaptations in developing-country settings: The case of Iran: Comment on "Analysis of economic determinants of fertility in Iran: a multilevel approach".  

PubMed

Studies investigating fertility decline in developing countries often adopt measures of determinants of fertility behavior developed based on observations from developed countries, without adapting them to the realities of the study setting. As a result, their findings are usually invalid, anomalous or statistically non-significant. This commentary draws on the research article by Moeeni and colleagues, as an exemplary work which has not adapted measures of two key economic determinants of fertility behavior, namely gender inequality and opportunity costs of childbearing, to the realities of Iran's economy. Measurement adaptations that can improve the study are discussed. PMID:25489600

Erfani, Amir

2014-12-01

131

The effect of centrifugation condition on mature adipocytes and adipose stem cell viability.  

PubMed

Different researchers have recommended different lipoaspirate centrifugation speeds and times, probably due to the limits in fat cell viability assays. We assessed fat cell viability using a fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide (FDA-PI) stain and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay after harvesting syringe liposuction and spun with different centrifugation speeds to determine the optimal conditions. Lipoaspirates, harvested from 13 donors, were transferred into a centrifuge tube and spun at 1000, 3000, and 4000 rpm for 3 minutes. Mature adipocytes and adipose stem cells were isolated and tested with a direct counting of FDA-PI-stained cells under fluorescence microscope and XTT assay. We incubated adipocytes and adipose stem cells for 1 day and 3 days, and we compared both of them with fresh samples to evaluate the influence of culturing condition on fat cell viability. Centrifugation speeds from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm for 3 minutes showed no change in the percentage of adipocytes and adipose stem cell viability not only in the fresh samples but also in the cultured samples (1 day and 3 days). Centrifugation speeds under 4000 rpm do not change the percentage of fat cell viability. To differentiate viable cells from dying or dead mature adipocytes and oil accurately, combinations of viability tests are essential. PMID:23636113

Son, Daegu; Choi, Taehyun; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

2014-05-01

132

A flow cytometric method for viability assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia in mixed culture.  

PubMed

Mixed bacterial communities are commonly encountered in microbial infections of humans. Knowledge on the composition of species and viability of each species in these communities allows for a detailed description of the complexity of interspecies dynamics and contributes to the assessment of the severity of infections. Several assays exist for quantification of specific species in mixed communities, including analysis of quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. While this method allows for species-specific cell enumeration, it cannot provide viability data. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess the viability of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia in mixed culture by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR® Green I and propidium iodide staining. Both bacteria are relevant to pulmonary infections of cystic fibrosis patients. Fluorescence staining was optimized separately for each species in pure culture due to differences between species in cell wall structure and metabolic capabilities. To determine viability of species in mixed culture, a protocol was established as a compromise between optimum conditions determined before for pure cultures. This protocol allowed the detection of viable and dead cells of both species, exhibiting an intact and a permeabilized membrane, respectively. To discriminate between S. aureus and B. cepacia, the protocol was combined with Gram-specific fluorescent staining using wheat germ agglutinin. The established three-color staining method was successfully tested for viability determination of S. aureus and B. cepacia in mixed culture cultivations. In addition, growth of both species was monitored by quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The obtained data revealed alterations in viability during cultivations for different growth phases and suggest interspecies effects in mixed culture. Overall, this method allows for rapid simultaneous Gram-differentiation and viability assessment of bacterial mixed cultures and is therefore suitable for the analysis of dynamics of mixed communities of medical, environmental, and biotechnological relevance. PMID:23081865

Rüger, Marc; Bensch, Gerald; Tüngler, Ralf; Reichl, Udo

2012-12-01

133

Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) viability is, therefore, critical in deciding whether a patient with coronary artery disease and severe LV dysfunction should undergo revascularization, receive a heart transplant, or remain on medical therapy. Assessment of Left Ventricular Viability Techniques for assessing myocardial viability depend on the measurement of a specific characteristic of viable myocytes such as cell membrane integrity, preserved metabolism, mitochondria integrity, and preserved contractile reserve. In Ontario, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioactive 201thallium is the most commonly used technique followed by dobutamine echocardiography. Newer techniques include SPECT using technetium tracers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and PET, the subject of this review. Positron Emission Tomography PET is a nuclear imaging technique based on the metabolism of radioactive analogs of normal substrates such as glucose and water. The radiopharmaceutical used most frequently in myocardial viability assessment is F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog. The procedure involves the intravenous administration of FDG under controlled glycemic conditions, and imaging with a PET scanner. The images are reconstructed using computer software and analyzed visually or semi-quantitatively, often in conjunction with perfusion images. Dysfunctional but stunned myocardium is characterized by normal perfusion and normal FDG uptake; hibernating myocardium exhibits reduced perfusion and normal/enhanced FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism mismatch), whereas scar tissue is characterized by reduction in both perfusion and FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism match). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used a search strategy similar to that used in the 2001 ICES review to identify English language reports of health technology assessments and primary studies in selected databases, published from January 1, 2001 to April 20, 2005. Patients of interest were those with CAD and severe ventricular dysfunction being considered for revascularization that had under

2005-01-01

134

Myocardial viability: Seeking relevance and redefinition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  More than any other discipline, nuclear cardiology has contributed to understanding of myocardial viability, including the\\u000a concepts of hibernation and stunning. It must be recognized, however, that these concepts are used as models to drive the\\u000a process of scientific inquiry. These models may describe components of the pathophysiology of ventricular dysfunction in CAD.\\u000a Integration of the models of hibernation and

James A. Arrighi; Robert Soufer

1998-01-01

135

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

136

Maintaining dendritic cell viability in culture.  

PubMed

When mouse dendritic cells (DCs) are isolated from tissues, purified and placed in a nutritive culture they die more rapidly than would be expected from their normal turnover in vivo. This can distort culture assays of DC function. We therefore tested several approaches to prolonging DC survival in culture. Of several cytokines tested granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was most effective at preserving the viability of conventional DCs (cDCs) but was ineffective for plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Surprisingly, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, crucial for DC development, produced only a marginal improvement in DC survival in culture, and interleukin-3, reported to prevent apoptosis of human pDCs, produced only a minor improvement in survival of mouse DCs. Genetic manipulation of cell death pathways was also tested, to avoid activation effects exerted by cytokine signalling. The isolation of DCs from mice overexpressing Bcl-2 was especially effective in maintaining pDC viability but gave a lesser improvement in cDC viability. DCs isolated from Bim(-/-)Noxa(-/-) mice also showed improved culture survival, but in this case with pDCs showing the least improvement. PMID:25081090

Vremec, David; Hansen, Jacinta; Strasser, Andreas; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Zhan, Yifan; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken

2015-02-01

137

Managing economic and virtual economic capital within financial conglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present contribution we show how the optimal amount of economic capital can be derived such that it minimizes the economic cost of risk-bearing. The economic cost of risk-bearing takes into account the cost of the economic capital as well as the cost of the residual risk. In addition to the absolute problem of the determination of the amount

Marc J. Goovaerts; orre E Vanden; Roger J. A. Laeven

2003-01-01

138

At the Edge of Viability: Moral and Ethical Guideline Proposals*  

PubMed Central

The paper proposes moral and ethical guidelines for medical treatment at the edge of viability. The proposed principles are defended on the grounds of a general conceptual framework presented by elucidating the notions of viability, the edge of viability, person, sanctity of human life, dignity, and the slope of dignity protection, as well as the distinction between ethics and morality. PMID:23908825

Kasher, Asa

2011-01-01

139

Demographic, socio-economic and geographic determinants of seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in rural western Kenya, 2011.  

PubMed

Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause a considerable burden of disease in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa communities with the greatest burden among children. Currently, vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza infection and accompanying morbidities. We examined geographic, socio-economic and demographic factors that contributed to acceptance of childhood seasonal influenza vaccination among children living in a population-based morbidity surveillance system in rural western Kenya, where influenza vaccine was offered free-of-charge to children 6 months-10 years old from April to June, 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal and household demographic variables, socio-economic status, and distance from home to vaccination clinics with family vaccination status. 7249 children from 3735 households were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 2675 (36.9%) were fully vaccinated, 506 (7.0%) were partially vaccinated and 4068 (56.1%) were not vaccinated. Children living in households located >5km radius from the vaccination facilities were significantly less likely to be vaccinated (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.91; p=0.007). Children with mothers aged 25-34 and 35-44 years were more likely to be vaccinated than children with mothers less than 25 years of age (aOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; p<0.001; and aOR=1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.64; p=0.003, respectively). Finally, children aged 2-5 years and >5 years of age (aOR=1.38; 95% CI 1.20-1.59; p<0.001; and aOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.23-1.63; p<0.001, respectively) and who had a sibling hospitalized within the past year (aOR=1.73; 95% CI 1.40-2.14; p<0.001) were more likely to be vaccinated. Shorter distance from the vaccination center, older maternal and child age, household administrator's occupation that did not require them to be away from the home, and having a sibling hospitalized during the past year were associated with increased likelihood of vaccination against influenza in western Kenya. These findings should inform the design of future childhood seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns in rural Kenya, and perhaps elsewhere in Africa. PMID:24462406

Otieno, Nancy A; Nyawanda, Bryan O; Audi, Allan; Emukule, Gideon; Lebo, Emmaculate; Bigogo, Godfrey; Ochola, Rachel; Muthoka, Phillip; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Shay, David K; Burton, Deron C; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A; Mott, Joshua A

2014-11-20

140

Lactate as a novel quantitative measure of viability in Schistosoma mansoni drug sensitivity assays.  

PubMed

Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval stage Schistosoma allows a certain degree of automation in screening of compounds. Unfortunately throughput is limited as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end-product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays applying schistosomula and adult worms for proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomula numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple to measure surrogate marker for Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate inter-assay comparison of potencies and thus concerted drug discovery approaches. PMID:25487803

Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

2014-12-01

141

Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1994-03-01

142

Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

143

Political, social and economic determinants of corporate social disclosure by multi-national firms in environmentally sensitive industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using examples from environmentally sensitive industries, the paper examines the determinants of corporate social disclosure (CSD). The paper moves beyond the traditional literature in two respects. First it is international in scope, examining the accounting disclosure responses of multi-national companies to the pressures implied by the nature and scope of their operations. Second, variables measuring political risk and social development

Steven Toms; J. Hasseldine; H. Massoud

2007-01-01

144

Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).  

PubMed

The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joėl

2013-04-01

145

Resilience and vulnerability to a natural hazard: A mathematical framework based on viability theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This deals with the response of a coupled human and natural system (CHANS) to a natural hazard by using the concepts of resilience and vulnerability within the mathematical framework of viability theory. This theory applies to time-evolving systems such as CHANS and assumes that their desirable properties can be defined as a subset of their state space. Policies can also apply to influence the dynamics of such systems: viability theory aims at finding the policies which keep the properties of a controlled dynamical system for so long as no disturbance hits it. The states of the system such that the properties are guaranteed constitute what is called the viability kernel. This viability framework has been extended to describe the response to a perturbation such as a natural hazard. Resilience describes the capacity of the CHANS to recover by getting back in the viability kernel, where its properties are guaranteed until the onset of the next major event. Defined for a given controlled trajectory that the system may take after the event ends, resilience is (a) whether the system comes back to the viability kernel within a given budget such as a time constraint, but also (b) a decreasing function of vulnerability. Computed for a given trajectory as well, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for a certain trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of an associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Computing the resilience and vulnerability of a trajectory enables the viability framework to describe the response of both deterministic and stochastic systems to hazards. In the deterministic case, there is only one response trajectory for a given action policy, and methods exist to find the actions which yield the most resilient trajectory, namely the least vulnerable trajectory for which recovery is complete. In the stochastic case however, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the resilience and vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield either the policies that maximize the probability of being resilient by achieving recovery within a given time horizon, or these which minimize a given vulnerability statistic. These objectives are different and can be in contradiction, so that trade-offs may have to be considered between them. The approach is illustrated in both the deterministic and stochastic cases through a simple model of lake eutrophication, for which the desirable ecological properties of the lake conflict with the economic interest of neighboring farmers.

Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

2013-04-01

146

Indonesian heath care and the economic crisis: is managed care the needed reform?  

PubMed

The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures. PMID:10351668

Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S

1999-03-01

147

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

148

Microbial and environmental effects on avian egg viability: do tropical mechanisms act in a temperate environment?  

PubMed

The viability of freshly laid avian eggs declines after several days of exposure to ambient temperatures above physiological zero, and declines occur faster in tropical than temperate ecosystems. Microbial infection during preincubation exposure has recently been shown as a second cause of egg viability decline in the tropics, but whether microbial processes influence the viability of wild bird eggs in temperate ecosystems is unknown. We determined the microbial load on eggshells, the incidence of microbial penetration of egg contents, and changes in the viability of wild bird eggs (Sialia mexicana, Tachycineta bicolor, Tachycineta thalassina) experimentally exposed to temperate-zone ambient conditions in situ in a mediterranean climate in northern California. Initial microbial loads on eggshells were generally low, although they were significantly higher on eggs laid in old boxes than in new boxes. Eggshell microbial loads did not increase with exposure to ambient conditions, were not reduced by twice-daily disinfection with alcohol, and were unaffected by parental incubation. The rate of microbial penetration into egg contents was low and unaffected by the duration of exposure. Nevertheless, egg viability declined very gradually and significantly with exposure duration, and the rate of decline differed among species. In contrast to studies performed in the tropics, we found little evidence that temperature or microbial mechanisms of egg viability decline were important at our temperate-zone site; neither temperatures above physiological zero nor alcohol disinfection was significantly related to hatching success. Delaying the onset of incubation until the penultimate or last egg of a clutch at our study site may maintain hatching synchrony without a large trade-off in egg viability. These results provide insight into the environmental mechanisms that may be responsible for large-scale latitudinal patterns in avian clutch size and hatching asynchrony. PMID:21661574

Wang, Jennifer M; Firestone, Mary K; Beissinger, Steven R

2011-05-01

149

Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression  

PubMed Central

Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

2013-01-01

150

Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

1975-01-01

151

Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. PMID:25429386

Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Müller, Norbert

2014-01-01

152

Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. PMID:25429386

Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

2014-01-01

153

Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.  

PubMed

Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (??m) sensing probe. PMID:23835805

Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

2013-07-01

154

Morphological observation and analysis using automated image cytometry for the comparison of trypan blue and fluorescence-based viability detection method.  

PubMed

The ability to accurately determine cell viability is essential to performing a well-controlled biological experiment. Typical experiments range from standard cell culturing to advanced cell-based assays that may require cell viability measurement for downstream experiments. The traditional cell viability measurement method has been the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay. However, since the introduction of fluorescence-based dyes for cell viability measurement using flow or image-based cytometry systems, there have been numerous publications comparing the two detection methods. Although previous studies have shown discrepancies between TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability measurements, image-based morphological analysis was not performed in order to examine the viability discrepancies. In this work, we compared TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability detection methods using image cytometry to observe morphological changes due to the effect of TB on dead cells. Imaging results showed that as the viability of a naturally-dying Jurkat cell sample decreased below 70 %, many TB-stained cells began to exhibit non-uniform morphological characteristics. Dead cells with these characteristics may be difficult to count under light microscopy, thus generating an artificially higher viability measurement compared to fluorescence-based method. These morphological observations can potentially explain the differences in viability measurement between the two methods. PMID:24643390

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Kuksin, Dmitry; Laverty, Daniel J; Saldi, Stephanie; Qiu, Jean

2014-03-19

155

Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability  

SciTech Connect

We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

156

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

2000-04-24

157

Economics of residue harvest: Regional partnership evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Economic analyses on the viability of corn (Zea mays, L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production have largely been based on simulation modeling. While some studies have utilized field research data, most field-based analyses have included a limited number of sites and a narrow geographic distributi...

158

Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

1999-04-12

159

Socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL in people living with HIV in Belgium: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1 infection has evolved from a lethal to a chronic disease. As such, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome variable. The purpose of this study was to identify socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods This study was conducted between 1 January and 31 December 2012 at the AIDS Reference Centre of Ghent University Hospital, a tertiary care referral centre in Belgium. Validated self-report questionnaires were administered to collect socio-demographic data, to assess HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study-HIV), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and adherence to HAART (Short Medication Adherence Questionnaire) and to screen for neurocognitive dysfunction. Results A total of 237 people participated, among whom 187 (78.9%) were male. Mean age was 45.8±10.7 years and 144 (63.7%, 144/226) participants were homosexual. Median physical and mental health score (PHS, MHS) were 55.6 (IQR 48.2–60.6) and 52.0 (IQR 44.2–57.9), respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that incapacity to work, depressive symptoms, neurocognitive complaints (NCCs), dissatisfaction with the patient–physician relationship and non-adherence were all negatively associated with HRQoL. Conclusions Socio-economic (work status), behavioural (adherence) and (neuro)psychological (depressive symptoms, NCCs) determinants independently impact HRQoL among this cohort of PLHIV. Clinical parameters (viral load, CD4 cell count) were not independently associated with HRQoL. PMID:24331754

Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk P.; Vermeir, Peter; Mariman, An; De Rick, Ann; Van Der Gucht, Bea; Pelgrom, Jolanda; Van Wanzeele, Filip; Verhofstede, Chris; Vandijck, Dominique M.

2013-01-01

160

Behavioral economics.  

PubMed

Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

Camerer, Colin F

2014-09-22

161

Comparison of viability tests for assessing cross-adaptation to freezing, heat and salt stresses induced by abscisic acid in bromegrass ( Bromus inermis Leyss) suspension cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several viability assays were compared to determine the most sensitive and appropriate method for estimating the freezing, heat and salt tolerance of Bromus inermis Leyss cells cultured with or without 75 ?M abscisic acid (ABA) for 4–7 days at 25°C. The sensitivity and reliability of individual viability tests depended on the type of stress applied and degree of injury. Regrowth,

Masaya Ishikawa; Albert J. Robertson; Lawrence V. Gusta

1995-01-01

162

Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (? = 1.45 ?m, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

2014-01-01

163

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

PubMed Central

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

164

Extending the viability of acute brain slices.  

