These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203...costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider...forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty...

2010-07-01

2

Economic Viability of Dynamic Spectrum Management  

E-print Network

Economic Viability of Dynamic Spectrum Management Jianwei Huang Network Communications, however, is surprisingly low. A recent spectrum measurement in the US showed that the average spectrum Viability of Dynamic Spectrum Management Spectrum resources are scarce, as most spectrums have been

Huang, Jianwei

3

Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.  

PubMed

Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

2013-12-01

4

Economic viability of rangeland based ranching enterprises  

E-print Network

to determine the importance of various agrometeorological information types to Texas farmers and ranchers. Weather information like precipitation probabilities and freeze warnings were among the higher ranking information types. Climatic summaries and animal... to determine the importance of various agrometeorological information types to Texas farmers and ranchers. Weather information like precipitation probabilities and freeze warnings were among the higher ranking information types. Climatic summaries and animal...

Jochec, Kristi Gayle

2012-06-07

5

Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of photovoltaic (PV) array size, orientation, inclination, load profile, electricity buying price, feed-in tariffs, PV\\/inverter sizing ratio (‘sizing ratio’) and PV\\/inverter cost ratio (‘cost ratio’) on the economic viability of a grid-connected PV system was investigated using a validated TRNSYS simulation model. The results showed that the fractional load met directly by a PV system depends on matching

Jayanta Deb Mondol; Yigzaw G Yohanis; Brian Norton

2009-01-01

6

Economical viability of SFE from peach almond, spearmint and marigold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) applies near critical carbon dioxide (CO2) for the extraction of aromatic and bioactive products such as peach (Prunus persica) almond oil, spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil and marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) oleoresin. Due to the cost intensive nature of SFE, the estimation of process cost is necessary to appraise operation viability. Therefore, this work

Natália Mezzomo; Julian Martínez; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2011-01-01

7

Simulating the economic viability of Nile tilapia and Australian redclaw crayfish polyculture in Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tilapia culture in rural communities in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, has been increasing in recent decades. Polyculture of tilapia with other more commercially valuable species provides an opportunity to substantially improve the economic yields of rural producers. The economic viability of implementing Nile tilapia with Australian redclaw crayfish in polyculture was analyzed using profitability indicators such as internal rate

Donny Ponce-Marbán; Juan M. Hernández; Eucario Gasca-Leyva

2006-01-01

8

Economic Viability of Polyculture of Nile Tilapia and Australian Redclaw Crayfish in Yucatan State, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tilapia culture in rural communities of the state of Yucatan, Mexico, has been increasing in recent decades. Polyculture of tilapia with other more commercially valuable species is an opportunity to substantially improve the economic yields of rural producers. The economic viability of implementing a Nile tilapia with Australian redclaw crayfish polyculture was analyzed using profitability indicators such as internal rate

Donny Ponce-Marban; Juan Hernandez; Eucario Gasca-Leyva

2005-01-01

9

An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

1976-01-01

10

Economic viability of large-scale fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined.

Helsley, Charles E.; Burke, Robert J.

2014-01-01

11

Determination of the viability of Trichomonas vaginalis using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

In clinical laboratories, viability of Trichomonas vaginalis is determined by using light microscopy (differential count of motile to nonmotile organisms). Alternative methods are proposed that utilise flow cytometry. Under an epifluorescence microscope, live organisms fluorescence intensely green with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), whereas dead cells fluoresce orange with propidium iodide (PI). Flow cytometric histograms of green versus red fluorescence reveal distinct populations for live and dead cells. The anionic oxonal probe DiBAC4(3) is a membrane potential sensitive dye that distributes between the inside of the cell and the medium. Live organisms are less fluorescent than dead organisms when stained with the oxonol probe. Valinomycin, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and vanadate all give significant changes in the fluorescence intensities of cultures stained with the oxonol probe compared with control cultures, indicating that this probe is detecting changes in plasma membrane potential. Both FDA/PI and oxonol staining protocols allow good discrimination between populations and permit counts that are more statistically significant than those obtained by light microscopy. These methods remove the subjectiveness of microscopic counts and would increase the accuracy of susceptibility assays. PMID:8026224

Humphreys, M J; Allman, R; Lloyd, D

1994-04-01

12

The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize. To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation. First, using real-time energy market price data from seven markets across the U.S. and the physical parameters of fourteen ESS technologies, the maximum potential IRR of each technology from price arbitrage was evaluated in each market, along with the optimal ESS system size. Additionally, the reductions in capital cost needed to achieve a 10% IRR were estimated for each ESS. The results indicate that the profit-maximizing size of an ESS is primarily determined by its technological characteristics (round-trip charge/discharge efficiency and self-discharge) and not market price volatility, which instead increases IRR. This analysis demonstrates that few ESS technologies are likely to be implemented by investors alone. Next, the effects of ESSs on system reliability are quantified. Using historic data for wind, solar, and conventional generation, a correlation-preserving, copula-transform model was implemented in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo framework for estimating system reliability indices. Systems with significant wind and solar penetration (25% or greater), even with added energy storage capacity, resulted in considerable decreases in generation adequacy. Lastly, rather than analyzing the reliability and costs in isolation of one another, system reliability, cost, and emissions were analyzed in 3-space to quantify and visualize the system tradeoffs. The modeling results implied that ESSs perform similarly to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems with respect to generation adequacy and system cost, with the primary difference being that the generation adequacy improvements are less for ESSs than that of NGCC systems and the increase in LCOE is greater for ESSs than NGCC systems. Although ESSs do not appear to offer greater benefits than NGCC systems for managing energy on time intervals of 1-hour or more, we conclude that future research into short-term power balancing applications of ESSs, in particular for frequency regulation, is necessary to understand the full potential of ESSs in modern electric interconnections.

Bradbury, Kyle Joseph

13

Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells. PMID:24056524

Johnson, M. Brittany; Criss, Alison K.

2013-01-01

14

Molecular Assays for Determining Mycobacterium leprae Viability in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive molecular assay for determining M. leprae viability directly from infected tissues. Methodology/Principle Findings Two M. leprae-specific quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays based on the expression levels of esxA, encoding the ESAT-6 protein, and hsp18, encoding the heat shock 18 kDa protein, were developed and tested using infected footpad (FP) tissues of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised (athymic nu/nu) mice. In addition, the ability of these assays to detect the effects of anti-leprosy drug treatment on M. leprae viability was determined using rifampin and rifapentine, each at 10 mg/kg for 1, 5, or 20 daily doses, in the athymic nu/nu FP model. Molecular enumeration (RLEP PCR) and viability determinations (qRT-PCR) were performed via Taqman methodology on DNA and RNA, respectively, purified from ethanol-fixed FP tissue and compared with conventional enumeration (microscopic counting of acid fast bacilli) and viability assays (radiorespirometry, viability staining) which utilized bacilli freshly harvested from the contralateral FP. Both molecular and conventional assays demonstrated growth and high viability of M. leprae in nu/nu FPs over a 4 month infection period. In contrast, viability was markedly decreased by 8 weeks in immunocompetent mice. Rifapentine significantly reduced bacterial viability after 5 treatments, whereas rifampin required up to 20 treatments for the same efficacy. Neither drug was effective after a single treatment. In addition, host gene expression was monitored with the same RNA preparations. Conclusions hsp18 and esxA qRT-PCR are sensitive molecular indicators, reliably detecting viability of M. leprae in tissues without the need for bacterial isolation or immediate processing, making these assays applicable for in vivo drug screening and promising for clinical and field applications. PMID:24179562

Davis, Grace L.; Ray, Nashone A.; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Gillis, Thomas P.; Krahenbuhl, James L.; Williams, Diana L.; Adams, Linda B.

2013-01-01

15

The viability of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a unified currency: evidence from the African economies' reactions to  

E-print Network

The viability of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a unified currency: evidence from the feasibility of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a common currency. In this context, the present, plans to create an economic and monetary union with a unified currency for the African Countries by 2023

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system.  

PubMed

The black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system aims at efficient use of energy (biogas), water and nutrients but currently lacks evidence of economic viability to be considered a credible alternative to the conventional system. This study intends to demonstrate economic viability, identify main cost contributors and assess critical influencing factors. A technico-economic model was built based on a new neighbourhood in a Canadian context. Three implementation scales of source-separation system are defined: 500, 5,000 and 50,000 inhabitants. The results show that the source-separation system is 33% to 118% more costly than the conventional system, with the larger cost differential obtained by lower source-separation system implementation scales. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that vacuum toilet flow reduction from 1.0 to 0.25 L/flush decreases source-separation system cost between 23 and 27%. It also shows that high resource costs can be beneficial or unfavourable to the source-separation system depending on whether the vacuum toilet flow is low or normal. Therefore, the future of this configuration of the source-separation system lies mainly in vacuum toilet flow reduction or the introduction of new efficient effluent volume reduction processes (e.g. reverse osmosis). PMID:22170836

Thibodeau, C; Monette, F; Glaus, M; Laflamme, C B

2011-01-01

17

Conservation and economic viability of nature reserves: An emergy evaluation of the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the ecological and economic benefits of nature reserves in a fair way is a difficult problem confronting not only conservation scientists and managers but also governments and private land owners. Nature reserves and other social and economic land uses must be evaluated on an objective basis to provide an accurate measure of relative benefits for decision-making. The ecological and

Hongfang Lu; Daniel Campbell; Jie Chen; Pei Qin; Hai Ren

2007-01-01

18

Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production  

SciTech Connect

While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

2005-11-30

19

The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.  

PubMed

This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg. PMID:24220544

Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

2014-01-01

20

Measuring Residual Feed Intake Traits on Pasture The long-term economic viability of the U.S. beef industry, which represents approxi-  

E-print Network

Measuring Residual Feed Intake Traits on Pasture The long-term economic viability of the U.S. beef percent of the cost of producing beef is feed inputs and because many of the adverse environmental impacts of producing beef are due to manure output, improving feed efficiency is key to identifying cattle

21

Turbulent Pinch & Laboratory Magnetospheres "Economic Viability" is the 2nd Frontier of Fusion Research  

E-print Network

do not yet understand self-consistent, non-local, off-diagonal turbulent transport flux in magnetized. Chan, L. Chen, R. White, GRL (1989) R. White and M. Chance, Phys Fluids (1984). H = mec 2e 2 ||B2 0 + µ = magnetic flux, Adiabatic 7 #12;Measured Non-axisymmetric Perturbations of Geomagnetic Cavity Determine D

Mauel, Michael E.

22

Trypan blue dye is an effective and inexpensive way to determine the viability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospores.  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in hundreds of amphibian declines and is the focus of a vast amount of research. Despite this, there is no reported efficient way to assess Bd viability. Discriminating between live and dead Bd would help determine the dose of live Bd zoospores and whether factors have lethal or sublethal effects on Bd. We tested whether trypan blue, a common stain to discriminate live and dead cells, could be used to assess Bd viability. We show that the proportion of live zoospores (zoospores that excluded the trypan blue dye) matched the proportion of known live zoospores added to cultures. In contrast, all of the zoosporangia stages of Bd stained blue. These results demonstrate that trypan blue can be used to determine the viability of Bd zoospores but not zoosporangia. We recommend using trypan blue to report the number of live zoospores to which hosts are exposed. PMID:24519684

McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

2014-06-01

23

SocioEconomic Determinants of Abortion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abortion rates are increasing all around the world, especially for young women. Our proposals for public policies to reduce\\u000a unwanted pregnancies are based on an analysis of the socio-economic determinants of abortion rates. Special attention is paid\\u000a to regional levels of alcohol consumption, living conditions, and public spending on health and education. We carry out estimations\\u000a using data on regions

Ana I. Gil-Lacruz; Marta Gil-Lacruz; Estrella Bernal-Cuenca

24

A multiplexed immunofluorescence method identifies Phakopsora pachyrhizi Urediniospores and determines their viability.  

PubMed

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, occurs concomitantly wherever soybean is grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. After reports of its first occurrence in Brazil in 2001 and the continental United States in 2004, research on the disease and its pathogen has greatly increased. One area of research has focused on capturing urediniospores, primarily by rain collection or wind traps, and detecting them either by microscopic observations or by immunological or molecular techniques. This system of detection has been touted for use as a potential warning system to recommend early applications of fungicides. One shortcoming of the method has been an inability to determine whether the spores are viable. Our study developed a method to detect viable P. pachyrhizi urediniospores using an immunofluorescence assay combined with propidium iodide (PI) staining. Antibodies reacted to P. pachyrhizi and other Phakopsora spp. but did not react with other common soybean pathogens or most other rust fungi tested, based on an indirect immunofluorescence assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled secondary antibodies. Two vital staining techniques were used to assess viability of P. pachyrhizi urediniospores: one combined carboxy fluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and PI, and the other utilized (2-chloro-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenylquinolinium iodide] (FUN 1). Using the CFDA-PI method, viable spores stained green with CFDA and nonviable spores counterstained red with PI. Using the FUN 1 method, cylindrical intravacuolar structures were induced to form within metabolically active urediniospores, causing them to fluoresce bright red to reddish-orange, whereas dead spores, with no metabolic activity, had an extremely diffused, faint fluorescence. An immunofluorescence technique in combination with PI counterstaining was developed to specifically detect viable P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The method is rapid and reliable, with a potential for application in forecasting soybean rust based on the detection of viable urediniospores. PMID:22894915

Vittal, R; Haudenshield, J S; Hartman, G L

2012-12-01

25

Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability  

SciTech Connect

The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

Not Available

1980-09-01

26

7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section... § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for...conditions will apply with respect to crops of economic significance if the producer does...

2010-01-01

27

Africa's Past Economic Development and its Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the colonial era to the present, economic progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. This paper argues that Africa's stagnation started be- fore the European expansion and that modern influences are not able to fully account for Africa's growth tragedy. The paper uses measures of urbanization to proxy for economic progress in pre-modern times and shows that before the

Javier A. Birchenall

28

Determinants of Achievement of Economics Concepts by Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses test questions from the Basic Economics Test (BET) to reveal that elementary students are capable of understanding economics concepts. Maintains that neither ethnic background nor parental income makes a difference in economic learning. The most statistically significant determinant of improved scores was the extent to which a concept was…

Sosin, Kim; And Others

1997-01-01

29

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

30

Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

31

Chemisorption of methyl mercaptane on titania-supported Au nanoparticles: Viability of Au surface area determination.  

PubMed

Well-characterized Au nanoparticles were deposited on commercial TiO(2) (P25, Degussa) and analyzed by means of STEM and thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The adsorption was studied on Au/TiO(2) samples with Au loadings in the range of 1.1-9.9wt.% by injecting pulses of CH(3)SH (methyl mercaptane, MM) until no further mass increase could be observed. A prerequisite for determination of the surface area of the deposited gold nanoparticles is the proper discrimination of species adsorbing on the Au nanoparticles and the titania support. The adsorption of methyl mercaptane on the titania support strongly depended on the pretreatment temperature (30-400 degrees C), whereas the adsorption on Au nanoparticles was virtually unaffected by this parameter. A very mild thermal pretreatment was identified as a requirement for avoiding the adsorption of the MM on the titania support. CH(3)SH adsorbed on the support desorbed at lower temperatures (maximal rate of desorption was centered at ca. 150 degrees C) compared to species desorbing from Au nanoparticles (maximum at ca. 200-220 degrees C). Moreover, CH(3)SH adsorbed on Au nanoparticles desorbed in the form of dimethyl sulfide (CH(3))(2)S. Part of MM adsorbed on the gold surface was not desorbed even at high temperatures (above 500 degrees C) and stayed on the surface in the form of relatively stable C(x)H(y)S(z) fragments. This residue could be removed by oxygen pulses resulting in the formation of CO(2), SO(2), and H(2)O. The good discrimination of MM chemisorption on Au nanoparticles and on titania renders the determination of the Au surface area viable. Potential and limitations of the CH(3)SH chemisorption for the surface area determination of Au nanoparticles are discussed. PMID:19740475

van Vegten, Niels; Haider, Peter; Maciejewski, Marek; Krumeich, Frank; Baiker, Alfons

2009-11-15

32

System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.  

PubMed

Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

2013-05-15

33

Investigation to Determine the Validity and Viability of a Regional Biomedical Equipment Technician Program at the Community College Level. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the validity and viability of a Southeastern Pennsylvania biomedical equipment technician program at the community college level. The results of a survey questionnaire, site visits, and interviews with administrators of existing health care facilities and ongoing biomedical curricula, indicated the following: (1)…

Mruk, Walter F.; Fenwick, Douglas E.

34

Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Health Issue The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. Key Findings The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. Recommendations Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

2004-01-01

35

Determinants of Grades in Maths for Students in Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the determinants of grades achieved in maths by first-year students in economics. We use individual administrative data from 1993 to 2005 to fit an educational production function. Our main findings suggest that good secondary school achievements and the type of school attended are significantly associated with maths…

Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario

2012-01-01

36

The Empirical Determination of Key Skills from an Economic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notwithstanding an impressive research tradition on key skills, no clear statistical criterion exists that is suitable to determine which skills may be considered key skills. This contribution proposes one possible methodology that can be used to identify key skills. Proposing an economic definition of the key skill concept and disentangling the…

Van Loo, Jasper B.; Toolsema, Bert

2005-01-01

37

Viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008 at different salinity concentrations determined by specific fluorochromes and CLSM-image analysis.  

PubMed

In previous studies, our group developed a method based on Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis (CLSM-IA) to analyze the diversity and biomass of cyanobacteria in microbial mats. However, this method cannot be applied to heterotrophic microorganisms, as these do not have autofluorescence. In this article, we present a method that combines CLSM-IA and Hoechst 33342 and SYTOX Green fluorochromes (FLU-CLSM-IA) to determine the viability and biomass of Micrococcus luteus DE2008, isolated from a saline microbial mat (Ebro Delta, Tarragona, Spain). The method has been applied to assess the effect of salinity on this microorganism. A reduction in viability and biomass (live cells) was observed as the salt concentration increases. The largest effect was at 100‰ NaCl with a cell death of 27.25% and a decrease in total and individual biomass of 39.75 and 0.009 mgC/cm(3), respectively, both with respect to optimal growth (10 ‰ NaCl). On the other hand, another important contribution of this article was that combining the FLU-CLSM-IA results with those achieved by plate counts enabled us to determine, for first time, the viability and the total biomass of the "dormant cells" (66.75% of viability and 40.59 mgC/cm(3) of total biomass at 100‰ NaCl). FLU-CLSM-IA is an efficient, fast, and reliable method for making a total count of cells at pixel level, including the dormant cells, to evaluate the viability and the biomass of a hetetrophic microorganism, M. luteus DE2008. PMID:22006073

Puyen, Zully M; Villagrasa, Eduard; Maldonado, Juan; Esteve, Isabel; Solé, Antonio

2012-01-01

38

NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

39

Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.  

PubMed

Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

2011-07-01

40

The determinants of dumping: a national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and determinants of economically motivated transfers (aka "dumping") from hospitals treating mental illness. DATA SOURCES: A composite data set constructed from three national random-sampled surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989: (1) of hospitals providing mental health care, (2) of community mental health centers, and (3) of psychiatrists. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses reports from administrators of community mental health centers (CMHCs) to assess the extent of patient dumping by hospitals. To assess the determinants of dumping, reported perceptions of dumping are regressed on variables describing the catchment area in terms of the proportion of for-profit hospitals, intensity of competition among hospitals, extent of utilization review, and capacity of the local treatment system, as well as competition among community mental health centers. To assess if dumping is motivated by factors distinct from those affecting other aspects of access, comparable regressions are estimated with ease of hospital admission as the dependent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Economically motivated transfers of psychiatric patients were widespread in 1988: according to the reports of CMHC administrators, 64.7 percent of all hospitals providing inpatient mental health care engaged in transfers of this sort. The extent of dumping was higher in catchment areas with more competition among hospitals, more proprietary hospitals, and less inpatient capacity in the public sector. Dumping appeared to be more sensitive to capacity in the public sector but less sensitive to involvement by for-profit hospitals than were other measures of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Economically motivated transfers of patients with mental illness were widespread in 1988 and likely have increased since that time, affecting the viability of the community mental health care system. PMID:9402901

Schlesinger, M; Dorwart, R; Hoover, C; Epstein, S

1997-01-01

41

Determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8)} via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (NQ) was developed. Measurement conditions were optimized for the microbiological determination of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B6, biotin, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid, using microorganisms that have a water-soluble vitamin

Tadayuki Tsukatani; Hikaru Suenaga; Munetaka Ishiyama; Takatoshi Ezoe; Kiyoshi Matsumoto

2011-01-01

42

On the genetic parameter determining the efficiency of purging: an estimate for Drosophila egg-to-pupae viability.  

PubMed

The consequences of inbreeding on fitness can be crucial in evolutionary and conservation grounds and depend upon the efficiency of purging against deleterious recessive alleles. Recently, analytical expressions have been derived to predict the evolution of mean fitness, taking into account both inbreeding and purging, which depend on an 'effective purging coefficient (d(e) )'. Here, we explore the validity of that predictive approach and assay the strength of purging by estimating d(e) for egg-to-pupae viability (EPV) after a drastic reduction in population size in a recently captured base population of Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, we first obtained estimates of the inbreeding depression rate (?) for EPV in the base population, and we found that about 40% was due to segregating recessive lethals. Then, two sets of lines were founded from this base population and were maintained with different effective size throughout the rest of the experiment (N = 6; N = 12), their mean EPV being assayed at different generations. Due to purging, the reductions in mean EPV experienced by these lines were considerably smaller than the corresponding neutral predictions. For the 60% of ? attributable to nonlethal deleterious alleles, our results suggest an effective purging coefficient d(e) > 0.02. Similarly, we obtain that d(e) > 0.09 is required to roughly account for purging against the pooled inbreeding depression from lethal and nonlethal deleterious alleles. This implies that purging should be efficient for population sizes of the order of a few tens and larger, but might be inefficient against nonlethal deleterious alleles in smaller populations. PMID:23199278

Bersabé, D; García-Dorado, A

2013-02-01

43

30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...203.69(c)). (4) Include sunk costs for the project discovery well on each lease Whether a development project or an...

2011-07-01

44

Determination of Fares: Pricing Theory and Economic Efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of economic efficiency is described, its application to the pricing of air transport services, and its relevance as a policy objective are outlined. The first two sections discuss economic efficiency in general terms, whereas the third applies this norm to several airline pricing problems. The final section emphasizes the importance of industry behavior as a parameter in policy analysis.

Miller, J. C., III

1972-01-01

45

A factor analysis of socio-economic determinants of property crimes in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past a number of studies on the economics of crime have emphasized the importance of deterrence in crime prevention while assigning lesser importance to socio-economic determinants. Others have concentrated on the role of the socio-economic variables in crime production and have utilized the multiple regression analysis which has produced ambiguous results due to the presence of strong multicollinearity

Vijay K. Mathur

1976-01-01

46

Critical market parameters for viability of fiber access network business case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained by techno-economic analysis of the fiber access (FTTH) business model. The analysis determinates a combined influence that major market parameters have on overall viability of FTTH business case. These critical parameters include the geodemographical background of the customer base, adoption of services provided over FTTH network and related additional revenues that can be generated.

Tomislav Majnaric

2011-01-01

47

Intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte viability and metabolic and inflammatory states in mice.  

PubMed

The liver is an essential metabolic organ. In addition to metabolizing glucose and lipids, hepatocytes also secrete various cytokines that modulate both hepatocyte metabolism and liver inflammation. Hepatocyte injury and death and liver inflammation are the major contributors to liver diseases, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Anatomic locations have a profound effect on hepatocyte metabolism, and liver zonation describes the metabolic heterogeneity of hepatocytes along the portovenous axis. However, it is unclear whether hepatocyte heterogeneity is affected by intrinsic factors and whether dietary fat, a risk factor for NASH, has distinct detrimental effects on different hepatocyte subpopulations. Here, we showed that mouse livers contained both high-lipid and low-lipid subpopulations of hepatocytes. The high-lipid subpopulation was more susceptible to injury and apoptosis and produced more proinflamatrory cytokines after treatment with endotoxin and saturated fatty acids. Dietary fat consumption further increased fatty acid uptake, intracellular lipid levels, hepatocyte injury and death, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the high-lipid subpopulation. In contrast, dietary fat slightly increased lipid levels, cell death, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the low-lipid subpopulation. The low-lipid subpopulation produced more glucose. Fat consumption further activated the gluconeogenic program in the low-lipid, but not the high-lipid, subpopulations. These data suggest that intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte heterogeneity of metabolic, inflammatory, and survival states. PMID:23982157

Sheng, Liang; Jiang, Bijie; Rui, Liangyou

2013-11-01

48

Financial and Economic Determinants of Firm Default Giulio Bottazzi  

E-print Network

default might lead, through bankruptcy or radical restructuring, to firm's exit, our work also relates with previous contributions on industrial demography. Using non parametric tests we assess to what extent. Traditionally, industrial economic literature studied firm's death, using the "exit" event as reported

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Health economic perspectives of pediatric malnutrition: determinants of innovative progress.  

PubMed

Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly demonstrate that interventions are effective and efficient, but more data are needed to measure that efficiency. Initiatives to address microdeficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iodine, zinc, iron and folate. Iodine is often used as a best practice example. Two main institutions lead the efforts to address malnutrition throughout the world: the UN with its UN Millennium Development Goal project, and the Copenhagen Consensus. We consider micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in iodine, corresponding interventions, their effects and health economic data. We discuss how developing public/private partnership could boost the effectiveness of interventions by combining the competencies of both sides: credibility, national and international buy-in, experience of public institutions, commercial competencies, high penetration rate, and product knowledge of private industry. PMID:20664219

Spieldenner, Jörg

2010-01-01

50

Pteridophyte spores viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spore viability is defined as the time that spores retain their capacity to germinate. It is a factor of primary importance\\u000a in the establishment of fern species and populations in a new habitat after spore dispersal. Viability is typically maintained\\u000a for a long period in pteridophytes, but there are great variations in both interspecific and intraspecific levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Factors affecting viability

Jose María Gabriel y Galán; Carmen Prada

51

Economic model for height determination of high-rise buildings  

E-print Network

At present, no clear concise method of optimal height determination for high-rise buildings is being practiced. The primary scope of this dissertation is to see if a practical model, decision making process and list of ...