PubMed

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

2014-01-01

165

An Algorithm that Predicts the Viability and the Yield of Human Hepatocytes Isolated from Remnant Liver Pieces Obtained from Liver Resections  

PubMed Central

Isolated human primary hepatocytes are an essential in vitro model for basic and clinical research. For successful application as a model, isolated hepatocytes need to have a good viability and be available in sufficient yield. Therefore, this study aims to identify donor characteristics, intra-operative factors, tissue processing and cell isolation parameters that affect the viability and yield of human hepatocytes. Remnant liver pieces from tissue designated as surgical waste were collected from 1034 donors with informed consent. Human hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion technique with modifications and hepatocyte yield and viability were subsequently determined. The accompanying patient data was collected and entered into a database. Univariate analyses found that the viability and the yield of hepatocytes were affected by many of the variables examined. Multivariate analyses were then carried out to confirm the factors that have a significant relationship with the viability and the yield. It was found that the viability of hepatocytes was significantly decreased by the presence of fibrosis, liver fat and with increasing gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and bilirubin content. Yield was significantly decreased by the presence of liver fat, septal fibrosis, with increasing aspartate aminotransferase activity, cold ischemia times and weight of perfused liver. However, yield was significantly increased by chemotherapy treatment. In conclusion, this study determined the variables that have a significant effect on the viability and the yield of isolated human hepatocytes. These variables have been used to generate an algorithm that can calculate projected viability and yield of isolated human hepatocytes. In this way, projected viability can be determined even before isolation of hepatocytes, so that donors that result in high viability and yield can be identified. Further, if the viability and yield of the isolated hepatocytes is lower than expected, this will highlight a methodological problem that can be addressed. PMID:25313881

Laubender, Rüdiger P.; Fröse, Natalja; Thasler, Reinhard M. K.; Schiergens, Tobias S.; Mansmann, Ulrich; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

2014-01-01

166

Artificial Evolution by Viability Rather than Competition  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

2014-01-01

167

Essays in labor economics  

E-print Network

I addressed three questions in Labor Economics, using experimental and quasi-experimental variation to determine causality. In the first chapter, I ask whether playing longer in the NFL increases mortality in retirement. ...

Williams, Tyler (Tyler Kenneth)

2013-01-01

168

Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices  

PubMed Central

In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; Gonzįlez, José Luis

2011-01-01

169

Protection of L. rhamnosus by spray-drying using two prebiotics colloids to enhance the viability.  

PubMed

Protection of probiotics by substances considered as prebiotics can be an alternative to increase their viability in the large intestine. The objective of this study was to use two wall materials (native rice starch and inulin) without bonding agent to protect Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray-drying and determine the viability of the microorganism under two storage conditions. For spray-drying conditions tested in this work the product yield with native rice starch (NRS) ranged between 65% and 74% whereas for inulin (IN) it ranged between 43% and 54%. In general, IN solutions exhibited higher outlet temperature than NRS dispersions. Capsules of IN had smaller particle size than those of NRS. Due to the higher hydrophilic nature of IN capsules as compared to NRS, IN capsules exhibited higher water activity than NRS capsules. Confocal microscopy showed marked differences between both wall materials, which could in turn cause differences in the release profile of encapsulated microorganisms. Agglomerates of NRS provided better protection to the microorganisms as evidenced by the lower reduction in viability when compared to IN, and this effect was corroborated by the stability study. It is possible to protect probiotics using both colloids, but differences in the viability and stability during storage were determined. The use of IN could prove beneficial in the encapsulation of probiotic strains since this carbohydrate is not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes and may act as prebiotic. PMID:24507301

Avila-Reyes, Sandra V; Garcia-Suarez, Francisco J; Jiménez, Marķa Teresa; San Martķn-Gonzalez, Marķa F; Bello-Perez, Luis A

2014-02-15

170

In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).  

PubMed

Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

2014-01-01

171

The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

1994-01-01

172

Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

1982-01-01

173

Deep determinants of economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the recent literature on cross country development reveals that there is an agreement on the key role played by institutions in explaining variation in the level of income per capita. Rodrik et al. (NBER Working Paper No. w8119, February, 2002) goes further to argue the primacy of institutions over integration and geography in a level accounting framework.

Sambit Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

174

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

175

Pollen viability and germination in some neotropical aroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen viability and germination were observed in six species of neotropical Araceae. In Anaphyllopsis ameri- cana (Engl.) A. Hay, 50% of pollen grains remain viable after 70 h following dehiscence, and it takes over 210 h for total loss of viability to occur. In Montrichardia arborescens (L.) Schott, approximately 50% of pollen grains are not viable after 24 h, and

Denis Barabé; Karine Lavallée; Marc Gibernau

2008-01-01

176

Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition Laetitia Chapel1  

E-print Network

Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition Laetitia Chapel1 , Xavier CastelloĀ´ 2 , ClaireĀ´sica Interdiciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, Palma de Mallorca, Spain Abstract We study the viability and resilience study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

177

Germination and viability of the pollen of Crocus sativus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability and germinability tests were carried out on the pollen of Crocus sativus L., a sterile triploid commonly known as saffron. Pollen taken from dehiscent anthers was examined by means of vital staining and cytochemical techniques in order to detect its viability; germination in vitro was evaluated. From the results obtained it is evident that saffron pollen is viable at

Giuseppe Chichiricco; Maria Grilli Caiola

1982-01-01

178

ERDC/CERLTR-09-2 Estimating Viability of Gopher  

E-print Network

ERDC/CERLTR-09-2 Estimating Viability of Gopher Tortoise Populations Tracey D. Tuberville, J. Surveying and Mapping, Florida #12;#12;ERDC/CERL TR-09-2 January 2009 Estimating Viability of Gopher Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Work Unit F61GB7 #12;ERDC/CERL TR-09-2 ii Abstract: Although the gopher

Georgia, University of

179

Optical measurement of the viability of stored human platelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been carried out to test the feasibility of optically assessing the viability of stored blood platelets. A red (633 nm) laser beam was passed through the platelet pack, and the scatter measured. Live platelets scattered the beam differently from dead ones, owing to their different shape. The results compared favourably with those from established in vitro tests of platelet viability.

Bellhouse, M. A.; Ross, I.; Entwistle, C. C.; Bellhouse, B. J.

1985-02-01

180

Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s stagflation and high unemployment caused a renewed interest in supply side economics and in factors determining economic growth. Simultaneously, the 1980s and 1990s have seen a reevaluation of the role of small firms and a renewed attention for entrepreneurship. The goal of this survey is to synthesize disparate strands of literature to link entrepreneurship to economic growth.

Sander Wennekers; Roy Thurik

1999-01-01

181

Economics, Economists, and Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the Presidential Address to the Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Eastern Economic Association. It offers some reflections on the role that economics has, and can, play in the determination of environmental policy. These reflections address the choice of policy instruments for pollution control and the locus of regulatory authority. A review of economic instruments suggests that effluent

Wallace E. Oates

1990-01-01

182

Impact of Air Transportation on Regional Economic and Social Connectivity in the United States  

E-print Network

This paper identifies some of the forces that influence the impact of air transportation on regional connectivity and economic productivity in the United States. In light of recent threats to the financial viability of the ...

Tam, Ryan

183

Economic Rationale for Safety Investment in Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Membrane Reactor Modules  

E-print Network

A detailed Net Present Value (NPV) model has been developed to evaluate the economic viability of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle ? Membrane Reactor (IGCC-MR) power plant intended to provide an electricity generating and pure H2 (hydrogen...

Koc, Reyyan; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Nuttall, William J.; Ma, Yi Hua

2012-05-09

184

Determining \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A loss of passivity in the face of certain frequency dynamics (eg: high frequency dynamics) given an otherwise passive system leads to the notion of a “mixed” system. A “mixed” system is one that has a concept of small gain associated with it over those frequency intervals where passivity is lost. In this paper, a test for determining “mixedness” for

Wynita M. Griggs; Brian D. O. Anderson; Robert N. Shorten

2010-01-01

185

Determinants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and Stephanie Fitchett of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to explore the properties of determinants of matrices and to develop an important theoretical formula. This is part of a larger collection of material hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Fitchett, Stephanie

2010-05-19

186

Bioactive TTR105-115-based amyloid fibrils reduce the viability of mammalian cells.  

PubMed

A growing number of protein-based fibrous biomaterials have been produced with a cross-? amyloid core yet the long-term effect of these materials on cell viability and the influence of core and non-core protein sequences on viability is not well understood. Here, synthetic bioactive TTR1-RGD and control TTR1-RAD or TTR1 fibrils were used to test the response of mammalian cells. At high fibril concentrations cell viability was reduced, as assessed by mitochondrial reduction assays, lactate dehydrogenase membrane integrity assays and apoptotic biomarkers. This reduction occurred despite the high density of RGD cell adhesion ligands and use of cells displaying integrin receptors. Cell viability was affected by fibril size, maturity and whether fibrils were added to the cell media or as a pre-coated surface layer. These findings show that while cells initially interact well with synthetic fibrils, cellular integrity can be compromised over longer periods of time, suggesting a better understanding of the role of core and non-core residues in determining cellular interactions is required before TTR1-based fibrils are used as biomaterials. PMID:25678120

Bongiovanni, Marie N; Gras, Sally L

2015-04-01

187

Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370?nm, 2?J/cm2) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGF?1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P < 0.05; P = 0.009), the percentage of apoptotic keratocytes increased (P < 0.05) significantly, and CD34 and ?-SMA expression remained unchanged (P > 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmįry, Nóra

2015-01-01

188

Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

Not Available

1980-09-01

189

Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets  

SciTech Connect

The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

1989-07-01

190

Cardiomyocyte Ogt is essential for postnatal viability  

PubMed Central

The singly coded gene O-linked-?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (Ogt) resides on the X chromosome and is necessary for embryonic stem cell viability during embryogenesis. In mature cells, this enzyme catalyzes the posttranslational modification known as O-GlcNAc to various cellular proteins. Several groups, including our own, have shown that acute increases in protein O-GlcNAcylation are cardioprotective both in vitro and in vivo. Yet, little is known about how OGT affects cardiac function because total body knockout (KO) animals are not viable. Presently, we sought to establish the potential involvement of cardiomyocyte Ogt in cardiac maturation. Initially, we characterized a constitutive cardiomyocyte-specific (cm)OGT KO (c-cmOGT KO) mouse and found that only 12% of the c-cmOGT KO mice survived to weaning age (4 wk old); the surviving animals were smaller than their wild-type littermates, had dilated hearts, and showed overt signs of heart failure. Dysfunctional c-cmOGT KO hearts were more fibrotic, apoptotic, and hypertrophic. Several glycolytic genes were also upregulated; however, there were no gross changes in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Histopathology of the KO hearts indicated the potential involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress, directing us to evaluate expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase, which were elevated. Additional groups of mice were subjected to inducible deletion of cmOGT, which did not produce overt dysfunction within the first couple of weeks of deletion. Yet, long-term loss (via inducible deletion) of cmOGT produced gradual and progressive cardiomyopathy. Thus, cardiomyocyte Ogt is necessary for maturation of the mammalian heart, and inducible deletion of cmOGT in the adult mouse produces progressive ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24186210

Watson, Lewis J.; Long, Bethany W.; DeMartino, Angelica M.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Readnower, Ryan D.; Brainard, Robert E.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Hill, Bradford G.

2013-01-01

191

Enhancement in the viability and biosensing activity of freeze-dried recombinant bioluminescent bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetically-engineeredEscherichia coli strain, DPD2540, which contains afabA::luxCDABE fusion gene, gives a bioluminescent output when membrane fatty acid synthesis is needed. For more practical application of\\u000a this strain in the field as biosensor, freeze-drying was adopted. A 12% sucrose solution with Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, as\\u000a determined by the viability after freeze-drying, was found to be the most effective composition for

Sue Hyung Choi; Man Bock Gu

2000-01-01

192

Viability of mammalian embryos subjected to liposome interaction or centrifugation for gene transfer  

E-print Network

for delivering DNA into embryos it is important to determine the effects of liposome inter actions on embryo viability. Furthermore, agents which enhance liposome transvection, i. e. glycerol and chloroquine, by stimulating plasma membrane endocytosis... of providing the necessary geometr ical relationship between the liposome and the plasma membrane that leads to membrane fusion or vesicle uptake in the presence of polyalcohols which can induce a transient destabilization in the cell membrane (Szoka et al...

Loskutoff, Nadia Mikhail

1985-01-01

193

Enumeration, viability and heterogeneity in Staphylococcus aureus cultures by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fluorochromes (rhodamine 123, bis-oxonol, propidium iodide, SYTO-13 and calcein) were tested by flow cytometry for their ability to determine cell density, viability and heterogeneity in Staphylococcus aureus cultures exposed to heating (60–70–80°C for 2 min), formaldehyde 2% for 20 min and gramicidin-S at 2–5–10 ?g\\/ml for 20 min. Results were validated by viable plate count and counts performed with

J Comas; J Vives-Rego

1998-01-01

194

Population Viability Analysis of the Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ), 1976-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees ( Trichechus manatus lati- rostris ) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 car- casses obtained throughout Florida from 1976-1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate ( 2 0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over

MIRIAM MARMONTEL; STEPHEN R. HUMPHREY; THOMAS J. O'SHEA

195

Economics Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.

2000-01-01

196

Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

2010-02-01

197

Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.  

PubMed

The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions. PMID:22161315

Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

2012-06-01

198

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants  

E-print Network

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants Near Solar Installations solar developments in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of California will significantly impact plants of current plant populations, assess their habitat requirements, and provide information on the feasibility

199

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

2011-07-01

200

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

2010-07-01

201

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

2014-07-01

202

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

2012-07-01

203

37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit...

2013-07-01

204

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

2009-01-01

205

Prioritizing conservation activities using reserve site selection methods and population viability analysis.  

PubMed

In recent years a large literature on reserve site selection (RSS) has developed at the interface between ecology, operations research, and environmental economics. Reserve site selection models use numerical optimization techniques to select sites for a network of nature reserves for protecting biodiversity. In this paper, we develop a population viability analysis (PVA) model for salmon and incorporate it into an RSS framework for prioritizing conservation activities in upstream watersheds. We use spawner return data for three closely related salmon stocks in the upper Columbia River basin and estimates of the economic costs of watershed protection from NOAA to illustrate the framework. We compare the relative cost-effectiveness of five alternative watershed prioritization methods, based on various combinations of biological and economic information. Prioritization based on biological benefit-economic cost comparisons and accounting for spatial interdependencies among watersheds substantially outperforms other more heuristic methods. When using this best-performing prioritization method, spending 10% of the cost of protecting all upstream watersheds yields 79% of the biological benefits (increase in stock persistence) from protecting all watersheds, compared to between 20% and 64% for the alternative methods. We also find that prioritization based on either costs or benefits alone can lead to severe reductions in cost-effectiveness. PMID:19831069

Newbold, Stephen C; Siikamäki, Juha

2009-10-01

206

Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

2010-01-01

207

A platinum-based covalent viability reagent for single cell mass cytometry  

PubMed Central

In fluorescence-based flow cytometry, cellular viability is determined with membrane-impermeable fluorescent reagents that specifically enter and label plasma membrane-compromised non-viable cells. A recent technological advance in flow cytometry uses antibodies conjugated to elemental metal isotopes, rather than to fluorophores, to allow signal detection by atomic mass spectrometry. Unhampered by the limitations of overlapping emission fluorescence, mass cytometry increases the number of parameters that can be measured in single cells. However, mass cytometry is unable to take advantage of current fluorescent viability dyes. An alternative methodology was therefore developed here in which the platinum-containing chemotherapy drug cisplatin was used to label cells for mass cytometry determinations of live/dead ratios. In a one-minute incubation step, cisplatin preferentially labeled non-viable cells, from both adherent and suspension cultures, resulting in a platinum signal quantifiable by mass cytometry. This protocol was compatible with established sample processing steps for cytometry. Furthermore, the live/dead ratios were comparable between mass and fluorescence based cytometry. Importantly, although cisplatin is a known DNA-damaging agent, a one-minute “pulse” of cisplatin did not induce observable DNA damage or apoptotic responses even within 6 hours post-exposure. Cisplatin can therefore be used as a viability reagent for a wide range of mass cytometry protocols. PMID:22577098

Fienberg, Harris; Simonds, Erin F.; Fantl, Wendy J.; Nolan, Garry P; Bodenmiller, Bernd

2013-01-01

208

How to assess intestinal viability during surgery: A review of techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective and quantitative intraoperative methods of bowel viability assessment are essential in gastrointestinal surgery. Exact determination of the borderline of the viable bowel with the help of an objective test could result in a decrease of postoperative ischemic complications. An accurate, reproducible and cost effective method is desirable in every operating theater dealing with abdominal operations. Numerous techniques assessing various parameters of intestinal viability are described by the studies. However, there is no consensus about their clinical use. To evaluate the available methods, a systematic search of the English literature was performed. Virtues and drawbacks of the techniques and possibilities of clinical application are reviewed. Valuable parameters related to postoperative intestinal anastomotic or stoma complications are analyzed. Important issues in the measurement and interpretation of bowel viability are discussed. To date, only a few methods are applicable in surgical practice. Further studies are needed to determine the limiting values of intestinal tissue oxygenation and flow indicative of ischemic complications and to standardize the methods. PMID:21666808

Urbanavi?ius, Linas; Pattyn, Piet; Van de Putte, Dirk; Venskutonis, Donatas

2011-01-01

209

Effect of octenidine dihydrochloride on viability of protoscoleces in hepatic and pulmonary hydatid diseases.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Use of effective scolicidal agents during puncture, aspiration or injection of a scolicidal agent and reaspiration (PAIR) and surgery for hydatid cysts are essential to reduce the recurrence rate. In this in vitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of a new agent, octenidine dihydrochloride, and of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were obtained from six patients with liver (n=3) and lung (n=3) hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of octenidine dihydrochloride (0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% diluted form), povidone iodine (10%, 1% and 0.1% diluted) and 20% saline were used in this study. Viability of protoscoleces was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% eosin) and flame cell activity. RESULTS: Octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1% had strong scolicidal effect in 15 min and octenidine dihydrochloride 0.01% in 30 min. Sixty percent of protoscoleces lost viability at 5 min with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1%. Viability ratio decreased to 20% at 10 min, and all of them died at 15 min. Povidone iodine 10% and 1% had strong scolicidal effects after 15- and 30 min of exposure, respectively. Saline 20% killed all the protoscoleces in 30-min exposure. CONCLUSION: Because of the rapid and strong scolocidal effectiveness of octenidine dihydrochloride on protoscoleces, it may be used as a scolocidal agent during both perioperative and in the PAIR method. PMID:17595938

Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Esme, Hidir; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Solak, Okan; Sezer, Murat; Dilek, Osman Nuri

2007-01-01

210

Polyphenolic extracts of edible flowers incorporated onto atelocollagen matrices and their effect on cell viability.  

PubMed

The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen. PMID:24177700

López-Garcķa, Jorge; Kucekovį, Zdenka; Humpolķ?ek, Petr; Ml?ek, Ji?i; Sįha, Petr

2013-01-01

211

The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.  

PubMed

Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems. PMID:25448089

Jordan, Crispin Y

2015-02-01

212

AEM. Arctic Economics Model  

SciTech Connect

AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery, costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.

Reister, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1985-08-01

213

Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

Rippel, W.E.

1990-09-01

214

Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. Methods In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11 943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Key Results Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Conclusions Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. PMID:24284814

Gruwez, R.; De Frenne, P.; De Schrijver, A.; Leroux, O.; Vangansbeke, P.; Verheyen, K.

2014-01-01

215

Viability of Giardia cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water.  