Zafiris, Christopher

1984-01-01

52

Educational and economic determinants of food intake in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of Portuguese adults (20977 women and 18663 men).

Pedro A Moreira; Patricia D Padrão

2004-01-01

53

The Performance of Economics Graduates over the Entire Curriculum: The Determinants of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of the determinants of understanding in economics focus on performance in a single course or standardized exam. Taking advantage of a large data set available at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), the authors examined the performance of economics majors over an entire curriculum. They found that gender was not a significant predictor of…

Swope, Kurtis J.; Schmitt, Pamela M.

2006-01-01

54

The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

Shehzad, Shafqat

2006-01-01

55

LIMITATIONS OF THE FLUORESCENT PROBE VIABILITY ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cell viability commonly is determined flow cytometrically by the carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)/propidium iodide (PI) assay. FDA is taken up by the viable cell and converted via cytoplasmic esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis to carboxyfluorescein (CF). F fluorescence intensity is...

56

Economic Education in the Middle East: Are the Determinants of Success in Introductory Economics Any Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines the determinants of success in introductory microeconomics, in the context of a Middle Eastern society but within an American educational setting. The data set is rich and covers over 3,500 students in one regional campus, allowing control for a wide range of student and class characteristics, one of which, nationality, is…

Kherfi, Samer

2008-01-01

57

A viability analysis for a stock/price model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the conditions for the sustainability of a stock/price system based on the use of a marine renewable resource. Instead of studying the environmental and economic interactions in terms of optimal control, we focus on the viability of the system. These viability/crisis situations are defined by a set of economic state constraints. This constraints combine a guaranteed consumption and a minimum income for fishermen. Using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal that with only economics constraints we guarantee a perennial stock/price system.

Jerry, Chakib; Raissi, Nadia

2012-09-01

58

An innovative approach to determine economically optimal coastal setback lines for risk informed coastal zone management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods used to determine Coastal setback lines have several limitations. Furthermore, the historical practice of defining setback lines based on a single deterministic estimate is also proving inadequate with the emergence of risk management style coastal planning frameworks which require probabilistic estimates of coastal recession. This paper describes an innovative approach for the determination of the economically optimal coastal

R. Ranasinghe; R. B. Jongejan; D. Callaghan; J. K. Vrijling

2012-01-01

59

Economics, adoption determinants, and impacts of micro-irrigation technologies: empirical results from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-irrigation technologies are promoted for various reasons in India. Despite the reported significant economic advantages,\\u000a and the concerted support of the government and NGOs, the current micro-irrigation area in India remains an insignificant\\u000a proportion of its potential. This paper analyzes: (1) the economics of alternative micro-irrigation technologies, (2) the\\u000a determinants of adoption, (3) the poverty outreach of the different micro-irrigation

R. E. Namara; R. K. Nagar; B. Upadhyay

2007-01-01

60

Economic determinants of urban form: resulting trade-offs between active and sedentary forms of travel.  

PubMed

Economic factors have an impact on how the built environment is shaped, which in turn affects how we choose to travel. Regional transportation investment decisions are firmly rooted in economic "cost-benefit" trade-off considerations. The placement (central or outlying) and mode of transportation in which investments are made (transit, highway, sidewalks, or bikeways) influence where homes, businesses, schools, and other types of uses are located. Transportation investments create or limit access and establish a set of economic trade-offs that help determine if an area will be compact or dispersed, and mixed use or single use. Developers consider cost trade-offs between constructing connected street grids versus disconnected cul-de-sac networks, which determines if residents can walk to services and transit. Taken collectively, transportation investments and resulting land-use patterns determine if destinations are far apart or close together and linked with direct and safe sidewalks or bikeways. The end result is a built environment that determines whether walking and biking is feasible or perceived as more beneficial than driving or taking transit. This paper assesses (1) the economic forces that shape transportation investment decisions, (2) the economic impact of these investments on land use, and (3) how we as consumers choose to travel as a result of these transportation investment and land-use decisions. PMID:15450625

Frank, Lawrence D

2004-10-01

61

Assessing viability of northern  

E-print Network

acorns may also be useful for other oak species, like bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx. [Fagaceae] shown-ray analysis was a better pre- dictor of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. [Fagaceae]) acorn viability, cotyledon, desiccation, Quercus rubra, recalcitrant NN OO MM EE NN CC LL AATT UU RR EE USDA NRCS (2006) A B

62

Understanding School Choice: Location as a Determinant of Charter School Racial, Economic, and Linguistic Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes the revealed school preferences of parents in the Washington, D.C., and asks, "What is the main determinant of charter school choice and how does it create racial, economic, and linguistic segregation?" The author first establishes a theory of choice, which incorporates past research and adds an additional variable to our…

Jacobs, Nicholas

2013-01-01

63

Oil Production in the Lower 48 States: Economic, Geological, and Institutional Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we establish an empirical model for oil production in the lower 48 states that represents its economic, physical, and institutional determinants. We estimate a vector error correction model for oil production in the lower 48 states that specifies real oil prices, average production costs, and prorationing by the Texas Railroad Commission. These modifications enable us to generate

Robert K. Kaufmann; Cutler J. Cleveland

2001-01-01

64

Socio-economic determinants of helmet-wearing behaviour in Pune city, India.  

PubMed

This study was an attempt to investigate the socio-economic determinants of helmet wearing in an urban setting of India. A household survey using multistage cluster random sampling was conducted among 9014 individuals in Pune city from March 2008 to February 2009. Among 2259 individuals who reported driving two-wheeled vehicles, 1509 (66.8%) reported possession of a helmet, and among those who had reported possession of a helmet, only 700 (46.0%) reported regular use of helmets. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that residence, type of family, gender and socio-economic status were significantly associated with possession of helmet, and gender, residence and family type were significantly associated with regular helmet use while possessing one. In conclusion, this study showed that helmet-wearing behaviour is mostly influenced by the neighbourhood environment and norms and family and peer influence on behaviour rather than education and economic status. PMID:24107090

Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kar, Anita

2014-12-01

65

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

66

Economic inequality in eye care utilization and its determinants: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition  

PubMed Central

Background: The current study aimed to determine eye care utilization, to assess the role of economic inequality in the utilization of eye care services, and to identify its determinants in Shahroud, North of Iran. Methods: Of the 6,311 invited people, 5,190 (82.24%) individuals aged 40 to 64 years old participated in the study. A history of a visit by an ophthalmologist or optometrist was considered as eye care utilization. The gap between low- and high-economic groups was decomposed into its determinants using the Oaxaca decomposition method. Results: Among the participants, 16.32% [95% Confidence Intervals (CI)= 15.31–17.33%] had never been examined by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, and 30.94% (95% CI= 29.69–32.20%) had not undergone an eye examination in the past 5 years. This negative history was significantly higher among female subjects [Odds Ratio (OR)= 1.79, 95% CI= 1.51–2.14], the low-economic group (OR= 2.33, 95% CI= 1.90–2.87), the visually impaired (OR= 1.41, 95% CI= 1.05–1.90), and the uninsured (OR= 1.93, 95% CI= 1.45–2.58). The negative history of eye examination decreased with increasing in age (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.93–0.96) and education (OR= 0.94, 95% CI= 0.92–0.96). In this study, 24.72% (95% CI= 22.30–27.14) of the low-economic group and 9.94% (95% CI= 8.75–11.14) of the high-economic group had no history of eye examination. Decomposition of the gap between the two economic groups showed that education and gender were the most important determinants of inequality. Conclusion: A considerable percentage of adults, even those with visual impairment, do not receive appropriate eye care. There is a definite economic inequality in the community for which poverty per se could be the major cause.

Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Shariati, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

2014-01-01

67

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients undergoing viability assessment. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities. After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies that can be used for the assessment of myocardial viability: positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, dobutamine echocardiography, and dobutamine echocardiography with contrast, and single photon emission computed tomography. A 2005 review conducted by MAS determined that positron emission tomography was more sensitivity than dobutamine echocardiography and single photon emission tomography and dominated the other imaging modalities from a cost-effective standpoint. However, there was inadequate evidence to compare positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, this report focuses on this comparison only. For both technologies, an economic analysis was also completed. A summary decision analytic model was then developed to encapsulate the data from each of these reports (available on the OHTAC and MAS website). The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Objective The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac MRI viability imaging, the following outcomes were examined: the diagnostic accuracy in predicting functional recovery and the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) 1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option, revascularization, is used

2010-01-01

68

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. RESULTS: Overall 16.5% of the study population

Ali Yawar Alam; Azhar Iqbal; Khalif Bile Mohamud; Ronald E Laporte; Ashfaq Ahmed; Sania Nishtar

2008-01-01

69

A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental time has been identified as a key determinant in the healthy development of a child. The literature on this topic\\u000a has rapidly increased in recent years and has revealed large variations in the amount of time that parents devote to their\\u000a children, including variations over time and across social and economic subgroups of the population. This paper synthesizes\\u000a research

Berenice Monna; Anne H. Gauthier

2008-01-01

70

Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management  

SciTech Connect

Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users' self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A generic case study models collective action and funding in wastewater management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determinants of success: economic assessment, funding policy and self-organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success indicators: conflict rate, funds needed to make cost shares fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for analyzing centralized vs. decentralized disputes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If collective action has less benefits, innovative cost sharing may ensure success.

Brunner, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.brunner@cemds.org [Center for Environmental Management and Decision Support, Gregor Mendel Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Starkl, Markus, E-mail: markus.starkl@boku.ac.at [Competence Centre for Decision-Aid in Environmental Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences/DIB, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, 1180 Wien (Austria)

2012-01-15

71

EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

72

Fetal assessment near the limits of viability.  

PubMed

Assessments of gestational age are critical in dealing with the pregnancy at the limits of viability, 22-25-weeks gestation, where neonatal outcomes reveal very significant differences from week to week. The obstetrical team can estimate gestational age within a window of 7-10 days during this critical threshold at the window of viability via determination of last menstrual period, bimanual exam, early pregnancy test, and/or ultrasound. One must also take into account the impact of maternal disease processes, congenital abnormalities, number of fetus(es), and/or fetal growth restriction, along with ongoing evaluation and parental involvement in this decision-making process during the peri-viability period. PMID:24290395

Hankins, Gary D V; Pacheco, Luis D; Soo-Tung Wen, Tony

2013-12-01

73

Pathways of neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants of adverse birth outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Although socio-economic factors have been identified as one of the most important groups of neighbourhood-level risks affecting birth outcomes, uncertainties still exist concerning the pathways through which they are transferred to individual risk factors. This poses a challenge for setting priorities and developing appropriate community-oriented public health interventions and planning guidelines to reduce the level of adverse birth outcomes. Method This study examines potential direct and mediated pathways through which neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants exert their impacts on adverse birth outcomes. Two hypothesized models, namely the materialist and psycho-social models, and their corresponding pathways are tested using a binary-outcome multilevel mediation analysis. Live birth data, including adverse birth outcomes and person-level exposure variables, were obtained from three public health units in the province of Ontario, Canada. Corresponding neighbourhood-level socio-economic, psycho-social and living condition variables were extracted or constructed from the 2001 Canadian Census and the first three cycles (2001, 2003, and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Surveys. Results Neighbourhood-level socio-economic-related risks are found to have direct effects on low birth weight and preterm birth. In addition, 20-30% of the total effects are contributed by indirect effects mediated through person-level risks. There is evidence of four person-level pathways, namely through individual socio-economic status, psycho-social stress, maternal health, and health behaviours, with all being simultaneously at work. Psycho-social pathways and buffering social capital-related variables are found to have more impact on low birth weight than on preterm birth. Conclusion The evidence supports both the materialist and psycho-social conceptualizations and the pathways that describe them, although the magnitude of the former is greater than the latter. PMID:23786633

2013-01-01

74

Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.  

PubMed

This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population. PMID:22549155

Vespa, Jonathan

2012-08-01

75

Sustainable recovery of nickel from spent hydrogenation catalyst: economics, emissions and wastes assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic viability, carbon emission profile and waste management associated with nickel recovery from spent hydrogenation catalysts are studied from sustainability perspectives. The purpose is to determine and compare the economic, environmental and social implications of different nickel reclamation techniques towards clean, safe and sustainable recovery of nickel from spent catalysts. Sustainability evaluation models are formulated to understand and improve the

Q. Z. Yang; G. J. Qi; H. C. Low; B. Song

2011-01-01

76

Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

Zabel, Todd W.

2010-01-01

77

Viability Theory and Road safety P-O. VANDANJON  

E-print Network

Viability Theory and Road safety P-O. VANDANJON , A. COIRET, T. LORINO LUNAM University, Ifsttar January 15, 2013 Abstract Viability theory proposes geometric metaphors in addition to classical ordinary dierential equation analysis. This theory is applied on a vehicle cornering. The issue is to determine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

79

The Academic Business Plan In order to determine the feasibility, benefit, cost, and ongoing viability of the proposed plan, a business  

E-print Network

and political liabilities. Also included should be an outline of human resource costs (e.g., faculty, teachingThe Academic Business Plan In order to determine the feasibility, benefit, cost, and ongoing and suggests how the proposed program can utilize existing resources and structures to good advantage

Suzuki, Masatsugu

80

A study to ascertain the viability of ultrasonic nondestructive testing to determine the mechanical characteristics of wood/agricultural hardboards with soybean based adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been numerous studies with ultrasonic nondestructive testing and wood fiber composites. The problem of the study was to ascertain whether ultrasonic nondestructive testing can be used in place of destructive testing to obtain the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the wood/agricultural material with comparable results. The uniqueness of this research is that it addressed the type of content (cornstalks and switchgrass) being used with the wood fibers and the type of adhesives (soybean-based) associated with the production of these composite materials. Two research questions were addressed in the study. The major objective was to determine if one can predict the destructive test MOE value based on the nondestructive test MOE value. The population of the study was wood/agricultural fiberboards made from wood fibers, cornstalks, and switchgrass bonded together with soybean-based, urea-formaldehyde, and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Correlational analysis was used to determine if there was a relationship between the two tests. Regression analysis was performed to determine a prediction equation for the destructive test MOE value. Data were collected on both procedures using ultrasonic nondestructing testing and 3-point destructive testing. The results produced a simple linear regression model for this study which was adequate in the prediction of destructive MOE values if the nondestructive MOE value is known. An approximation very close to the entire error in the model equation was explained from the destructive test MOE values for the composites. The nondestructive MOE values used to produce a linear regression model explained 83% of the variability in the destructive test MOE values. The study also showed that, for the particular destructive test values obtained with the equipment used, the model associated with the study is as good as it could be due to the variability in the results from the destructive tests. In this study, an ultrasonic signal was used to determine the MOE values on nondestructive tests. Future research studies could use the same or other hardboards to examine how the resins affect the ultrasonic signal.

Colen, Charles Raymond, Jr.

81

A new procedure to asses pollen viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested pollen viability of eight species using four vital dyes, a new peroxidase test together with three other established\\u000a methods (MTT, Baker’s and X-Gal), to determine their potential to differentiate fresh pollen from pollen heated for 2 h and\\u000a 24 h at 80°C (killed pollen) and compared the results with in vitro germination. We found that two of three

T. Rodriguez-Riano; A. Dafni

2000-01-01

82

Viability and sunlight sensitivity of oak pollen and its implications for pollen-mediated gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen-mediated gene flow and the male reproductive success of wind-pollinated trees depend on the initial viability of the pollen and the changes that occur in its viability during transport in the atmosphere. The viability of Quercus robur pollen was determined before and during exposure to sunlight by in vitro germination and the fluorescein diacetate reaction (FCR) in 2002 and 2003,

Silvio Schueler; Katharina Heinke Schlünzen; Florian Scholz

2005-01-01

83

Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

84

Viability assessment for reliable long-wave communication links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the viability of reliable global communications at VLF as a consequence of the insight gained by performing link analyses vs. frequency. The physical and economic reality of implementing these possibilities depends on the availability of transmit resources, possibly on a shared basis.

Cory, T. S.; Holzheimer, T. R.

1993-05-01

85

Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country. PMID:24596838

Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

2013-01-01

86

Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.  

PubMed

Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

2014-05-01

87

Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Methods A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. Conclusions When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for, precipitation and temperature in the months prior to the malaria season of interest are found to significantly determine spatial and temporal variations of malaria incidence. Climate information was found to improve the estimation of malaria relative risk in 41% of the districts in Malawi, particularly at higher altitudes where transmission is irregular. This highlights the potential value of climate-driven seasonal malaria forecasts. PMID:24228784

2013-01-01

88

Production and viability of Peronospora parasitica in radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

InPeronospora parasitica the inoculum load is found in the form of oospores in the leaf and seed tissues of radish. Out of 400 seeds tested, 10% showed\\u000a the presence of oospores in the pericarp and 0·1% in the embryo. The 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride test is a quick method\\u000a of determining the viability of the oospores. Viability of oospores based on infection

P Jang; K M Safeeulla

1990-01-01

89

Probiotic viability - does it matter?  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:23990833

Lahtinen, Sampo J.

2012-01-01

90

Public health at a crossroads: assessing teaching on economic globalization as a social determinant of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how public health faculty prepare students to respond to economic globalization, and more broadly considers the response of public health academics to structural challenges that fall within the realm of global economics, politics, and policy. At this moment, public health is at a crossroads of formalizing its education through graduate competencies and certifications. This research undertook in-depth

Shelley K. White

2012-01-01

91

Getting More Bang for the Buck: Determining the Economic Rationale of Vocational Education. A VES Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational education in the United States has come under increased scrutiny, and its proponents need the tools to convince the critics of its merits. Many economic conditions have a strong impact on vocational education, and understanding of economics is important in offering a rationale of vocational education. In a time of shrinking revenues,…

McElhinney, Kerry R.; Pershing, James A.

92

Interactions between Cultural and Economic Determinants of Divorce in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between gendered family roles and divorce in The Netherlands. Cultural and economic aspects of this relationship are distinguished. Economic hypotheses argue that the likelihood of divorce is increased if women work for pay and have attractive labor market resources. Cultural hypotheses argue that divorce…

Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.; Poortman, Annerigt

2004-01-01

93

Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

Oketch, Moses O.

2006-01-01

94

Factors Determining Student Retention of Economic Knowledge after Completing the Principles-of-Microeconomics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)

Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.

1979-01-01

95

Viability of keratocytes in epikeratophakia lenticules.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the influence of cryoprotectant, cooling rate, and warming rate on recovery and viability of keratocytes from corneas for cryolathing. METHODS: Corneas were frozen at -50 degrees C for 2 minutes either after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide in Eagle's MEM for 15 minutes at room temperature (about 22 degrees C), or without earlier exposure to the cryoprotectant. Corneas were cooled either rapidly (20 degrees C/min) or slowly (1 degree C/min), and they were warmed either rapidly (> 50 degrees C/min) by direct transfer into medium at 22 degrees C or slowly (< 20 degrees C/min) in air at 22 degrees C. The cryoprotectant was removed by dilution in medium containing 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Recovery of keratocytes was determined by using collagenase digestion to release the cells from the stroma and trypan blue staining. Viability was assessed by the outgrowth of cells from stromal explants in primary tissue culture. RESULTS: The use of a cryoprotectant before freezing was beneficial, irrespective of the different cooling and warming regimens. Both collagenase digestion and tissue culture revealed that keratocyte survival was improved when corneas were warmed rapidly rather than slowly. The collagenase digestion assay showed an apparently higher recovery of keratocytes after slow cooling (54.3%) than after rapid cooling (34.1%), but no differences in cell viability could be demonstrated by primary tissue culture. CONCLUSION: Although in these experiments slow cooling apparently provided the best recovery of keratocyte numbers (though not viability), previous work had revealed some disruption of the epithelial basement membrane after slow cooling. If viable keratocytes and good preservation of epithelial basement membrane are considered to be prerequisites for epikeratophakia lenticules then it is suggested that corneas should be prepared for cryolathing by freezing rapidly after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide and, following cryolathing, they should be warmed rapidly. PMID:8703892

Cheng, H C; Armitage, W J; Yagoubi, M I; Easty, D L

1996-01-01

96

A rapid, sensitive, and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes.  

PubMed

Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts, which can contain 200 to 500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor intensive or lack robustness. We present a robust and cost-efficient viability assay based on loss of membrane integrity upon death. This assay uses trehalose, a disaccharide present at a high concentration in the perivitelline fluid of PCN eggs, as a viability marker. Although this assay can detect a single viable egg, the limit of detection for regular field samples was higher, ?10 viable eggs, due to background signals produced by other soil components. On the basis of 30 nonviable PCN samples from The Netherlands, a threshold level was defined (?A(trehalose) = 0.0094) below which the presence of >10 viable eggs is highly unlikely (true for ?99.7% of the observations). This assay can easily be combined with a subsequent DNA-based species determination. The presence of trehalose is a general phenomenon among cyst nematodes; therefore, this method can probably be used for (for example) soybean, sugar beet, and cereal cyst nematodes as well. PMID:21942733

van den Elsen, Sven; Ave, Maaike; Schoenmakers, Niels; Landeweert, Renske; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

2012-02-01

97

Understanding socio-economic determinants of childhood mortality: a retrospective analysis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a view of suggesting strategies for reducing childhood mortality. Methods We compared the childhood mortalities and their average annual reduction rate (AARR) of Teso sub-region with those of Uganda for the period 1959 to 1969. We also compared indicators of social economic well being (such as livestock per capita and per capita intake of protein/energy). In addition data was compared on other important determinants of child survival such as level of education and rate of urbanisation. Findings In 1969 the infant mortality rate (IMR) for Teso was 94 per 1000 live births compared to the 120 for Uganda. Between 1959 and 1969 the AARR for IMR for Teso was 4.57% compared to 3% for Uganda. It was interesting that the AARR for Teso was higher than that that of 4.4.% required to achieve millennium development goal number four (MDG4). The rate of urbanisation and the level of education were higher in Uganda compared to Teso during the same period. Teso had a per capita ownership of cattle of 1.12 compared to Uganda's 0.44. Teso sub region had about 3 times the amount of protein and about 2 times the amount of calories compared to Uganda. Conclusions We surmise that higher ownership of cattle and growing of high protein and energy foods might have been responsible for better childhood survival in Teso compared to Uganda. PMID:22070908

2011-01-01

98

A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n?=?210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important finding of this study is the large number of Baby Boomers who indicated that they would be happy to work part-time or never retire. Policies and continued dialogue aimed at making the workplace a safe, flexible and welcoming environment to accommodate this wish, and to entice others to take up this option over complete withdrawal from the labour force, is required. PMID:24731726

2014-01-01

99

Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.  

PubMed

Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

2014-01-15

100

An experimental analysis of receiver economics: cost, reliability and uncertainty interact to determine a signal's value  

E-print Network

@umn.edu), Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Univ. of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. This is significant because game theoretical models of signaling emphasize the problem of `reliability,' but they pay of animal signaling flows from a simple `boy who cried wolf' argument. This argument holds that economic

Stephens, David W.

101

An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

2007-01-01

102

HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC RESOURCES AS A DETERMINANT OF CHILDHOOD NUTRITION: POLICY RESPONSES FOR NEW ZEALAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the nutrition of children and reducing rates of childhood overweight and obesity have been high priorities for the New Zealand Government since 2000. The rates of childhood overweight and obesity vary by ethnic group and socio-economic status, and reducing inequalities in the burden of childhood overweight and obesity is an explicit aim of the Government. This paper aims to

Mat Walton; Louise Signal; George Thomson

103

Technique to determine contamination exposure routes and the economic efficiency of folded paper-towel dispensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwashing and hand drying are key elements of infection control. Paper towels are generally accepted as the most hygienic means of drying hands and are often distributed from generic dispensers. Effective dispensing of towels is of importance economically and may influence infection control objectives if hands become contaminated during hand drying. In this study, a method to identify potential exposure

Wendy A. Harrison; Christopher J. Griffith; Barry Michaels; Troy Ayers

2003-01-01

104

The case against Lynn's doctrine that population IQ determines levels of socio-economic development and public health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to evaluate the kind of evidence and arguments used to support Richard Lynn's increasingly influential doctrine that genetically determined differences in population IQ are the main cause of differences in regional and national levels of socio-economic development and public health status. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper's approach is two-fold. First, new data on

David Robinson; Aristide Saggino; Marco Tommasi

2011-01-01

105

Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service  

SciTech Connect

Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

2010-10-11

106

Cell viability test after laser guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To precisely control the position of multiple types of cells in a coculture for the study of cell-cell interactions, we have developed a laser micropatterning technique. The technique employs the optical forces generated by a weakly focused laser beam. In the beam's focal region, the optical force draws microparticles, such as cells, into the center of the beam, propels them along the beam axis, and guides them onto a target surface. Specific patterns are created through computercontrolled micromanipulation of the substrate relative to the laser beam. Preliminary data have demonstrated cell viability after laser guidance. This project was designed to systematically vary the controllable laser parameters, namely, intensity and exposure time of the laser on single cells, and thus determine the laser parameters that allow negligible cell damage with functional cellular position control. To accomplish this goal, embryonic day 7 (E7) chick forebrain neurons were cultured in 35 mm petri dishes. Control and test cells were selected one hour after cell placement to allow cell attachment. Test cells were subjected to the laser at the focal region. The experimental parameters were chosen as: wavelength - 800 nm, intensities - 100 mW, 200 mW, and 300 mW, and exposure times - 10 s and 60 s. Results were analyzed based on neurite outgrowth and the Live/Dead assay (Viability/Cytoxicity kit from Molecular Probes). No statistical difference (p >> 0.1, student t-test) in viability or function was found between the control neurons and those exposed to the laser. This confirms that laser guidance seems to be a promising method for cellular manipulation.