PubMed Central

Numerous waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have occurred since 1965, yet little or no information has been reported on the viability of Giardia cysts in different aquatic environments. We have studied the viability of Giardia muris cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water, while also monitoring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and other water quality parameters. Fecal pellets containing G. muris cysts were placed in glass vials covered with filter paper and exposed to (i) lake water at 15 ft (ca. 4.6 m) and 30 ft (ca. 9.2 m), (ii) river water, (iii) tap water, and (iv) distilled water stored under laboratory conditions. At 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84 days, two vials from each environment were removed, and cyst viability was determined by (i) fluorogenic dye exclusion, (ii) production of giardiasis in an animal, and (iii) cyst morphology by Nomarski microscopy. In the fall, the cysts suspended at 30 ft in lake water remained viable for up to 56 days whereas cysts stored at 15 ft were nonviable after day 28. The G. muris cysts exposed to river water remained viable up to 28 days as determined by the production of giardiasis in mice. G. muris cysts suspended in tap water showed no signs of viability after 14 days, while cysts serving as controls (exposed to refrigerated distilled water) remained viable for up to 56 days. In the winter, Giardia cysts suspended in either lake or river water were viable for 56 to 84 days whereas cysts exposed to tap water were nonviable by day 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757381

deRegnier, D P; Cole, L; Schupp, D G; Erlandsen, S L

1989-01-01

216

Resource Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

Conrad, Jon M.

1999-10-01

217

FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

ECONOMICS FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY Program of Study The School of Economics at the University of Maine provides excellent opportunities for graduate students to study applied economics, financial economics, and policy analysis. The School of Economics administers the Master

Thomas, Andrew

218

Application of wide-field optical coherence tomography to monitoring of viability of rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the feasibility of OCT in monitoring the viability of the brain. It was confirmed that after an overdose of pentobarbital sodium salt for an euthanasia, the OCT signal intensity increased before cardiac arrest and finally became 2.7 times, and by periodically changing the tissue temperature from 20 to 32 °C in vivo, average correlation coefficients between the ratio of signal intensity (RSI) and temperature were determined to be -0:42 to -0:50. RSI reversibly changed with subsequent variations of temperatures and finally increased rapidly just before cardiac arrest. These results indicate that RSI could correspond to decreases in viability.

Sato, Manabu; Nishidate, Izumi

2014-05-01

219

Differential effects of fucoidans with low and high molecular weight on the viability and function of spleen cells.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is an edible sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae that has multiple biological activities. However, the effects of fucoidans of different molecular weights on immune cells have not been determined. Thus, we treated spleen cells with low- and high-molecular-weight fucoidans (LMF and HMF, respectively). Viability assays demonstrated that HMF enhanced the viability and prevented the death of spleen cells. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that HMF significantly increased the production of interferon-? and nitric oxide. In contrast, LMF had low activity and was relatively toxic to spleen cells. Taken together, these results indicate that HMF makes the greatest contribution to the immunostimulatory activity of fucoidan mixtures. Additionally, fucoidans with different molecular weights may have different effects on the viability and function of immune cells. This study increases our understanding of fucoidans, and may broaden their use in the basic research and clinical fields. PMID:24681238

Jang, Ji-Young; Moon, Sun-Young; Joo, Hong-Gu

2014-06-01

220

Resource economics  

SciTech Connect

The allocation of scarce resources is becoming crucial to human existence and it is essential to have an understanding of the role of economic factors in this problem. This is the central theme of Resource Economics. The author outlines the key concepts and tools of economics and illustrates their application by reference to problems of renewable resource management, non-renewable resource allocation, pollution and environmental impact analysis. A second theme running throughout the test is the need for economics to integrate with other scientific disciplines if resource allocation problems are to be understood fully and if a framework for their solution is to be found. The emphasis is on graphical means of illustration and everyday examples - rather than on mathematical notation and complex theory - making this a straightforward and immensely readable book.

Norton, G.A.

1984-01-01

221

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

222

Ingredient supplementation effects on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt.  

PubMed

The present investigation studied the effects of cysteine, whey powder, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and bifidobacteria. Changes in pH, titratable acidity, redox potential, and viability of bacteria were monitored during 24 h of fermentation and refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) of yogurt for 35 d. The incubation time that was needed to reach pH 4.5 was considerably affected by the added ingredients. Also, the drop in pH or the increase in acidity and redox potential was dependent on the added ingredients. The addition of cysteine, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone improved the viability of bifidobacteria to a variable extent, but whey powder failed to improve their viability. The morphology of S. thermophilus, as shown by electron microscopy, was affected by cysteine at 500 mg/L, possibly as a result of reduced redox potential. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and amino acid analyses suggested that the nitrogen source in the form of peptides and amino acids improved the viability of bifidobacteria in yogurt made with a commercial ABT (Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and Streptococcus thermophilus) starter culture, which showed a dramatic decline in the counts of this organism in previous studies. PMID:9839222

Dave, R I; Shah, N P

1998-11-01

223

Myocardial Viability: What We Knew and What Is New  

PubMed Central

Some patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have shown significant improvements of contractility with favorable long-term prognosis after revascularization. Several imaging techniques are available for the assessment of viable myocardium, based on the detection of preserved perfusion, preserved glucose metabolism, intact cell membrane and mitochondria, and presence of contractile reserve. Nuclear cardiology techniques, dobutamine echocardiography and positron emission tomography are used to assess myocardial viability. In recent years, new advances have improved methods of detecting myocardial viability. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology, methods, and impact of detection of myocardial viability, concentrating on recent advances in such methods. We reviewed the literature using search engines MIDLINE, SCOUPS, and EMBASE from 1988 to February 2012. We used key words: myocardial viability, hibernation, stunning, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies showed that the presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, but the assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with survival benefit from revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone. This topic is still debatable and needs more evidence. PMID:22988540

Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman

2012-01-01

224

Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts  

PubMed Central

Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

2014-01-01

225

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

226

ECONOMIC RETURNS TO THE BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic viability of the Boll Weevil Eradication program in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is assessed based on a five-year survey of producers. Results indicate the program increases yield 100 pounds per acre. This implies a 19 percent internal rate of return for producers over a ten year period.

Nicolas B. C. Ahouissoussi; Michael E. Wetzstein; Patricia A. Duffy

1993-01-01

227

Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices  

SciTech Connect

Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

1980-04-01

228

Species-specific viability analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial species coexist commonly in mixed communities, for instance those occurring in microbial infections of humans. Interspecies effects contribute to alterations in composition of communities with respect to species and thus, to the course and severity of infection. Therefore, knowledge concerning growth and viability of single species in medically-relevant mixed communities is of high interest to resolve complexity of interspecies dynamics and to support development of treatment strategies. In this study, a flow cytometric method was established to assess the species-specific viability in defined three-species mixed cultures. The method enables the characterization of viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus, which are relevant to lung infections of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The method combines fluorescence detection by antibody and lectin labeling with viability fluorescence staining using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide. In addition, species-specific cell enumeration analysis using quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (qT-RFLP) was used to monitor the growth dynamics. Finally, to investigate the impact of substrate availability on growth and viability, concentrations of main substrates and metabolites released were determined. Results For each species, the time course of growth and viability during mixed culture cultivations was obtained by using qT-RFLP analysis in combination with flow cytometry. Comparison between mixed and pure cultures revealed for every species differences in growth properties, e.g. enhanced growth of P. aeruginosa in mixed culture. Differences were also observed for B. cepacia and S. aureus in the time course of viability, e.g. an early and drastic reduction of viability of S. aureus in mixed culture. Overall, P. aeruginosa clearly dominated the mixed culture with regard to obtained cell concentrations. Conclusions In combination with qT-RFLP analysis, the methods enabled monitoring of species-specific cell concentrations and viability during co-cultivation of theses strains. Experimental findings suggest that the predominance of P. aeruginosa over B. cepacia and S. aureus in mixed culture under the chosen cultivation conditions is promoted by more efficient substrate consumption of P. aeruginosa, and antagonistic interspecies effects induced by P. aeruginosa. PMID:24606608

2014-01-01

229

Viability is associated with melanin-based coloration in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).  

PubMed

Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response), sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies. PMID:23573254

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Milzani, Aldo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Colombo, Graziano; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-01-01

230

Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn  

PubMed Central

Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00?hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4?h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1?d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion. PMID:22629182

Wang, Yan-Li; Guan, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

2012-01-01

231

Variation of algal viability during electrochemical disinfection using Ti/RuO2 electrodes.  

PubMed

This paper studied the influence of the operating conditions, e.g., current density, electrolyte and exposure time, on the variation of the algal viability during electrochemical disinfection processes. An electrochemical tube employing Ti/RuO2 as anodes was constructed for inactivation of cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae) Microcystis aeruginosa. Viability of algal cells was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazoliumchloride (TTC) dehydrogenase activity assay and neutral red (NR) staining assay. Algal suspensions with cell density of 5-7 x 10(9) L(-1) were exposed to current densities from 1 to 8 mA cm(-2) at room temperature (25-30 degrees C) for 30 min. The results showed that the cell viability decreased obviously with the increase of current density. After exposure to 4 mA cm(-2) for more than 7 min, Microcystis aeruginosa didn't have the ability to resume growth. Comparative disinfection tests with different electrolytes were conducted, including chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and phosphates. Microcystis aeruginosa appeared to be sensitive to electro-generated chlorine oxidants. The inactivation effect was also demonstrated to occur in chlorine-free electrolytes. However, decrease of the inactivation effect by adding ascorbic acid as an oxidant scavenger indicated that the reactive oxygen species, especially *OH radicals, played an important role for chlorine-free electrolytes. PMID:22053471

Liang, Wenyan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Li; Ruan, Lingling; Sui, Lili

2011-01-01

232

Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadčr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

2011-02-01

233

Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to management. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Perlut, N.G.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.

2008-01-01

234

Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability  

SciTech Connect

Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of nanomaterial interactions in the environment.

Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Holton, Gregory A [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Allison, Martin R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2010-01-01

235

Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening  

PubMed Central

Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

Cocolin, Luca

2014-01-01

236

The Value of Economic Reality: Applying Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Economic Value Added (EVA) is a revolutionary way to measure the value of a business. In its simplest form, EVA is a system that determines companies’ worth and performance based on their economic reality, not numbers produced according to traditional accounting rules. EVA sets high standards for measuring performance and is essential for all companies wishing to

David M Phillips

2007-01-01

237

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Morea, Michael F.

1999-11-01

238

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Morea, Michael F.

1999-11-08

239

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1997-04-25

240

What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development  

E-print Network

Economics Essentials What economics courses are there? BA Economics Economics and International Development Economics and International Relations Economics and Politics Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics

Sussex, University of

241

Effects of linoleate on cell viability and lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose primary hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Studies have shown linoleate could not only promote cell viability but also affect lipid metabolism in mammals. However, to what degree these effects are mediated by steatosis in goose primary hepatocytes is unknown. In this study, the effect of linoleate on the lipid metabolic homeostasis pathway was determined. We measured the mRNA levels of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis, lipid deposition, ?-oxidation, and assembly and secretion of VLDL-TGs in goose (Anser cygnoides) primary hepatocytes. Linoleate significantly increased goose hepatocyte viability, and linoleate at 0.125 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM all showed a significant effect on TG accumulation. However, with increasing linoleate concentrations, the extracellular TG concentration and extracellular VLDL gradually decreased. DGAT1, DGAT2, PPAR?, PPAR?, FoxO1, MTP, PLIN and CPT-1 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. With increasing linoleate concentrations, the changes in DGAT1, DGAT2, PPAR? and CPT-1 gene expression, which regulates hepatic TG synthesis and fatty acid oxidation, first increased and then decreased. Additionally, FoxO1 and MTP gene expression was reduced with increasing linoleate concentrations, and the change in PLIN gene expression was increased at all concentrations, similar to the regulation of intracellular TG accumulation. In conclusion, linoleate regulated TG accumulation and increased hepatocyte viability. The data suggest that linoleate does promote goose hepatocyte viability and steatosis, which may up-regulate TG synthesis-relevant gene expression, suppress assembly and secretion of VLDL-TGs, and increase fatty acid oxidation properly to function of goose primary hepatocytes. PMID:21295151

Pan, Zhixiong; Wang, Jiwen; Tang, Hui; Li, Liang; Lv, Jia; Han, Chunchun; Xia, Lu; Xu, Feng

2011-06-01

242

Fever-Range Hyperthermia vs. Hypothermia Effect on Cancer Cell Viability, Proliferation and HSP90 Expression  

PubMed Central

Purpose The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. Materials and Methods A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Results Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. Conclusions The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands. PMID:25635828

Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V.; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I.

2015-01-01

243

In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides *  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of two photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris HZ0301 and Rhodobacter sphaeroides HZ0302, as probiotics in aquaculture. The viability of HZ0301 and HZ0302 in simulated gastric transit conditions (pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 gastric juices) and in simulated small intestinal transit conditions (pH 8.0, with or without 0.3% bile salts) was tested. The effects of HZ0301 and HZ0302 on the viability and permeability of intestinal epithelial cell in primary culture of tilapias, Oreochromis nilotica, were also detected. All the treatments were determined with three replicates. The simulated gastric transit tolerance of HZ0301 and HZ0302 strains was pH-dependent and correspondingly showed lower viability at pH 2.0 after 180 min compared with pH 3.0 and pH 4.0. Both HZ0301 and HZ0302 were tolerant to simulated small intestine transit with or without bile salts in our research. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among three treatments including the control and the groups treated with HZ0301 or HZ0302 both in intestinal epithelial cell viability and membrane permeability, showing no cell damage. In summary, this study demonstrated that HZ0301 and HZ0302 had high capacity of upper gastrointestinal transit tolerance and were relatively safe for intestinal epithelial cells of tilapias. PMID:17726751

Zhou, Xu-xia; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Yan-bo; Li, Wei-fen

2007-01-01

244

Centre for Economic Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Economic and Social Research Council in 1990, the Centre for Economic Performance CEP at the London School of Economics and Political Science is one of the most prominent and established economic research groups in Europe. By focusing on the major links between globalization, technology and institutions, the CEP studies the determinants of economic performance at the level of the company, the nation, and the global economy. Broadly, CEP's research programs are divided into five groups that include research into labor markets, technology and growth, and education and skills. From the prodigious site, visitors can read about CEP In the News, learn about the various staff members' research areas of expertise, and browse their related publications (including occasional papers, working papers, and the like) back to 1990. Overall, this site will merit more than one visit, as it will be of substantial interest to persons interested in the intersections between economics, education, and globalization, to name but a few of the topical areas covered under the remit of the CEP.

245

Viability of glycerol-preserved and cryopreserved anuran skin.  

PubMed

Anurans are important animal models for studying the effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination of the environment. Two-compartment Teflon flow-through diffusion cells can be used to study percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics across harvested skin. However, such an approach currently necessitates that skin be harvested just before experimentation, a requirement that calls for the continuous growth and housing of living animals. The ability to preserve and store skin would allow more efficient use of animals and more flexibility in experimental design. To this end, we examined the viability of harvested anuran skin stored under various protocols consistent with current practices of mammalian skin preservation. Skin from the American bullfrog maintained 80-85% viability after 28 d, whereas viability of skin from the marine toad was only maintained for 7-10 d. PMID:16409111

Willens, Scott; Stoskopf, Michael K; Martin, Linda D; Lewbart, Gregory A

2005-01-01

246

The Political Economy of Social Democratic Economic Policies: The Pasok Experiment in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the political economy of social democratic economic policies. It focuses on those policies that seek to extend democracy to the social and economic spheres and examines why such experiments have met with limited success in the past. It compares external constraints on the viability of such policies, such as the freedom of capital movements and globalization,

Euclid Tsakalotos

1998-01-01

247

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1973-01-01

248

Assessment of economic and ecological carrying capacity of agricultural crops in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between, and usefulness of, three different analysis methods: (1) economic cost and return estimation (CAR), (2) ecological footprint (EF) and (3) emergy analysis (EA) in assessing economic viability, ecological carrying capacity and sustainability in tropical crop production was the focus for this study. The analyses were conducted on six agricultural crop production systems in Nicaragua: common bean (Phaseolus

M. Cuadra; J. Björklund

2007-01-01

249

Economic evaluation of a solar hot-water system--Palm Beach County, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report projects solar-energy costs and savings for residential hot-water system over 20 year period. Evaluation uses technical and economic models with inputs based on working characteristics of installed system. Primary analysis permits calculation of economic viability for four other U.S. sites.

1981-01-01

250

Evaluating the impact of LED bulb development on the economic viability of ultraviolet technology for disinfection.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) technologies have been very successful in disinfection applications due to their ability to inactivate microorganisms without producing harmful disinfection by-products. However, there have been a number of concerns associated with the use of conventional UV systems such as hazardous mercury content, high capital investment and reduced electrical efficiency. These concerns have set limitations for the use of UV processes. The study evaluates the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology as an alternative UV source over the last 5 years, analyses the projections provided by the researchers and UV LED manufacturers and presents the information in a cost model with the aim to predict the timeline at which UV LED will compete with traditional UV low pressure high output technology in the commercial market at full-scale residential and industrial disinfection applications. PMID:24600880

Ibrahim, Mohamed A S; MacAdam, Jitka; Autin, Olivier; Jefferson, Bruce

2014-01-01

251

Location of an agribusiness enterprise with respect to economic viability: a risk analysis  

E-print Network

substantially impact the local economy. The calculated sensitivity elasticities show ethanol price, ethanol yield, and hydrogen price are the three variables that have the greatest affect on the feasibility of a biomass to ethanol production facility....

Lau, Michael H.

2006-04-12

252

Contemporary health care economics: an overview.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations provide a decision-making framework in which outcomes (benefits) and costs are assessed for various alternative options. Although the interest in complete and partial economic evaluations has increased over the past 2 decades, the quality of studies has been marginal due to methodological challenges or incomplete cost determination. This paper provides an overview of the main types of complete and partial economic evaluations, reviews key methodological elements to be considered for any economic evaluation, and reviews concepts of cost determination. The goal is to provide the clinician neurosurgeon with the knowledge and tools needed to appraise published economic evaluations and to direct high-quality health economic evaluations. PMID:25363430

McLaughlin, Nancy; Ong, Michael K; Tabbush, Victor; Hagigi, Farhad; Martin, Neil A

2014-11-01

253

Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.  

PubMed

A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

Medici, Emķlia Patrķcia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

2012-12-01

254

Airship economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

1975-01-01

255

Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells  

PubMed Central

We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s?1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s?1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining optimal operating conditions for laser microbeam-based pallet release systems for the isolation and selection of adherent cells. PMID:22158840

Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan

2012-01-01

256

7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47...PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic feasibility requirements. ...for determining the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed...

2010-01-01

257

Impact of thermal effects induced by ultrasound on viability of rat C6 glioma cells.  