Rosenbalm, Tabitha N.; Owens, Sarah; Bakken, Daniel; Gao, Bruce Z.

2006-02-01

107

Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.  

SciTech Connect

This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

2005-12-01

108

Influence of Pregermination Conditions on the Viability of Selected Marsh Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief state-of-the-art review and laboratory tests were conducted to determine viability and germination requirements of seed from 13 marsh plant species and to determine proper methods of seed storage and handling techniques to maximize viability. Sele...

J. D. Maguire, G. A. Heuterman

1978-01-01

109

Viability of human adenovirus from hospital fomites.  

PubMed

The monitoring of environmental microbial contamination in healthcare facilities may be a valuable tool to determine pathogens transmission in those settings; however, such procedure is limited to bacterial indicators. Viruses are found commonly in those environments and are rarely used for these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess distribution and viability of a human DNA virus on fomites in an Adult Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) were investigated in 141 fomites by scraping the surface area and screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan® System (Carlsbad, CA). Ten positive samples were selected for virus isolation in A549 and/or HEp2c cell lines. A total of 63 samples (44.7%) were positive and presented viral load ranging from 2.48?×?10(1) to 2.1?×?10(3) genomic copies per millilitre (gc/ml). The viability was demonstrated by integrated cell culture/nested-PCR in 5 out of 10 samples. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed all samples as HAdV and characterized one of them as specie B, serotype 3 (HAdV-3). The results indicate the risk of nosocomial transmission via contaminated fomites and point out the use of HAdV as biomarkers of environmental contamination. J. Med. Virol. 86:2065-2069, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25042068

Ganime, Ana Carolina; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Santos, Marisa; Costa Filho, Rubens; Leite, José Paulo G; Miagostovich, Marize P

2014-12-01

110

The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to significantly different results in regards to the relative profitability of the different technologies and configurations. This is the case both with a deterministic and a stochastic analysis, as shown in the tables below. The flexibility in output products clearly adds substantial value to the HPE-ALWR and HTE-HTGR plants. In fact, under the GBM assumption for prices, the HTE-HTGR plant becomes more profitable than the SI-HTGR configuration, although SI-HTGR has a much lower levelized cost. For the HTE-HTGR plant it is also profitable to invest in additional electric turbine capacity (Case b) in order to fully utilize the heat from the nuclear reactor for electricity production when this is more profitable than producing hydrogen. The technologies are all at the research and development stage, so there are significant uncertainties regarding the technology cost and performance assumptions used in this analysis. As the technologies advance, the designers need to refine the cost and performance evaluation to provide a more reliable set of input for a more rigorous analysis. In addition, the durability of the catalytic activity of the materials at the hydrogen plant during repetitive price cycling is of prime importance concerning the flexibility of switching from hydrogen to electricity production. However, given the potential significant economic benefit that can be brought from cogeneration with the flexibility to quickly react to market signals, DOE should consider R&D efforts towards developing durable materials and processes that can enable this type of operation. Our future work will focus on analyzing a range of hydrogen production technologies associated with an extension of the financial analysis framework presented here. We are planning to address a variety of additional risks and options, such as the value of modular expansion in addition to the co-generation capability (i.e., a modular increase in the hydrogen production capacity of a plant in a given market with rising hydrogen demand), and contrast that with economies-of-scale of large-unit designs.

Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

2007-04-06

111

Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

2010-11-01

112

Technique to determine contamination exposure routes and the economic efficiency of folded paper-towel dispensing.  

PubMed

Handwashing and hand drying are key elements of infection control. Paper towels are generally accepted as the most hygienic means of drying hands and are often distributed from generic dispensers. Effective dispensing of towels is of importance economically and may influence infection control objectives if hands become contaminated during hand drying. In this study, a method to identify potential exposure routes for hand contamination and evaluate the efficiency of paper-towel dispensing is described and applied to 5 different folded paper towels using a generic wall-mounted dispenser. A total of 18 male and female participants of varying heights participated in pull testing of 400 paper towels each, in controlled hand-drying simulations. All events having the potential for hand contamination, including towel jamming, towels falling onto the floor, and incidental contact of paper exits, were monitored and documented. There was considerable variation in dispensing efficiency between different towel brands. One towel (Z) had significantly (P <.05) superior dispensing properties from the generic dispenser. Participants of a shorter height obtained a lower incidence of dispensing malfunctions using all towel products and type. The results indicated likely contamination exposure routes and wastage levels for each towel type. Environmental service managers and infection control practitioners should carefully consider, for economic and infection control reasons, the siting and design of towel dispensers and the types of towel purchased. PMID:12665744

Harrison, Wendy A; Griffith, Christopher J; Michaels, Barry; Ayers, Troy

2003-04-01

113

Day 3 and day 5 morphological predictors of embryo viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling multiple pregnancies in patients undergoing artificial reproductive procedures requires consideration of single embryo transfers. Therefore, refinements for embryo evaluation are needed that select for the most developmentally competent embryo. The present study was designed to identify day 3 and day 5 morphological predictors of viability following transfers in which the morphology and fate of each embryo was precisely determined.

Catherine Racowsky; Catherine MH Combelles; Aida Nureddin; Yuying Pan; Alison Finn; Lyndon Miles; Sarah Gale; Thomas O'Leary; Katharine V Jackson

2003-01-01

114

Stem cell therapy enhances electrical viability in myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies suggest increased arrhythmia risk associated with cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that the degree of electrical viability in the infarct and border zone associated with skeletal myoblast (SKMB) or mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy will determine arrhythmia vulnerability in the whole heart. Within 24 h of LAD ligation in

William R. Mills; Niladri Mal; Matthew J. Kiedrowski; Ryan Unger; Farhad Forudi; Zoran B. Popovic; Marc S. Penn; Kenneth R. Laurita

2007-01-01

115

THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY AND DETERMINANTS OF MANUFACTURING EXPORTS FROM SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questions that this paper seeks to address is: how did the various sub-national regions in South Africa benefit from rising manufacturing exports since 1994, and what factors determines the differential manufacturing export performance of South Africa's sub-national regions? Based on various theoretical models of the possible determinants of differential export performance across sub- national regions, we esti mate the

W. A. Naudé; T. Gries

116

Determining economic benefits of satellite data in short-range forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chances of enhanced short term weather predictions and economic benefits from the use of GOES satellite data were examined. Results for a meteorological consulting firm before and after the introduction of GOES data were chosen as the method, and monetary benefits were selected as the measure. Services were provided for use by road and street departments, commodities dealers, and marine clients of the consulting firm. The Man-computer Interactive Data Access Program (McIDAS) was employed to furnish 1/2 hour visual or IR imagery for remote access. The commodities clients reconnected the GOES real-time imagery once the study was completed, while the consulting firm, which was personnel and not equipment intensive, did not. Further development of the flexibility of access to the GOES data and improvements in the projected grids are indicated.

Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.; Hinton, B.

1981-01-01

117

Economic viability of a commingled/backgrounded cattle sale  

E-print Network

at the premium sale in San Saba with those received at traditional auctions in Texas, then test for a statistical difference. The second objective was to use previously developed hedonic pricing models to test if certain characteristics of a lot of cattle...

Schulte, Jaret Roy

2012-06-07

118

Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells  

E-print Network

is ellipsoidal, with the large half-axis of the drainage ellipsoid, a, related to the length of the horizontal well. I / p c / kH Figure 2. 3 - Drainage Pattern Formed Around a Horizontal Well 13 Babu and Odeh' " developed a more complicated but more...-optimistic performance calculations if the well is not drilled in this orientation in anisotropic reservoirs, but since it allows the horizontal well to fully penetrate the drainage area, it does not have the limits of applicability of Joshi's equation. Odeh and Babu...

Smith, Christopher Jason

2012-06-07

119

Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

Bifano, W. J.

1982-01-01

120

HPC viability measurement: trypan blue versus acridine orange and propidium iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A reliable, validated method for rapidly determining HPC viability is essential for clinical cell en- gineering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A fluorometric cell viability assay using acridine orange and propidium io- dide (AO\\/PI) was compared to the current standard, trypan blue (TB) exclusion. Viable cells stained with AO\\/ PI fluoresce green under darkfield fluorescence micros- copy, while nonviable cells

K. Mascotti; J. McCullough; S. R. Burger

2000-01-01

121

Impact Of Asset Age\\/Fiscal Viability On Selected Measures Of Patient Care In Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five New York nursing homes were examined to determine if a relationship between age of assets, fiscal viability and quality of nursing homes, as measured by patient care indices and survey deficiencies, existed. These factors were examined on 2004 data for the nursing homes selected. Several financial variables were used to construct a fiscal viability index; and a patient care

Jim Morey

122

Impact Of Asset Age\\/Fiscal Viability On Selected Measures Of Quality In Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-three New York hospitals were examined to determine if a relationship between age of assets, fiscal viability and quality of care existed. These factors were examined for 2002 for each of the hospitals selected. Several financial variables were used to construct a fiscal viability index; and a quality index was created from selected mortality outcomes and procedural measures that may

Jim Morey; Gary Scherzer

2005-01-01

123

Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.  

PubMed

Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

2009-01-01

124

A metasynthesis of qualitative studies regarding opinions and perceptions about barriers and determinants of health services' accessibility in economic migrants  

PubMed Central

Background Access to health services is an important health determinant. New research in health equity is required, especially amongst economic migrants from developing countries. Studies conducted on the use of health services by migrant populations highlight existing gaps in understanding which factors affect access to these services from a qualitative perspective. We aim to describe the views of the migrants regarding barriers and determinants of access to health services in the international literature (1997–2011). Methods A systematic review was conducted for Qualitative research papers (English/Spanish) published in 13 electronic databases. A selection of articles that accomplished the inclusion criteria and a quality evaluation of the studies were carried out. The findings of the selected studies were synthesised by means of metasynthesis using different analysis categories according to Andersen’s conceptual framework of access and use of health services and by incorporating other emergent categories. Results We located 3,025 titles, 36 studies achieved the inclusion criteria. After quality evaluation, 28 articles were definitively synthesised. 12 studies (46.2%) were carried out in the U.S and 11 studies (42.3%) dealt with primary care services. The participating population varied depending mainly on type of host country. Barriers were described, such as the lack of communication between health services providers and migrants, due to idiomatic difficulties and cultural differences. Other barriers were linked to the economic system, the health service characteristics and the legislation in each country. This situation has consequences for the lack of health control by migrants and their social vulnerability. Conclusions Economic migrants faced individual and structural barriers to the health services in host countries, especially those with undocumented situation and those experimented idiomatic difficulties. Strategies to improve the structures of health systems and social policies are needed. PMID:23245431

2012-01-01

125

Economic, Cultural and Religious Determinants of Perceived Level of Political Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political corruption has received increasing attention in the recent literature as it leads to crises in both industrialized and developing countries. This study examines the level of corruption and for this purpose this study tries to find out the question of what determines political corruption. Foreign aid, the world policy index, GDP per worker, democracy, British colony, religion, women in

Fuat Sekmen

2012-01-01

126

SocioEconomic Determinants of Juvenile Crime among Street Children and Teenagers in a Brazilian State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the determinants of juvenile crime among street children and teenagers in the Minas Gerais state (Brazil). Our dataset consists of 3.028 questionnaires applied to children and teenagers found on the streets of the 21 largest cities in the state. We have estimated a Logit model, which enabled us to identify the correlation between several variables and juvenile crime.

Ari Francisco De Araujo; Claudio Djissey Shikida; Reginaldo Pinto Nogueira; Frederico M. Poley Ferreira

2012-01-01

127

Luminescent multiplex viability assay for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense  

PubMed Central

Background New compounds for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are urgently required. Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense is the leading cause of HAT, yet T.b. gambiense is often not the prime target organism in drug discovery. This may be attributed to the difficulties in handling this subspecies and the lack of an efficient viability assay to monitor drug efficacy. Methods In this study, a T.b. gambiense strain, recently isolated in the D.R. Congo, was made bioluminescent by transfection with Renilla luciferase (RLuc) without altering its in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics. A luminescent multiplex viability assay (LMVA), based on measurement of the Renilla luciferase activity and the ATP content of the cells within the same experiment, was investigated as an alternative to the standard fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of T.b. gambiense. Results In a 96-well format, the RLuc transfected strain showed a detection limit of 2 × 104 cells ml-1 for the Renilla luciferase measurement and 5 × 103 cells ml-1 for the ATP measurement. Both assays of the LMVA showed linearity up to 106 cells ml-1 and correlated well with the cell density during exponential growth of the long slender bloodstream forms. The LMVA was compared to the fluorimetric resazurin viability assay for drug sensitivity testing of pentamidine, eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol with both the wild type and the RLuc transfected population. For each drug, the IC50 value of the RLuc population was similar to that of the wild type when determined with either the fluorimetric resazurin method or the LMVA. For eflornithine, nifurtimox and melarsoprol we found no difference between the IC50 values in both viability assays. In contrast, the IC50 value of pentamidine was higher when determined with the fluorimetric resazurin method than in both assays of the LMVA. Conclusions LMVA has some advantages for viability measurement of T.b. gambiense: it requires less incubation time for viability detection than the fluorimetric resazurin assay and in LMVA, two sensitive and independent viability assays are performed in the same experiment. PMID:23856321

2013-01-01

128

Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities. PMID:24991410

2014-01-01

129

Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The geographical pattern of mortality in The Netherlands is dominated by an area of relatively high mortality in the southern part of the country. The aim was to analyse the background of this geographical mortality pattern in the early 1980s, and its evolution over time since the early 1950s. DESIGN--Mortality data by district (n = 39), cause of death (13 large causes, "symptoms and ill defined conditions", all other causes), and time period (1950-54, 1960-64, 1970-74, 1980-84) were available from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated, and the logarithms of these were related to three sociodemographic characteristics using multiple, ordinary least squares regression analysis. SETTING--This study used data for the whole Dutch population. MAIN RESULTS--Although the geographical mortality pattern has been rather stable over the last decades, a clear tendency towards convergence is also apparent. Approximately 90% of the current excess mortality in the southern part of the country is due to cardiovascular diseases. The results of regression analysis show that the excess mortality is primarily related to the high percentage of Roman Catholics in this part of the country, and additionally to a slightly lower average income. In The Netherlands, a higher percentage of Roman Catholics in the population is linked with higher all cause mortality rates, as well as with higher mortality rates for lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arterial disease, and chronic non-specific lung disease. Survey data show that these associations are partly due to a higher prevalence of smoking among Roman Catholics. As in many other countries, a lower average income is linked with high all cause mortality rates in The Netherlands. Cause specific data show negative associations for stomach cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic non-specific lung disease, and traffic accidents. Since the early 1950s the association between geographical mortality patterns and the percentage of Roman Catholics in the population has gradually become less strongly positive. This suggests that the convergence of the mortality rates in the South towards the national average may be related to a gradual lessening of differences in lifestyle between population groups. CONCLUSIONS--Both cultural and economic factors are important in the explanation of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands. PMID:1757767

Mackenbach, J P; Kunst, A E; Looman, C W

1991-01-01

130

APP A_SALMONID VIABILITY CRITERIA.DOC A-1 Interim Viability Criteria Overview of Threatened  

E-print Network

enough to support growth and abundance, and diversity criteria. b. Quality: Habitat underlying spatialAPP A_SALMONID VIABILITY CRITERIA.DOC A-1 APPENDIX A Interim Viability Criteria Overview Report on Viability Criteria for Willamette and Lower Columbia Basin Pacific Salmonids, which

131

Spatial and Temporal Measurements of Temperature and Cell Viability in Response to Nanoparticle Mediated Photothermal Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Aim: Nanoparticle enhanced photothermal therapy is a promising alternative to tumor resection. However, quantitative measurements of cellular response to these treatments are limited. This paper introduces a Bimodal Enhanced Analysis of Spatiotemporal Temperature (BEAST) algorithm to rapidly determine the viability of cancer cells in vitro following photothermal therapy alone or in combination with nanoparticles. Materials & Methods: To illustrate the capability of the BEAST viability algorithm, single wall carbon nanohorns were added to renal cancer (RENCA) cells in vitro and time-dependent spatial temperature maps measured with an infrared camera during laser therapy were correlated with post-treatment cell viability distribution maps obtained by cell-staining fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: The BEAST viability algorithm accurately and rapidly determined the cell viability as function of time, space, and temperature.

Whitney, Jon R [ORNL; Rodgers, Amanda [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Harvie, Erica [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Carswell, William [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Torti, Suzy [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Rylander, Christopher [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Rylander, Nichole M [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

2012-01-01

132

Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metapopulation viability analysis package, vortex, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean

Jonathan H Plissner; Susan M Haig

2000-01-01

133

Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

Garigliano, Leonard J.

1975-01-01

134

Viability of Multithreading on Networks of Workstations  

E-print Network

Viability of Multithreading on Networks of Workstations Hantak Kwak1, Ben Lee1, and Ali R. Hurson2 for NOWs. This paper, however, examines the viability of using multithreading on NOWs. A matrix of multithreading, with a small number of threads per processor, is very comparable to that of programs written

Lee, Ben

135

Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation. PMID:22239949

2012-01-01

136

Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, and {approximately}50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells ({approximately}1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 {+-} 162 to 1,588 {+-} 284 {mu}m{sup 2}, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses and required. 42 refs., 7 figs.

Korber, D.R.; Choi, A.; Wolfaardt, G.M.; Caldwell, D.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1996-11-01

137

Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 M NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, an approximately 50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells (approximately 1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 +/- 162 to 1,588 +/- 284 microns2, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses are required. PMID:8899980

Korber, D R; Choi, A; Wolfaardt, G M; Caldwell, D E

1996-01-01

138

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

139

Modeling the determinants of industry political power: industry winners in the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981  

E-print Network

This study uses qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to examine the basis of industry political power by assessing conditions of economic interdependence and political action associated with the passage of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981...

Kardell, Amy Louise

2004-09-30

140

ECONOMICS OF HERBICIDE CONTROL OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), a widely established exotic, noxious, perennial weed, is a major threat to the viability of commercial grazing and to beneficial outputs of wildlands in the Upper Great Plains. Herbicide treatments are often recommended based upon measures of physical control rather than on economic criteria. A deterministic, bioeconomic model was developed to evaluate the economic viability

Dean A. Bangsund; Jay A. Leitch; F. Larry Leistritz

1996-01-01

141

The effect of ultrasound-related stimuli on cell viability in microfluidic channels  

PubMed Central

Background In ultrasonic micro-devices, contrast agent micro-bubbles are known to initiate cavitation and streaming local to cells, potentially compromising cell viability. Here we investigate the effects of US alone by omitting contrast agent and monitoring cell viability under moderate-to-extreme ultrasound-related stimuli. Results Suspended H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to ultrasonic fields within a glass micro-capillary and their viability monitored under different US-related stimuli. An optimal injection flow rate of 2.6 mL/h was identified in which, high viability was maintained (~95%) and no mechanical stress towards cells was evident. This flow rate also allowed sufficient exposure of cells to US in order to induce bioeffects (~5 sec), whilst providing economical sample collection and processing times. Although the transducer temperature increased from ambient 23°C to 54°C at the maximum experimental voltage (29 Vpp), computational fluid dynamic simulations and controls (absence of US) revealed that the cell medium temperature did not exceed 34°C in the pressure nodal plane. Cells exposed to US amplitudes ranging from 0–29 Vpp, at a fixed frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.05 sec), revealed that viability was minimally affected up to ~15 Vpp. There was a ~17% reduction in viability at 21 Vpp, corresponding to the onset of Rayleigh-like streaming and a ~60% reduction at 29 Vpp, corresponding to increased streaming velocity or the potential onset of cavitation. At a fixed amplitude (29 Vpp) but with varying frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.02-0.50 sec), cell viability remained relatively constant at tsw ? 0.08 sec, whilst viability reduced at tsw < 0.08 sec and minimum viability recorded at tsw = 0.05 sec. Conclusion The absence of CA has enabled us to investigate the effect of US alone on cell viability. Moderate-to-extreme US-related stimuli of cells have allowed us to discriminate between stimuli that maintain high viability and stimuli that significantly reduce cell viability. Results from this study may be of potential interest to researchers in the field of US-induced intracellular drug delivery and ultrasonic manipulation of biological cells. PMID:23809777

2013-01-01

142

Historical notes on immaturity. Part 1: measures of viability.  

PubMed

The interest in the limit of viability originated from various sources, including legal requirements, the rejection of mechnical life support, competition for resources, concerns about handicaps, and proximity to the fetus with its limited rights. Gestational age was determined from menstrual history by Hippocratic writers, who established the tenacious idea that 7-, but not 8-month infants could survive. Naegele's rule, already published by Boerhaave in 1744, was correct when applied to the last day of menstruation. Birth weight and length were not measured until the end of the 18(th) century. This remarkable disinterest resulted from superstition, grossly inaccurate measurements by the authorities Mauriceau and Smellie, and the conversion chaos of the pre-metric era. A table is provided with historic mass and length units allowing to determine birth weight and body length in the older literature. The idea of viability is a remnant of vitalism, a medical doctrine popularized in 1780 by Brown. Many short-lived statements defined its limit, but until now what was meant by viability remained nebulous. PMID:21726180

Obladen, Michael

2011-09-01

143

Responses of African economies to the international economic shocks: an empirical study.  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, we investigate the viability of an economic and monetary union creation for the African countries, the African Union, projects to create an economic and monetary union for the African countries and a new the viability for an economic and monetary union creation for the African countries and a new unified currency

144

Oil, the Suez canal, and sterling reserves: economic factors determining British decisionmaking during the 1967 Arab–Israeli crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the importance of economic factors for the development of British Middle Eastern policy during the 1967 Arab-Israeli crisis, based on newly declassified government documents. Policy shifted from threatening unilateral action against Nasser to multilateralism and neutraliry shortly before the June war. Economic considerations will be put in the context of anti-interventionist voices in the cabinet, in the

Gernot Klantschnig

2003-01-01

145

Insecticide Resistance and Malaria Vector Control: The Importance of Fitness Cost Mechanisms in Determining Economically Optimal Control Trajectories  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of knowing whether insecticide resistance mutations involve fitness costs. Using a theoretical model, this article investigates economically optimal strategies for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes when there is the potential for mosquitoes to evolve resistance to insecticides. Consistent with previous literature, we find that fitness costs are a key element in the computation of economically optimal resistance management strategies. Additionally, our models indicate that different biological mechanisms underlying these fitness costs (e.g., increased adult mortality and/or decreased fecundity) can significantly alter economically optimal resistance management strategies. PMID:23448053

Brown, Zachary S.; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Kramer, Randall A.

2014-01-01

146

Economic and structural determinants of the demand for public transport: an analysis on a panel of French urban areas using shrinkage estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a panel data analysis of annual time series from 1975 to 1995 for 62 urban areas in France. It compares the results obtained from a conventional fixed-effects (FE) model with a Bayesian approach (shrinkage estimators), which allows the computation of elasticities for each urban area. First, considering only three economic determinants (vehicle km, income and price), we

Georges Bresson; Joyce Dargay; Jean-Loup Madre; Alain Pirotte

2004-01-01

147

Emergency control in blanket viability crisis  

SciTech Connect

The viability crisis in a power system is defined, and three consecutive tasks are identified for the viabilizing control. A newly formulated criterion is proposed, and a complete set of approaches for viabilization is presented in both Tasks II and III, an implementable least-disruptive solution is obtained, which ensures that the transient state of the system is in the safe region. A reduced model is introduced which retains the identity in full detail of individual tie lines and of the boundary buses where tie lines connect to the areas but which compresses the details of the areas themselves. The model is useful in blanket emergencies where it facilitates the prediction of the future course of frequency and tie-line loads during the emergency. A load flow program using concentric relaxation and the reduced model is also introduced for fast evaluation of the system state.

Huang, P.

1984-01-01

148

Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics  

PubMed Central

Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

2014-01-01

149

Sphingosine Kinase Activity Is Not Required for Tumor Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology. PMID:23861887

Brown, Matthew L.; Carlson, Timothy; Coxon, Angela; Fajardo, Flordeliza; Frank, Brendon; Gustin, Darin; Kamb, Alexander; Kassner, Paul D.; Li, Shyun; Li, Yihong; Morgenstern, Kurt; Plant, Matthew; Quon, Kim; Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Schmidt, Joanna; Swearingen, Elissa; Walker, Nigel; Wang, Zhulun; Watson, J. E. Vivienne; Wickramasinghe, Dineli; Wong, Mariwil; Xu, Guifen; Wesche, Holger

2013-01-01

150

Pollen Dispersion, Pollen Viability and Pistil Receptivity in Leymus chinensis  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Leymus chinensis is an economically and ecologically important grass that is widely distributed across eastern areas of the Eurasian steppe. A major problem facing its propagation by man is its low sexual reproductivity. The causes of low fecundity are uncertain, largely because many aspects of the reproductive biology of this species remained unknown or incomplete. This study aims to address some of these issues. • Methods Pollen dispersion, pollen viability, pollen longevity and pistil receptivity were studied in a representative, natural population of L. chinensis growing in Inner Mongolia. • Key Results Flowering of L. chinensis occurred at the end of June and lasted for 5 d. Pollination peaked between 1600 h and 1700 h, and about 56·1 % of the total pollen grains were released at this time. Pollen density was highest towards the middle of flowering spikes and lowest at the bottom over the 5 d measurement period. Pollen viability (62·4 %) assessed using TTC was more accurate than using IKI (85·6 %); 50 % of pollen arriving on stigmas germinated. Pollen remained viable for only 3 h and the pollen?:?ovule ratio was 79?333?:?1. Pistil receptivity lasted for only 3 h and, overall, 86·7 % of pistils were pollinated. Within the spike, the relative fecundity of different positions was middle > lower > upper throughout the period of pollination; daily variation of fecundity was similar to that of the pollen flow. The spikes that opened on the day of highest pollen density exhibited the highest fecundity (36·0 %). No seeds were produced by self?pollination. • Conclusions The data suggest that low pollen viability, short pollen longevity and short pistil receptivity all appear to contribute to the low seed production typical of this important forage crop. PMID:14744707

HUANG, ZEHAO; ZHU, JINMAO; MU, XIJIN; LIN, JINXING

2004-01-01

151

The new economic credentialing: protecting hospitals from competition by medical staff members.  