PubMed

In order to have consistent and repeatable effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on various cancer cells or tissue lesions we should be able to control a delivered ultrasound energy and thermal effects induced. The objective of this study was to investigate viability of rat C6 glioma cells in vitro depending on the intensity of ultrasound in the region of cells and to determine the exposure time inducing temperature rise above 43 °C, which is known to be toxic for cells. For measurements a planar piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 20 mm and a resonance frequency of 1.06 MHz was used. The transducer generated tone bursts with 94 ?s duration, 0.4 duty-cycle and initial intensity ISATA (spatial averaged, temporal averaged) varied from 0.33 W/cm(2) to 8 W/cm(2) (average acoustic power varied from 1 W to 24 W). The rat C6 glioma cells were cultured on a bottom of wells in 12-well plates, incubated for 24h and then exposed to ultrasound with measured acoustic properties, inducing or causing no thermal effects leading to cell death. Cell viability rate was determined by MTT assay (a standard colorimetric assay for assessing cell viability) as the ratio of the optical densities of the group treated by ultrasound to the control group. Structural cellular changes and apoptosis estimation were observed under a microscope. Quantitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to determine the maximal exposure time that does not lead to the thermal effects above 43 °C in the region of cells for each initial intensity of the tone bursts used as well as the threshold intensity causing cell death after 3 min exposure to ultrasound due to thermal effects. The averaged threshold intensity was found to be about 5.7 W/cm(2). PMID:24589258

Kujawska, T; Secomski, W; Bilmin, K; Nowicki, A; Grieb, P

2014-07-01

258

Basketball Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit offers five economics lessons related to basketball. Lessons include: (1) "Money, Money, Money in the Basketball Player's World"; (2) "Take Me to the Basketball Game Lesson"; (3) "What Does It Take?"; (4) "Productivity of a Basketball Player"; and (5) "Congratulations! You Just Won the NBA Championships." Most of the lessons…

Scheinman, Daniel; Scheinman, Ted

259

Cable Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

260

Economic impact  

SciTech Connect

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

261

Resource Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

Conrad, Jon M.

2000-01-01

262

Economic Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

Stuart, Reginald

2009-01-01

263

Probiotic fermented Sausage: Viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the

M. Rouhi; A. M. Mortazavian

2011-01-01

264

Continued Viability of Universities as Centers for Basic Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings and 13 recommendations of a NSF Advisory Council task force that evaluated universities as centers of basic research are presented. Listed are the major strengths of universities as centers for basic research (including continuity and tradition, freedom of research, interactions among disciplines) and such threats to their viability

Carter, Lisle C., Jr.; And Others

265

III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27  

E-print Network

29 III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27 The previous chapters focused on first generation biofuels. In this chapter we focus on second generation biofuels, specifically biofuels derived from cellulosic or lignocellulosic conversion. Advocates for the development of cellulosic

266

UNCORRECTED 2 Flawed population viability analysis can result  

E-print Network

assessment: A case study 4 for wolves in Algonquin park, Canada 5 Brent R. Pattersona,*, Dennis L. Murrayb 6 hazards of improper use of PVA we reanalyzed data from a recent study on viability of wolves in Algonquin Provin- cial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada. The original PVA predicted extirpation of wolves from APP

267

Population Ecology Evaluating Spatially Explicit Viability of a  

E-print Network

Population Ecology Evaluating Spatially Explicit Viability of a Declining Ruffed Grouse Population and promote plant and animal communities that depend on periodic forest disturbance. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa half-century. Although ruffed grouse are extensively studied, little effort has been made to link

Reed, Michael

268

On the viability of FPGA-based integrated coprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the viability of using integrated programmable logic as a coprocessor to support a host CPU core. This adaptive coprocessor is compared to a VLIW machine in term of both die area occupied and performance. The parametric bounds necessary to justify the adoption of an FPGA-based coprocessor are established. An abstract field programmable gate array model is used

Osama T. Albaharna; Peter Y. K. Cheung; Thomas J. Clarke

1996-01-01

269

Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

2011-01-01

270

Tree Squirrel Introduction: A Theoretical Approach with Population Viability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reintroduction efforts require knowledge of how many animals are needed for successful establishment. Population viability analysis can be used to predict trajectories of introduced populations and tree squirrels provide an ideal model system to investigate this challenge. Conservation action is needed because more than 80% of species of tree squirrels are of precarious conservation status in some portion of their

David J. A. Wood; John L. Koprowski; Peter W. W. Lurz

2007-01-01

271

Effect of lanthanide complex structure on cell viability and association.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 ?M) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 ?M complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

Peterson, Katie L; Dang, Jonathan V; Weitz, Evan A; Lewandowski, Cutler; Pierre, Valérie C

2014-06-16

272

SEED GERMINATION AND VIABILITY OF WYOMING SAGEBRUSH IN NORTHERN NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Seed size and germination behavior affect performance of early seedlings. The purpose of this study was to investigate rela- tionships between seed size and germination percentage, germina- tion rate, time course of germination and seed viability in Wyo- ming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young). Working hypotheses were: 1) for single seeds, germination percentages and rates

Carlos A. Busso; Mónica Mazzola; Barry L. Perryman

2005-01-01

273

Viability of stored seed: extension by cathodic protection.  

PubMed

Placing seeds on a negatively charged conductor extended their viability during artificial aging. Such cathodic protection may reduce free radical attack by providing a source of electrons. The results stupport the hypothesis of free radical damage to cellular components and are consistent with such damage being important in deteriorative senescence changes. PMID:17818626

Pammenter, N W; Adamson, J H; Berjak, P

1974-12-20

274

Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation; viability and motility results were correlated, but independent of fertilization. For pallid sturgeon sperm (experiment 4), MT with 5-10% MeOH showed significantly higher sperm quality and fertilization parameters. Membrane integrity can be used as a predictor of fertilization by cryopreserved sperm, however additional sperm quality parameters, supplementary to motility and membrane integrity, would be useful in the refining and optimizing cryopreservation protocols with acipenseriform sperm. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

2008-01-01

275

WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT twenty thirteen- fourteen Prospectus #12;WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT-being worldwide." "Economics is the issue of the times in which we live." Contents ninety-four The percent Inspirational instruction 11 Highlighted Research 13 Behavioural Economics 14 Development 16 Economic History 18

Davies, Christopher

276

Discussion Papers in Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

Discussion Papers in Economics Department of Economics University of Surrey Guildford Surrey GU2 7 participants at Aberdeen, Essex, LSE, UCL, the Paris School of Economics and from participants in the 2007 Royal Economic Society annual conference held in Warwick, the 2007 American Law and Economics

Doran, Simon J.

277

A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

2001-01-01

278

Economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

None

1980-06-01

279

Effects of corticosteroid on the expressions of neuropeptide and cytokine mRNA and on tenocyte viability in lateral epicondylitis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the reaction mechanism of corticosteroid by analyzing the expression patterns of neuropeptides (substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)) and of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor growth factor (TGF)-?) after corticosteroid treatment in lateral epicondylitis. In addition, we also investigated whether corticosteroid influenced tenocyte viability. Methods The corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) was applied to cultured tenocytes of lateral epicondylitis, and the changes in the mRNA expressions of neuropeptides and cytokines and tenocyte viabilities were analyzed at seven time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and an MTT assay were used. Results The expression of SP mRNA was maximally inhibited by TAA at 24 hours but recovered at 72 hours, and the expressions of CGRP mRNA and IL-1? mRNA were inhibited at 24 and 3 hours, respectively. The expression of TGF-? mRNA was not significant. Tenocyte viability was significantly reduced by TAA at 24 hours. Conclusions We postulate that the reaction mechanism predominantly responsible for symptomatic relief after a corticosteroid injection involves the inhibitions of neuropeptides and cytokines, such as, CGRP and IL-1?. However the tenocyte viability was compromised by a corticosteroid. PMID:23107345

2012-01-01

280

Kentucky Annual Economic Report  

E-print Network

economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; and economic growth and development, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors affecting Kentucky

Hayes, Jane E.

281

Kentucky Annual Economic Report  

E-print Network

; transportation economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; technology use and adoption-term economic, education, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors

Hayes, Jane E.

282

Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.  

PubMed

Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model. PMID:25384723

Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

2014-01-01

283

Extinction-effective population index: incorporating life-history variations in population viability analysis.  

PubMed

Viability status of populations is a commonly used measure for decision-making in the management of populations. One of the challenges faced by managers is the need to consistently allocate management effort among populations. This allocation should in part be based on comparison of extinction risks among populations. Unfortunately, common criteria that use minimum viable population size or count-based population viability analysis (PVA) often do not provide results that are comparable among populations, primarily because they lack consistency in determining population size measures and threshold levels of population size (e.g., minimum viable population size and quasi-extinction threshold). Here I introduce a new index called the "extinction-effective population index," which accounts for differential effects of demographic stochasticity among organisms with different life-history strategies and among individuals in different life stages. This index is expected to become a new way of determining minimum viable population size criteria and also complement the count-based PVA. The index accounts for the difference in life-history strategies of organisms, which are modeled using matrix population models. The extinction-effective population index, sensitivity, and elasticity are demonstrated in three species of Pacific salmonids. The interpretation of the index is also provided by comparing them with existing demographic indices. Finally, a measure of life-history-specific effect of demographic stochasticity is derived. PMID:17918411

Fujiwara, Masami

2007-09-01

284

The effect of tuning cold plasma composition on glioblastoma cell viability.  

PubMed

Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term "plasma dosage" to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

2014-01-01

285

Controlling laser-induced jet formation for bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells with high viability and high resolution.  

PubMed

Laser-assisted bioprinting is a versatile, non-contact, nozzle-free printing technique which has demonstrated high potential for cell printing with high resolution. Improving cell viability requires determining printing conditions which minimize shear stress for cells within the jet and cell impact at droplet landing. In this context, this study deals with laser-induced jet dynamics to determine conditions from which jets arise with minimum kinetic energies. The transition from a sub-threshold regime to jetting regime has been associated with a geometrical parameter (vertex angle) which can be harnessed to print mesenchymal stem cells with high viability using slow jet conditions. Finally, hydrodynamic jet stability is also studied for higher laser pulse energies which give rise to supersonic but turbulent jets. PMID:25215452

Ali, Muhammad; Pages, Emeline; Ducom, Alexandre; Fontaine, Aurelien; Guillemot, Fabien

2014-12-01

286

Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models  

SciTech Connect

Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-11-01

287

Mechanisms of viability in rabbit flank venous flaps.  

PubMed

Venous flaps may become more versatile in reconstruction and offer different opportunities to reconstructive surgeons if the mechanisms of their viability is clarified. In this study, axial pattern flank flaps in rabbits were converted into venous flaps by dividing the cutaneous pedicles and ligating the artery. Fluorescein and radioactive tracer studies were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of possible circulation. It is hypothesized that the venous flaps do not have a capillary circulation, but veins transport the fluid out, which is drawn into the capillaries from the interstitium, and that the nutrients and oxygen for flap viability diffuse from the wound bed. Venous drainage plays an important role by draining the metabolites away until revascularization offers a more direct supply. PMID:8333688

Genēosmano?lu, R; Ulgen, O; Yaman, C; Songür, E; Akin, Y; Ca?das, A

1993-01-01

288

Song Diversity Predicts the Viability of Fragmented Bird Populations  

PubMed Central

In the global scenario of increasing habitat fragmentation, finding appropriate indicators of population viability is a priority for conservation. We explored the potential of learned behaviours, specifically acoustic signals, to predict the persistence over time of fragmented bird populations. We found an association between male song diversity and the annual rate of population change, population productivity and population size, resulting in birds singing poor repertoires in populations more prone to extinction. This is the first demonstration that population viability can be predicted by a cultural trait (acquired via social learning). Our results emphasise that cultural attributes can reflect not only individual-level characteristics, but also the emergent population-level properties. This opens the way to the study of animal cultural diversity in the increasingly common human-altered landscapes. PMID:18350158

Laiolo, Paola; Vögeli, Matthias; Serrano, David; Tella, José L.

2008-01-01

289

Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

2012-12-01

290

Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population?s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

291

Viability of Sacramento River Winter-Run Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The winter run of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) on the Sacramento River in California (U.S.A.) was the first Pacific salmon stock to be listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We describe some of the characteristics of Pacific salmon populations that require special consideration in viability analysis while developing a model specific to the Sacramento River winter run of

Louis W. Botsford; John G. Brittnacher

1998-01-01

292

Rapid assessment of bacterial viability by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a flow cytometer to rapidly assess microbial viability was investigated using three vital stains: rhodamine 123 (Rh123); 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide [DiOC6(3)] and fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Rh123 was found to clearly differentiate viable from non-viable bacteria. The methodology for staining bacteria with this dye was optimised. Rh123 was shown to stain and discriminate several different species of viable bacteria

J. P. Diaper; K. Tither; C. Edwards

1992-01-01

293

Characteristics associated with Regional Health Information Organization viability  

PubMed Central

Objective Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability. Design Using data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational and factors associated with financial viability. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify unique predictors. Measurements We classified RHIOs actively facilitating data exchange as operational and measured financial viability as the percent of operating costs covered by revenue from participants in data exchange (0–24%, 25–74%, 75–100%). Predictors included breadth of participants, breadth of data exchanged, whether the RHIO focused on a specific population, whether RHIO participants had a history of collaborating, and sources of revenue during the planning phase. Results Exchanging a narrow set of data and involving a broad group of stakeholders were independently associated with a higher likelihood of being operational. Involving hospitals and ambulatory physicians, and securing early funding from participants were associated with a higher likelihood of financial viability, while early grant funding seemed to diminish the likelihood. Conclusion Finding ways to help RHIOs become operational and self-sustaining will bolster the current approach to nationwide health information exchange. Our work suggests that convening a broad coalition of stakeholders to focus on a narrow set of data is an important step in helping RHIOs become operational. Convincing stakeholders to financially commit early in the process may help RHIOs become self-sustaining. PMID:20064803

Adler-Milstein, Julia; Landefeld, John; Jha, Ashish K

2010-01-01

294

Cell viability analysis using trypan blue: manual and automated methods.  

PubMed

One of the traditional methods of cell viability analysis is the use of trypan blue dye exclusion staining. This technique has been the standard methodology used in academic research laboratories and industrial biotechnology plants. Cells were routinely counted manually with a hemocytometer. In recent years, modern automated instrumentation has been introduced to supplement this traditional technique with the efficiency and reproducibility of computer control, advanced imaging, and automated sample handling. PMID:21468962

Louis, Kristine S; Siegel, Andre C

2011-01-01

295

Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were

Sabitha Prabakharan; Joel M. Teichman; Scott S. Spore; Edmund Sabanegh; Randolph D. Glickman; Robert J. McLean

2000-01-01

296

Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (?150,000ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally)

Noah G. Perlut; Allan M. Strong; Therese M. Donovan; Neil J. Buckley

2008-01-01

297

Socio-economic Determinants of Household Fertilizer Use Intensity for Maize-based Production Systems in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at understanding current status of soil fertility management and the identification of socio-economic characteristics influencing the decision of households on fertilizer use intensity in maize-based production systems in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty households involved in maize-based production system (2003/2004) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logit model. Analysis revealed that households combine techniques like application of organic and mineral fertilizer and crop planting pattern in maintaining the fertility of their soils. The ratio of N: P2O5: K2O per hectare from both organic and inorganic sources were 49.5:98.3:56.7 kg in Katsina State and 58.7: 109.4: 53.6 kg in Kaduna State. The estimated logit models revealed that fertilizer use intensity is significantly influenced by previous year`s income, land ownership, engagement in off farm activities and years of experience in maize farming.

Adunni Sanni, S.; Doppler, Werner

298

Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

2007-10-01

299

Economic Impact Reporting Framework  

E-print Network

Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2007/08 November 2008 #12;#12;Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2007/08 #12;STFC Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2007/08 Contents: Introduction..............................................................................................................................................2 1: Overall Economic Impacts

300

Economic Impact Reporting Framework  

E-print Network

Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2008/09 #12;#12;Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2008/09 #12;STFC Economic Impact Reporting Framework 2008/09 Contents: Introduction..............................................................................................................................................2 1: Overall Economic Impacts

301

Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.  

PubMed

Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (< or = 3 months) stability after seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

2001-08-01

302

Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies ?HB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood ?HB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05). Ketone administration elicited anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo independent of glucose levels or calorie restriction. The use of supplemental ketone precursors as a cancer treatment should be further investigated in animal models to determine potential for future clinical use. PMID:24615175

Poff, A M; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, T N; D'Agostino, D P

2014-10-01

303

Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, ?-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

2014-09-01

304

Spore Density and Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungal Isolates from Indonesia, and Their Virulence against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was on quantifying fitness attributes, such as spore density and viability, and determining the virulence level against aphid (Aphis gossypii) nymphs of isolates from the fungal species Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungal isolates were obtained from several insects, including Plutella xylostella, Hypothenemus hampei, Bronstispa longissima, A. gossypii, Tenebrio molitor, and Leptocorisa acuta, that were collected from Indonesian islands, such as Sumatera, Java, and Sulawesi. Third instar aphid nymphs were inoculated via topical application of 106 conidia ml?1 of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates could produce very dense spores. The M. anisopliae isolate MaAg, which was obtained from the aphid, had the highest spore density at 6.70 × 108 conidia ml?1. Among the B. bassiana isolates, the highest conidial viability belonged to isolate CPJW8, which was obtained from Chrysodeixis chalcites, with a 39% average viability. Among the M. anisopliae isolates, the highest viabilities belonged to the isolates MaAg and MaLa, which were obtained from L. acuta, with a 33% and 32% average viabilities, respectively. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates were virulent against aphid nymphs, with mortality rates ranging from 64% to 94%. The three most virulent isolates were BBY715 (94%), MPx (92%), and MaTm (92%), and the least virulent isolate was MaLa (64%). BBY715, the most virulent isolate, had the shortest lethal time median (LT50) against aphid nymphs at 2.97 hours, and MaLa had the longest LT50 at 61.81 hours. PMID:24575186

Herlinda, Siti

2010-01-01

305

Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157?nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10?K) and vacuum  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157?nm laser irradiation (412 kJm{sup ?2}) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180?nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, ?-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10?K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10?K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

Sarantopoulou, E., E-mail: esarant@eie.gr; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S. [N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Institute for Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, Patriarchou Gregoriou Str. Aghia Paraskevi, Athens 15310 (Greece); Velentzas, A. D. [University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Athens 15784 (Greece)

2014-09-14

306

Viability Kernel for Ecosystem Management Models Eladio Oca~na Anaya  

E-print Network

Viability Kernel for Ecosystem Management Models Eladio Oca~na Anaya Michel De Lara Ricardo task in general. We study the viability of nonlinear generic ecosystem models under preservation in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem. Key words: control theory; state constraints; viability; predator

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

307

Fluorescein diacetate as a viability stain for tree roots and seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was tested as a viability stain for roots of green ash as well as for seeds of green ash and 10 other tree species. The viability level indicated by FDA staining of green ash roots agreed well with root growth potential results, bud condition assessment, and foliage browning measurements. In seed viability experiments, the FDA staining intensity

Thomas L. Noland; Gina H. Mohammed

1997-01-01

308

Land is a vital asset in South Asian agrarian societies, as it determines the overall socio-economic, political, and cultural status of individuals and  

E-print Network

Land is a vital asset in South Asian agrarian societies, as it determines the overall socio to the skewed distribution of land. Though some efforts have been made to address these issues through land reform, the results have not been satisfactory. Addressing these issues requires transformative land

Richner, Heinz

309

Selective, sensitive and economical method for the adsorptive voltammetric determination of trace amounts of Mo(VI) in organic matter rich environmental samples.  

PubMed

A differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric method has been developed for molybdenum trace determination in environmental water samples containing organic compounds. It was proved that interferences from the organic matrix such as surface active substances and humic substances could be removed by the addition of resin to the analysed sample prior to voltammetric measurement. The parameters for Mo(VI) determination in the presence of resin, using a hanging mercury drop as the working electrode, were examined systematically for two complexing agents: cupferron and chloranilic acid. The detection limits estimated from 3 times the standard deviation for a low Mo(VI) concentrations were equal to 5 × 10(-11) and 3 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) for cupferron and chloranilic acid, respectively. At the optimized conditions the quantitative Mo(VI) determination in the presence of even 50 mg L(-1) of surface active compounds can be performed. The proposed procedures were validated in the course of Mo(VI) determination in certified reference material NASS-5 and in the course of studying recovery of Mo(VI) from spiked river water samples. PMID:21376963

Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Koper, Anna

2011-04-15

310

Determination of the optimal installation capacity of small hydro-power plants through the use of technical, economic and reliability indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important issues in planning Small Hydro-Power Plants (SHPPs) of the “run-off river” type is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the SHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method to calculate the annual energy is presented, as is the program developed using Excel software. This program analyzes and estimates the

S. M. H. Hosseini; F. Forouzbakhsh; M. Rahimpoor

2005-01-01

311

Economic History Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite its reputation as ā??the dismal scienceā?¯, economics continues to attract new scholars in great numbers every year, and a number of websites provide high-quality materials for those interested in the subject. The Economic History Services website began life in 1994 as a mere discussion list, and since then has grown to include numerous resources that include book reviews, a collection of course syllabi, a directory of economic historians, along with the ever-popular ā??How Much is That?ā?¯ service. The ā??How Much is That?ā?¯ area is quite useful, as visitors can use it to determine historical prices for goods and services, interest rates, wage rates, and inflation rates. Budding economic historians will want to check out the ā??Ask The Professorā?¯ feature, which allows users to submit queries related to the subject. The section also contains an archive of answered questions, which include such enigmas as ā??Is deflation bad for the economy?ā?¯ The site also includes a calendar of events for persons interested in learning about upcoming lectures, conferences, workshops, and the like.

312

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777  

E-print Network

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

Almor, Amit

313

Economic benefits of supersonic overland operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental concerns are likely to impose some restrictions on the next generation of supersonic commercial transport. There is a global concern over the effects of engine emissions on the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from ultraviolet radiation. There is also some concern over community noise. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) must meet at least the current subsonic noise certification standards to be compatible with the future subsonic fleet. Concerns over sonic boom represent another environmental and marketing challenge to the HSCT program. The most attractive feature of the supersonic transport is speed, which offers the traveling public significant time-savings on long range routes. The sonic boom issue represents a major environmental and economic challenge as well. Supersonic operation overland produces the most desirable economic results. However, unacceptable overland sonic boom raise levels may force HSCT to use subsonic speeds overland. These environmental and economic challenges are likely to impose some restrictions on supersonic operation, thus introducing major changes to existing route structures and future supersonic network composition. The current subsonic route structure may have to be altered for supersonic transports to avoid sensitive areas in the stratosphere or to minimize overland flight tracks. It is important to examine the alternative route structure and the impact of these restrictions on the economic viability of the overall supersonic operation. Future market potential for HSCT fleets must be large enough to enable engine and airframe manufacturers to build the plane at a cost that provides them with an attractive return on investment and to sell it at a price that allows the airlines to operate with a reasonable margin of profit. Subsonic overland operation of a supersonic aircraft hinders its economic viability. Ways to increase the market potential of supersonic operation are described.

Metwally, Munir

1992-01-01

314

A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Social, Institutional, Cultural, and Economic Supports for Autonomy and Their Importance for Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the authors discuss modern conceptions of happiness, including hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. They distinguish\\u000a happiness as a symptom rather than sine qua non of well-being, and they relate the later to the human capability for autonomous\\u000a self-regulation. Using a self-determination framework they define autonomy and detail its essential functional role in allowing\\u000a individuals within any culture to

Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

315

Visualizing Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

Mulbrandon, Catherine

316

Viability of Carbon Dioxide Storage in Deep Sea Sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the public's general aversion to using the ocean to dispose of captured carbon dioxide (CO2), recent revisions of the London Protocol have removed a hurdle to subsea injection of CO2. This paper constructs a map of the worldwide "prospectivity" of CO2 storage in deep sea sediment, i.e. amenable locations are determined and storage capacities estimated. CO2 injected into deep sea sediment is expected to be gravitationally trapped and secondarily capped by CO2 hydrate formation. Capture, transport, and storage costs are estimated and a mixed-integer linear programming model that generates spatially optimized infrastructure networks is applied. The model captures CO2 from fixed point sources, uses minimum cost routing paths, aggregates CO2 flow into trunk distribution pipelines where appropriate, and injects the CO2 in potential deep sea injection sites. Economies of scale for this climate change mitigation intervention in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone are discussed, including provisions for destabilizing and/or harvesting methane from in situ gas hydrates.

Bielicki, J. M.

2007-12-01

317

Effect of KCl substitution on bacterial viability of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and selected probiotics.  

PubMed

Excessive intake of NaCl has been associated with the increased risk of several diseases, particularly hypertension. Strategies to reduce sodium intake include substitution of NaCl with other salts, such as KCl. In this study, the effects of NaCl reduction and its substitution with KCl on cell membranes of a cheese starter bacterium (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis), probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei), and a pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A critical NaCl concentration that inhibited the viability of E. coli without affecting the viability of probiotic bacteria significantly was determined. To find the critical NaCl concentration, de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) broth was supplemented with a range of NaCl concentrations [0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0%], and the effect on cell viability and FTIR spectra was monitored for all bacteria. A NaCl concentration of 2.5% was found to be the critical level of NaCl to inhibit E. coli without significantly affecting the viability of most of the probiotic bacteria and the cheese starter bacterium. The FTIR spectral analysis also highlighted the changes that occurred mainly in the amide regions upon increasing the NaCl concentration from 2.5 to 3.0% in most of the bacteria. Escherichia coli and B. longum were more sensitive to substitution of NaCl with KCl, compared with Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei, and Lc. lactis ssp. lactis. To evaluate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl, substitution was carried out at the critical total salt concentration (2.5%, wt/vol) at varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% KCl). The findings suggest that 50% substitution of NaCl with KCl, at 2.5% total salt, could inhibit E. coli without affecting the probiotic bacteria. PMID:25064650

Gandhi, Akanksha; Cui, Yuxiang; Zhou, Mingyang; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-10-01

318

Applications of a Rapid Endospore Viability Assay for Monitoring UV Inactivation and Characterizing Arctic Ice Cores†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a rapid endospore viability assay (EVA) in which endospore germination serves as an indicator for viability and applied it to (i) monitor UV inactivation of endospores as a function of dose and (ii) determine the proportion of viable endospores in arctic ice cores (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 [GISP2] cores; 94 m). EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released from endospores during germination. DPA concentrations were determined using the terbium ion (Tb3+)-DPA luminescence assay, and germination was induced by l-alanine addition. The concentrations of germinable endospores were determined by comparison to a standard curve. Parallel EVA and phase-contrast microscopy experiments to determine the percentage of germinable spores yielded comparable results (54.3% ± 3.8% and 48.9%?± 4.5%, respectively), while only 27.8% ± 7.6% of spores produced CFU. EVA was applied to monitor the inactivation of spore suspensions as a function of UV dose, yielding reproducible correlations between EVA and CFU inactivation data. The 90% inactivation doses were 2,773 J/m2, 3,947 J/m2, and 1,322 J/m2 for EVA, phase-contrast microscopy, and CFU reduction, respectively. Finally, EVA was applied to quantify germinable and total endospore concentrations in two GISP2 ice cores. The first ice core contained 295 ± 19 germinable spores/ml and 369 ± 36 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 79.9% ± 9.3%), and the second core contained 131 ± 4 germinable spores/ml and 162?± 17 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 80.9% ± 8.8%), whereas only 2 CFU/ml were detected by culturing. PMID:17021233

Shafaat, Hannah S.; Ponce, Adrian

2006-01-01

319

The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5?mmol/L), constant high glucose (CHG) (25?mmol/L), and IHG (rotation per 24?h in 11.1 or 25?mmol/L) for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase (XOD) level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG. PMID:24772447

Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Yang, Lei; Chen, Rongping; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Cai, Dehong; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

320

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.  

PubMed

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-10-01

321

Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01), except for BriB that was safe at concentrations up to 0.25mg/mL and CR up to 0.05mg/mL, while LG was safe in all concentrations. Toxicity was higher after 30 minutes of exposure. Expression of Bax was upregulated after all dyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (p<0.01). Conclusions Overall the safest dye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castańo, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

2013-01-01

322

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O3, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D’Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-01-01

323

Parental age, gametic age, and inbreeding interact to modulate offspring viability in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In principle, parental relatedness, parental age, and the age of parental gametes can all influence offspring fitness through inbreeding depression and the parental effects of organismal and postmeiotic gametic senescence. However, little is known about the extent to which these factors interact and contribute to fitness variation. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, offspring viability is strongly affected by a three-way interaction between parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age at successive developmental stages. Overall egg-to-adult viability was lowest for offspring produced with old gametes of related, young parents. This overall effect was largely determined at the pupa-adult stage, although three-way interactions between parental relatedness, parental age and gametic age also explained variation in egg hatchability and larva-pupa survival. Controlling for the influence of parental and gametic age, we show that inbreeding depression is negligible for egg hatchability but significant at the larva-pupa and pupa-adult stages. At the pupa-adult stage, where offspring could be sexed, parental relatedness, parental age, and gametic age interacted differently in male and female offspring, with daughters suffering higher inbreeding depression than sons. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the architecture of offspring fitness is strongly influenced by a complex interaction between parental effects, inbreeding depression and offspring sex. PMID:24094353

Tan, Cedric K W; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

2013-10-01

324

Glucose and TGF ?2 Modulate the Viability of Cultured Human Retinal Pericytes and Their VEGF Release  

PubMed Central

Purpose Determine the effects of glucose and exogenous TGF?2 on viability and VEGF release by human retinal pericytes (HRP). Methods Human retinal pericytes (HRP) were cultured in 5 mM (physiologic) or high (18 mM) glucose with or without added TGF?2. Viable cells were counted; TGF?2 and VEGF in the conditioned media (CM) were measured by ELISA. Results High glucose significantly reduced viable cell number and increased the levels of TGF?2 and VEGF. TGF?2 caused a significant dose-dependent effect on viable cell number and on the level of VEGF secreted into the CM by HRP in physiologic glucose, decreasing viable cell number, and increasing VEGF release per 1000 cells at a low concentration (0.1 ng/ml) and increasing viable cell number and decreasing VEGF release per 1000 cells at higher concentrations (1.0 and 10 ng/ml). TGF?2 affected neither parameter in high glucose. Conclusions Elevated glucose decreased HRP viability and modulated changes in TGF?2 and VEGF release. This suggests a novel mechanism for HRP dropout in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:19085381

Vidro, Eileen K.; Gee, Stephen; Unda, Richard; Ma, Jian-xing; Tsin, Andrew

2015-01-01

325

Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad  

PubMed Central

Background: Fat grafting has been increasingly utilized in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures, yet the basic scientific understanding of fat grafting has lagged behind the pace of clinical innovation and utilization. This lack of basic scientific understanding has perhaps manifested itself in the wide range of graft viability reported across the literature. This study attempts to further the underlying mechanisms of fat graft take and viability through the comparison of the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in athymic rats. Methods: Lipoaspirate from a consenting patient was grafted into 2 locations in the subcutaneous plane and into the 2 inguinal fat pads in each of 4 athymic rats. Specimens were then collected after 47 days, and immunohistochemistry was utilized to determine angiogenesis in the fat grafts as a measure of fat graft take. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t test and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.2913) between the inguinal fat pad and the subcutaneous plane when measuring neovascularization. Analysis of variance comparing the graft locations also indicated no statistically significant difference when comparing each of the rats. Conclusions: Investigation into fat graft injection location indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in angiogenesis signals between the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in the athymic rat model. Further research should aim to continue to close the gap between clinical practice and basic scientific understanding of fat grafting. PMID:25587494

Constantine, Ryan S.; Harrison, Bridget; Davis, Kathryn E.

2014-01-01

326

Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:24843386

ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

2013-01-01

327

[Inhibition of cell viability by cellular debris. Model experiments to study tissue damage (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Some aspects of tissue damage as it may accompany shock are investigated in an in vitro model system. Some effects of cell debris obtained by sonication of BHK 21 cells on viable cultures of freshly dissociated cells of the same line are evaluated. After 24 h incubation on a coverglass, the area covered by cell nuclei per square millimeter was determined. Spreading of viable cells is inhibited by the cell debris. In this way, growth and viability are also impeded. After 24 h the mitotic index in controls and treated cell-cultures is the same. The inhibition is exhibited as well by the supernatant as the pellet of a centrifuged suspension of sonicated cells. The growth retardation is counteracted by the polyvalent protease inhibitor Trasylol (50 KIE/ml), when the whole suspension or its pellet are added to the culture, but not when the supernatant affects the cells. These results indicate that the injurious substance is not a protease. The protective action of Trasylol may be due to a stabilisation of lysosomes. Tissue injury is often accompanied by alterations in cellular adhesiveness to substrate and in growth rate. The system used here offers a simple model to study the influence of necrotic tissue on cell viability as well as its pharmacological susceptibility. PMID:403675

Bereiter-Hahn, J

1977-03-17

328

Antigenicity and viability of Anisakis larvae infesting hake heated at different time-temperature conditions.  

PubMed

Heat treatments (40 to 94 degrees Celsius, 30 s to 60 min) were applied to different batches of Anisakis simplex L3 larvae isolated from hake ovaries and viscera to study the effect of heat on the viability of the larvae measured as mobility, emission of fluorescence under UV light, and changes in color after staining with specific dyes, and on A. simplex antigenic proteins. The aim was to determine the lowest time-temperature conditions needed to kill the larvae to avoid anisakiasis in consumers, and to evaluate whether high temperature modifies the antigenicity of A. simplex extracts. Heating at 60 degrees Celsius for 10 min (recommended by some authors) was considered unsafe, as differences in viability between batches were found, with some larvae presenting spontaneous movements in one batch. At higher temperatures (> or = 70 degrees Celsius for > or = 1 min), no movement of the larvae was observed. Antigenic protein Ani s 4 and A. simplex crude antigens were detected in the larvae heated at 94 + or - 1 degrees Celsius for 3 min. This indicates that allergic symptoms could be provoked in previously sensitized consumers, even if the larvae were killed by heat treatment. PMID:20051205

Vidacek, Sanja; de las Heras, Cristina; Solas, Maria Teresa; Mendizįbal, Angel; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Tejada, Margarita

2010-01-01

329

Effects of Birds Ingesting Heterodera rostochiensis Cysts on Viability of Eggs and Larvae  

PubMed Central

Rate of passage through the digestive systems and effects of ingestion on viability of contents of cysts of Heterodera rostochiensis were determined in feeding trials with pigeons, thrushes, starlings, cowbirds, sparrows, and quails. Depending upon species of birds, 12-82% of the cysts ingested passed through the digestive system within 0.5 h. Pigeons required 6 h for complete evacuation. All other birds cmnpletely evacuated ingested cysts from their digestive systems within 3 h. Contents of cysts were nonviable if they were retained in the digestive system of starlings for more than 1.5 h, pigeons more than 1 h, or other birds more than 0.5 h. Cyst contents were nonviable if they remained in contact with excreta from cowbirds or quails for 4 h, thrushes for 96 h, or other species for 72 h after passage. Viability of contents of cysts was inversely related to exposure to excreta-filtrate concentration. Larvae failed to emerge from cysts that were exposed to a 25% concentration of excreta filtrate from starlings, 50% concentration from pigeons or thrushes, or 100% concentration of excreta filtrates from each of the other species. Cysts that were subjected to 44 C (avg. body temperature of cowbirds) for more than 3.5 h were nonviable. Cysts that passed through birds and collected with excrement on polyethylene or soil produced no infective larvae on potato. PMID:19308240

Brodie, B. B.

1976-01-01

330

Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.  

PubMed

In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species. PMID:22976116

Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

2013-05-01

331

Left ventricular remodeling after late revascularization correlates with baseline viability.  