PubMed

This Article addresses hospitals' use of economic criteria to determine an individual's qualifications for staff privileges. Hospitals are resorting to economic conflict-of-interest credentialing policies in an attempt to ensure physician's loyalty and maintain their own economic viability. Physicians, however, argue that entrepreneurial activities are necessary for them to meet the economic challenges posed by declining reimbursements and rising insurance costs. The Article surveys the numerous legal theories that physicians (and, in some cases, the federal government) could employ in attacking these new types of credentialing policies and concludes that, on balance, hospitals should be able to implement their policies in ways that minimize liability in most jurisdictions. The Article concludes by discussing other issues that economic credentialing policies raise, including those implicating tax-exempt status and nonlegal considerations. PMID:12940678

Weeks, Elizabeth A

2003-01-01

152

Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets. PMID:23212836

Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa

2013-04-01

153

Approximate Safety Enforcement Using Computed Viability Envelopes  

E-print Network

of a pilot flying near stall-speed during a landing flare, or the finesse of a race-car driver in safely of the car leaving the road or beginning to lose traction. The viability envelope consists of all "points a lane-keeping aid for car steering [6], [7] and can in some cases be shown to provide analytic

Panne, M. van de

154

Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The metapopulation viability analysis package, VORTEX, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean fecundity for a significant probability of persisting for the next 100 years. Metapopulation structure (i.e. the delineation of populations within the metapopulation) and interpopulation dispersal rates had varying effects on model results; however, spatially-structured metapopulations exhibited lower viability than that reported for single-population models. The models were most sensitive to variation in survivorship; hence, additional mortality data will improve their accuracy. With this information, such models become useful tools in identifying successful management objectives; and sensitivity analyses, even in the absence of some data, may indicate which options are likely to be most effective. Metapopulation viability models are best suited for developing conservation strategies for achieving recovery objectives based on maintaining an externally derived, target population size and structure.

Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.

2000-01-01

155

Rural Education and Rural Community Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis examines the ways in which rural schools support or undermine rural community viability in the United States. Beginning in the late 19th century, the diverse people of the United States came under the power of a single ideology of modernization and the superiority of urban culture. This ideology has resulted in the American transition…

Hammer, Patricia Cahape

156

Gonzales, Casey and the Viability Rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonzales v. Carhart upheld a federal ban on intact D&E abortions. The dissenters in Gonzales accused the majority of ignoring the rule that a state may only prohibit abortion of a viable fetus, one capable of life outside the womb. The continuing discord over the viability rule highlights an issue that remains unsettled 34 years after Roe: Why may a

Randy Beck

2009-01-01

157

Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.  

PubMed

In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale. PMID:21561518

Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

2011-01-01

158

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-02-01

159

Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores  

SciTech Connect

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-10-06

160

Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-11-01

161

Gender Differences in Body Mass Index in Rural India Are Determined by SocioEconomic Factors and Lifestyle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the nutritional status of women in 6 villages of the Pune district of Maharashtra, India, found young women to have a significantly lower BMI than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness and to explore the behavior in men and women that might

Mary Barker; Ginny Chorghade; Sarah Crozier; Sam Leary; Caroline Fall

162

Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) viability is, therefore, critical in deciding whether a patient with coronary artery disease and severe LV dysfunction should undergo revascularization, receive a heart transplant, or remain on medical therapy. Assessment of Left Ventricular Viability Techniques for assessing myocardial viability depend on the measurement of a specific characteristic of viable myocytes such as cell membrane integrity, preserved metabolism, mitochondria integrity, and preserved contractile reserve. In Ontario, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioactive 201thallium is the most commonly used technique followed by dobutamine echocardiography. Newer techniques include SPECT using technetium tracers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and PET, the subject of this review. Positron Emission Tomography PET is a nuclear imaging technique based on the metabolism of radioactive analogs of normal substrates such as glucose and water. The radiopharmaceutical used most frequently in myocardial viability assessment is F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog. The procedure involves the intravenous administration of FDG under controlled glycemic conditions, and imaging with a PET scanner. The images are reconstructed using computer software and analyzed visually or semi-quantitatively, often in conjunction with perfusion images. Dysfunctional but stunned myocardium is characterized by normal perfusion and normal FDG uptake; hibernating myocardium exhibits reduced perfusion and normal/enhanced FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism mismatch), whereas scar tissue is characterized by reduction in both perfusion and FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism match). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used a search strategy similar to that used in the 2001 ICES review to identify English language reports of health technology assessments and primary studies in selected databases, published from January 1, 2001 to April 20, 2005. Patients of interest were those with CAD and severe ventricular dysfunction being considered for revascularization that had under

2005-01-01

163

Influence of mechanical stress on cell viability.  

PubMed

The cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue in joints that withstands and distributes mechanical forces. The chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this work was to study the influence of mechanical stress on cells behavior cultured in 3D biosystems (alginate and alginate supplemented with hyaluronate). After mechanical stimulation, cell viability and cell death process were the main studied parameters. Our results indicated that viability and cell cycle progression were inhibited under mechanical stimulation, as far as the extracellular matrix was not yet synthesized. In contrast, on day 21, the mechanical stimulation had positive effect on these parameters. PMID:16912409

Huselstein, C; de Isla, N; Kolopp-Sarda, M N; Kerdjoudj, H; Muller, S; Stoltz, J F

2006-01-01

164

Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.  

PubMed Central

One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small population size are expressed at the end of the species' life history. PMID:15315900

Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

2004-01-01

165

The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades  

PubMed Central

In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

Lopez-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

2014-01-01

166

The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.  

PubMed

In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

2014-01-01

167

ALCAPA: the role of myocardial viability studies in determining prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  ALCAPA is optimally treated by coronary artery reimplantation early in neonatal life. Delayed diagnosis, however, is not infrequent,\\u000a because symptoms often do not manifest until about 3 months of age, coinciding with the physiological nadir in pulmonary vascular\\u000a resistance. With delayed diagnosis, there is potential for coronary steal and irreversible myocardial injury, which worsens\\u000a outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To assess the utility of MRI

Lorna P. Browne; Debra Kearney; Michael D. Taylor; Taylor Chung; Timothy C. Slesnick; Arni C. Nutting; Rajesh Krishnamurthy

2010-01-01

168

Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

169

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

of Masters programmes, all designed to give you a competitive advantage in an increasingly challenging future career. The programme focuses on the key areas of advanced economics, quantitative methods. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

170

Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregiver's treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period. Results There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors. Conclusion In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides. PMID:21429217

2011-01-01

171

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

172

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-04-01

173

Religion and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, we use instrumental variables

Robert J. Barro; Rachel M. Mccleary

2003-01-01

174

Resilience and vulnerability to a natural hazard: A mathematical framework based on viability theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This deals with the response of a coupled human and natural system (CHANS) to a natural hazard by using the concepts of resilience and vulnerability within the mathematical framework of viability theory. This theory applies to time-evolving systems such as CHANS and assumes that their desirable properties can be defined as a subset of their state space. Policies can also apply to influence the dynamics of such systems: viability theory aims at finding the policies which keep the properties of a controlled dynamical system for so long as no disturbance hits it. The states of the system such that the properties are guaranteed constitute what is called the viability kernel. This viability framework has been extended to describe the response to a perturbation such as a natural hazard. Resilience describes the capacity of the CHANS to recover by getting back in the viability kernel, where its properties are guaranteed until the onset of the next major event. Defined for a given controlled trajectory that the system may take after the event ends, resilience is (a) whether the system comes back to the viability kernel within a given budget such as a time constraint, but also (b) a decreasing function of vulnerability. Computed for a given trajectory as well, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for a certain trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of an associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Computing the resilience and vulnerability of a trajectory enables the viability framework to describe the response of both deterministic and stochastic systems to hazards. In the deterministic case, there is only one response trajectory for a given action policy, and methods exist to find the actions which yield the most resilient trajectory, namely the least vulnerable trajectory for which recovery is complete. In the stochastic case however, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the resilience and vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield either the policies that maximize the probability of being resilient by achieving recovery within a given time horizon, or these which minimize a given vulnerability statistic. These objectives are different and can be in contradiction, so that trade-offs may have to be considered between them. The approach is illustrated in both the deterministic and stochastic cases through a simple model of lake eutrophication, for which the desirable ecological properties of the lake conflict with the economic interest of neighboring farmers.

Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

2013-04-01

175

Microbial and environmental effects on avian egg viability: do tropical mechanisms act in a temperate environment?  

PubMed

The viability of freshly laid avian eggs declines after several days of exposure to ambient temperatures above physiological zero, and declines occur faster in tropical than temperate ecosystems. Microbial infection during preincubation exposure has recently been shown as a second cause of egg viability decline in the tropics, but whether microbial processes influence the viability of wild bird eggs in temperate ecosystems is unknown. We determined the microbial load on eggshells, the incidence of microbial penetration of egg contents, and changes in the viability of wild bird eggs (Sialia mexicana, Tachycineta bicolor, Tachycineta thalassina) experimentally exposed to temperate-zone ambient conditions in situ in a mediterranean climate in northern California. Initial microbial loads on eggshells were generally low, although they were significantly higher on eggs laid in old boxes than in new boxes. Eggshell microbial loads did not increase with exposure to ambient conditions, were not reduced by twice-daily disinfection with alcohol, and were unaffected by parental incubation. The rate of microbial penetration into egg contents was low and unaffected by the duration of exposure. Nevertheless, egg viability declined very gradually and significantly with exposure duration, and the rate of decline differed among species. In contrast to studies performed in the tropics, we found little evidence that temperature or microbial mechanisms of egg viability decline were important at our temperate-zone site; neither temperatures above physiological zero nor alcohol disinfection was significantly related to hatching success. Delaying the onset of incubation until the penultimate or last egg of a clutch at our study site may maintain hatching synchrony without a large trade-off in egg viability. These results provide insight into the environmental mechanisms that may be responsible for large-scale latitudinal patterns in avian clutch size and hatching asynchrony. PMID:21661574

Wang, Jennifer M; Firestone, Mary K; Beissinger, Steven R

2011-05-01

176

Determination of the existence of economic rents accruing in the United States coal industry and implications of increased coal severance taxation  

SciTech Connect

To raise necessary revenues, many energy rich states have turned to greater utilization of severance taxation. Increases in oil and gas prices and the decline of nuclear power led to an increase in the competitiveness of coal, and perhaps to the generation of economic rents within the coal industry which state legislatures would hope to reappropriate via severance taxation. The purpose of this research is to determine if economic rents have been generated within the coal industry, and to analyze the implications of increased severance taxation. A mine simulation model was used to estimate the price per ton of coal a typical firm would have to charge in order to cover all operating costs and earn a normal rate or return. Such estimates were made for eleven major coal producing states and compared to actual price data for the years 1978 through 1981. For each year, actual selling prices exceeded the minimum acceptable selling price necessary for firms to earn a normal rate of return, i.e., economic rents were generated in each year, totalling nearly $2.5 billion in 1981. Regarding the implications of increased severance taxation, it was argued that will the exception of a pure profits tax, any tax imposed on a profit-maximizing firm would discourage production and investment.

Noser, T.C.

1986-01-01

177

Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

1999-04-12

178

Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of the associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Due to the stochastic nature of the system, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield the policies which, among available policies, minimize a given trajectory. Thus, this viability framework gives indication on both the possible consequences of a hazard or an environmental change, and on the policies that can mitigate or avert it. It also enables to assess the benefits of extending the set of available policy options, and we define adaptive capacity as the reduction in a given vulnerability statistic due to the introduction of new policy options.

Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

2013-04-01

179

The role of cultural and economic determinants in mortality decline in the Netherlands, 1875/1879-1920/1924: a regional analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in mortality decline in the Netherlands in the periods 1875/1879-1895/1899 and 1895/1899-1920/1924. Mortality data by region, age, sex and cause of death as well as population data were derived from Statistics Netherlands for the years 1875/1879, 1885/1889, 1895/1899, 1910/1914, 1920/1924. Regional mortality declines were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models. In a multivariate analysis the estimated declines were associated with economic (wealth tax) and cultural variables (% Roman Catholics and secularisation) corrected for confounders (soiltype, urbanisation). In the period from 1875/1879-1895/1899, %Roman Catholics was significantly associated with all-cause mortality decline and with mortality decline from diseases other than infectious diseases. Mortality declined less rapidly in areas with a high percentage of Roman Catholics. Secularisation was significantly associated with infectious-disease mortality decline. In areas with a high percentage population without a religious affiliation, mortality declined more rapidly. In the period from 1895/1899 to 1920/1924, wealth tax was significantly associated with all-cause and infectious-disease mortality decline. Mortality declined more rapidly in wealthy areas. Intermediary factors in the relationship between cultural factors and mortality decline were fertility decline, but more importantly, the number of medical doctors per 100,000 inhabitants. No intermediary factors were found for the association between the economic variable and mortality decline. Cultural and economic factors both played an important role in mortality decline in The Netherlands, albeit in different periods of time. The analysis of intermediary factors suggests that the acceptance of new ideas on hygiene and disease processes was an important factor in the association between culture and mortality decline in the late 19th century. PMID:11710419

Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, J H; van Poppel, F W; Looman, C W; Mackenbach, J P

2001-12-01

180

Optimum Technology Insertion into Systems Based on the Assessment of Viability  

E-print Network

1 Optimum Technology Insertion into Systems Based on the Assessment of Viability Peter A. Sandborn the replacement of technologies used to construct the original system with newer technologies. Technology insertion involves determining which technologies to replace during a design refresh, i.e., deciding

Sandborn, Peter

181

?-Tubulin mRNA as a Marker of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Viability  

PubMed Central

Determining the viability of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts remains a technical challenge. rRNA and mRNA were evaluated in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay as potential markers of oocyst viability. The rationale for this approach is the rapid turnover and postmortem decay of cellular RNA. The ?-tubulin mRNA and an anonymous mRNA transcript were chosen as potential markers because they are the only mRNA species in C. parvum known to possess introns. This feature facilitated the distinction between genuine RT-PCR products and PCR products originating from copurifying DNA. Prolonged incubation at room temperature of initially viable oocysts resulted in a gradual decrease in mRNA levels, which correlated with the loss of oocyst infectivity to neonatal mice. In contrast, oocysts stored at 4°C for over 39 weeks maintained their infectivity and displayed no decrease in the level of ?-tubulin RT-PCR product. The postmortem decay of two mRNA species demonstrates that RT-PCR analysis can provide information on the viability of C. parvum oocysts. The methodological similarity between PCR detection and RT-PCR viability analysis could facilitate the development of a combined detection and viability assay. PMID:10103254

Widmer, Giovanni; Orbacz, Elizabeth A.; Tzipori, Saul

1999-01-01

182

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

183

Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).  

PubMed

The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

2013-04-01

184

From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

2005-01-01

185

Towards "Lisbon Objectives": Economic Determinants of Participation Rates in University Education--An Empirical Analysis in 14 European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation rates in higher education are an important indicator to pursue one of the main European policy objectives, which is to increase the proportion of population attending higher education. A model used to detect the determinants of participation rates is proposed in this paper, and it is empirically tested for 14 European countries…

Agasisti, Tommaso

2009-01-01

186

Extending the viability of acute brain slices.  

PubMed

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

2014-01-01

187

VIABILITY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN ANTARCTIC SOIL  

PubMed Central

Boyd, William L. (Ohio State University, Columbus) and Josephine W. Boyd. Viability of coliform bacteria in antarctic soil. J. Bacteriol. 85:1121–1123. 1963.—The distribution of coliform bacteria in soils of Ross Island and the nearby mainland was studied. None was found in almost all of the samples collected, including some from the Adelie penguin rookeries at Cape Royds and Cape Crozier and in soil at the McMurdo Base which had been recently contaminated by human sewage. Samples of pony manure left from previous expeditions were also negative, with one exception where Escherichia coli were present. Studies carried out with two freshly isolated human strains of E. coli and the isolate from pony manure showed that the death rate was extremely rapid, although the animal strain was much more resistant to the various factors of the environment causing death. PMID:14044003

Boyd, William L.; Boyd, Josephine W.

1963-01-01

188

Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.  

PubMed

Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

2014-01-01

189

Rapid assessment of cell viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus by measurement of intracellular pH in individual cells using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate if the measurement of intracellular pH (pHi) of individual cells by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) could be utilized as a rapid method for determining the bacterial viability, using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a model organism. Five different standardized cultures with equal cell densities but varying viability were prepared on a

K. Björn Rechinger; Henrik Siegumfeldt

2002-01-01

190

Comparison of viability tests for assessing cross-adaptation to freezing, heat and salt stresses induced by abscisic acid in bromegrass ( Bromus inermis Leyss) suspension cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several viability assays were compared to determine the most sensitive and appropriate method for estimating the freezing, heat and salt tolerance of Bromus inermis Leyss cells cultured with or without 75 ?M abscisic acid (ABA) for 4–7 days at 25°C. The sensitivity and reliability of individual viability tests depended on the type of stress applied and degree of injury. Regrowth,

Masaya Ishikawa; Albert J. Robertson; Lawrence V. Gusta

1995-01-01

191

Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1994-03-01

192

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

2000-04-24

193

A quick, convenient and economical method for the reliable determination of methylglyoxal in millimolar concentrations: the N-acetyl-L-cysteine assay.  

PubMed

The determination of methylglyoxal (MG) concentrations in vivo is gaining increasing importance as high levels of MG are linked to various health impairments including complications of diabetes. In order to standardize the measurements of MG in body fluids, it is necessary to precisely determine the concentration of MG stock solutions used as analytical standards. The "gold standard" method for the determination of MG concentration in the millimolar range is an enzyme-catalyzed endpoint assay based on the glyoxalase I catalyzed formation of S-lactoylglutathione. However, as this assay used purified glyoxalase I enzyme, it is quite expensive. Another method uses a derivation reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but this substance is explosive and needs special handling and storage. In addition, precipitation of the product methylglyoxal-bis-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrozone during the reaction limits the reliability of this method. In this study, we have evaluated a new method of MG determination based on the previously published fast reaction between MG and N-acetyl-L-cysteine at room temperature which yields an easily detectable condensation product, N-?-acetyl-S-(1-hydroxy-2-oxo-prop-1-yl)cysteine. When comparing these three different assays for the measurement of MG concentrations, we find that the N-acetyl-L-cysteine assay is the most favorable, providing an economical and robust assay without the need for the use of hazardous or expensive reagents. PMID:22580513

Wild, Rebekka; Ooi, Lezanne; Srikanth, Velandai; Münch, Gerald

2012-07-01

194

Determination of natural and socio-economic factors affecting landslide damage: an econometric approach using empirical evidence from the Calabria Region (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies investigated how natural and human factors control the occurrence of landslides. In addition, considerable efforts have been made to quantitatively and qualitatively estimate damage, direct as well as indirect, due to the occurrence of landslides. However, only very few studies explicitly investigate how socio-economic factors affect the magnitude of damage caused by a landslide event. Nevertheless, socio-economic factors will be crucial determinants of landslide damage. For example, at household level, more wealthy households will be able to build houses in areas less susceptible to landslides or will be more able to take preventive measures to mitigate landslide damage. At the same time, the higher the income the higher the value of the property that will be damaged in case of a landslide occurrence. At regional level, the landslide damage is likely to depend on factors such as population density, income level and distribution, and rurality. In addition, it should be taken into account that historical data or inventories will be more precise when it comes to reporting landslide frequency and damage in the more recent years, while events that occurred longer ago are less likely to be reported unless major damage was caused. This might give the false impression that landslides occurred less frequently but were more damaging in the past. Therefore, this study econometrically estimates a landslide damage function. Based on a landslide inventory for an Italian region, landslide damage index is calculated for landslide damage assessment. Using state of the art econometric techniques, we identify which natural and socio-economic factors significantly affect landslide damage while correcting for time fixed effects. As such it provides a useful tool to predict future land damage. Furthermore, it provides useful insights for policy makers about the factors they should primarily try to alter in order to reduce landslide damage.

Petrucci, O.; Vranken, L.

2012-04-01

195

Indonesian heath care and the economic crisis: is managed care the needed reform?  

PubMed

The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures. PMID:10351668

Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S

1999-03-01

196

An Algorithm that Predicts the Viability and the Yield of Human Hepatocytes Isolated from Remnant Liver Pieces Obtained from Liver Resections  

PubMed Central

Isolated human primary hepatocytes are an essential in vitro model for basic and clinical research. For successful application as a model, isolated hepatocytes need to have a good viability and be available in sufficient yield. Therefore, this study aims to identify donor characteristics, intra-operative factors, tissue processing and cell isolation parameters that affect the viability and yield of human hepatocytes. Remnant liver pieces from tissue designated as surgical waste were collected from 1034 donors with informed consent. Human hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion technique with modifications and hepatocyte yield and viability were subsequently determined. The accompanying patient data was collected and entered into a database. Univariate analyses found that the viability and the yield of hepatocytes were affected by many of the variables examined. Multivariate analyses were then carried out to confirm the factors that have a significant relationship with the viability and the yield. It was found that the viability of hepatocytes was significantly decreased by the presence of fibrosis, liver fat and with increasing gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and bilirubin content. Yield was significantly decreased by the presence of liver fat, septal fibrosis, with increasing aspartate aminotransferase activity, cold ischemia times and weight of perfused liver. However, yield was significantly increased by chemotherapy treatment. In conclusion, this study determined the variables that have a significant effect on the viability and the yield of isolated human hepatocytes. These variables have been used to generate an algorithm that can calculate projected viability and yield of isolated human hepatocytes. In this way, projected viability can be determined even before isolation of hepatocytes, so that donors that result in high viability and yield can be identified. Further, if the viability and yield of the isolated hepatocytes is lower than expected, this will highlight a methodological problem that can be addressed. PMID:25313881

Laubender, Rudiger P.; Frose, Natalja; Thasler, Reinhard M. K.; Schiergens, Tobias S.; Mansmann, Ulrich; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

2014-01-01

197

Quantifying spore viability of the honey bee pathogen Nosema apis using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Honey bees are hosts to more than 80 different parasites, some of them being highly virulent and responsible for substantial losses in managed honey bee populations. The study of honey bee pathogens and their interactions with the bees' immune system has therefore become a research area of major interest. Here we developed a fast, accurate and reliable method to quantify the viability of spores of the honey bee gut parasite Nosema apis. To verify this method, a dilution series with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% live N. apis was made and SYTO 16 and Propidium Iodide (n = 35) were used to distinguish dead from live spores. The viability of spores in each sample was determined by flow cytometry and compared with the current method based on fluorescence microscopy. Results show that N. apis viability counts using flow cytometry produced very similar results when compared with fluorescence microscopy. However, we found that fluorescence microscopy underestimates N. apis viability in samples with higher percentages of viable spores, the latter typically being what is found in biological samples. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm that flow cytometry allows the use of additional fluorescent dyes such as SYBR 14 and SYTOX Red (used in combination with SYTO 16 or Propidium Iodide) to distinguish dead from live spores. We also show that spore viability quantification with flow cytometry can be undertaken using substantially lower dye concentrations than fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, our data show flow cytometry to be a fast, reliable method to quantify N. apis spore viabilities, which has a number of advantages compared with existing methods. PMID:24339267

Peng, Yan; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Heel, Kathy; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

2014-05-01

198

Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

PubMed

For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

199

Protection of L. rhamnosus by spray-drying using two prebiotics colloids to enhance the viability.  

PubMed

Protection of probiotics by substances considered as prebiotics can be an alternative to increase their viability in the large intestine. The objective of this study was to use two wall materials (native rice starch and inulin) without bonding agent to protect Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray-drying and determine the viability of the microorganism under two storage conditions. For spray-drying conditions tested in this work the product yield with native rice starch (NRS) ranged between 65% and 74% whereas for inulin (IN) it ranged between 43% and 54%. In general, IN solutions exhibited higher outlet temperature than NRS dispersions. Capsules of IN had smaller particle size than those of NRS. Due to the higher hydrophilic nature of IN capsules as compared to NRS, IN capsules exhibited higher water activity than NRS capsules. Confocal microscopy showed marked differences between both wall materials, which could in turn cause differences in the release profile of encapsulated microorganisms. Agglomerates of NRS provided better protection to the microorganisms as evidenced by the lower reduction in viability when compared to IN, and this effect was corroborated by the stability study. It is possible to protect probiotics using both colloids, but differences in the viability and stability during storage were determined. The use of IN could prove beneficial in the encapsulation of probiotic strains since this carbohydrate is not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes and may act as prebiotic. PMID:24507301

Avila-Reyes, Sandra V; Garcia-Suarez, Francisco J; Jiménez, María Teresa; San Martín-Gonzalez, María F; Bello-Perez, Luis A

2014-02-15

200

In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

2014-01-01

201

The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

1994-01-01

202

Socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL in people living with HIV in Belgium: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1 infection has evolved from a lethal to a chronic disease. As such, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome variable. The purpose of this study was to identify socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods This study was conducted between 1 January and 31 December 2012 at the AIDS Reference Centre of Ghent University Hospital, a tertiary care referral centre in Belgium. Validated self-report questionnaires were administered to collect socio-demographic data, to assess HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study-HIV), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and adherence to HAART (Short Medication Adherence Questionnaire) and to screen for neurocognitive dysfunction. Results A total of 237 people participated, among whom 187 (78.9%) were male. Mean age was 45.8±10.7 years and 144 (63.7%, 144/226) participants were homosexual. Median physical and mental health score (PHS, MHS) were 55.6 (IQR 48.2–60.6) and 52.0 (IQR 44.2–57.9), respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that incapacity to work, depressive symptoms, neurocognitive complaints (NCCs), dissatisfaction with the patient–physician relationship and non-adherence were all negatively associated with HRQoL. Conclusions Socio-economic (work status), behavioural (adherence) and (neuro)psychological (depressive symptoms, NCCs) determinants independently impact HRQoL among this cohort of PLHIV. Clinical parameters (viral load, CD4 cell count) were not independently associated with HRQoL. PMID:24331754

Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk P.; Vermeir, Peter; Mariman, An; De Rick, Ann; Van Der Gucht, Bea; Pelgrom, Jolanda; Van Wanzeele, Filip; Verhofstede, Chris; Vandijck, Dominique M.