PubMed

The ideal management of stable patients who present late after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is still a matter of conjecture. We hypothesized that the extent of improvement in left ventricular function after successful revascularization in this subset was related to the magnitude of viability in the infarct-related artery territory. However, few studies correlate the improvement of left ventricular function with the magnitude of residual viability in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in this setting. In 68 patients who presented later than 24 hours after a confirmed first STEMI, we performed resting, nitroglycerin-enhanced, technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) before percutaneous coronary intervention, and again 6 months afterwards. Patients whose baseline viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory was more than 50%, 20% to 50%, and less than 20% were divided into Groups 1, 2, and 3 (mildly, moderately, and severely reduced viability, respectively). At follow-up, there was significant improvement in end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 1 and 2, but not in Group 3. We conclude that even late revascularization of the infarct-related artery yields significant improvement in left ventricular remodeling. In patients with more than 20% viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory, the extent of improvement in left ventricular function depends upon the amount of viable myocardium present. The SPECT-MPI can be used as a guide for choosing patients for revascularization. PMID:25120390

Goel, Pravin K; Bhatia, Tanuj; Kapoor, Aditya; Gambhir, Sanjay; Pradhan, Prasanta K; Barai, Sukanta; Tewari, Satyendra; Garg, Naveen; Kumar, Sudeep; Jain, Suruchi; Madhusudan, Ponnusamy; Murthy, Siddegowda

2014-08-01

332

Cell Viability Assessment: Toward Content-Rich Platforms  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Monitoring cell viability in vitro is critical in many areas of biomedical research, and the ultimate goal in drug discovery is the ability to predict the in vivo toxicology of drug candidates based on their toxicity profile in vitro. Over the last decade, the contribution of high-throughput screening (HTS) toward this goal has been tremendous, providing the ability to screen compounds in parallel against multiple cell types. However, the toxic effects of drug candidates uncovered during clinical trials are by far the main reason for their failure. Over the same period, our understanding of programmed cell death has evolved dramatically with the identification of critical control points in the cell death pathways. As a result, cell viability should no longer be characterized solely on the basis of discrete endpoint measurements such as membrane permeability. Areas covered in this review/What the reader will gain This review summarizes the traditional viability assays currently commercially available, focusing on methods amenable to high density format. Assays categorized into the following classes are discussed: dye exclusion assays, DNA condensation-based assays and assays monitoring a metabolic function. We describe each approach, and using case studies, we emphasize their limitations. Take home message Current low-content methods based on single parameter readouts are prone to error due to the heterogeneity of cell populations and the multi-faceted nature of cell death. High-content approaches based on continuous, multiplexed readouts are becoming increasingly important for monitoring multiple markers of cell death induction simultaneously, on a cell by cell basis. The use of such content-rich platforms is a necessity to predict the toxicology of drug candidates accurately. PMID:22823019

Ramirez, Christina Nicole; Antczak, Christophe; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-01-01

333

Left Ventricular Remodeling after Late Revascularization Correlates with Baseline Viability  

PubMed Central

The ideal management of stable patients who present late after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is still a matter of conjecture. We hypothesized that the extent of improvement in left ventricular function after successful revascularization in this subset was related to the magnitude of viability in the infarct-related artery territory. However, few studies correlate the improvement of left ventricular function with the magnitude of residual viability in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in this setting. In 68 patients who presented later than 24 hours after a confirmed first STEMI, we performed resting, nitroglycerin-enhanced, technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography–myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT–MPI) before percutaneous coronary intervention, and again 6 months afterwards. Patients whose baseline viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory was more than 50%, 20% to 50%, and less than 20% were divided into Groups 1, 2, and 3 (mildly, moderately, and severely reduced viability, respectively). At follow-up, there was significant improvement in end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 1 and 2, but not in Group 3. We conclude that even late revascularization of the infarct-related artery yields significant improvement in left ventricular remodeling. In patients with more than 20% viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory, the extent of improvement in left ventricular function depends upon the amount of viable myocardium present. The SPECT–MPI can be used as a guide for choosing patients for revascularization. PMID:25120390

Goel, Pravin K.; Kapoor, Aditya; Gambhir, Sanjay; Pradhan, Prasanta K.; Barai, Sukanta; Tewari, Satyendra; Garg, Naveen; Kumar, Sudeep; Jain, Suruchi; Madhusudan, Ponnusamy; Murthy, Siddegowda

2014-01-01

334

HaCaT Keratinocytes Response on Antimicrobial Atelocollagen Substrates: Extent of Cytotoxicity, Cell Viability and Proliferation  

PubMed Central

The effective and widely tested biocides: Benzalkonium chloride, bronopol, chitosan, chlorhexidine and irgasan were added in different concentrations to atelocollagen matrices. In order to assess how these antibacterial agents influence keratinocytes cell growth, cell viability and proliferation were determined by using MTT assay. Acquired data indicated a low toxicity by employing any of these chemical substances. Furthermore, cell viability and proliferation were comparatively similar to the samples where there were no biocides. It means that regardless of the agent, collagen-cell-attachment properties are not drastically affected by the incorporation of those biocides into the substrate. Therefore, these findings suggest that these atelocollagen substrates enhanced by the addition of one or more of these agents may render effectiveness against bacterial stains and biofilm formation, being the samples referred to herein as “antimicrobial substrates” a promising view in the design of novel antimicrobial biomaterials potentially suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24956439

López-Garcķa, Jorge; Lehockż, Mariįn; Humpolķ?ek, Petr; Sįha, Petr

2014-01-01

335

Viability of adult rat skin following 13 Mev proton irradiation  

E-print Network

concentration of cells was made. Hemacytometer counts of the cell suspension were made at 214, 000 cells per ml. of media. ~844' t8. Fh' *0*1 t p*t f7 tgRt857 and, in addition, an 8 mm. biopsy punch was used to procure "circular" sections of skin... alteration resulting from total skin proton irradiation seemed to be dose related. Therefore, since the amount of tissue alteration seems to be dose-dependent, a hypothesis was developed that growth and viability of skin cells removed' by biopsy...

Caraway, Bobby Lamar

2012-06-07

336

ECONOMIC FREEDOM, POLITICAL FREEDOM, AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING: AC AUSALITY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a renewed interest has been shown in trying to further comprehend the factors that determine a country's rate of economic growth. This is important since a higher growth rate means greater national output, potentially higher living standards, and an enhanced ability to attain economic and social objectives. Earlier studies of the causes of economic growth focused on

W. Ken Farr; Richard A. Lord; J. Larry Wolfenbarger

337

Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

2012-01-01

338

ToHajiilee Economic Development, Inc.(TEDI) Feasibility Study for Utility-Scale Solar  

SciTech Connect

ToĆ?Ā?Hajiilee Economic Development, Inc. (TEDI) is the economic development entity representing the ToHajiilee Chapter of the Navajo Nation, also known as the CaĆ?Ā?oncito Band of Navajo (CBN). Using DOE funding, TEDI assembled a team of qualified advisors to conduct a feasibility study for a utility-scale 30 MW Photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation facility on TEDI trust lands. The goal for this project has been to gather information and practical business commitments to successfully complete the feasibility analysis. The TEDI approach was to successively make informed decisions to select an appropriate technology best suited to the site, determine environmental viability of the site, secure options for the sale of generated power, determine practicality of transmission and interconnection of power to the local grid, and secure preliminary commitments on project financing. The feasibility study has been completed and provides TEDI with a practical understanding of its business options in moving forward with developing a solar project on CBN tribal lands. Funding from DOE has allowed TEDI and its team of professional advisors to carefully select technology and business partners and build a business model to develop this utility-scale solar project. As a result of the positive feasibility findings, TEDI is moving forward with finalizing all pre-construction activities for its major renewable energy project.

Burpo, Rob

2012-02-29

339

Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

2010-01-01

340

Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

2000-05-01

341

Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.  

PubMed

A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

Andrisani, Alessandra; Doną, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

2014-08-01

342

Tau Oligomers Impair Artificial Membrane Integrity and Cellular Viability*  

PubMed Central

The microtubule-associated protein Tau is mainly expressed in neurons, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. In Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, Tau protein has a reduced affinity toward microtubules. As a consequence, Tau protein detaches from microtubules and eventually aggregates into ?-sheet-containing filaments. The fibrillization of monomeric Tau to filaments is a multistep process that involves the formation of various aggregates, including spherical and protofibrillar oligomers. Previous concepts, primarily developed for A? and ?-synuclein, propose these oligomeric intermediates as the primary cytotoxic species mediating their deleterious effects through membrane permeabilization. In the present study, we thus analyzed whether this concept can also be applied to Tau protein. To this end, viability and membrane integrity were assessed on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and artificial phospholipid vesicles, treated with Tau monomers, Tau aggregation intermediates, or Tau fibrils. Our findings suggest that oligomeric Tau aggregation intermediates are the most toxic compounds of Tau fibrillogenesis, which effectively decrease cell viability and increase phospholipid vesicle leakage. Our data integrate Tau protein into the class of amyloidogenic proteins and enforce the hypothesis of a common toxicity-mediating mechanism for amyloidogenic proteins. PMID:23129775

Flach, Katharina; Hilbrich, Isabel; Schiffmann, Andrea; Gärtner, Ulrich; Krüger, Martin; Leonhardt, Marion; Waschipky, Hanka; Wick, Lukas; Arendt, Thomas; Holzer, Max

2012-01-01

343

Effect of left ventricular function on the assessment of myocardial viability by technectium-99m sestamibi and correlation with positron emission tomography in patients with healed myocardial infarcts or stable angina pectoris, or both  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is not defined completely. This study determines whether the performance of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT for viability detection differs between patients with mild-tomoderate coronary artery disease. Patients with regional and\\/or global LV dysfunction

James A. Arrighi; Chin K. Ng; Holley M. Dey; Frans J. Th. Wackers; Robert Soufer

1997-01-01

344

Small molecules inhibit growth, viability and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-Candida efficacy of twenty five molecules of plant origin. Based on their MICs, effective molecules were categorized into four categories. Susceptibility testing of test compounds was carried out by standard methodology (M27-A2) as per CLSI guidelines. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined as the lowest concentration of drug killing 99.9% cells. Effect on sterol profile was evaluated by sterol quantitation method. Among the screened molecules, cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde and indole were potent inhibitors of growth and viability. Exposure of Candida cells to cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde, indole, ?- and ?- pinene at MIC's, altered ergosterol profile. Our results indicate that the molecules altering sterol profile may exert their antifungal effect through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis and could be good candidates for fungal specific drug development. PMID:23449869

Rajput, Sandeep B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

2013-12-01

345

Assessment of cellular viability on calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite injectable scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Cements for maxillofacial reconstruction of jaw defects through calcification of rotated muscle have been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the visibility of loading of two types of commercially available cements, Cerament™ Spine Support and Cerament Bone Void Filler with mesenchymal cells and cytokines (bone morphogenetic protein) to act as a biomimetic scaffolding for future clinical application. Determination of basic biocompatibility (cell viability) using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and live/dead assay was carried out using MG-63 cells at various time points. Next, in order to inform potential subsequent in vivo experiments, a collagen tissue mimic was used for characterization of rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells using immunofluorescent cytoskeleton staining, and simultaneous and then sequential injection of Cerament Spine Support cement and cells into collagen gels. Results indicated that Cerament Spine Support was more biocompatible and that sequential injection of cement and then rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells into the tissue mimics is an optimal approach for clinical applications. PMID:24555009

Naudi, Kurt; Dalby, Matthew J; Tanner, K Elizabeth; McMahon, Jeremy D; Ayoub, Ashraf

2013-01-01

346

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

347

Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ?  

PubMed Central

In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

2011-01-01

348

The Relationship of Arterial Blood pH and pCO2 to the Viability of the Newborn Piglet  

PubMed Central

Clinical observations were made on the majority of 749 newborn piglets from 75 litters and the blood pH and pCO2 levels in samples taken from an umbilical artery were determined in 299 of these piglets. A method of individual clinical assessment was developed which reduced the effect of subjective error on the evaluation of viability at the time of delivery. Blood samples were collected from the umbilical artery prior to the onset of respiratory movements and it was found that increased acidemia and hypercapnia were associated with reduced viability. The pH values in severely depressed piglets were between 6.50 and 6.95 and pCO2 values between 105 and 185 mm Hg, whereas in the fully viable animals, the ranges were 7.10-7.42 and 46-75 mm Hg respectively. It was concluded that a large proportion of the mortality and reduced viability at the time of delivery could be attributed to intra-uterine asphyxia. PMID:4253463

Randall, G. C. B.

1971-01-01

349

Automated enumeration and viability measurement of canine stromal vascular fraction cells using fluorescence-based image cytometry method.  

PubMed

In recent years, the lipoaspirate collected from adipose tissue has been seen as a valuable source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for autologous cellular therapy. For multiple applications, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. Because the fresh stromal vascular fraction typically contains a heterogeneous mixture of cells, determining cell concentration and viability is a crucial step in preparing fraction samples for downstream processing. Due to a large amount of cellular debris contained in the SVF sample, as well as counting irregularities standard manual counting can lead to inconsistent results. Advancements in imaging and optics technologies have significantly improved the image-based cytometric analysis method. In this work, we validated the use of fluorescence-based image cytometry for SVF concentration and viability measurement, by comparing to standard flow cytometry and manual hemocytometer. The concentration and viability of freshly collected canine SVF samples are analyzed, and the results highly correlated between all three methods, which validated the image cytometry method for canine SVF analysis, and potentially for SVF from other species. PMID:24740550

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Cohen, Donald A; Kuksin, Dmitry; Paradis, Benjamin D; Qiu, Jean

2014-07-01

350

Viability assessment of the chondral flap in patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement: a preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Background Delaminated acetabular cartilage is a common finding in patients undergoing surgical dislocation or hip arthroscopy in the treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. Current treatment involves resection of the free cartilage flap with or without acetabular rim trimming. The viability of the delaminated cartilage flap is not known. We sought to examine if the acetabular cartilage still has viable cartilage cells and, if so, what type of cartilage is present. Methods We examined the delaminated cartilage flaps from patients undergoing surgical dislocation and osteochondroplasty for symptomatic cam-type impingement. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological analysis using light microscopy to determine cartilage viability and cartilage type. Results We examined 12 delaminated cartilage flaps from 11 patients (10 men, 1 woman, average age 30.1 yr). Ninety percent chondrocyte viability was confirmed in 11 of 12 flaps. Six of 12 flaps were composed predominantly of hyaline cartilage, 4 were a mixed population of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage and 2 were predominantly fibrocartilage. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the delaminated cartilage flap in patients with femoroacetabular impingement may retain a large amount of viable chondrocytes. Development of surgical techniques focusing on refixation of this flap as an alternative to excision and microfracture should be considered. PMID:24461226

Meulenkamp, Brad; Gravel, Denis; Beaulé, Paul E.

2014-01-01

351

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO(2) Enhanced Oil Recovery in California`s Monterey formation Siliceous Shales. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a C0{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills Pilot C0{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and C0{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Morea, M.F.

1997-07-25

352

Viability of chondrocytes seeded onto a collagen I/III membrane for matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation.  

PubMed

Cell viability is crucial for effective cell-based cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of handling the membrane during matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation surgery on the viability of implanted chondrocytes. Images were acquired under five conditions: (i) Pre-operative; (ii) Handled during surgery; (iii) Cut edge; (iv) Thumb pressure applied; (v) Heavily grasped with forceps. Live and dead cell stains were used. Images were obtained for cell counting and morphology. Mean cell density was 6.60?×?10(5) cells/cm(2) (5.74-7.11?×?10(5) ) in specimens that did not have significant trauma decreasing significantly in specimens that had been grasped with forceps (p?viability on delivery grade membrane was 75.1%(72.4-77.8%). This dropped to 67.4%(64.1-69.7%) after handling (p?=?0.002), 56.3%(51.5-61.6%) after being thumbed (p?viability decreased to 13.7%(10.2-18.2%, p?

Hindle, Paul; Hall, Andrew C; Biant, Leela C

2014-11-01

353

Techno-economic comparison of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This techno-economic study compares several process technologies for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, based on a 5- to 8-year time frame for implementation. While several previous techno-economic studies have focused on future technology benchmarks, this study examines the short-term commercial viability of biochemical ethanol production. With that goal, yields (where possible) were based on publicly available experimental data

Feroz Kabir Kazi; Joshua A. Fortman; Robert P. Anex; David D. Hsu; Andy Aden; Abhijit Dutta; Geetha Kothandaraman

2010-01-01

354

Comparison of assays for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts viability after chemical disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4?, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)), and infeictivity in neonatal CD-1 mice were used to assess the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after chemical disinfection. In vitro excystation and DAPI\\/PI staining provided similar estimates of viability in bench-scale experiments, but both of these methods significantly overestimated the viability when compared with infectivity (Pr ?

E. Kathleen Black; Gordon R Finch; Ruhi Taghi-Kilani; Miodrag Belosevic

1996-01-01

355

Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

2013-10-01

356

Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.  

PubMed

Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP. PMID:25051477

Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

2014-01-01

357

Glycolytic Metabolites Are Critical Modulators of Oocyte Maturation and Viability  

PubMed Central

The maturation of an oocyte into an egg is a key step in preparation for fertilization. In Xenopus, oocyte maturation is independent of transcription, being regulated at the level of translation and post-translational modifications of proteins. To identify factors involved in the maturation process we used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis to compare the proteome of oocytes and eggs. Protein abundance changes were observed in multiple cellular pathways during oocyte maturation. Most prominent was a general reduction in abundance of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Injection into oocytes of the glycolytic intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate prevented oocyte maturation. Instead, these metabolites stimulated ROS production and subsequent apoptosis of the oocyte. In contrast, all other metabolites tested had no effect on oocyte maturation and did not induce apoptosis. These data suggest that a subset of glycolytic metabolites have the capacity to regulate oocyte viability. PMID:24167578

Berger, Lloyd; Wilde, Andrew

2013-01-01

358

SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

2012-01-01

359

Abundance, diversity, viability, and factorial ecology of fungi in peatbogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review presents an analysis of the results of mycological investigations of peat obtained by the authors and other Russian and foreign scientists. High-moor peat, unlike low-moor peat, is shown to contain great reserves of fungal biomass mainly represented by mycelium. The viability of the mycelium and spores is high in the upper peat horizons and does not exceed 50% in the lower ones. In high-moor peat, fungi that are capable of destroying the complex structural polymers composing up to 50% of the peat rarely occur. The analysis of the factors limiting the activity of fungi in the high-moor peatbogs showed that, in the upper layers, the main factor was the strength of the sphagnum cellular walls. In the lower layers, the significant oxygen deficit and the accumulation of sphagnans, sphagnols, phenol-containing compounds, and antioxidants that block the activity of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes are of great importance.

Golovchenko, A. V.; Kurakov, A. V.; Semenova, T. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2013-01-01

360

Economic and phosphorus-related effects of precision feeding and forage management at a farm scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A system-level redesign of farm management is needed to maintain economic viability of the farm while addressing phosphorous imbalance problems caused by many current practices. One innovative strategy, precision feed management (PFM), reduces soil-phosphorus build-up by limiting feed and fertilizer...

361

Environmental Externalities, Market Distortions and the Economics of Renewable Energy Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews life cycle analyses of alternative energy technologies in terms of both their private and societal costs (that is, inclusive of externalities and net of taxes and subsidies). The economic viability of renewable energy technologies is shown to be heavily dependent upon the removal of market distortions. In other words, the removal of subsidies to fossil fuel-based technologies

Anthony D. Owen

2004-01-01

362

The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: A study of renewable energy in rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent modeling efforts and case studies to evaluate the economic viability of off-grid renewable energy technologies for rural application in developing countries. Case studies have been conducted for a representative sample of 41 households from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, who have operating experience of at least one year with small, off-grid wind (less than

John Byrne; Bo Shen; William Wallace

1998-01-01

363

Safety and Economical Requirements of Conceptual Fusion Power Reactors in Co-Existing Advanced Fission Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advanced fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability in the competitive socio-economic environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR,

R. Salomaa; S. Sipilä; V. Tulkki; G. Zemulis

364

Techno-economic evaluation of algal biomass energy production and conversion systems: (Final report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been intensive research on the biotechnology of producing fuels from microalgae. The state of the art of this technology, together with an analysis of its economic viability, is found in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) report entitled ''Fuels From Microalgae: Technology Status Potential, and Research Requirements.'' The report comprehensively describes the present status of

Y. Tsur; G. Grimberg; D. Zilberman; S. Arad

1987-01-01

365

Design, economic and system considerations of large wind-driven generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increased search for alternative energy sources has lead to renewed interest and studies of large wind-driven generators. This paper presents the results and considerations of such an investigation. The paper emphasizes the concept selection of wind-driven generators, system optimization, control system design, safety aspects, economic viability on electric utility systems and potential electric system interfacing problems.