2013-01-01

203

Ingredient Supplementation Effects on Viability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation studied the effects of cysteine, whey powder, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophi- lus, and bifidobacteria. Changes in pH, titratable acidity, redox potential, and viability of bacteria were monitored during 24 h of fermentation and refriger- ated storage ( 4°C) of yogurt for 35 d. The incubation

R. I. Dave; N. P. Shah

1998-01-01

204

Influence of electric current on bacterial viability in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing the influence of electric current on bacterial viability in the electro-technologies such as electrophoresis and electrocoagulation is crucial in designing and operating the electric hybrid wastewater treatment system. In this study the biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was subjected to constant direct current and the bacterial viability was monitored against electrical intensity, duration as well as the spatial

V. Wei; M. Elektorowicz; J. A. Oleszkiewicz

2011-01-01

205

Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks  

E-print Network

Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system's structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. Distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different respons...

Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K -I

2014-01-01

206

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term

Nelly Bencheva; Carel Ligeon; Stanko Delikostadinov; Naveen Puppala; Curtis Jolly

207

29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(c) A precise test cannot be set for the level of hardship or injury to the employer which must be sustained. If the reinstatement of a “key employee” threatens the economic viability of the firm, that would constitute “substantial and grievous economic...

2010-07-01

208

Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets  

SciTech Connect

The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

1989-07-01

209

A bacteriophage detection tool for viability assessment of Salmonella cells.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis, one of the most common food and water-borne diseases, has a major global health and economic impact. Salmonella cells present high infection rates, persistence over inauspicious conditions and the potential to preserve virulence in dormant states when cells are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). These facts are challenging for current detection methods. Culture methods lack the capacity to detect VBNC cells, while biomolecular methods (e.g. DNA- or protein-based) hardly distinguish between dead innocuous cells and their viable lethal counterparts. This work presents and validates a novel bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial detection tool to detect and assess Salmonella viability. Salmonella Enteritidis cells in a VBNC physiological state were evaluated by cell culture, flow-cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, and further assayed with a biosensor platform. Free PVP-SE1 phages in solution showed the ability to recognize VBNC cells, with no lysis induction, in contrast to the minor recognition of heat-killed cells. This ability was confirmed for immobilized phages on gold surfaces, where the phage detection signal follows the same trend of the concentration of viable plus VBNC cells in the sample. The phage probe was then tested in a magnetoresistive biosensor platform allowing the quantitative detection and discrimination of viable and VBNC cells from dead cells, with high sensitivity. Signals arising from 3 to 4 cells per sensor were recorded. In comparison to a polyclonal antibody that does not distinguish viable from dead cells, the phage selectivity in cell recognition minimizes false-negative and false-positive results often associated with most detection methods. PMID:24055938

Fernandes, E; Martins, V C; Nóbrega, C; Carvalho, C M; Cardoso, F A; Cardoso, S; Dias, J; Deng, D; Kluskens, L D; Freitas, P P; Azeredo, J

2014-02-15

210

INNOVATION IN HOME ECONOMICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A SHORT COURSE IN HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM FOR 11TH AND 12TH GRADE BOYS AND GIRLS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY ARLINGTON COUNTY SCHOOLS, VIRGINIA, AND THE CONTENT WAS DETERMINED BY A COMMITTEE OF HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS, A PRINCIPAL, AND A FEW SELECTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE IS TO PROVIDE A SERIES OF…

Department of Home Economics, Washington, DC.

211

Chromosome Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Viability Studies  

PubMed Central

The nature of fitness interactions is an important, yet unsolved, question in population genetics. We compare the egg-to-adult viability of individuals homozygous for either a second or a third chromosome with the viability of individuals homozygous for both chromosomes simultaneously. On the average, the viability of the two-chromosome homozygotes is somewhat greater than expected assuming that the fitnesses of the single-chromosome homozygotes interact in a multiplicative fashion. This result differs from previous observations that indicate either no significant deviations from the expectation or lower-than-expected average fitnesses for the double homozygotes. PMID:6816675

Seager, Robert D.; Ayala, Francisco J.

1982-01-01

212

Cell viability monitoring using Fano resonance in gold nanoslit array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell viability is a crucial issue in biological research. We present label-free monitoring of adhesion cells viability by gold nanoslits-based Fano resonance biosensors. Plastic multiple wells with gold nanoslits substrate were made using a thermal nanoimprint method. Adhesion cells in the wells were treated with doxorubicin for inducing cell death and compared with conventional colorimetric assay. The nanoslits method shows better respones of viability tests under low concentration and short interaction time due to its high surface sensitivies. The vinculin labelling indicates that the measured signals are in good agreement with the adhesion abilities of cells.

Wu, Shu-Han; Hsieh, Shu-Yi; Lee, Kuang-Li; Weng, Ruei-Hung; Chiou, Arthur; Wei, Pei-Kuen

2013-09-01

213

Single-cell analysis of cell viability after a biocide treatment unveils an absence of positive correlation between two commonly used viability markers.  

PubMed

Discrimination among viable/active or dead/inactive cells in a microbial community is a vital question to address issues on ecological microbiology or microbiological quality control. It is commonly assumed that metabolically active cells (ChemchromeV6 [CV6] procedure) correspond to viable cells (direct viable count procedure [DVC]), although this assumption has never been demonstrated and is therefore a matter of debate. Indeed, simultaneous determination of cell viability and metabolic activity has never been performed on the same cells. Here, we developed a microfluidic device to investigate the viability and the metabolic activity of Escherichia coli cells at single-cell level. Cells were immobilized in a flow chamber in which different solutions were sequentially injected according to different scenarios. By using time-lapse microscopy combined with automated tracking procedures, we first successfully assessed the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity at single-cell level. Applying these two procedures on the same cells after a hypochlorous acid (HOCl) treatment, we showed that the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity were anticorrelated. These results indicate that the relation between CV6 uptake and cell viability may be partially incorrect. Care must be taken in using the terms "CV6-positive" and "viable" synonymously. PMID:23281341

Ducret, Adrien; Dukan, Sam

2013-02-01

214

Effects of Marker Chromosomes on Relative Viability  

PubMed Central

Viability relative to Cy/Pm as a standard was studied in Drosophila melanogaster. One experiment, E1, consisted of progeny from eleven distinct 7 x 7 factorial mating designs with reciprocals for second chromosomes extracted from a natural population. The other experiment, E2, consisted of two distinct sets of heterozygotes with reciprocals and corresponding homozygotes. It was established from E1 that there are little to no synergistic effects among different genotypes in a vial and that Cy and Pm heterozygotes vary almost as much as would be expected if one chromosome were held constant for wild-type heterozygotes. In wild-type heterozygotes, variances were estimated to be 0.0099 for average chromosomal effects, 0.0054 for interactions of chromosomes, 0.0021 for maternal effects, 0.0079 for paternal effects, and -0.0010 for the remaining interaction effects, all being significantly different from zero except the last. The variances of Cy and Pm heterozygotes, covariance of Cy and Pm heterozygotes, and covariances of Cy and Pm heterozygotes with wild-type heterozygotes, as well as the comparable statistics available in E2, all showed a large paternal component of variance and a smaller maternal component of variance, both unexpected results.—From E2 the variance of homozygotes, excluding error variance, was estimated to be 0.0149, and the covariances of homozygotes with wild-type heterozygotes to be 0.0056 for maternally derived chromosomes common and 0.0126 for paternally derived chromosomes common, again showing the larger paternal than maternal influence. The average genetic regression of heterozygotes on homozygotes of 0.61 was reduced only slightly to 0.56 by correcting for maternal and paternal variances. These genetic regressions, generally utilized as estimators of the average degree of dominance, are larger than any previously reported.—Differential meiotic drive in Cy and Pm parents was shown to be compatible with the large paternal and maternal variances, but other causes cannot be ruled out.—Approximations were developed for translating various variances, covariances, and regressions between single- and double-marker experiments, assuming that marker chromosomes behave as typical wild-type chromosomes in one case and assuming a (partially) recessive model with the population in mutation selection balance in another case. Various features, particularly the estimation of dominance, were compared and discussed between the two cases. PMID:17248877

Cockerham, C. Clark; Mukai, Terumi

1978-01-01

215

Essays in labor economics  

E-print Network

I addressed three questions in Labor Economics, using experimental and quasi-experimental variation to determine causality. In the first chapter, I ask whether playing longer in the NFL increases mortality in retirement. ...

Williams, Tyler (Tyler Kenneth)

2013-01-01

216

Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices  

PubMed Central

In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; González, José Luis

2011-01-01

217

Population Viability Analysis of the Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ), 1976-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees ( Trichechus manatus lati- rostris ) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 car- casses obtained throughout Florida from 1976-1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate ( 2 0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over

MIRIAM MARMONTEL; STEPHEN R. HUMPHREY; THOMAS J. O'SHEA

218

Determinants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and Stephanie Fitchett of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to explore the properties of determinants of matrices and to develop an important theoretical formula. This is part of a larger collection of material hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Fitchett, Stephanie

2010-05-19

219

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants  

E-print Network

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants Near Solar Installations solar developments in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of California will significantly impact plants of current plant populations, assess their habitat requirements, and provide information on the feasibility

220

Control of Schistosomiasis by Destroying the Viability of Schistosome Eggs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A great deal of informative data shows that Cebus apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823 represents the host of choice for studies on the control of schistosomiasis by destroying the viability of schistosome eggs. Some advantages for employing Cebus monkeys in e...

J. Pellegrino

1968-01-01

221

Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population  

PubMed Central

Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

2010-01-01

222

Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population.  

PubMed

Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

McCaffery, Rebecca M; Maxell, Bryce A

2010-05-11

223

Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

2010-02-01

224

Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.  

PubMed

The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions. PMID:22161315

Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

2012-06-01

225

Scaffold architecture controls insulinoma clustering, viability, and insulin production.  

PubMed

Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development. PMID:24410263

Blackstone, Britani N; Palmer, Andre F; Rilo, Horacio R; Powell, Heather M

2014-07-01

226

Light exposure and cell viability in fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

Test systems for measuring cell viability in optical microscopy (based on colony formation ability or lysosomal integrity) were established and applied to native cells as well as to cells incubated with fluorescence markers or transfected with genes encoding for fluorescent proteins. Human glioblastoma and Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated by various light doses, and maximum doses where at least 90% of the cells survived were determined. These tolerable light doses were in the range between 25 J cm?² and about 300 J cm?² for native cells (corresponding to about 250-3000 s of solar irradiance and depending on the wavelength as well as on the mode of illumination, e.g. epi- or total internal reflection illumination) and decreased to values between 50 J cm?² and less than 1 J cm?² upon application of fluorescent markers, fluorescent proteins or photosensitizers. In high-resolution wide field or laser scanning microscopy of single cells, typically 10-20 individual cell layers needed for reconstruction of a 3D image could be recorded with tolerable dose values. Tolerable light doses were also maintained in fluorescence microscopy of larger 3D samples, e.g. cell spheroids exposed to structured illumination, but may be exceeded in super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule detection. PMID:22126439

Schneckenburger, H; Weber, P; Wagner, M; Schickinger, S; Richter, V; Bruns, T; Strauss, W S L; Wittig, R

2012-03-01

227

Introducing Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet outlines and presents examples of basic economics concepts. Objectives are to help elementary and secondary teachers introduce economic concepts in the classroom and to help teachers grasp some of the fundamentals of economics. The document is divided into seven sections. Each section presents concepts, offers three supporting…

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

228

Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA binding probes propidium iodide (PI) and TOTO-1 were tested for live\\/dead discrimination using a Lactococcus, a Streptococcus,

CHRISTINE J. BUNTHOF; KAREN BLOEMEN; PIETER BREEUWER; FRANK M. ROMBOUTS; TJAKKO ABEE

2001-01-01

229

Limits of viability: definition of the gray zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:As survival and long-term morbidity of very preterm infants have improved over the past decade, the limits of infant viability, the level of maturity below which survival and\\/or acceptable neurodevelopmental outcome are extremely unlikely, have also decreased.Study Design:In an effort to define the current limits of infant viability, the data in the literature on survival and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in

I Seri; J Evans

2008-01-01

230

Single cell viability and impact of heating by laser absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical traps such as tweezers and stretchers are widely used to probe the mechanical properties of cells. Beyond their large\\u000a range of applications, the use of infrared laser light in optical traps causes significant heating effects in the cell. This\\u000a study investigated the effect of laser-induced heating on cell viability. Common viability assays are not very sensitive to\\u000a damages caused

Franziska Wetzel; Susanne Rönicke; Karla Müller; Markus Gyger; Daniel Rose; Mareike Zink; Josef Käs

231

Rural Viability Index: A Tool for Assessing Rural Communities  

E-print Network

for the limited resources of government. Especially in this period of difficult budget restrictions, public officials can only fund the projects that will produce the most for their communities. The Rural Viability Index is designed to provide public... officials with critical information that will help them decide where they might best spend their budget dollars. The Rural Viability Index (Index) is an easy-to-use survey that measures the current status of Texas? rural communities The Index helps...

Bearden, Christi; Cruz, Nelda; Heinsohn, Heidi; Kuzaro, Jami; Norton, Keller; Richardson, Willis; Wood, Meghan

2004-01-01

232

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on dendritic cell viability and function  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been used by several investigators to successfully abrogate accessory cell function, however its mode of action remains unclear. The findings indicate that dendritic cells (DC) are exquisitely sensitive to UVR and therefore, UVR may provide a good probe to study DC accessory cell function. The authors compared the in vitro effects of UVB and UVC on murine splenic DC viability over a dose range of 0-864 J/m/sup 2/. DC viability as a function of time was not significantly different from control for 108, 432, and 864 J/m/sup 2/ UVB at 0-4 hr post-treatment; however, DC viability decreased significantly in a UVR dose-dependent fashion for the 6-10 h post-treatment period. Fourfold less UVC dosages caused equivalent changes in DC viability indicating that higher frequency radiation is substantially more detrimental than UVB. The authors next compared the effect of UVR on viability to its effect on DC function in oxidative mitogenesis assays. UV exposure induced disproportionate decreases in DC function compared to viability (using 216 J/m/sup 2/ UVB, the viability as a percent of control was 90% and 43% at 10 and 20 h, respectively, while DC function was only 18% of the non-UVR treated control value). Thus, function appears to be more sensitive to UVR than viability and the authors have not been able to restore function with IL-1. Thus, DC are exquisitely sensitive to UVR and better understanding of the defects induced by UVR should increase the knowledge of how DC function in induction of lymphocyte responses.

Everson, M.P.; Spalding, D.M.; Koopman, W.J.

1986-03-01

233

Viability of freeze dried microencapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Encapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 has been successfully used in experimental cell therapy of retinal degenerations and Parkinson's disease, but the long-term storage of encapsulated cells is still an unresolved question. Reconstitution of viable encapsulated cells from dry form would benefit the development of cell therapy products. We freeze dried and reconstituted microencapsulated ARPE19 and ARPE19-SEAP cells. Cross-linked alginate matrix with polycation (poly-l-lysine, cationic starch) coating was used for microencapsulation. Cell viability was assessed with fluorescence microscopy and oxygen consumption of the cells. Freeze dried and reconstituted cell microcapsules were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). We show partial viability of microencapsulated cells after freeze-drying. Unlike poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, cationic starch supported microcapsule shape and cell viability during freeze-drying. Trehalose pre-treatment augmented cell viability. Likewise, some lyoprotectants (trehalose, glycerol) enabled preservation of cell viability. Upon reconstitution the freeze dried cell microcapsules rapidly regained their original spherical shape. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that microencapsulated cells can retain their viability during freeze-drying. Therefore, this approach can be further optimized for the benefit of cell therapy product development. PMID:22820032

Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Nevala, Laura; Räikkönen, Johanna; Heljo, Petteri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

2012-09-29

234

Impact of Air Transportation on Regional Economic and Social Connectivity in the United States  

E-print Network

This paper identifies some of the forces that influence the impact of air transportation on regional connectivity and economic productivity in the United States. In light of recent threats to the financial viability of the ...

Tam, Ryan

235

Economic Rationale for Safety Investment in Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Membrane Reactor Modules  

E-print Network

A detailed Net Present Value (NPV) model has been developed to evaluate the economic viability of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle ? Membrane Reactor (IGCC-MR) power plant intended to provide an electricity generating and pure H2 (hydrogen...

Koc, Reyyan; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Nuttall, William J.; Ma, Yi Hua

2012-05-09

236

Economics & BusinEss Economics  

E-print Network

to develop an interest in fields such as government policy, developing countries and international trade choose from a wide range of other courses, studying topics such as environmental economics, government debt and the macroeconomy, economics of health,economicsofinequalityandpoverty, and economics of team

Guo, Zaoyang

237

A platinum-based covalent viability reagent for single cell mass cytometry  

PubMed Central

In fluorescence-based flow cytometry, cellular viability is determined with membrane-impermeable fluorescent reagents that specifically enter and label plasma membrane-compromised non-viable cells. A recent technological advance in flow cytometry uses antibodies conjugated to elemental metal isotopes, rather than to fluorophores, to allow signal detection by atomic mass spectrometry. Unhampered by the limitations of overlapping emission fluorescence, mass cytometry increases the number of parameters that can be measured in single cells. However, mass cytometry is unable to take advantage of current fluorescent viability dyes. An alternative methodology was therefore developed here in which the platinum-containing chemotherapy drug cisplatin was used to label cells for mass cytometry determinations of live/dead ratios. In a one-minute incubation step, cisplatin preferentially labeled non-viable cells, from both adherent and suspension cultures, resulting in a platinum signal quantifiable by mass cytometry. This protocol was compatible with established sample processing steps for cytometry. Furthermore, the live/dead ratios were comparable between mass and fluorescence based cytometry. Importantly, although cisplatin is a known DNA-damaging agent, a one-minute “pulse” of cisplatin did not induce observable DNA damage or apoptotic responses even within 6 hours post-exposure. Cisplatin can therefore be used as a viability reagent for a wide range of mass cytometry protocols. PMID:22577098

Fienberg, Harris; Simonds, Erin F.; Fantl, Wendy J.; Nolan, Garry P; Bodenmiller, Bernd

2013-01-01

238

Polyphenolic extracts of edible flowers incorporated onto atelocollagen matrices and their effect on cell viability.  

PubMed

The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen. PMID:24177700

López-García, Jorge; Kuceková, Zdenka; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Ml?ek, Ji?i; Sáha, Petr

2013-01-01

239

The Economics of Nuclear Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of the civilian uses of nuclear energy, that is to say the economics of nuclear power generation in which its civilian uses has been virtually limited to power generation---has been the focus of much public discussion both internationally and domestically here in Japan. The reasons are that there are many underlying factors which determine the economics of power

Kazutomo Irie

2009-01-01

240

Viability of Giardia cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water.  

PubMed Central

Numerous waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have occurred since 1965, yet little or no information has been reported on the viability of Giardia cysts in different aquatic environments. We have studied the viability of Giardia muris cysts suspended in lake, river, and tap water, while also monitoring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and other water quality parameters. Fecal pellets containing G. muris cysts were placed in glass vials covered with filter paper and exposed to (i) lake water at 15 ft (ca. 4.6 m) and 30 ft (ca. 9.2 m), (ii) river water, (iii) tap water, and (iv) distilled water stored under laboratory conditions. At 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84 days, two vials from each environment were removed, and cyst viability was determined by (i) fluorogenic dye exclusion, (ii) production of giardiasis in an animal, and (iii) cyst morphology by Nomarski microscopy. In the fall, the cysts suspended at 30 ft in lake water remained viable for up to 56 days whereas cysts stored at 15 ft were nonviable after day 28. The G. muris cysts exposed to river water remained viable up to 28 days as determined by the production of giardiasis in mice. G. muris cysts suspended in tap water showed no signs of viability after 14 days, while cysts serving as controls (exposed to refrigerated distilled water) remained viable for up to 56 days. In the winter, Giardia cysts suspended in either lake or river water were viable for 56 to 84 days whereas cysts exposed to tap water were nonviable by day 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757381

deRegnier, D P; Cole, L; Schupp, D G; Erlandsen, S L

1989-01-01

241

Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1??g/L, 0–10??g/L and 0–100??g/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02??g/L (Rb) to 1.89??g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

242

Latent period and viability of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis urediniospores: Implications for biological control of yellow starthistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis into California in 2003, multiple urediniospore generations have been observed, along with teliospores and pycnia, on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). A field and laboratory study of urediniospore viability was conducted to determine the potential of using infected plant material for redistribution of inoculum into new areas. To better understand the life history

Alison J. Fisher; Dale M. Woods; Lincoln Smith; William L. Bruckart

2008-01-01

243

Application of wide-field optical coherence tomography to monitoring of viability of rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the feasibility of OCT in monitoring the viability of the brain. It was confirmed that after an overdose of pentobarbital sodium salt for an euthanasia, the OCT signal intensity increased before cardiac arrest and finally became 2.7 times, and by periodically changing the tissue temperature from 20 to 32 °C in vivo, average correlation coefficients between the ratio of signal intensity (RSI) and temperature were determined to be -0:42 to -0:50. RSI reversibly changed with subsequent variations of temperatures and finally increased rapidly just before cardiac arrest. These results indicate that RSI could correspond to decreases in viability.

Sato, Manabu; Nishidate, Izumi

2014-05-01

244

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M. R.; Hancock, S. H.; Wilson, S. J.; Patil, S. L.; Moridis, G. J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T. S.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2009-01-01

245

Effect of HUVEC apoptosis inducing proteinase from Vipera lebetina venom (VLAIP) on viability of cancer cells and on platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

Three cancer cell lines, the human androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3, androgen dependent LNCaP prostate cancer and human chronic myeloid leukaemia cell line K-562, were treated with Sephadex G-100 sf fractions of Vipera lebetina venom and with HUVEC apoptosis inducing heterodimeric metalloproteinase (VLAIP) from the same venom. The venom was separated into nine fractions using size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100 sf. The effect of V. lebetina venom gel filtration fractions on the viability of studied cancer cells was different: high molecular mass fractions were the most effective on PC-3 cells. The viability of LNCaP cells was inhibited most strongly by the third fraction. The first and the second fractions contain different metalloproteinases including VLAIP that also most effectively reduced the viability of PC-3 cells. VLAIP decreased PC-3 cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but did not induce apoptosis as shown by DNA fragmentation assay. VLAIP induced changes in cell shape, rounding up and detachment. VLAIP inhibited the PC-3 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins collagen I, fibronectin and vitronectin but not to fibrinogen. VLAIP had no significant effect on the viability of LNCaP and K-562 cells. VLAIP was also capable to inhibit ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation dose-dependently. IC(50) was determined to be 1.89 ?M and 0.94 ?M, respectively. PMID:22781133

Samel, Mari; Trummal, Katrin; Siigur, Ene; Siigur, Jüri

2012-09-15

246

Effects of Cartilage Impact with and without Fracture on Chondrocyte Viability and the Release of Inflammatory Markers  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) frequently develops after intra-articular fracture of weight bearing joints. Loss of cartilage viability and post-injury inflammation have both been implicated as possible contributing factors to PTA progression. In order to further investigate chondrocyte response to impact and fracture, we have developed a blunt impact model applying 70%, 80% or 90% surface-to-surface compressive strain with or without induction of an articular fracture in a cartilage explant model. Following mechanical loading, chondrocyte viability and apoptosis were assessed. Culture media were evaluated for the release of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and immunostimulatory activity via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activity in Toll-like receptor-expressing Ramos-Blue reporter cells. High compressive strains, with or without articular fracture, resulted in significantly reduced chondrocyte viability. Blunt impact at 70% strain induced a loss in viability over time through a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, whereas blunt impact above 80% strain caused predominantly necrosis. In the fracture model, a high level of primarily necrotic chondrocyte death occurred along the fracture edges. At sites away from the fracture, viability was not significantly different than controls. Interestingly, both dsDNA release and NF-?B activity in Ramos-Blue cells increased with blunt impact, but was only significantly increased in the media from fractured cores. This study indicates that the mechanism of trauma determines the type of chondrocyte death as well as the potential for post-injury inflammation. PMID:23620164

Stolberg-Stolberg, Josef A.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Garrigues, N. William; Lee, Jaewoo; Pisetsky, David S.; Stearns, Nancy A; DeFrate, Louis E.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

2014-01-01

247

Morphologic Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been difficult to predict various classes of boom-and-bust economic cycles and these cyclic catastrophes systematically, because they are related to several biological phenomena. In this report, we will show that our theory on the morphogenetic process and the brain with a rhythm of about seven beats can explain several economic system cycles, because different types of economic cycles are about seven times the length of the fundamental production cycles or durable periods. We will also outline the spatial structure underlying economic systems on the basis of the fluid dynamic theory that describes subatomic systems, biological systems, human network systems, and stars.

Naitoh, Ken

2011-11-01

248

26 CFR 53.4958-5 - Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4958-5 Transaction in which the amount of the economic...

2010-04-01

249

26 CFR 53.4958-5 - Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4958-5 Transaction in which the amount of the economic...

2011-04-01

250

Differential effects of fucoidans with low and high molecular weight on the viability and function of spleen cells.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is an edible sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae that has multiple biological activities. However, the effects of fucoidans of different molecular weights on immune cells have not been determined. Thus, we treated spleen cells with low- and high-molecular-weight fucoidans (LMF and HMF, respectively). Viability assays demonstrated that HMF enhanced the viability and prevented the death of spleen cells. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that HMF significantly increased the production of interferon-? and nitric oxide. In contrast, LMF had low activity and was relatively toxic to spleen cells. Taken together, these results indicate that HMF makes the greatest contribution to the immunostimulatory activity of fucoidan mixtures. Additionally, fucoidans with different molecular weights may have different effects on the viability and function of immune cells. This study increases our understanding of fucoidans, and may broaden their use in the basic research and clinical fields. PMID:24681238

Jang, Ji-Young; Moon, Sun-Young; Joo, Hong-Gu

2014-06-01

251

Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadèr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

2011-02-01

252

Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability  

SciTech Connect

Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of nanomaterial interactions in the environment.

Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Holton, Gregory A [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Allison, Martin R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2010-01-01

253

Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).  

PubMed

Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations. PMID:22653866

Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen

2012-06-01

254

Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to management. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Perlut, N.G.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.

2008-01-01

255

Dead or alive: molecular assessment of microbial viability.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid-based analytical methods, ranging from species-targeted PCRs to metagenomics, have greatly expanded our understanding of microbiological diversity in natural samples. However, these methods provide only limited information on the activities and physiological states of microorganisms in samples. Even the most fundamental physiological state, viability, cannot be assessed cross-sectionally by standard DNA-targeted methods such as PCR. New PCR-based strategies, collectively called molecular viability analyses, have been developed that differentiate nucleic acids associated with viable cells from those associated with inactivated cells. In order to maximize the utility of these methods and to correctly interpret results, it is necessary to consider the physiological diversity of life and death in the microbial world. This article reviews molecular viability analysis in that context and discusses future opportunities for these strategies in genetic, metagenomic, and single-cell microbiology. PMID:25038100

Cangelosi, Gerard A; Meschke, John S

2014-10-01

256

Comparison of Methods for Assessing Viability of Equine Spermatozoa and Effects of Seminal Plasma on Viability and Motion Characteristics of Equine Spermatozoa  

E-print Network

Assessment of sperm viability is an important component for evaluating stallion sperm quality. The flow cytometer is considered the standard in the assessment of sperm plasma membrane integrity (viability); however, this instrument is costly...

Foster, Mary L.

2010-07-14

257

Economics 301.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this one-credit economics course for secondary schools in Manitoba (Canada) is to help students develop skills in business education and to provide them with basic information about how the Canadian economic system affects business, government, and the individual. The course requires 110 to 220 hours of instruction. Students study…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

258

Host-based Th2 cell therapy for prolongation of cardiac allograft viability.  

PubMed

Donor T cell transfusion, which is a long-standing approach to prevent allograft rejection, operates indirectly by alteration of host T cell immunity. We therefore hypothesized that adoptive transfer of immune regulatory host Th2 cells would represent a novel intervention to enhance cardiac allograft survival. Using a well-described rat cardiac transplant model, we first developed a method for ex vivo manufacture of rat host-type Th2 cells in rapamycin, with subsequent injection of such Th2.R cells prior to class I and class II disparate cardiac allografting. Second, we determined whether Th2.R cell transfer polarized host immunity towards a Th2 phenotype. And third, we evaluated whether Th2.R cell therapy prolonged allograft viability when used alone or in combination with a short-course of cyclosporine (CSA) therapy. We found that host-type Th2.R cell therapy prior to cardiac allografting: (1) reduced the frequency of activated T cells in secondary lymphoid organs; (2) shifted post-transplant cytokines towards a Th2 phenotype; and (3) prolonged allograft viability when used in combination with short-course CSA therapy. These results provide further support for the rationale to use "direct" host T cell therapy for prolongation of allograft viability as an alternative to "indirect" therapy mediated by donor T cell infusion. PMID:21559526

Amarnath, Shoba; Chen, Hao; Foley, Jason E; Costanzo, Carliann M; Sennesh, Joel D; Solomon, Michael A; Fowler, Daniel H

2011-01-01

259

Viability is associated with melanin-based coloration in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).  

PubMed

Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response), sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies. PMID:23573254

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Milzani, Aldo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Colombo, Graziano; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-01-01

260

Variation of algal viability during electrochemical disinfection using Ti/RuO2 electrodes.  

PubMed

This paper studied the influence of the operating conditions, e.g., current density, electrolyte and exposure time, on the variation of the algal viability during electrochemical disinfection processes. An electrochemical tube employing Ti/RuO2 as anodes was constructed for inactivation of cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae) Microcystis aeruginosa. Viability of algal cells was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazoliumchloride (TTC) dehydrogenase activity assay and neutral red (NR) staining assay. Algal suspensions with cell density of 5-7 x 10(9) L(-1) were exposed to current densities from 1 to 8 mA cm(-2) at room temperature (25-30 degrees C) for 30 min. The results showed that the cell viability decreased obviously with the increase of current density. After exposure to 4 mA cm(-2) for more than 7 min, Microcystis aeruginosa didn't have the ability to resume growth. Comparative disinfection tests with different electrolytes were conducted, including chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and phosphates. Microcystis aeruginosa appeared to be sensitive to electro-generated chlorine oxidants. The inactivation effect was also demonstrated to occur in chlorine-free electrolytes. However, decrease of the inactivation effect by adding ascorbic acid as an oxidant scavenger indicated that the reactive oxygen species, especially *OH radicals, played an important role for chlorine-free electrolytes. PMID:22053471

Liang, Wenyan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Li; Ruan, Lingling; Sui, Lili

2011-01-01

261

Viability Is Associated with Melanin-Based Coloration in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response), sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies. PMID:23573254

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Milzani, Aldo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Colombo, Graziano; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-01-01

262

A platinum-based covalent viability reagent for single-cell mass cytometry.  

PubMed

In fluorescence-based flow cytometry, cellular viability is determined with membrane-impermeable fluorescent reagents that specifically enter and label plasma membrane-compromised nonviable cells. A recent technological advance in flow cytometry uses antibodies conjugated to elemental metal isotopes, rather than to fluorophores, to allow signal detection by atomic mass spectrometry. Unhampered by the limitations of overlapping emission fluorescence, mass cytometry increases the number of parameters that can be measured in single cells. However, mass cytometry is unable to take advantage of current fluorescent viability dyes. An alternative methodology was therefore developed here in which the platinum-containing chemotherapy drug cisplatin was used to resolve live and dead cells by mass cytometry. In a 1-min incubation step, cisplatin preferentially labeled nonviable cells from both adherent and suspension cultures, resulting in a platinum signal quantifiable by mass cytometry. This protocol was compatible with established sample processing steps for intracellular cytometry. Furthermore, the live/dead ratios were comparable between mass- and fluorescence-based cytometry. Importantly, although cisplatin is a known DNA-damaging agent, a 1-min "pulse" of cisplatin did not induce observable DNA damage or apoptotic responses even within 6-h post-exposure. Cisplatin can therefore be used as a viability reagent for a wide range of mass cytometry protocols. PMID:22577098

Fienberg, Harris G; Simonds, Erin F; Fantl, Wendy J; Nolan, Garry P; Bodenmiller, Bernd

2012-06-01

263

On-chip microelectrode impedance analysis of mammalian cell viability during biomanufacturing.  

PubMed

The characterization of cell viability is a challenging task in applied biotechnology, as no clear definition of cell death exists. Cell death is accompanied with a change in the electrical properties of the membrane as well as the cell interior. Therefore, changes in the physiology of cells can be characterized by monitoring of their dielectric properties. We correlated the dielectric properties of industrially used mammalian cells, sedimented over interdigitated microelectrodes, to the AC signal response across the chip. The voltage waveforms across the electrodes were processed to obtain the circuit impedance, which was used to quantify the changes in cell viability. We observed an initial decrease in impedance, after which it remained nearly constant. The results were compared with data from the dye exclusion viability test, the cell specific oxygen uptake rate, and the online viable cell density data from capacitance probes. The microelectrode technique was found to be sensitive to physiological changes taking place inside the cells before their membrane integrity is compromised. Such accurate determination of the metabolic status during this initial period, which turned out to be less well captured in the dye exclusion tests, may be essential for several biotechnology operations. PMID:25332745

Sharma, Rachita; Blackburn, Tobias; Hu, Weiwei; Wiltberger, Kelly; Velev, Orlin D

2014-09-01

264

Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn  

PubMed Central

Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00?hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4?h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1?d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion. PMID:22629182

Wang, Yan-Li; Guan, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

2012-01-01

265

Multiple resource demands and viability in multiplex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems demand manifold resources to be supplied from distinct channels to function properly, e.g., water, gas, and electricity for a city. Here, we study a model for viability of such systems demanding more than one type of vital resource be produced and distributed by resource nodes in multiplex networks. We found a rich variety of behaviors such as discontinuity, bistability, and hysteresis in the fraction of viable nodes with respect to the density of networks and the fraction of resource nodes. Our result suggests that viability in multiplex networks is not only exposed to the risk of abrupt collapse but also suffers excessive complication in recovery.

Min, Byungjoon; Goh, K.-I.

2014-04-01

266

An economic analysis of photoelectrochemical cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic viability of photoelectrochemical cells is examined for two representative systems based on n-type GaAs and n-type CdSe electrodes in contact with aqueous polyselenide and polysulfide electrolytes respectively. Cell fabrication costs for these systems are compared with a test case comprising a sequence of processes in a typical fabrication of silicon p-n junction solar cells. A standardized methodology based

N. L. Weaver; R. Singh; K. Rajeshwar; P. Singh; J. Dubow

1981-01-01

267

Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

Rippel, W.E.

1990-09-01

268

Capital cost and economic viability of thermosyphonic solar water heaters manufactured from alternate materials in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many companies in India manufacture solar water heaters but these are not becoming popular in the domestic sector because of their high cost. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES), New Delhi is recommending flat-plate collectors with copper (Cu) risers, headers and plate. Therefore, their cost is high. Long term studies have been carried out at the Central Arid Zone

N. M Nahar

2002-01-01

269

Location of an agribusiness enterprise with respect to economic viability: a risk analysis  

E-print Network

with deterministic models that rely on expected values or best case/worst case scenarios. Stochastic simulation was used to estimate the probability distribution for select key output variables, including net present value (NPV), of a proposed biomass to ethanol...

Lau, Michael H.

2006-04-12

270

Economic & commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ford Motor Company's experience with Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) technology began over ten years ago with the P2000 concept. Development of this vehicle demonstrated technological feasibility of, and revealed a number of challenges to, automotive fuel cell commercialization. By 2005, Ford launched the Focus FCV fleet in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Canada (now Hydrogen and

Greg Frenette; Daniel Forthoffer

2009-01-01

271

Evaluating the impact of LED bulb development on the economic viability of ultraviolet technology for disinfection.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) technologies have been very successful in disinfection applications due to their ability to inactivate microorganisms without producing harmful disinfection by-products. However, there have been a number of concerns associated with the use of conventional UV systems such as hazardous mercury content, high capital investment and reduced electrical efficiency. These concerns have set limitations for the use of UV processes. The study evaluates the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology as an alternative UV source over the last 5 years, analyses the projections provided by the researchers and UV LED manufacturers and presents the information in a cost model with the aim to predict the timeline at which UV LED will compete with traditional UV low pressure high output technology in the commercial market at full-scale residential and industrial disinfection applications. PMID:24600880

Ibrahim, Mohamed A S; MacAdam, Jitka; Autin, Olivier; Jefferson, Bruce

2014-01-01

272

Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

Price, L.C.

1995-01-01

273

Sperm storage and viability within females of Euscepes postfasciatus: effect of irradiation on sperm abundance and viability within female.  

PubMed

Irradiation has been widely used in suppression or eradication programs that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) or in studying sperm competition. Although it is well known that irradiation has negative impacts on reproductive (sperm) cells, previous studies have assumed that sperm from irradiated males behave identically to normal sperm in the female reproductive tract after mating. In this study, we used the West Indian sweetpotato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus to investigate the effect of irradiation on the abundance and viability of sperm in female spermatheca for 14 days after copulation. The abundance of sperm in females did not change throughout the experimental period, and sperm viability gradually decreased regardless of irradiation. In this weevil, irradiated sperm appear to behave identically to normal sperm in females for 14 days following irradiation/copulation. Therefore, the effect of irradiation on sperm viability within the female spermatheca is considered to be insignificant. PMID:19482030

Kumano, Norikuni; Haraguchi, Dai; Kohama, Tsuguo

2009-09-01

274

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

275

Technical and economic feasibility of telerobotic on-orbit satellite servicing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is to devise an improved method for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of telerobotic on-orbit satellite servicing scenarios. Past, present, and future telerobotic on-orbit servicing systems and their key capabilities are examined. Previous technical and economic analyses of satellite servicing are reviewed and evaluated. The standard method employed by previous feasibility studies is extended, developing a new servicing decision approach incorporating operational uncertainties (launch, docking, et cetera). Comprehensive databases of satellite characteristics and on-orbit failures are developed to provide input to the expected value evaluation of the servicing versus no-servicing decision. Past satellite failures are reviewed and analyzed, including the economic impact of those satellite failures. Opportunities for spacecraft life extension are also determined. Servicing markets of various types are identified and detailed using the results of the database analysis and the new, expected-value-based servicing feasibility method. This expected value market assessment provides a standard basis for satellite servicing decision-making for any proposed servicing architecture. Finally, the method is demonstrated by evaluating a proposed small, lightweight servicer providing retirement services for geosynchronous spacecraft. An additional benefit of the method is that it enables parametric analysis of the sensitivity of economic viability to the probability of docking success, thus establishing a threshold for that critical value. While based on a more economically conservative approach, the new method demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed server in the face of operational uncertainties.

Sullivan, Brook Rowland

276

Viability changes: Microbiological analysis of dental casts  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the survival of the most prevalent oral bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) in dental casts, and compared changes in the amounts of these microorganisms at different time intervals to determine how long dental casts may pose threat to the health of dental personnel and patients. Material/Methods When manufacturing the casts, regular water was replaced with sterile distilled water, where suspensions of the studied bacteria or the fungus at certain concentrations were prepared. When the dental casts were fully set (solidified), plaster shavings were examined immediately after the contact of the studied microorganism with the plaster, as well as after 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Following that, we measured how the amount of the studied bacteria and fungi in 1 gram of the plaster changed within the studied period of time. Results Klebsiella pneumoniae survived in plaster for up to 4 days, and the reduction in the number of these bacteria became statistically significant after 1 day (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus remained viable in plaster for up to 4 days, and the number of these bacteria dropped after 1 day (p<0.05). Escherichia coli disappeared after 2 days, and a reduction was already observed after 2 hours (p<0.05). Candida albicans in plaster models died within 2 days, and a reduction in their number was observed after 1 day (p<0.05). Conclusions The microorganisms did not multiply in the gypsum casts and their number significantly dropped instead of increasing. PMID:24902637

Zilinskas, Juozas; Junevicius, Jonas; Ramonaite, Agne; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Sakalauskiene, Jurgina

2014-01-01

277

Continued Viability of Universities as Centers for Basic Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings and 13 recommendations of a NSF Advisory Council task force that evaluated universities as centers of basic research are presented. Listed are the major strengths of universities as centers for basic research (including continuity and tradition, freedom of research, interactions among disciplines) and such threats to their viability

Carter, Lisle C., Jr.; And Others

278

III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27  

E-print Network

29 III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27 The previous chapters focused on first generation biofuels. In this chapter we focus on second generation biofuels, specifically biofuels derived from cellulosic or lignocellulosic conversion. Advocates for the development of cellulosic

279

Tree Squirrel Introduction: A Theoretical Approach with Population Viability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reintroduction efforts require knowledge of how many animals are needed for successful establishment. Population viability analysis can be used to predict trajectories of introduced populations and tree squirrels provide an ideal model system to investigate this challenge. Conservation action is needed because more than 80% of species of tree squirrels are of precarious conservation status in some portion of their

David J. A. Wood; John L. Koprowski; Peter W. W. Lurz

2007-01-01

280

POPULATION VIABILITY FOR GRIZZLY BEARS: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and update population viability analyses (PVA) conducted for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Rocky Mountains of the United States. Our analysis focused on grizzly bears of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) because this population has been most studied. Counts of unduplicated adult female bears accompanied by cubs of the year (COY index) have been used to

MARK S. BOYCE; BONNIE M. BLANCHARD; RICHARD R. KNIGHT; CHRISTOPHER SERVHEEN

281

UNCORRECTED 2 Flawed population viability analysis can result  

E-print Network

Protected area 21 PVA 22 Scientific method 23 Time series analysis 24 Wolf A B S T R A C T For many assessment: A case study 4 for wolves in Algonquin park, Canada 5 Brent R. Pattersona,*, Dennis L. Murrayb 6UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Flawed population viability analysis can result 3 in misleading population

282

Improvement in the Viability of Cryopreserved Cells by Microencapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of microencapsulated cells over those of suspended cells were evaluated for improving viability in cryopreservation. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were selected as the test biological cells and then microencapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate membranes. These microencapsulated PC12 cells were frozen by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at various cooling rates, from 0.5 to 10°C/min. Their latent heat was measured during freezing from 4 to -80°C. The post-thaw viability was evaluated by dopamine-concentration measurement and by trypan blue exclusion assay. Results showed that at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1°C/min, the latent heat of microencapsulated PC12 cells was lower than that of suspended cells. This lower latent heat is caused by the fact that the extra-microcapsule froze and the intra-capsule remained unfrozen due to the formation of ice crystals in the extra-capsule space. The post-thaw viability of microencapsulated PC12 cells was improved when the cooling rate was 0.5 or 1°C/min, compared with that of suspended cells. Therefore, in microencapsulated PC12 cells, maintaining the intra-microcapsules in an unfrozen state during freezing reduces the solution effect and thus improves the post-thaw viability.

Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Morinaga, Yukihiro; Ujihira, Masanobu; Oka, Kotaro; Tanishita, Kazuo

283

Interactions between Naïve and Infected Macrophages Reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intracellular bacillary load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages induces an atypical lysosomal cell death with early features of apoptosis that progress to necrosis within hours. Unlike classical apoptosis, this cell death mode does not appear to diminish M. tuberculosis viability. We previously reported that culturing heavily infected macrophages with naïve macrophages produced an antimicrobial effect, but only if

Michelle L. Hartman; Hardy Kornfeld

2011-01-01

284

Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays  

E-print Network

Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays Mandana Veiseh, Omid demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern, and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell

285

Scale of Viability and Minimal Time of Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce and study the minimal time of a crisis map which measures the minimal time spent outside a given closed domain of constraints by trajectory solutions of a differential inclusion. The interest of such a notion is basically to tackle simultaneously viability and target issues. The main mathematical result characterizes the epigraph of the crisis map

L. Doyen; P. Saint-Pierre

1997-01-01

286

Developing a Predictive Metric to Assess School Viability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a wide range of parish school indicators that can be used to predict long-term viability. The study reported in this article explored the relationship between demographic variables, financial variables, and parish grade school closures in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. Specifically, this study investigated whether…

James, John T.; Tichy, Karen L.; Collins, Alan; Schwob, John

2008-01-01

287

SEED GERMINATION AND VIABILITY OF WYOMING SAGEBRUSH IN NORTHERN NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Seed size and germination behavior affect performance of early seedlings. The purpose of this study was to investigate rela- tionships between seed size and germination percentage, germina- tion rate, time course of germination and seed viability in Wyo- ming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young). Working hypotheses were: 1) for single seeds, germination percentages and rates

Carlos A. Busso; Mónica Mazzola; Barry L. Perryman

2005-01-01

288

Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells  

PubMed Central

We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s?1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s?1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining optimal operating conditions for laser microbeam-based pallet release systems for the isolation and selection of adherent cells. PMID:22158840

Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan

2012-01-01

289

Land is a vital asset in South Asian agrarian societies, as it determines the overall socio-economic, political, and cultural status of individuals and  

E-print Network

: they are in uenced by multiple factors, including class, caste, gender, culture, politics, religion, and history-violent forms. In Nepal, land was one of the mainy issues of the decade-long armed insurgency (1996 of the broader socio-economic transformation of Nepal. It has become a major subject of disagreement

Richner, Heinz

290

A Combined Approach for the Assessment of Cell Viability and Cell Functionality of Human Fibrochondrocytes for Use in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Temporo-mandibular joint disc disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-established method for the treatment of several chondral defects. However, very few studies have been carried out using human fibrous chondrocytes from the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). One of the main drawbacks associated to chondrocyte cell culture is the possibility that chondrocyte cells kept in culture tend to de-differentiate and to lose cell viability under in in-vitro conditions. In this work, we have isolated human temporo-mandibular joint fibrochondrocytes (TMJF) from human disc and we have used a highly-sensitive technique to determine cell viability, cell proliferation and gene expression of nine consecutive cell passages to determine the most appropriate cell passage for use in tissue engineering and future clinical use. Our results revealed that the most potentially viable and functional cell passages were P5–P6, in which an adequate equilibrium between cell viability and the capability to synthesize all major extracellular matrix components exists. The combined action of pro-apoptotic (TRAF5, PHLDA1) and anti-apoptotic genes (SON, HTT, FAIM2) may explain the differential cell viability levels that we found in this study. These results suggest that TMJF should be used at P5–P6 for cell therapy protocols. PMID:23272194

Garzon, Ingrid; Carriel, Victor; Marin-Fernandez, Ana Belen; Oliveira, Ana Celeste; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Campos, Antonio; Sanchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel

2012-01-01

291

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1998-04-23

292

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1997-10-24

293

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

Michael F. Morea

1997-04-25

294

Quantitative investigation into methods for evaluating neocortical slice viability  

PubMed Central

Background In cortical and hippocampal brain slice experiments, the viability of processed tissue is usually judged by the amplitude of extracellularly-recorded seizure-like event (SLE) activity. Surprisingly, the suitability of this approach for evaluating slice quality has not been objectively studied. Furthermore, a method for gauging the viability of quiescent tissue, in which SLE activity is intentionally suppressed, has not been documented. In this study we undertook to address both of these matters using the zero-magnesium SLE model in neocortical slices. Methods Using zero-magnesium SLE activity as the output parameter, we investigated: 1) changes in the pattern (amplitude, frequency and length) of SLE activity as slice health either deteriorated; or was compromised by altering the preparation methodology and; 2) in quiescent tissue, whether the triggering of high frequency field activity following electrode insertion predicted subsequent development of SLE activity — and hence slice viability. Results SLE amplitude was the single most important variable correlating with slice viability, with a value less than 50 ?V indicative of tissue unlikely to be able to sustain population activity for more than 30–60 minutes. In quiescent slices, an increase in high frequency field activity immediately after electrode insertion predicted the development of SLE activity in 100% of cases. Furthermore, the magnitude of the increase in spectral power correlated with the amplitude of succeeding SLE activity (R2 40.9%, p?viability — and can be applied independent of the mechanism of tissue activation. PMID:24195598

2013-01-01

295

Economic risk, returns and input use under ridge and conventional tillage in the northern Corn Belt, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridge tillage (RT) has been proposed as an economically viable conservation tillage alternative for row crop production; however the long-term economic viability of RT in the northern Corn Belt of the USA is largely unknown. Economic returns, risk and input use were compared for RT and conventional tillage (CT) in a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.)

David W Archer; Joseph L Pikul; Walter E Riedell

2002-01-01

296

Free software and the economics of information justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims about the potential of free software to reform the production and distribution of software are routinely countered\\u000a by skepticism that the free software community fails to engage the pragmatic and economic ‘realities’ of a software industry.\\u000a We argue to the contrary that contemporary business and economic trends definitively demonstrate the financial viability of\\u000a an economy based on free software.

S. Chopra; S. Dexter

2011-01-01

297

Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

1976-01-01

298

valuating th he Economic  

E-print Network

.aspx Acknowledgements This research was funded as part of and the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy of growth and the case of climate change? 1 CONTENTS SYNOPSIS ........................................................................................................................... 5 2. Insurance in India: Determinants of growth and the case of climate change

Stevenson, Paul

299

ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to

Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg

2010-01-01

300

ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to

Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg

2011-01-01

301

Viability of vector-tensor theories of gravity  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed study of the viability of general vector-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of an arbitrary temporal background vector field. We find that there are six different classes of theories which are indistinguishable from General Relativity by means of local gravity experiments. We study the propagation speeds of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and obtain the conditions for classical stability of those models. We compute the energy density of the different modes and find the conditions for the absence of ghosts in the quantum theory. We conclude that the only theories which can pass all the viability conditions for arbitrary values of the background vector field are not only those of the pure Maxwell type, but also Maxwell theories supplemented with a (Lorentz type) gauge fixing term.

Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L., E-mail: jobeltra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2009-02-15

302

Embryonic platelet-activating factor: an indicator of embryo viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A definitive need exists to identify a biomarker of embryonic viability. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) production by human embryos is related to pregnancy potential. METHODS: Conditioned embryo culture media were obtained following conventional IVF on day 3, with PAF levels and pregnancy outcomes correlated. RESULTS: Overall pregnancy rate was 68% (17\\/25) with a mean of 84.1 ( 8.5) pmol\\/l\\/embryo PAF

W. E. Roudebush; J. D. Wininger; A. E. Jones; G. Wright; A. A. Toledo; H. I. Kort; J. B. Massey; D. B. Shapiro

2002-01-01

303

Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.  

PubMed

Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment of the viability of populations under unknown future environmental conditions. PMID:25163115

Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

2014-07-01

304

Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.  

PubMed

Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

2010-06-01

305

Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

2014-01-24

306

Economic bios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of biotic patterns. In economics, markets are thought to tend to equilibrium with random and unpredictable deviations. However, an explosion of empirical work searching for possible chaos show an enormous amount of unexplained nonlinear structure. These observations led the authors to examine the possibility of biotic patterns in

Hector Sabelli; Lazar Kovacevic

2011-01-01

307

Gatekeeping Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics tends not to take such an alarmist approach to the future of the Web, viewing it with more equanimity or acquiescence, depending on your perspective. In this column I want to illustrate that approach by discussing a specific practice, gatekeeping, which is an anathema to many openness advocates. Gatekeeping encompasses two related activities. In one case, a vendor controls

Shane Greenstein

2010-01-01

308

Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population?s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

309

The effect of tuning cold plasma composition on glioblastoma cell viability.  