Jorgensen, G. E.; Lotker, M.; Meier, R. C.; Brierley, D.

1976-01-01

366

The future of indigenous values: cultural relativism in the face of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outlook for the persistence of indigenous cultural values looks dim, based on historical trends, but recent revitalization efforts point to a more complicated future than a steady decline of diversity. The most powerful obstacle to the viability of indigenous values is the promotion of Western-style economic development initiatives that seldom acknowledge the legitimacy of values outside the materialist-rational paradigm.

D. Groenfeldt

2003-01-01

367

The influence of perfusion solution on renal graft viability assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Kidneys from donors after cardiac or circulatory death are exposed to extended periods of both warm ischemia and intra-arterial cooling before organ recovery. Marshall’s hypertonic citrate (HOC) and Bretschneider’s histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions are cheap, low viscosity preservation solutions used clinically for organ flushing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these two solutions both on parameters used in clinical practice to assess organ viability prior to transplantation and histological evidence of ischemic injury after reperfusion. Methods Rodent kidneys were exposed to post-mortem warm ischemia, extended intra-arterial cooling (IAC) (up to 2 h) with preservation solution and reperfusion with either Krebs-Hensleit or whole blood in a transplant model. Control kidneys were either reperfused directly after retrieval or stored in 0.9% saline. Biochemical, immunological and histological parameters were assessed using glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymatic assays, polymerase chain reaction and mitochondrial electron microscopy respectively. Vascular function was assessed by supplementing the Krebs-Hensleit perfusion solution with phenylephrine to stimulate smooth muscle contraction followed by acetylcholine to trigger endothelial dependent relaxation. Results When compared with kidneys reperfused directly post mortem, 2 h of IAC significantly reduced smooth muscle contractile function, endothelial function and upregulated vascular cellular adhesion molecule type 1 (VCAM-1) independent of the preservation solution. However, GST release, vascular resistance, weight gain and histological mitochondrial injury were dependent on the preservation solution used. Conclusions We conclude that initial machine perfusion viability tests, including ischemic vascular resistance and GST, are dependent on the perfusion solution used during in situ cooling. HTK-perfused kidneys will be heavier, have higher GST readings and yet reduced mitochondrial ischemic injury when compared with HOC-perfused kidneys. Clinicians should be aware of this when deciding which kidneys to transplant or discard. PMID:23369648

2012-01-01

368

Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

2014-02-01

369

Grid resource management based on economic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resources in the grid context belong to different control organizations with different interest, therefore the economic interest\\u000a of each grid participant should be considered. The economic mechanism can guarantee the interest of participants in the grid\\u000a with fairness and efficiency. In this paper, an economic-based resource management framework is put forward for grid computing,\\u000a and then how to determine the

Chuliang Weng; Minglu Li; Xinda Lu

2007-01-01

370

National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) gopher site at Harvard provides information on the center and its work to classify the economic status of the US economy - Its the "official" organization determining the state of the US economy. The technically inclined will appreciate the improved access to online data, including the recently updated Penn-World Tables, a set of international comparisons of economic indicators.

1998-01-01

371

Simvastatin disrupts cytoskeleton and decreases cardiac fibroblast adhesion, migration and viability .  

E-print Network

??Statins reduce the isoprenoids farnesyl and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, essential intermediates, which control a diversity of cellular events such as cytoskeleton integrity, adhesion, migration and viability.… (more)

Copaja, Miguel

2012-01-01

372

Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

373

Environmentally constrained optimum economic dispatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general formulation of the optimum economic load dispatch problem in a system with thermal plants taking into account the constraints on emission of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. The proposed algorithm is useful to determine the optimum mix-ratio of high sulfur content and low sulfur content fuels, to limit the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission per

R. S. Kumar; K. C. S. Thampathy

1998-01-01

374

Techno-economic performance analysis and environmental impact assessment of small to medium scale SRF combustion plants for energy production in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a techno-economic analysis on small and medium scales: 50kilo tonnes per annum (ktpa) and 100ktpa combustion plants with steam turbine technology utilising solid recovered fuel (SRF). Energy and efficiency calculations for the technical assessment are performed. The economic viability of the two processes is investigated through a discounted cash flow analysis. The levelised cost is used to

C. Patel; P. Lettieri; A. Germaną

375

Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses  

PubMed Central

Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGF? signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles. PMID:25120361

Pan, Chih-Hong; Liu, Wen-Te; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lin, I-Chan; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

2014-01-01

376

Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. PMID:24934261

Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

2014-09-01

377

On Ethics and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this elegant critique, Amartya Sen argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention fo ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economics. Predicitive and descriptive economics can be helped by making room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour. In this context, he explores the rationality of

Amaryta Sen

1987-01-01

378

Economics Department Mission Statement  

E-print Network

Economics Department Mission Statement The mission of the Economics Department at the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown is to develop the ability of our students to understand economic concepts, and in public policy. The central goals of an education in economics are to acquire: -- an understanding of how

Jiang, Huiqiang

379

Focus: International Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

380

Spatially and Financially Explicit Population Viability Analysis of Maculinea alcon in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background The conservation of species structured in metapopulations involves an important dilemma of resource allocation: should investments be directed at restoring/enlarging habitat patches or increasing connectivity. This is still an open question for Maculinea species despite they are among the best studied and emblematic butterfly species, because none of the population dynamics models developed so far included dispersal. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed the first spatially and financially explicit Population Viability Analysis model for Maculinea alcon, using field data from The Netherlands. Implemented using the RAMAS/GIS platform, the model incorporated both local (contest density dependence, environmental and demographic stochasticities), and regional population dynamics (dispersal rates between habitat patches). We selected four habitat patch networks, contrasting in several basic features (number of habitat patches, their quality, connectivity, and occupancy rate) to test how these features are affecting the ability to enhance population viability of four basic management options, designed to incur the same costs: habitat enlargement, habitat quality improvement, creation of new stepping stone habitat patches, and reintroduction of captive-reared butterflies. The PVA model was validated by the close match between its predictions and independent field observations on the patch occupancy pattern. The four patch networks differed in their sensitivity to model parameters, as well as in the ranking of management options. Overall, the best cost-effective option was enlargement of existing habitat patches, followed by either habitat quality improvement or creation of stepping stones depending on the network features. Reintroduction was predicted to generally be inefficient, except in one specific patch network. Conclusions/Significance Our results underline the importance of spatial and regional aspects (dispersal and connectivity) in determining the impact of conservation actions, even for a species previously considered as sedentary. They also illustrate that failure to account for the cost of management scenarios can lead to very different conclusions. PMID:22719922

Radchuk, Viktoriia; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2012-01-01

381

Viability and Regeneration of Chondrocytes after Laser Cartilage Reshaping Using 1,460 nm Diode Laser  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cartilage reshaping by laser irradiation is used to correct septal and auricular cartilage deformities. Chondrocyte viability following laser irradiation and reshaping has been well established. However, the regeneration process of chondrocyte after laser irradiation has not been revealed yet. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of cartilaginous thermal injury and the regenerative process of damaged cartilage following laser irradiation. Methods Laser irradiation was performed on human septal cartilage and rabbit auricular cartilage using a 1,460-nm diode laser. We observed change in the shape of cartilage and evaluated the extent of cartilage injury using live/dead cell assay via confocal microscopy. Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the mechanism of chondrocyte injury after laser irradiation. To evaluate the regeneration of cartilage, laser irradiated cartilages were reimplanted into a subperichondrial pocket and were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after reimplantation for viability assessment and histologic examination. Results Laser irradiation using a 1,460-nm diode laser produced a marked shape change in both human septal and rabbit auricular cartilages. Thermal damage on cartilage was correlated with the exposure time and the laser power. Hoechst and PI staining showed that chondrocyte death by laser irradiation was due to mainly necrosis, rather than apoptosis. In lower power treatment group (0.3 W and 0.5 W), all the chondrocytes regenerated within 4 weeks, however, in 1 W treatment group, chondrocytes could not regenerate until 4 weeks. Conclusion Reshaping of cartilage using 1,460 nm diode laser was attained concurrently with the thermal injury to the chondrocytes. The extent of thermal damage on chondrocytes was dependent on the exposure time and the laser power and the damaged chondrocytes irradiated with lower level of laser power could be regenerated after reimplantation into subperichondrial pocket. PMID:23799165

Mo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Phil-Sang

2013-01-01

382

Effect of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans viability, protein expression and acid production.  

PubMed

Plants naturally produce secondary metabolites that can be used as antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans. The extract (100%) was obtained by decoction of 100 g of leaves in 600 ml of deionized water. To assess killing, S. mutans biofilms were treated with water (negative control) or various extract dilutions [100, 50, 25% (v/v) in water] for 5 or 60 min. To evaluate the effect on protein expression, biofilms were exposed to water or 1.6% (v/v) extract for 120 min, proteins were extracted and submitted to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The effect of 1.6% (v/v) extract on acid production was determined by pH measurements and compared to a water control. Viability was similar after 5 min of treatment with the 100% extract or 60 min with the 50% extract (about 0.03% survival). There were no differences in viability between the biofilms exposed to the 25 or 50% extract after 60 min of treatment (about 0.02% survival). Treatment with the 1.6% extract significantly changed protein expression. The abundance of 24 spots was decreased compared to water (p < 0.05). The extract significantly inhibited acid production (p < 0.05). It is concluded that P. cattleianum leaf extract kills S. mutans grown in biofilms when applied at high concentrations. At low concentrations it inhibits S. mutans acid production and reduces the expression of proteins involved in general metabolism, glycolysis and lactic acid production. PMID:18367836

Brighenti, F L; Luppens, S B I; Delbem, A C B; Deng, D M; Hoogenkamp, M A; Gaetti-Jardim, E; Dekker, H L; Crielaard, W; ten Cate, J M

2008-01-01

383

Severity of peripheral arterial disease is associated with aortic pressure augmentation and subendocardial viability ratio.  

PubMed

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality that correlates with peripheral perfusion impairment as assessed by the ankle-brachial arterial pressure index (ABI). Furthermore, PAD is associated with arterial stiffness and elevated aortic augmentation index (AIx). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ABI impairment correlates with AIx and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a measure of cardiac perfusion during diastole. AIx and SEVR were assessed by radial applanation tonometry in 65 patients with stable PAD (Rutherford stage I-III) at a tertiary referral center. AIx corrected for heart rate and SEVR were tested in a multivariate linear and logistic regression model to determine the association with ABI. Mean ABI was 0.8±0.2, AIx 31%±7%, and SEVR 141%±26%. Multiple linear regression with AIx as a dependent variable revealed that AIx was significantly negatively associated with ABI (?=-11.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18.6 to -4.5; P=.002). Other variables that were associated with AIx were diastolic blood pressure (?=0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4; P<.001), height (?=-46.2; 95% CI, -62.9 to -29.4; P<.001), body mass index (?=-0.4; 95% CI, -0.8 to -0.1; P=.023), and smoking (?=3.6; 95% CI, 0.6-6.6; P=.019). Multiple regression with SEVR as a dependent variable showed a significant correlation with ABI (?=33.2; 95% CI, 2.3-64.1; P=.036). Severity of lower limb perfusion impairment is related to central aortic pressure augmentation and to subendocardial viability ratio. This may be a potential pathophysiologic link that impacts cardiac prognosis in patients with PAD. PMID:23205752

Mosimann, Kathrin; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Thalhammer, Christoph; Meier, Thomas O; Kohler, Malcolm; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Husmann, Marc

2012-12-01

384

Techno-Economic Analysis of Horseradish Peroxidase Production Using a Transient Expression System in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

Despite the advantages of plant-based transient expression systems relative to microbial or mammalian cell systems, the commercial production of recombinant proteins using plants has not yet been achieved to any significant extent. One of the challenges has been the lack of published data on the costs of manufacture for products other than biopharmaceuticals. In this study, we report on the techno-economic analysis of the production of a standard commercial enzyme, namely, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Based on the proven plant yield of 240 mg HRP/kg biomass, a biomass productivity of 15-kg biomass/m(2)/year and a process yield of 54 % (mg HRP product/mg HRP in biomass), it is apparent that HRP can be manufactured economically via transient expression in plants in a large-scale facility (>5 kg HRP/year). At this level, the process is competitive versus the existing technology (extraction of the enzyme from horseradish), and the product is of comparable or improved activity, containing only the preferred isoenzyme C. Production scale, protein yield and biomass productivity are found to be the most important determinants of overall viability. PMID:25344434

Walwyn, David Richard; Huddy, Suzanne M; Rybicki, Edward P

2015-01-01

385

Environment, human development and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2008-01-01

386

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2006-01-01

387

Environment, human development and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2006-01-01

388

Raised replacement heifers: some economic considerations.  

PubMed

This article lays out the recommended procedure for determining the economic cost of developing a proposed set of replacement heifers. In particular, a 6-step process that calculates the economic cost of developing a raised pregnant replacement heifer is described. PMID:24182440

Hughes, Harlan

2013-11-01

389

Economic Goods and Services: Economic and Non-Economic Methods for Valuing  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the greatest problems that global society faces in the 21st century is to accurately determine the value of the work contributions that the environment makes to support society. This work can be valued by economic methods, both market and nonmarket, as well as by accounti...

390

1 Economics The study of economics investigates the consequences of  

E-print Network

1 Economics ECONOMICS The study of economics investigates the consequences of scarcity, which forces people, organizations and governments to choose among competing objectives. Economics looks, unemployment, inflation, economic growth and the use and distribution of resources within and across nations

Vertes, Akos

391

Economics 364: Survey of International Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics 364: Survey of International Economics web site was developed by Blake LeBaron, Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The class aims to explain finance and macroeconomic policies in the world economy and trade patterns among countries. Topics covered include the foreign exchange market, balance of payments accounting, arbitrage in the foreign exchange market, monetary policy, trade models and trade policies. At the site users can find lecture notes, assignments and past exams.

LeBaron, Blake Dean, 1961-.

1998-01-01

392

Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

Congleton, James L.

1985-02-01

393

In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and ?-III tubulin) was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important in vivo for the promotion of normal brain development. There were significant differences in the effects on PC12 cells compared to primary cortical cells. This suggests there is an interaction in vivo between developmental stage of cells and the composition of CSF. The data presented here support an important, perhaps driving role for CSF composition, specifically neurotrophic factors, in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. The effects of CSF on PC12 cells can thus be used to further investigate the role of CSF in driving development without the confounding issues of using primary cells. PMID:22494846

2012-01-01

394

POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) AT THE BADLANDS NATIONAL PARK  

E-print Network

POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) AT THE BADLANDS NATIONAL PARK BY Indrani for my project. #12;vi ABSTRACT POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) AT THE BADLANDS NATIONAL PARK Indrani Sasmal December 2011 The swift fox (Vulpes velox) was historically distributed

395

Automated Selection of Interaction Effects in Sparse Kernel Methods to Predict Pregnancy Viability  

E-print Network

Automated Selection of Interaction Effects in Sparse Kernel Methods to Predict Pregnancy Viability. The proposed method is able to automatically detect important main and two-way interaction effects while still the viability of pregnancies at the end of the first trimester based on initial scan findings. I. INTRODUCTION

396

EXTENDED EVALUATION OF AN 'IN VIVO' TERATOLOGY SCREEN UTILIZING POSTNATAL GROWTH AND VIABILITY IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

A teratology test system proposed by Chernoff and Kavlock (3,4) utilizes growth and viability for 3 days after birth to prioritize chemicals for standard teratology testing. The present study is an extended observation of the growth and viability of Chernoff and Kavlock's animals...

397

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?  

E-print Network

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy the world. The consequences from anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels experienced over the last few decades. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future

Iglesia, Enrique

398

Viability of Tensegrity Robots in Space Exploration Eric Cheng-yu Hong  

E-print Network

Viability of Tensegrity Robots in Space Exploration Eric Cheng-yu Hong College of Engineering://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/TensegrityRobots.pdf April 14, 2014 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664 explored the viability of building robots around the tensegrity structural concept, which allows greater

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

399

Genetic fidelity and viability of Anigozanthos viridis following tissue culture, cold storage and cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of long-term storage conditions on the viability and genetic fidelity of plant somatic tissues are poorly known. In this study, the effects of three storage methods (tissue culture, cold storage and cryostorage) on genetic fidelity and shoot apex viability were evaluated for Anigozanthos viridis subspp. terraspectans (Haemodoraceae), a threatened plant from south west Australia. Genetic fidelity was assessed

Shane Turner; Siegfried L Krauss; Eric Bunn; Tissa Senaratna; Kingsley Dixon; Beng Tan; Darren Touchell

2001-01-01

400

Economic assessment of CO? capture and disposal  

E-print Network

A multi-sector multi-region general equilibrium model of economic growth and emissions is used to explore the conditions that will determine the market penetration of CO2 capture and disposal technology.

Eckaus, Richard S.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Leung, Wing-Chi.; Yang, Zili.

401

Three essays on development economics in China  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

Qian, Nancy

2005-01-01

402

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

SciTech Connect

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

1993-03-01

403

DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA MURIS' CYST VIABILITY BY DIFFERENTIAL INTERFERENCE CONTRAST, PHASE, OR BRIGHTFIELD MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent experiments have demonstrated that fluorogenic substrates are taken up by Giardia cysts and that an excellent correlation exists between animal infectivity and vital staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) for viable cysts and propidium iodide (PI) for non-viable cysts. ...

404

44 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Determining the viability of the practical  

E-print Network

on fossil fuels with alternatives that are both implementable and profitable. However, there is no single will essentially remain unchanged, with more than 80% of energy supply based on fossil fuels with consequent of fossil fuels as the main energy source to power the world's societies, including transportation as well

Thaxton, Christopher S.

405

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability  

PubMed Central

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-01-01

406

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08-0.12-0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-12-01

407

Estimating evolutionary parameters when viability selection is operating  

PubMed Central

Some individuals die before a trait is measured or expressed (the invisible fraction), and some relevant traits are not measured in any individual (missing traits). This paper discusses how these concepts can be cast in terms of missing data problems from statistics. Using missing data theory, I show formally the conditions under which a valid evolutionary inference is possible when the invisible fraction and/or missing traits are ignored. These conditions are restrictive and unlikely to be met in even the most comprehensive long-term studies. When these conditions are not met, many selection and quantitative genetic parameters cannot be estimated accurately unless the missing data process is explicitly modelled. Surprisingly, this does not seem to have been attempted in evolutionary biology. In the case of the invisible fraction, viability selection and the missing data process are often intimately linked. In such cases, models used in survival analysis can be extended to provide a flexible and justified model of the missing data mechanism. Although missing traits pose a more difficult problem, important biological parameters can still be estimated without bias when appropriate techniques are used. This is in contrast to current methods which have large biases and poor precision. Generally, the quantitative genetic approach is shown to be superior to phenotypic studies of selection when invisible fractions or missing traits exist because part of the missing information can be recovered from relatives. PMID:18211873

Hadfield, Jarrod D

2008-01-01

408

[Methods and applications of population viability analysis (PVA): a review].  