PubMed

Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term "plasma dosage" to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

2014-01-01

310

The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

2014-01-01

311

Economic Knowledge, Economic Education and Public Opinion on Economic Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study was based upon a national survey in March 1992, conducted to assess the economic literacy of the U.S. public. The survey data were used to measure the economic knowledge of the public, to identify factors that affect economic knowledge, and to evaluate the influence of economic knowledge on public opinion about current economic

Walstad, William B.

312

Controlling laser-induced jet formation for bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells with high viability and high resolution.  

PubMed

Laser-assisted bioprinting is a versatile, non-contact, nozzle-free printing technique which has demonstrated high potential for cell printing with high resolution. Improving cell viability requires determining printing conditions which minimize shear stress for cells within the jet and cell impact at droplet landing. In this context, this study deals with laser-induced jet dynamics to determine conditions from which jets arise with minimum kinetic energies. The transition from a sub-threshold regime to jetting regime has been associated with a geometrical parameter (vertex angle) which can be harnessed to print mesenchymal stem cells with high viability using slow jet conditions. Finally, hydrodynamic jet stability is also studied for higher laser pulse energies which give rise to supersonic but turbulent jets. PMID:25215452

Ali, Muhammad; Pages, Emeline; Ducom, Alexandre; Fontaine, Aurelien; Guillemot, Fabien

2014-12-01

313

Children's Economic Contributions in Peninsular Malaysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Do children's economic contributions to parents influence fertility rates in developing countries. As a first step toward answering this question, this study analyzes data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey to determine how economic transfers from...

D. N. DeTray

1983-01-01

314

Group B Streptococcal b-Hemolysin/Cytolysin Directly Impairs Cardiomyocyte Viability and Function  

E-print Network

Group B Streptococcal b-Hemolysin/Cytolysin Directly Impairs Cardiomyocyte Viability and Function the effects of the GBS pore-forming b-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c) exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed

Nizet, Victor

315

Original article Survival and viability of fresh and frozen-thawed  

E-print Network

and viability of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro in serum-free oviduct-conditioned media. In vitro survival-8 of culture, in serum-free, conditioned medium; 2) to evaluate the viability of bovine blasto- cysts producedOriginal article Survival and viability of fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro bovine blastocysts

Boyer, Edmond

316

Compatibility of SYTO 13 and Hoechst 33342 for longitudinal imaging of neuron viability and cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous use of cell-permeant and impermeant fluorescent nuclear dyes is a common method to study cell viability and cell death progression. Although these assays are usually conducted as end-point studies, time-lapse imaging offers a powerful technique to distinguish temporal changes in cell viability at single-cell resolution. SYTO 13 and Hoechst 33342 are two commonly used cell-permeant nuclear dyes; however their suitability for live imaging has not been well characterized. We compare end-point assays with time-lapse imaging studies over a 6?h period to evaluate the compatibility of these two dyes with longitudinal imaging, using both control neurons and an apoptotic neuron model. Findings In longitudinal assays of untreated neurons, SYTO 13 addition caused acute necrosis within 3?h, whereas neurons imaged with Hoechst remained viable for at least 6?h. In a staurosporine-induced apoptotic model of neurotoxicity, determinations of the mode of cell death and measurements of nuclear size were identical between longitudinal studies using Hoechst and end-point assays. Alternatively, longitudinal studies using 500 nM or 5 nM SYTO 13 were not consistent with end-point assays. Conclusions SYTO 13 is acutely neurotoxic and when used in longitudinal studies, masked end-stage morphologic evidence of apoptotic cell death. In contrast, a single application of Hoechst evoked no evidence of toxicity over a 6?h period, and was consistent with end-point characterizations of cell viability and nuclear morphology. For longitudinal characterization of acute cell death, Hoechst is a superior option. PMID:22892216

2012-01-01

317

Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion  

PubMed Central

Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37°C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1) steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ?30 g after 6 h (high bile output group), and (2) a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group). Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial. PMID:25369327

Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

2014-01-01

318

The effects of some storage conditions on viability of Lecanicillium lecanii conidia to whitefly (Homoptera: Trialeurodes vaporariorum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the survival of Lecanicillium lecanii conidia in storage at room temperature was carried out. Firstly, drying methods of conidia powder were compared. Vacuum-freeze drying (VFD) was more suitable for drying conidia as compared to vacuum drying (VD) at room temperature. Vacuum-freeze drying for 24-h resulted in a water content of 5.4%, and a viability, determined as germination

Aidong Chen; Zhangyan Shi; Long Zhang

2008-01-01

319

Contemporary health care economics: an overview.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations provide a decision-making framework in which outcomes (benefits) and costs are assessed for various alternative options. Although the interest in complete and partial economic evaluations has increased over the past 2 decades, the quality of studies has been marginal due to methodological challenges or incomplete cost determination. This paper provides an overview of the main types of complete and partial economic evaluations, reviews key methodological elements to be considered for any economic evaluation, and reviews concepts of cost determination. The goal is to provide the clinician neurosurgeon with the knowledge and tools needed to appraise published economic evaluations and to direct high-quality health economic evaluations. PMID:25363430

McLaughlin, Nancy; Ong, Michael K; Tabbush, Victor; Hagigi, Farhad; Martin, Neil A

2014-11-01

320

Spore Density and Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungal Isolates from Indonesia, and Their Virulence against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was on quantifying fitness attributes, such as spore density and viability, and determining the virulence level against aphid (Aphis gossypii) nymphs of isolates from the fungal species Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungal isolates were obtained from several insects, including Plutella xylostella, Hypothenemus hampei, Bronstispa longissima, A. gossypii, Tenebrio molitor, and Leptocorisa acuta, that were collected from Indonesian islands, such as Sumatera, Java, and Sulawesi. Third instar aphid nymphs were inoculated via topical application of 106 conidia ml?1 of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates could produce very dense spores. The M. anisopliae isolate MaAg, which was obtained from the aphid, had the highest spore density at 6.70 × 108 conidia ml?1. Among the B. bassiana isolates, the highest conidial viability belonged to isolate CPJW8, which was obtained from Chrysodeixis chalcites, with a 39% average viability. Among the M. anisopliae isolates, the highest viabilities belonged to the isolates MaAg and MaLa, which were obtained from L. acuta, with a 33% and 32% average viabilities, respectively. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates were virulent against aphid nymphs, with mortality rates ranging from 64% to 94%. The three most virulent isolates were BBY715 (94%), MPx (92%), and MaTm (92%), and the least virulent isolate was MaLa (64%). BBY715, the most virulent isolate, had the shortest lethal time median (LT50) against aphid nymphs at 2.97 hours, and MaLa had the longest LT50 at 61.81 hours. PMID:24575186

Herlinda, Siti

2010-01-01

321

Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, ?-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

2014-09-01

322

Economic Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The economic impacts of computer crimes involving malicious code attacks, unauthorized intrusion into networks and computer\\u000a systems, denial of service of attacks, and others are substantial. In testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence\\u000a on 6 February 2002, Dale L. Watson, Executive Assistant Director, Counter-terrorism and Counterintelligence of the FBI, pointed\\u000a out that during the past several years the

Michael Erbschloe

323

Shopbot Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shopbots are agents that search the Internet for information pertaining to the price and quality of goods or services. With\\u000a the advent of shopbots, a dramatic reduction in search costs is imminent, which promises (or threatens) to radically alter\\u000a market behavior. This research includes the proposal and theoretical analysis of a simple economic model which is intended\\u000a to capture some

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Amy R. Greenwald

2002-01-01

324

Managerial Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Principles of Macroeconomics course page was developed by Robert Forsythe, Associate Professor of Economics at University of Iowa. The course introduces students to basic concepts in macroeconomics such as GDP, inflation and interest rates. Visitors to the site can either view the lecture notes in slide form or listen to lectures via RealAudio. Exams and quizzes (including answers) are also available at the site.

1997-01-01

325

Economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

None

1980-06-01

326

Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.  

PubMed

Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model. PMID:25384723

Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

2014-11-01

327

A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda.  

PubMed

HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, and improved their self-esteem and status in the community. In addition, we also found significant positive knowledge spill-over and network effects in the program with regard to business management and support. However, more than half of the participants indicated experiencing repayment problems either personally or with other group members due to unexpected emergencies and sickness. These findings highlight that microcredit programs have the potential of being an economic support system for HIV clients trying to reestablish their livelihoods, especially in resource-constrained settings, though more research is needed to determine the overall economic viability of such programs. PMID:22778923

Wagner, Glenn; Rana, Yashodhara; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Balya, James; Buzaalirwa, Lydia

2012-01-01

328

A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda  

PubMed Central

HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, and improved their self-esteem and status in the community. In addition, we also found significant positive knowledge spill-over and network effects in the program with regard to business management and support. However, more than half of the participants indicated experiencing repayment problems either personally or with other group members due to unexpected emergencies and sickness. These findings highlight that microcredit programs have the potential of being an economic support system for HIV clients trying to reestablish their livelihoods, especially in resource-constrained settings, though more research is needed to determine the overall economic viability of such programs. PMID:22778923

Wagner, Glenn; Rana, Yashodhara; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Balya, James; Buzaalirwa, Lydia

2012-01-01

329

Effect of KCl substitution on bacterial viability of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and selected probiotics.  

PubMed

Excessive intake of NaCl has been associated with the increased risk of several diseases, particularly hypertension. Strategies to reduce sodium intake include substitution of NaCl with other salts, such as KCl. In this study, the effects of NaCl reduction and its substitution with KCl on cell membranes of a cheese starter bacterium (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis), probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei), and a pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A critical NaCl concentration that inhibited the viability of E. coli without affecting the viability of probiotic bacteria significantly was determined. To find the critical NaCl concentration, de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) broth was supplemented with a range of NaCl concentrations [0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0%], and the effect on cell viability and FTIR spectra was monitored for all bacteria. A NaCl concentration of 2.5% was found to be the critical level of NaCl to inhibit E. coli without significantly affecting the viability of most of the probiotic bacteria and the cheese starter bacterium. The FTIR spectral analysis also highlighted the changes that occurred mainly in the amide regions upon increasing the NaCl concentration from 2.5 to 3.0% in most of the bacteria. Escherichia coli and B. longum were more sensitive to substitution of NaCl with KCl, compared with Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei, and Lc. lactis ssp. lactis. To evaluate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl, substitution was carried out at the critical total salt concentration (2.5%, wt/vol) at varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% KCl). The findings suggest that 50% substitution of NaCl with KCl, at 2.5% total salt, could inhibit E. coli without affecting the probiotic bacteria. PMID:25064650

Gandhi, Akanksha; Cui, Yuxiang; Zhou, Mingyang; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-10-01

330

WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT twenty thirteen- fourteen Prospectus #12;WARWICK ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT-being worldwide." "Economics is the issue of the times in which we live." Contents ninety-four The percent Inspirational instruction 11 Highlighted Research 13 Behavioural Economics 14 Development 16 Economic History 18

Davies, Christopher

331

7 CFR 3575.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 3575.47...Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.47 Economic feasibility requirements. ...for determining the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed...

2010-01-01

332

12 CFR 357.1 - Economically depressed regions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Economically depressed regions. 357.1 Section 357.1 Banks and Banking...POLICY DETERMINATION OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED REGIONS § 357.1 Economically depressed regions. (a) Purpose. Section...

2011-01-01

333

Applications of a Rapid Endospore Viability Assay for Monitoring UV Inactivation and Characterizing Arctic Ice Cores†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a rapid endospore viability assay (EVA) in which endospore germination serves as an indicator for viability and applied it to (i) monitor UV inactivation of endospores as a function of dose and (ii) determine the proportion of viable endospores in arctic ice cores (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 [GISP2] cores; 94 m). EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released from endospores during germination. DPA concentrations were determined using the terbium ion (Tb3+)-DPA luminescence assay, and germination was induced by l-alanine addition. The concentrations of germinable endospores were determined by comparison to a standard curve. Parallel EVA and phase-contrast microscopy experiments to determine the percentage of germinable spores yielded comparable results (54.3% ± 3.8% and 48.9%?± 4.5%, respectively), while only 27.8% ± 7.6% of spores produced CFU. EVA was applied to monitor the inactivation of spore suspensions as a function of UV dose, yielding reproducible correlations between EVA and CFU inactivation data. The 90% inactivation doses were 2,773 J/m2, 3,947 J/m2, and 1,322 J/m2 for EVA, phase-contrast microscopy, and CFU reduction, respectively. Finally, EVA was applied to quantify germinable and total endospore concentrations in two GISP2 ice cores. The first ice core contained 295 ± 19 germinable spores/ml and 369 ± 36 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 79.9% ± 9.3%), and the second core contained 131 ± 4 germinable spores/ml and 162?± 17 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 80.9% ± 8.8%), whereas only 2 CFU/ml were detected by culturing. PMID:17021233

Shafaat, Hannah S.; Ponce, Adrian

2006-01-01

334

Applications of a rapid endospore viability assay for monitoring UV inactivation and characterizing arctic ice cores.  

PubMed

We have developed a rapid endospore viability assay (EVA) in which endospore germination serves as an indicator for viability and applied it to (i) monitor UV inactivation of endospores as a function of dose and (ii) determine the proportion of viable endospores in arctic ice cores (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 [GISP2] cores; 94 m). EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released from endospores during germination. DPA concentrations were determined using the terbium ion (Tb3+)-DPA luminescence assay, and germination was induced by L-alanine addition. The concentrations of germinable endospores were determined by comparison to a standard curve. Parallel EVA and phase-contrast microscopy experiments to determine the percentage of germinable spores yielded comparable results (54.3% +/- 3.8% and 48.9% +/- 4.5%, respectively), while only 27.8% +/- 7.6% of spores produced CFU. EVA was applied to monitor the inactivation of spore suspensions as a function of UV dose, yielding reproducible correlations between EVA and CFU inactivation data. The 90% inactivation doses were 2,773 J/m2, 3,947 J/m2, and 1,322 J/m2 for EVA, phase-contrast microscopy, and CFU reduction, respectively. Finally, EVA was applied to quantify germinable and total endospore concentrations in two GISP2 ice cores. The first ice core contained 295 +/- 19 germinable spores/ml and 369 +/- 36 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 79.9% +/- 9.3%), and the second core contained 131 +/- 4 germinable spores/ml and 162 +/- 17 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 80.9% +/- 8.8%), whereas only 2 CFU/ml were detected by culturing. PMID:17021233

Shafaat, Hannah S; Ponce, Adrian

2006-10-01

335

Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.  

PubMed

In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species. PMID:22976116

Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

2013-05-01

336

Left ventricular remodeling after late revascularization correlates with baseline viability.  

PubMed

The ideal management of stable patients who present late after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is still a matter of conjecture. We hypothesized that the extent of improvement in left ventricular function after successful revascularization in this subset was related to the magnitude of viability in the infarct-related artery territory. However, few studies correlate the improvement of left ventricular function with the magnitude of residual viability in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in this setting. In 68 patients who presented later than 24 hours after a confirmed first STEMI, we performed resting, nitroglycerin-enhanced, technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) before percutaneous coronary intervention, and again 6 months afterwards. Patients whose baseline viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory was more than 50%, 20% to 50%, and less than 20% were divided into Groups 1, 2, and 3 (mildly, moderately, and severely reduced viability, respectively). At follow-up, there was significant improvement in end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 1 and 2, but not in Group 3. We conclude that even late revascularization of the infarct-related artery yields significant improvement in left ventricular remodeling. In patients with more than 20% viable myocardium in the infarct-related artery territory, the extent of improvement in left ventricular function depends upon the amount of viable myocardium present. The SPECT-MPI can be used as a guide for choosing patients for revascularization. PMID:25120390

Goel, Pravin K; Bhatia, Tanuj; Kapoor, Aditya; Gambhir, Sanjay; Pradhan, Prasanta K; Barai, Sukanta; Tewari, Satyendra; Garg, Naveen; Kumar, Sudeep; Jain, Suruchi; Madhusudan, Ponnusamy; Murthy, Siddegowda

2014-08-01

337

The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5?mmol/L), constant high glucose (CHG) (25?mmol/L), and IHG (rotation per 24?h in 11.1 or 25?mmol/L) for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase (XOD) level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG. PMID:24772447

Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Yang, Lei; Chen, Rongping; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Cai, Dehong; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

338

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.  

PubMed

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-10-01

339

Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O3, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:21605929

Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

2011-01-01

340

Effect of selenate on viability and selenomethionine accumulation of Chlorella sorokiniana grown in batch culture.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the effect of Se(+VI) on viability, cell morphology, and selenomethionine accumulation of the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana grown in batch cultures. Culture exposed to sublethal Se concentrations of 40 mg · L(-1) (212 ?M) decreased growth rates for about 25% compared to control. A selenate EC50 value of 45 mg · L(-1) (238.2 ?M) was determined. Results showed that chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were not affected by Se exposure, while oxygen evolution decreased by half. Ultrastructural studies revealed granular stroma, fingerprint-like appearance of thylakoids which did not compromise cell activity. Unlike control cultures, SDS PAGE electrophoresis of crude extracts from selenate-exposed cell cultures revealed appearance of a protein band identified as 53 kDa Rubisco large subunit of Chlorella sorokiniana, suggesting that selenate affects expression of the corresponding chloroplast gene as this subunit is encoded in the chloroplast DNA. Results revealed that the microalga was able to accumulate up to 140 mg · kg(-1) of SeMet in 120 h of cultivation. This paper shows that Chlorella sorokiniana biomass can be enriched in the high value aminoacid SeMet in batch cultures, while keeping photochemical viability and carbon dioxide fixation activity intact, if exposed to suitable sublethal concentrations of Se. PMID:24688385

Gojkovic, Živan; Vílchez, Carlos; Torronteras, Rafael; Vigara, Javier; Gómez-Jacinto, Veronica; Janzer, Nora; Gómez-Ariza, José-Luis; Márová, Ivana; Garbayo, Ines

2014-01-01

341

The Viability of Cancerous vs. Non-cancerous Cells  

E-print Network

for those compounds. If there is a common mode throughout many different compounds, then that mode of action can be isolated and further researched for drug delivery. In my specific work, we used two different lung cell types: the MRC-5 cell line... is to use a cell-based assay to inject the compounds into the cells, and then measure the cells’ growth. To find the effects the compounds had on the cells, we needed some way to visualize the viability of the cell lines. To do this, we used...

Nickels, Logan

2009-10-01

342

IDV sources as ICRF sources: viability and benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio sources that exhibit rapid variability in their light curves as a result of radio wave propagation through turbulent electron density fluctuations in the interstellar medium are often among the most compact sources in the sky. In particular the most variable weak sources might be the most point-like and thus some of the best candidates for densification of the ICRF and consequent improvement in its accuracy. Further the advent of the MkV VLBI system will make use of weaker sources easier. We will discuss the viability of this idea review existing lists of potential candidates and state the benefits that might flow from this approach.

Ojha, Roopesh; Fey, Alan L.; Jauncey, David L.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Lovell, James E.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna

2005-01-01

343

Balancing cost-effectiveness with quality in tissue viability.  

PubMed

The 21st century has seen an increase in the importance placed on the skills of healthcare practitioners. They now need to be able to demonstrate cost-effectiveness and balance it with quality in the delivery of care in the NHS. This emphasis is driven largely by the emergence of initiatives such as evidence-based practice, clinical governance and cost-effectiveness evaluations. The pressure to demonstrate cost-effective quality practices is becoming more and more prominent in the NHS. This article will discuss the practicalities and implications these pressures have on tissue viability and wound care providers. PMID:14593270

Norman, Debbie

2003-10-01

344

Estimation of Fitness Components in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER . I. Heterozygote Viability Indices.  

PubMed

We examine the assumption of "dominance" with regard to viability of the Cy and Pm marker chromosomes in D. melanogaster . This assumption is often invoked for the extraction of wild-type second chromosomes from natural populations and for the calculation of relative viability indices. Significant genotypic variances for viability are found among both Cy/+(j) and Pm/+(i) heterozygotes in California and Japanese populations. The magnitude of the Pm/+( i) genotypic variance is substantially less than that of the Cy/+(j) heterozygotes (less than one half). Significant reciprocal effects are also found to influence Cy/+(j), Pm/+(i) and +(i)/+(j) viabilities. We conclude that viability indices of heterozygotes based on the Curly method are biased. We suggest that viability indices in the future be expressed relative to the viability of the Cy/Pm genotype (Curly-Plum method) or possibly that of the Pm/+(i) genotype (Plum method). PMID:17248789

Katz, A J; Cardellino, R A

1978-01-01

345

Estimation of Fitness Components in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER . I. Heterozygote Viability Indices  

PubMed Central

We examine the assumption of "dominance" with regard to viability of the Cy and Pm marker chromosomes in D. melanogaster . This assumption is often invoked for the extraction of wild-type second chromosomes from natural populations and for the calculation of relative viability indices. Significant genotypic variances for viability are found among both Cy/+j and Pm/+i heterozygotes in California and Japanese populations. The magnitude of the Pm/+ i genotypic variance is substantially less than that of the Cy/+j heterozygotes (less than one half). Significant reciprocal effects are also found to influence Cy/+j, Pm/+i and +i/+j viabilities. We conclude that viability indices of heterozygotes based on the Curly method are biased. We suggest that viability indices in the future be expressed relative to the viability of the Cy/Pm genotype (Curly-Plum method) or possibly that of the Pm/+i genotype (Plum method). PMID:17248789

Katz, Alan J.; Cardellino, Ricardo A.

1978-01-01

346

Transient features in nanosecond pulsed electric fields differentially modulate mitochondria and viability.  

PubMed

It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0-80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (??m). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ??m and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ??m and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ??m and cell death. PMID:23284682

Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M; Schoenbach, Karl H; Xiao, Shu

2012-01-01

347

Transient Features in Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Differentially Modulate Mitochondria and Viability  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0–80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (??m). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ??m and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ??m and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ??m and cell death. PMID:23284682

Beebe, Stephen J.; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Xiao, Shu

2012-01-01

348

Socio-economic Determinants of Household Fertilizer Use Intensity for Maize-based Production Systems in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at understanding current status of soil fertility management and the identification of socio-economic characteristics influencing the decision of households on fertilizer use intensity in maize-based production systems in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty households involved in maize-based production system (2003/2004) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logit model. Analysis revealed that households combine techniques like application of organic and mineral fertilizer and crop planting pattern in maintaining the fertility of their soils. The ratio of N: P2O5: K2O per hectare from both organic and inorganic sources were 49.5:98.3:56.7 kg in Katsina State and 58.7: 109.4: 53.6 kg in Kaduna State. The estimated logit models revealed that fertilizer use intensity is significantly influenced by previous year`s income, land ownership, engagement in off farm activities and years of experience in maize farming.

Adunni Sanni, S.; Doppler, Werner

349

Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

2007-10-01

350

Direct In Situ Viability Assessment of Bacteria in Probiotic Dairy Products Using Viability Staining in Conjunction with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE\\/ DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (<30 min) and clearly differentiated live from heat- killed bacteria. The microscopic enumeration of various proportions of viable to heat-killed bacteria

M. A. E. Auty; G. E. Gardiner; S. J. McBrearty; E. O. O'Sullivan; D. M. Mulvihill; J. K. Collins; G. F. Fitzgerald; C. Stanton; R. P. Ross

2001-01-01

351

Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

Chiu-Irion, Vicky

352

HaCaT Keratinocytes Response on Antimicrobial Atelocollagen Substrates: Extent of Cytotoxicity, Cell Viability and Proliferation.  

PubMed

The effective and widely tested biocides: Benzalkonium chloride, bronopol, chitosan, chlorhexidine and irgasan were added in different concentrations to atelocollagen matrices. In order to assess how these antibacterial agents influence keratinocytes cell growth, cell viability and proliferation were determined by using MTT assay. Acquired data indicated a low toxicity by employing any of these chemical substances. Furthermore, cell viability and proliferation were comparatively similar to the samples where there were no biocides. It means that regardless of the agent, collagen-cell-attachment properties are not drastically affected by the incorporation of those biocides into the substrate. Therefore, these findings suggest that these atelocollagen substrates enhanced by the addition of one or more of these agents may render effectiveness against bacterial stains and biofilm formation, being the samples referred to herein as "antimicrobial substrates" a promising view in the design of novel antimicrobial biomaterials potentially suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24956439

López-García, Jorge; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolí?ek, Petr; Sáha, Petr

2014-01-01

353

Potential of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for assessing bio-viability changes of biodeteriogen growths on stone monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study on the use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF) imaging in Pulsed Amplitude Modulated (PAM) for assessing viability changes of biodeteriogen on stone artifacts has been carried out. The experimentation has been performed on different phototrophic organisms of gravestone slabs from the monumental British Cemetery of Florence (Italy). Since the viability of these organisms and then their chlorophyll fluorescence emission is strongly dependent on the environmental conditions, a preliminary study on the effects of local patterns during the season was carried out. The trend of the fluorescence quantum yield (QYmax) at different dark adapted times in different periods of the year was determined. The results achieved in our work proves the effectiveness of the CF-PAM imaging for in situ lichen characterizations in conservation studies and defines an optimized application protocol.

Osticioli, I.; Mascalchi, M.; Pinna, D.; Siano, S.

2013-05-01

354

Kentucky Annual Economic Report  

E-print Network

economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; and economic growth and development, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors affecting Kentucky

Hayes, Jane E.

355

Kentucky Annual Economic Report  

E-print Network

; transportation economics; health economics; regulatory reform; public finance; technology use and adoption-term economic, education, health, environmental, energy, community, public finance, and demographic factors

Hayes, Jane E.

356

Cell viability and angiogenic potential of a bioartificial adipose substitute.  