PubMed

With the accelerating human consumption of natural resources, the problems associated with endangered species caused by habitat loss and fragmentation have become greater and more urgent than ever. Conceptually associated with the theories of island biogeography, population viability analysis (PVA) has been one of the most important approaches in studying and protecting endangered species, and this methodology has occupied a central place in conservation biology and ecology in the past several decades. PVA has been widely used and proven effective in many cases, but its predictive ability and accuracy are still in question. Also, its application needs expand. To overcome some of the problems, we believe that PVA needs to incorporate some principles and methods from other fields, particularly landscape ecology and sustainability science. Integrating landscape pattern and socioeconomic factors into PVA will make the approach theoretically more comprehensive and practically more useful. Here, we reviewed the history, basic conception, research methods, and modeling applications and their accuracies of PVA, and proposed the perspective in this field. PMID:21548317

Tian, Yu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Kou, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Ming; Smith, Andrew T; Ge, Jian-Ping

2011-01-01

409

Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

2011-01-01

410

Inhibition of pregnancy viability in mice following IL-2 administration.  

PubMed Central

The influence of administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on syngeneic and allogeneic murine pregnancy has been investigated. Human or mouse recombinant IL-2 (rhIL-2 and rmIL-2), or partially purified rat IL-2, was inoculated i.p. into C57B1 mice following syngeneic mating but before embryo implantation. This inhibited subsequent fetal development in up to 100% of cases, compared with mice inoculated with control material, including recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), where no inhibition of pregnancy viability was observed. Similar data were obtained in both syngeneic and allogeneic matings when rhIL-2 was administered on Day 1 of pregnancy. Administration of rhIL-2 during the second pregnancy, rather than a first pregnancy, was less effective. Administration of rhIL-2 during the first pregnancy does not induce a permanent sterility. Histological examination of the endometrium further demonstrated that mice injected with rhIL-2 on Day 1 of their first pregnancy showed a complete absence of embryonic tissue. Images Figure 1 PMID:2786842

Tezabwala, B U; Johnson, P M; Rees, R C

1989-01-01

411

[Viability of Malassezia pachydermatis strains maintained in various storage mediums].  

PubMed

The maintenance of Malassezia pachydermatis in fungal collections is very important for retrospective and prospective studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Malassezia pachydermatis in different storage methods. After the identification process, M. pachydermatis strains were stored for six and nine months, in saline and saline plus mineral oil at 28 degrees C, as well as in Dixon's agar, Dixon's agar plus glycerol and Dixon's agar plus dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), at -20 degrees C. Dixon's agar and Dixon's agar plus glycerol were the most adequate methods (p < 0.05) for the maintenance of Malassezia pachydermatis viability, after six and nine months of storage. All the methods used were capable of maintaining the urease activity at six months of storage, but only Dixon's agar and Dixon's agar plus glycerol were statistically adequate at nine months (p < 0.05). Thus, to assure Malassezia pachydermatis recovery and to maintain its characteristics, Dixon's agar or Dixon's agar plus glycerol should be used. PMID:15330062

Girćo, Marķlia Dutra; do Prado, Marilena Ribeiro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sāmia Nogueira; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Monteiro, André Jalles; Sidrim, José Jślio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fįbio Gadelha

2004-01-01

412

Impact of monopolar radiofrequency energy on subchondral bone viability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of monopolar radiofrequency energy treatment on subchondral bone viability. The femoral grooves of six chinchilla bastard rabbits were exposed bilaterally to monopolar radiofrequency energy for 2, 4 and 8 s, creating a total of 36 defects. An intravital fluorescence bone-labeling technique characterized the process of subchondral bone mineralization within the 3 months following exposure to radiofrequency energy and was analyzed by widefield epifluorescence optical sectioning microscopy using an ApoTome. After 2 s of radiofrequency energy exposure, regular fluorescence staining of the subchondral bone was evident in all samples when compared to untreated areas. The depth of osteonecrosis after 4 and 8 s of radiofrequency energy treatment averaged 126 and 942 microm at 22 days (P < .05; P < .01). The 4 s treatment group showed no osteonecrosis after 44 days whereas the depth of osteonecrosis extended from 519 microm at 44 days (P < .01), to 281 microm at 66 days (P < .01) and to 133 microm at 88 days (P < .05) after 8 s of radiofrequency energy application. Though radiofrequency energy may induce transient osteonecrosis in the superficial zone of the subchondral bone, the results of this study suggest that post-arthroscopic osteonecrosis appears to be of only modest risk given the current clinical application in humans. PMID:19838673

Balcarek, Peter; Kuhn, Anke; Weigel, Arwed; Walde, Tim A; Ferlemann, Keno G; Stürmer, Klaus M; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

2010-05-01

413

Syllabus: The Economics of Geography Economics 303  

E-print Network

or a few facets of economics and/or geography such as transportation, crime, tax policy, race relations Aoyama Readings 3.1,3.2, 4.1 5 9/16 9/18 Economic Growth Basics of trade, investment in physical Essay due Why growth is uneven? The Modern Corporation Coe Ā­ Chapter 3 Aoyama 3.3 Coe Ā­ Chapter 10

Young, Paul Thomas

414

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.

Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

1987-01-01

415

Effect of Allium cepa L. on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Osteoclast Precursor Cell Viability, Count, and Morphology Using 4?,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-Staining  

PubMed Central

Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1??g/mL) and E. coli LPS (1??g/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10–1000??g/mL) for 5 days at 37°C/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000??g/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:25221602

Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

2014-01-01

416

Validation of a Clostridium Endospore Viability Assay and Analysis of Greenland Ices and Atacama Desert Soils? †  

PubMed Central

A microscopy-based endospore viability assay (micro-EVA) capable of enumerating germinable Clostridium endospores (GCEs) in less than 30 min has been validated and employed to determine GCE concentrations in Greenland ices and Atacama Desert soils. Inoculation onto agarose doped with Tb3+ and d-alanine triggers Clostridium spore germination and the concomitant release of ?108 molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) per endospore, which, under pulsed UV excitation, enables enumeration of resultant green Tb3+-DPA luminescent spots as GCEs with time-gated luminescence microscopy. The intensity time courses of the luminescent spots were characteristic of stage I Clostridium spore germination dynamics. Micro-EVA was validated against traditional CFU cultivation from 0 to 1,000 total endospores/ml (i.e., phase-bright bodies/ml), yielding 56.4% ± 1.5% GCEs and 43.0% ± 1.0% CFU. We also show that d-alanine serves as a Clostridium-specific germinant (three species tested) that inhibits Bacillus germination of spores (five species tested) in that endospore concentration regime. Finally, GCE concentrations in Greenland ice cores and Atacama Desert soils were determined with micro-EVA, yielding 1 to 2 GCEs/ml of Greenland ice (versus <1 CFU/ml after 6 months of incubation) and 66 to 157 GCEs/g of Atacama Desert soil (versus 40 CFU/g soil). PMID:21296951

Yang, Wan-Wan; Ponce, Adrian

2011-01-01

417

In vitro augmentation of mesenchymal stem cells viability in stressful microenvironments : In vitro augmentation of mesenchymal stem cells viability.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under intensive investigation for use in cell-based therapies because their differentiation abilities, immunomodulatory effects, and homing properties offer potential for significantly augmenting regenerative capacity of many tissues. Nevertheless, major impediments to their therapeutic application, such as low proliferation and survival rates remain as obstacles to broad clinical use of MSCs. Another major challenge to evolution of MSC-based therapies is functional degradation of these cells as a result of their exposure to oxidative stressors during isolation. Indeed, oxidative stress-mediated MSC depletion occurs due to inflammatory processes associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and expression of pro-apoptotic factors, and the microenvironment of damaged tissue in patients receiving MSC therapy is typically therapeutic not favorable to their survival. For this reason, any strategies that enhance the viability and proliferative capacity of MSCs associated with their therapeutic use are of great value. Here, recent strategies used by various researchers to improve MSC allograft function are reviewed, with particular focus on in vitro conditioning of MSCs in preparation for clinical application. Preconditioning, genetic manipulation, and optimization of MSC culture conditions are some examples of the methodologies described in the present article, along with novel strategies such as treatment of MSCs with secretome and MSC-derived microvesicles. This topic material is likely to find value as a guide for both research and clinical use of MSC allografts and for improvement of the value that use of these cells brings to health care. PMID:25527070

Amiri, Fatemeh; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi

2015-03-01

418

Economics and Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage, and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues, particularly economic discrimination. Planners for military operations in a country need to know the economic side effects of military activities, including the effects of withdrawal. Government agencies trying to bring developed-nation investors into a developing country must understand, along with the potential investors, what the economic prospects of the economy are, and how safe an investment is (or is not). Economic modeling and analysis can assist in each of these cases.

Graham, Alan K.

419

Economics and International Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

Chandra, Ramesh

1983-01-01

420

Basic Transportation Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transportation economics is an integral part of all transportation activities. Refined, detailed, and careful economic analyses consider conduct-performance methodology and the specifications of production, cost and demand functions.

Kneafsey, J. T.

1972-01-01

421

Biofuel, Economics, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biofuels may be an important economic contributor in the coming decades. Proper biofuel management can provide economical, more environmentally friendly fuel worldwide; decrease world poverty; decrease food insecurity; and increase the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.

Daniel De La Torre Ugarte (Department of Agricultural Economics of the University of Tennessee; )

2010-03-11

422

Contemporary Radical Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins of contemporary radical economics are examined. Applications of radical economics to price and value theory, labor segmentation theory, business cycles, industrial organization, government and business, imperialism and development, and comparative systems are reviewed. (Author/RM)

Sherman, Howard J.

1984-01-01

423

Consumer Economic Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the concept of consumer economic socialization as it has developed in the literature. Specifically,\\u000a it covers the context in which the following have been studied: economic socialization; children and adolescents’ developmental\\u000a competencies in understanding and participating in economic and consumer processes; and major agents of economic socialization,\\u000a including culture, media, schools, peers, and families. Needs for further

Beutler Ivan; Lori Dickson

424

Economic Sociology Editorial Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of editorials was first published on the economic-sociology electronic mailing list. Written by academics from such institutions as Northwestern University, the University of Pennsylvania, Stockholm University, and Princeton University, these editorials cover a range of ideas in the field of economic sociology including globalization, immigration, and the future of economic sociology. Generally informational in tone and easy to read, these short pieces offer excellent snapshots into some of the most pressing issues in economic sociology.

425

Interactions between Naļve and Infected Macrophages Reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability  

PubMed Central

A high intracellular bacillary load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages induces an atypical lysosomal cell death with early features of apoptosis that progress to necrosis within hours. Unlike classical apoptosis, this cell death mode does not appear to diminish M. tuberculosis viability. We previously reported that culturing heavily infected macrophages with naļve macrophages produced an antimicrobial effect, but only if naļve macrophages were added during the pre-necrotic phase of M. tuberculosis-induced cell death. In the present study we investigated the mechanism of antimicrobial activity in co-cultures, anticipating that efferocytosis of bacilli in apoptotic bodies would be required. Confocal microscopy revealed frustrated phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages with no evidence that significant numbers of bacilli were transferred to the naļve macrophages. The antimicrobial effect of naļve macrophages was retained when they were separated from infected macrophages in transwells, and conditioned co-culture supernatants transferred antimicrobial activity to cultures of infected macrophages alone. Antimicrobial activity in macrophage co-cultures was abrogated when the naļve population was deficient in IL-1 receptor or when the infected population was deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase. The participation of nitric oxide suggested a conventional antimicrobial mechanism requiring delivery of bacilli to a late endosomal compartment. Using macrophages expressing GFP-LC3 we observed the induction of autophagy specifically by a high intracellular load of M. tuberculosis. Bacilli were identified in LC3-positive compartments and LC3-positive compartments were confirmed to be acidified and LAMP1 positive. Thus, the antimicrobial effect of naļve macrophages acting on M. tuberculosis in heavily-infected macrophages is contact-independent. Interleukin-1 provides an afferent signal that induces an as yet unidentified small molecule which promotes nitric oxide-dependent antimicrobial activity against bacilli in autolysosomes of heavily infected macrophages. This cooperative, innate antimicrobial interaction may limit the maximal growth rate of M. tuberculosis prior to the expression of adaptive immunity in pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:22125644

Hartman, Michelle L.; Kornfeld, Hardy

2011-01-01

426

Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

2014-02-01

427

Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country’s location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-ą-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income

Maarten Bosker; Harry Garretsen

2008-01-01

428

in Economics and Finance  

E-print Network

Master's in Economics and Finance Ā­ #12;2 3 "A research-centred institution with a personal REASONS TO STUDY The Master's in Economics and Finance programme targets students wishing to obtain a comprehensive and rigorous education in Economics and Finance. It emphasizes the complementary nature

van der Torre, Leon

429

The Economics of Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second edition of this popular book presents a detailed economic analysis of professional football at club level, with new material included to reflect the development of the economics of professional football over the past ten years. Using a combination of economic reasoning and statistical and econometric analysis, the authors build upon the successes and strengths of the first edition

Stephen Dobson; John Goddard

2001-01-01

430

The Objectivity of Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines claims that economics is not a science, that it is not value-free and that it cannot yield objective knowledge. Arguments are based on claims recently presented by R. Helm ('Values in Economics,'"Economics," v15 part I Spr 1979). (DB)

Dawson, Graham

1980-01-01

431

Economic Components of Grief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…

Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

2013-01-01

432

Viability and ATP content of conidia of sorbic acid-sensitive and-resistant strains of Penicillium roqueforti after exposure to sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidia from two strains of Penicillium roqueforti, one sensitive and one resistant to inhibition by sorbic acid, were tested to determine how the chemical affected viability and ATP content of the spores. The minimum inhibitory concentration was less than 1,000 ppm for the sensitive strain and 3,000 ppm for the resistant strain. Exposing conidia to 6,000 ppm sorbic acid caused

Michael B. Liewen; Elmer H. Marth

1985-01-01

433

Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities  

E-print Network

From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

2011-11-10

434

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.  

PubMed

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

2009-01-01

435

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products  

PubMed Central

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

Fiorentini, Āngela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

2009-01-01

436

Single cell viability observation in cell dielectrophoretic trapping on a microchip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported a microfluidic integrated dielectrophoretic (DEP) device for single MCF-7 cell trapping and studied the different effects of applied electric field on the viability of the trapped cell. The cell remained alive when DEP voltage was 3 V. Above 3 V, cell viability significantly decreased when increasing stimulation time. At 8 V, the cell was rapidly lysed by the electric field. The high transmembrane potential induced was found to be the major cause of cell damage. The obtained results indicated that an operational electric field below than 2 kV/cm was safe for cell viability when using DEP for cell manipulation.

Huang, Chengjun; Liu, Chengxun; Loo, Josine; Stakenborg, Tim; Lagae, Liesbet

2014-01-01

437

Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 ?mol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kaba?a-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bu?dak, Rafa? J.

2014-01-01

438

Cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation capability of human mesenchymal stem cells after iron labeling with iron sucrose.  

PubMed

For evaluation of cell therapy strategies using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), it is important to be able to trace transplanted cells and their distribution in tissues, for example, cartilage, over time. The aim of the study was to determine effects on cell viability, traceability, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs after iron labeling with iron sucrose. hMSCs were collected (seven donors, 13-57 years) from patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two subsets of experiments were performed. (1) Iron labeling of hMSCs: 1 mg/mL of Venofer(®) (iron sucrose) was added (16 h) to cultures. hMSCs were examined for uptake of iron sucrose (Prussian blue staining) and cell viability (flow cytometry). (2) Iron-labeled hMSCs (passage 4) (n=4, pellet mass), 200,000 cells/tube, were cultured (DMEM-HG) with 10 ng/mL TGF? and compared with controls (from each donor). The pellets were harvested at days 7, 14, and 28. Real-time PCR, IHC, and histology were used to evaluate SOX9, ACAN, C6S, and COL2A1 expression. Mean number of cells containing iron deposits was 98.1% and mean cell viability was 92.7% (no significant difference compared with unlabeled control cells). Pellets containing iron-labeled cells expressed COL2A1 on protein level (all time points), in similar levels as controls, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was observed in iron-labeled pellets (day 14 or day 28). Results were supported by the expression of chondrogenic genes SOX9, ACAN, and COL2A1. The results in vitro indicate that iron sucrose can be used as a cell tracer for evaluation of cellular distribution in vivo after transplantation of MSCs and thus contribute with important knowledge when exploring new treatment strategies for degenerated cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25036548

Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Thorfve, Anna; Brantsing, Camilla; Junevik, Katarina; Baranto, Adad; Barreto Henriksson, Helena

2014-11-01

439

Caffeic acid reduces the viability and migration rate of oral carcinoma cells (SCC-25) exposed to low concentrations of ethanol.  

PubMed

Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 ?mol/L. Carcinoma cells' migration was investigated by monolayer "wound" healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kaba?a-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bu?dak, Rafa? J

2014-01-01

440

Evaluating the Effects of Dithiothreitol and Fructose on Cell Viability and Function of Cryopreserved Primary Rat Hepatocytes and HepG2 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocytes are used as an in vitro model to evaluate drug metabolism. Human hepatocyte transplant has been considered as the temporary treatment of acute liver failure. Optimization freezing methods is very important to preserve both cell viability and function which are achieved by cryopreservation mostly always. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the cryoprotective effect of DTT and fructose on primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods Both fresh rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cell line were incubated with fructose (100 and 200 mM) and dithiothreitol (DTT) (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ?M) at 37°C for 1 and 3 hours, respectively. The preincubated hepatocytes were cryopreserved for two weeks. Hepatocytes viability and function were determined post thawing and the results were compared with the control group. Results The viability of both rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were significantly increased after one hour preincubation with fructose 200 mM. Preincubation with DTT (50 ?M, 100 ?M. 250 ?M and 500 ?M) improved the viability and function upon thawing in both cell types (P < 0.001). In rat hepatocytes, no significant change was observed in albumin, urea production, and LDH leakage after preincubation with fructose or DTT. In HepG2 cells, albumin and urea production were significantly increased after preincubation with DTT (500 ?M, 1 hour). The GSH content was significantly increased in DTT (250 and 500 ?M, 1 hour) groups in both rat hepatocyte and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Incubation of hepatocytes with fructose and DTT prior to the cryopreservation can increase the cell viability and function after thawing. PMID:23585767

Aghdai, Mahdokht H; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Nematizadeh, Mahsa; Behzadiannia, Mahtab; Niknahad, Hossein; Amirghofran, Zahra; Esfandiari, Elaheh; Azarpira, Negar

2013-01-01