PubMed

An implantable scaffold pre-seeded with cells needs to remain viable and encourage rapid angiogenesis in order to replace injured tissues, especially for tissue defect repairs. We created a bioartificial adipose graft composed of an electrospun 3D nanofibrous scaffold and fat tissue excised from New Zealand white rabbits. Cell viability and angiogenesis potential of the bioartificial substitute were examined during four weeks of culture in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium by immunohistochemical staining with LIVE/DEAD® cell kit and PECAM-1 antibody, respectively. In addition, a Matrigel® assay was performed to examine the possibility of blood vessels sprouting from the bioartificial graft. Our results showed that cells within the graft were viable and vascular tubes were present at week 4, while cells in a fat tissue block were dead in vitro. In addition, capillaries were observed sprouting from the graft into the Matrigel, demonstrating its angiogenic potential. We expect that improved cell viability and angiogenesis in the bioartificial substitute, compared to intact autologous graft, could potentially contribute to its survival following implantation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23166045

Panneerselvan, Anitha; Nguyen, Luong Th; Su, Yan; Teo, Wee Eong; Liao, Susan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chan, Ching Wan

2012-11-20

357

Chromosomal basis of viability differences in Tigriopus californicus interpopulation hybrids.  

PubMed

Crosses between populations of Tigriopus californicus result in backcross and F2 hybrid breakdown for a variety of fitness related measures. The magnitude of this hybrid breakdown is correlated with evolutionary divergence. We assessed the chromosomal basis of viability differences in nonrecombinant backcross hybrids using markers mapped to individual chromosomes. To assess effects of evolutionary divergence we crossed one population to three different populations: two distantly related (approximately 18% mitochondrial COI sequence divergence) and one closely related (approximately 1% mitochondrial COI sequence divergence). We found that all three interpopulation crosses resulted in significant deviations from expected Mendelian ratios at a majority of the loci studied. In all but one case, deviations were due to a deficit of parental homozygotes. This pattern implies that populations of T. californicus carry a significant genetic load, and that a combination of beneficial dominance and deleterious homozygote-heterozygote interactions significantly affects hybrid viability. Pairwise tests of linkage disequilibrium detected relatively few significant interactions. For the two divergent crosses, effects of individual chromosomes were highly concordant. These two crosses also showed higher heterozygote excess in females than males across the vast majority of chromosomes. PMID:17040401

Harrison, J S; Edmands, S

2006-11-01

358

Noninvasive assessment myocardial viability: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

Observations of reversibility of cardiac contractile dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease and ischemia were first made more than 40 years ago. Since that time a wealth of basic science and clinical data has been gathered exploring the mechanisms of this phenomenon of myocardial viability and relevance to clinical care of patients. Advances in cardiac imaging techniques have contributed greatly to knowledge in the area, first with thallium-201 imaging, then later with Tc-99m-based tracers for SPECT imaging and metabolic tracers used in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET), most commonly F-18 FDG in conjunction with blood flow imaging with N-13 ammonia or Rb-82 Cl. In parallel, stress echocardiography has made great progress also. Over time observational studies in patients using these techniques accumulated and were later summarized in several meta-analyses. More recently, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has contributed further information in combination with either late gadolinium enhancement imaging or dobutamine stress. This review discusses the tracer and CMR imaging techniques, the pooled observational data, the results of clinical trials, and ongoing investigation in the field. It also examines some of the current challenges and issues for researchers and explores the emerging potential of combined PET/CMR imaging for myocardial viability. PMID:23771636

Allman, Kevin C

2013-08-01

359

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

360

Basic Economic Principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

Tideman, T. N.

1972-01-01

361

Hepatocyte viability and ATP content decrease linearly over time during conventional cold storage of rat liver grafts  

PubMed Central

Introduction The gold standard in organ preservation is static cold storage (SCS) using University of Wisconsin solution (UW). While it’s known that there is a finite limit to SCS preservation, and that there is a correlation between the ATP levels and organ function post preservation, a quantitative relationship has not been established, which is important in understanding the fundamental limitations to preservation, minimizing cold ischemic injury and hence maximizing utilization of the donor organ pool. Aim To determine the time limits of cellular viability and metabolic function during SCS, and to characterize the relationship between cellular viability and energetic state, using clinically relevant techniques in organ preservation. Methods Rat livers were procured and stored using conventional storage in UW solution at 4°C. Viability was assessed by determining the amount of viable hepatocytes and intracellular ATP content after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of storage. Results Numbers of viable hepatocytes that were isolated from these livers decreased steadily during SCS. After 5 days, viable hepatocytes decreased from 25.95×106 to 0.87×106 cells/gram tissue. Intracellular ATP content decreased from 9.63 to 0.93 ?moles/gram tissue. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) established a linear relation for both parameters as a function of time (P<0.05). Conclusion The linear correlation between hepatocyte viability, ATP content, and storage time suggests a shared physiological foundation. These findings confirm ATP as direct predictor for organ quality in the context of liver preservation, which will aid quantitative assessment of donor organs for various applications. PMID:21693222

Berendsen, TA; Izamis, ML; Xu, H; Liu, Q; Hertl, M; Berthiaume, F; Yarmush, ML; Uygun, K

2011-01-01

362

A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Social, Institutional, Cultural, and Economic Supports for Autonomy and Their Importance for Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the authors discuss modern conceptions of happiness, including hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. They distinguish\\u000a happiness as a symptom rather than sine qua non of well-being, and they relate the later to the human capability for autonomous\\u000a self-regulation. Using a self-determination framework they define autonomy and detail its essential functional role in allowing\\u000a individuals within any culture to

Richard M. Ryan; Edward L. Deci

363

Religion and Economic Growth across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth typically neglects the influence of religion. To fill this gap, this study uses international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, the estimation relies on

Rachel McCleary; Robert Barro

2003-01-01

364

Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

2012-01-01

365

Visualizing Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

Mulbrandon, Catherine

366

On economic bicameralism  

E-print Network

(cont.) for both economic profitability and democratic justice, is explored after the roots of the idea of economic bicameralism in socio-economic history and existing socio-economic institutions (such as Works Councils) ...

Ferreras, Isabelle, 1975-

2004-01-01

367

Effect of temperature on viability of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on raw chicken or pork skin.  

PubMed

To determine growth and survival of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken and pork, Campylobacter spp. (10(4) CFU/cm2) were inoculated on pieces of raw, irradiated chicken or pork skin and exposed to temperatures ranging from -20 to 42 degrees C under either microaerobic or aerobic conditions. Viable counts over 48 h declined 2 to 3 log CFU/cm2 at -20 degrees C and 1 to 2 log CFU/cm2 at 25 degrees C regardless of skin type, species of Campylobacter, or level of oxygen. At 4 degrees C, there was no significant change in the number of Campylobacter over 48 h. At both 37 and 42 degrees C, the number of viable Campylobacter increased significantly (2 to 3 log CFU/cm2, P < 0.0001) under microaerobic conditions but decreased 0.5 to 1.5 log CFU/cm2 in air. Preincubation of skins for 24 h at 42 degrees C under microaerobic conditions to establish Campylobacter on the surface prior to lowering the temperature to -20, 4, or 25 degrees C and incubating in air resulted in a decline in viability for the first 4 h (0.5 to 1 log CFU/cm2). However, after this initial drop in viability, no additional effect on viability was observed compared with incubation at -20, 4, or 25 degrees C in air without microaerobic preincubation at 42 degrees C. Preincubation of inoculated skins at -20, 4, or 25 degrees C in air for 24 h followed by a shift in temperature to 42 degrees C for 4, 8, 24, or 48 h and a shift to microaerobic conditions resulted in an overall decline in viability on raw pork skin but not on raw chicken skin. In contrast, preincubation of inoculated skins at -20, 4, or 25 degrees C for 24 h in air followed by a shift in temperature to 37 degrees C and microaerobic conditions did not result in a decrease in viable counts for either chicken or pork skins. Overall, viability of C. coli and C. jejuni on chicken and pork skins was similar. Therefore, a lower incidence of Campylobacter spp. in pork than in poultry postslaughter, despite a similar prevalence in live animals, is not due to differences in viability of C. coli versus C. jejuni on raw chicken or pork skin. PMID:14627278

Solow, Barbara Thurston; Cloak, Orla M; Fratamico, Pina M

2003-11-01

368

Flow cytometric assessment of morphology, viability, and production of reactive oxygen species of Crassostrea gigas oocytes. Application to Toxic dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum) exposure.  

PubMed

The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas accounts for a large part of shellfish aquaculture production worldwide. Aspects of morphological and functional characteristics of oyster oocytes remain poorly documented, and traditional techniques, such as microscopic observations of shape or fertilization rate, are time and space consuming. The purpose of this study was to assess for the first time viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of Pacific oyster oocytes using flow cytometry (FCM) and to apply this method to determine oocyte responses to in vitro exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. A culture of A. minutum caused a significant increase in oocyte ROS production, which gradually increased with the age of the culture, but viability was not affected. Effect of the supernatant of the same A. minutum culture did not cause any significant modifications of oocyte morphology, viability, or ROS level. This study confirmed that some oocyte cellular characteristics can be assessed using FCM techniques. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25327519

Le Goïc, Nelly; Hégaret, Hélène; Boulais, Myrina; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Soudant, Philippe

2014-12-01

369

Small molecules inhibit growth, viability and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-Candida efficacy of twenty five molecules of plant origin. Based on their MICs, effective molecules were categorized into four categories. Susceptibility testing of test compounds was carried out by standard methodology (M27-A2) as per CLSI guidelines. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined as the lowest concentration of drug killing 99.9% cells. Effect on sterol profile was evaluated by sterol quantitation method. Among the screened molecules, cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde and indole were potent inhibitors of growth and viability. Exposure of Candida cells to cinnamaldehyde, piperidine, citral, furfuraldehyde, indole, ?- and ?- pinene at MIC's, altered ergosterol profile. Our results indicate that the molecules altering sterol profile may exert their antifungal effect through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis and could be good candidates for fungal specific drug development. PMID:23449869

Rajput, Sandeep B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

2013-12-01

370

Assessment of cellular viability on calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite injectable scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Cements for maxillofacial reconstruction of jaw defects through calcification of rotated muscle have been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the visibility of loading of two types of commercially available cements, Cerament™ Spine Support and Cerament Bone Void Filler with mesenchymal cells and cytokines (bone morphogenetic protein) to act as a biomimetic scaffolding for future clinical application. Determination of basic biocompatibility (cell viability) using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and live/dead assay was carried out using MG-63 cells at various time points. Next, in order to inform potential subsequent in vivo experiments, a collagen tissue mimic was used for characterization of rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells using immunofluorescent cytoskeleton staining, and simultaneous and then sequential injection of Cerament Spine Support cement and cells into collagen gels. Results indicated that Cerament Spine Support was more biocompatible and that sequential injection of cement and then rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells into the tissue mimics is an optimal approach for clinical applications. PMID:24555009

Naudi, Kurt; Dalby, Matthew J; Tanner, K Elizabeth; McMahon, Jeremy D; Ayoub, Ashraf

2013-01-01

371

Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

1971-01-01

372

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777  

E-print Network

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

Almor, Amit

373

Economic Growth, Ecological Economics, and Wilderness Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Per- petual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that wilderness can be preserved in a perpetually

Brian Czech

2000-01-01

374

Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ?  

PubMed Central

In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

Letant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

2011-01-01

375

SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

2012-01-01

376

Glycolytic Metabolites Are Critical Modulators of Oocyte Maturation and Viability  

PubMed Central

The maturation of an oocyte into an egg is a key step in preparation for fertilization. In Xenopus, oocyte maturation is independent of transcription, being regulated at the level of translation and post-translational modifications of proteins. To identify factors involved in the maturation process we used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis to compare the proteome of oocytes and eggs. Protein abundance changes were observed in multiple cellular pathways during oocyte maturation. Most prominent was a general reduction in abundance of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Injection into oocytes of the glycolytic intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate prevented oocyte maturation. Instead, these metabolites stimulated ROS production and subsequent apoptosis of the oocyte. In contrast, all other metabolites tested had no effect on oocyte maturation and did not induce apoptosis. These data suggest that a subset of glycolytic metabolites have the capacity to regulate oocyte viability. PMID:24167578

Berger, Lloyd; Wilde, Andrew

2013-01-01

377

The viability of abstinence in an inner city adolescent population.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to investigate the different variables that lead teenagers to have sex, the psychological consequences they face as a result of having sex, and the viability of abstinence as an alternative. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to address such issues as age of first intercourse and influence of family, peers, and physical consequences (ie, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS). Our research concluded that not only are teens having sexual intercourse at early ages, but that this early experience may be having detrimental consequences on their levels of self-esteem. We propose that the adolescent's search for identity is a strong motivational factor in engaging in sexual intercourse at an early age, and that delaying first coitus or choosing abstinence as a birth control method can be both empowering and ego-enhancing for the teenage client. PMID:2055014

Lenaz, M P; Callahan, S; Bedney, B

1991-03-01

378

Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

2013-10-01

379

Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.  

PubMed

Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP. PMID:25051477

Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

2014-01-01

380

Viability selection on prey morphology by a generalist predator.  

PubMed

Prey use their locomotory capacity to escape predators, and there should thus be strong viability selection on locomotory morphology of prey. We compared feather morphology of wood pigeons Columba palumbus killed by goshawks Accipiter gentilis with that of survivors to quantify directional and quadratic selection on primary and rectrix feathers. The goshawk is mainly a predator attacking by surprise, leaving wood pigeons with an ability to accelerate fast at a selective advantage. There was directional selection for light primary feathers with a narrow calamus. In addition, there was directional selection for increased area of rectrices. These patterns of natural selection were confirmed in multivariate analyses of selection that showed selection for light primary feathers with a large area and narrow calamus and for a large area of rectrix feathers. These results provide evidence of selection on different aspects of feather morphology directly related to flight performance and thus escape ability from predators. PMID:19344382

Møller, A P; Couderc, G; Nielsen, J T

2009-06-01

381

Effects of sunlight on bacteriophage viability and structure.  

PubMed

Current estimates of viral abundance in natural waters rely on direct counts of virus-like particles (VLPs), using either transmission or epifluorescence microscopy. Direct counts of VLPs, while useful in studies of viral ecology, do not indicate whether the observed VLPs are capable of infection and/or replication. Rapid decay in bacteriophage viability under environmental conditions has been observed. However, it has not been firmly established whether there is a corresponding degradation of the virus particles. To address this question, viable and direct counts were carried out employing two Chesapeake Bay bacteriophages in experimental microcosms incubated for 56 h at two depths in the York River estuary. Viruses incubated in situ in microcosms at the surface yielded decay rates in full sunlight of 0.11 and 0.06 h-1 for CB 38 phi and CB 7 phi, respectively. The number of infective particles in microcosms in the dark and at a depth of 1 m was not significantly different from laboratory controls, with decay rates averaging 0.052 h-1 for CB 38 phi and 0.037 h-1 for CB 7 phi. Direct counts of bacteriophages decreased in teh estuarine microcosms, albeit only at a rate of 0.028 h-1, and were independent of treatment. Destruction of virus particles is concluded to be a process separate from loss of infectivity. It is also concluded that strong sunlight affects the viability of bacteriophages in surface waters, with the result that direct counts of VLPs overestimate the number of bacteriophage capable of both infection and replication. However, in deeper waters, where solar radiation is not a significant factor, direct counts should more accurately estimate numbers of viable bacteriophage. PMID:8919794

Wommack, K E; Hill, R T; Muller, T A; Colwell, R R

1996-04-01

382

Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

2014-02-01

383

Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-?B, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-?. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

2011-01-01

384

The influence of perfusion solution on renal graft viability assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Kidneys from donors after cardiac or circulatory death are exposed to extended periods of both warm ischemia and intra-arterial cooling before organ recovery. Marshall’s hypertonic citrate (HOC) and Bretschneider’s histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions are cheap, low viscosity preservation solutions used clinically for organ flushing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these two solutions both on parameters used in clinical practice to assess organ viability prior to transplantation and histological evidence of ischemic injury after reperfusion. Methods Rodent kidneys were exposed to post-mortem warm ischemia, extended intra-arterial cooling (IAC) (up to 2 h) with preservation solution and reperfusion with either Krebs-Hensleit or whole blood in a transplant model. Control kidneys were either reperfused directly after retrieval or stored in 0.9% saline. Biochemical, immunological and histological parameters were assessed using glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymatic assays, polymerase chain reaction and mitochondrial electron microscopy respectively. Vascular function was assessed by supplementing the Krebs-Hensleit perfusion solution with phenylephrine to stimulate smooth muscle contraction followed by acetylcholine to trigger endothelial dependent relaxation. Results When compared with kidneys reperfused directly post mortem, 2 h of IAC significantly reduced smooth muscle contractile function, endothelial function and upregulated vascular cellular adhesion molecule type 1 (VCAM-1) independent of the preservation solution. However, GST release, vascular resistance, weight gain and histological mitochondrial injury were dependent on the preservation solution used. Conclusions We conclude that initial machine perfusion viability tests, including ischemic vascular resistance and GST, are dependent on the perfusion solution used during in situ cooling. HTK-perfused kidneys will be heavier, have higher GST readings and yet reduced mitochondrial ischemic injury when compared with HOC-perfused kidneys. Clinicians should be aware of this when deciding which kidneys to transplant or discard. PMID:23369648

2012-01-01

385

Automated enumeration and viability measurement of canine stromal vascular fraction cells using fluorescence-based image cytometry method.  

PubMed

In recent years, the lipoaspirate collected from adipose tissue has been seen as a valuable source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for autologous cellular therapy. For multiple applications, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. Because the fresh stromal vascular fraction typically contains a heterogeneous mixture of cells, determining cell concentration and viability is a crucial step in preparing fraction samples for downstream processing. Due to a large amount of cellular debris contained in the SVF sample, as well as counting irregularities standard manual counting can lead to inconsistent results. Advancements in imaging and optics technologies have significantly improved the image-based cytometric analysis method. In this work, we validated the use of fluorescence-based image cytometry for SVF concentration and viability measurement, by comparing to standard flow cytometry and manual hemocytometer. The concentration and viability of freshly collected canine SVF samples are analyzed, and the results highly correlated between all three methods, which validated the image cytometry method for canine SVF analysis, and potentially for SVF from other species. PMID:24740550

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Cohen, Donald A; Kuksin, Dmitry; Paradis, Benjamin D; Qiu, Jean

2014-07-01

386

From population viability analysis to coviability of farmland biodiversity and agriculture.  

PubMed

Substantial declines in farmland biodiversity have been reported in Europe for several decades. Agricultural changes have been identified as a main driver of these declines. Although different agrienvironmental schemes have been implemented, their positive effect on biodiversity is relatively unknown. This raises the question as to how to reconcile farming production and biodiversity conservation to operationalize a sustainable and multifunctional agriculture. We devised a bioeconomic model and conducted an analysis based on coviability of farmland biodiversity and agriculture. The coviability approach extended population viability analyses by including bioeconomic risk. Our model coupled stochastic dynamics of both biodiversity and farming land-uses selected at the microlevel with public policies at the macrolevel on the basis of financial incentives (taxes or subsidies) for land uses. The coviability approach made it possible for us to evaluate bioeconomic risks of these public incentives through the probability of satisfying a mix of biodiversity and economic constraints over time. We calibrated the model and applied it to a community of 34 common birds in metropolitan France at the small agricultural regions scale. We identified different public policies and scenarios with tolerable (0-0%) agroecological risk and modeled their outcomes up to 2050. Budgetary, economic, and ecological (based on Farmland Bird Index) constraints were essential to understanding the set of viable public policies. Our results suggest that some combinations of taxes on cereals and subsidies on grasslands could be relevant to develop a multifunctional agriculture. Moreover, the flexibility and multicriteria viewpoint underlying the coviability approach may help in the implementation of adaptive management. PMID:24405214

Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

2014-02-01

387

Viability of chondrocytes seeded onto a collagen I/III membrane for matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation.  

PubMed

Cell viability is crucial for effective cell-based cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of handling the membrane during matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation surgery on the viability of implanted chondrocytes. Images were acquired under five conditions: (i) Pre-operative; (ii) Handled during surgery; (iii) Cut edge; (iv) Thumb pressure applied; (v) Heavily grasped with forceps. Live and dead cell stains were used. Images were obtained for cell counting and morphology. Mean cell density was 6.60?×?10(5) cells/cm(2) (5.74-7.11?×?10(5) ) in specimens that did not have significant trauma decreasing significantly in specimens that had been grasped with forceps (p?viability on delivery grade membrane was 75.1%(72.4-77.8%). This dropped to 67.4%(64.1-69.7%) after handling (p?=?0.002), 56.3%(51.5-61.6%) after being thumbed (p?viability decreased to 13.7%(10.2-18.2%, p?

Hindle, Paul; Hall, Andrew C; Biant, Leela C

2014-11-01

388

Viability and resistance of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation to simulated gastrointestinal digestive steps in soy yogurt.  

PubMed

To study the potential probiotic characteristics such as decrease of pH, microbial viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps of fermented soy beverage ("soy yogurt") produced with lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum TcUESC01 and Lactobacillus plantarum TcUESC02) during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The sensory acceptance of the yogurts was also tested. Samples of soy yogurt produced with L. fermentum TcUESC01 or L. plantarum TcUESC02 were collected during fermentation (0, 4, 8, and 12 h) and refrigerated storage (1, 9, 18, and 27 d), and submitted to pH and bacterial viability determinations. Tolerance to simulated digestion steps was done with refrigerated storage samples at 9 °C. Simulated digestion was performed in 3 successive steps: exposure to pepsin-HCl solution, bile shock, and simulated small intestinal juice. During storage, a decrease in pH and lactobacillus viability was observed. L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed to be more resistant than L. plantarum TcUESC02 to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. All soy yogurts showed acceptable hedonic scores (greater than 5 in a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely") in sensory evaluation for flavor, aroma, color, consistency, and overall impression. L. plantarum TcUESC02 and, especially, L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed potential probiotic characteristics when considering pH, cell viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps and did not affect the sensory characteristics when supplemented to soy yogurt during storage. PMID:24547696

Saito, V S T; Dos Santos, T F; Vinderola, C G; Romano, C; Nicoli, J R; Araújo, L S; Costa, M M; Andrioli, J L; Uetanabaro, A P T

2014-02-01

389

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

390

Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

Stewart, E. C.

1973-01-01

391

Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development?  

E-print Network

A critical step in initiating or facilitating an effective economic development project is to determine if the community is actually prepared to take on such a difficult task. This publication can help community leaders determine how "prepared a...

Saldana, Luis

2003-03-30

392

The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for an ecologically-relevant ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes, creating a potential connection between water and air quality in the coastal environment.

Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-12-01

393

Pantoprazole increases cell viability and function of primary human osteoblasts in vitro.  

PubMed

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of drugs that irreversibly inhibit the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase in gastric parietal cells. Since an association between PPI use and increased fracture risk has been found, the aim of this study was to detect potential adverse effects of pantoprazole, a representative of the PPIs, on primary human osteoblasts in vitro. The isolated cells were stimulated with pantoprazole concentrations ranging from 0 ?g/ml to 10 ?g/ml. Changes in proliferation, total cell number, viability, cytotoxicity, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein synthesis and gene expression on mRNA level were determined over a period of 7 days. Pantoprazole stimulation resulted in increased viability and decreased cytotoxicity in the osteoblasts. The proliferation rate was stable and so was the relative cell number. Only at the highest pantoprazole concentration on day 7, a slight decrease of the cell number was detected. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased over the tested period under exposure to pantoprazole (p < 0.05 at 3 ?g/ml and 10 ?g/ml pantoprazole). Osteoblast-specific gene expression was increased through pantoprazole stimulation compared to the control on day 3. Towards day 7, gene expression returned to baseline levels or decreased slightly compared to unexposed cells. Interestingly, this in vitro experiment detected no evidence of adverse effects of PPIs on primary human osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were rather more viable with increased mitochondrial activity, gene expression and protein synthesis under pantoprazole stimulation. Therefore, these in vitro results do not suggest that impaired osteoblast function is the cause of an increased fracture risk in patients under PPI therapy. PMID:24893920

Prause, Markus; Seeliger, Claudine; Unger, Marina; van Griensven, Martijn; Haug, Alexander Tobias

2014-08-01

394

Viability and Regeneration of Chondrocytes after Laser Cartilage Reshaping Using 1,460 nm Diode Laser  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cartilage reshaping by laser irradiation is used to correct septal and auricular cartilage deformities. Chondrocyte viability following laser irradiation and reshaping has been well established. However, the regeneration process of chondrocyte after laser irradiation has not been revealed yet. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of cartilaginous thermal injury and the regenerative process of damaged cartilage following laser irradiation. Methods Laser irradiation was performed on human septal cartilage and rabbit auricular cartilage using a 1,460-nm diode laser. We observed change in the shape of cartilage and evaluated the extent of cartilage injury using live/dead cell assay via confocal microscopy. Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the mechanism of chondrocyte injury after laser irradiation. To evaluate the regeneration of cartilage, laser irradiated cartilages were reimplanted into a subperichondrial pocket and were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after reimplantation for viability assessment and histologic examination. Results Laser irradiation using a 1,460-nm diode laser produced a marked shape change in both human septal and rabbit auricular cartilages. Thermal damage on cartilage was correlated with the exposure time and the laser power. Hoechst and PI staining showed that chondrocyte death by laser irradiation was due to mainly necrosis, rather than apoptosis. In lower power treatment group (0.3 W and 0.5 W), all the chondrocytes regenerated within 4 weeks, however, in 1 W treatment group, chondrocytes could not regenerate until 4 weeks. Conclusion Reshaping of cartilage using 1,460 nm diode laser was attained concurrently with the thermal injury to the chondrocytes. The extent of thermal damage on chondrocytes was dependent on the exposure time and the laser power and the damaged chondrocytes irradiated with lower level of laser power could be regenerated after reimplantation into subperichondrial pocket. PMID:23799165

Mo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Phil-Sang

2013-01-01

395

Spatially and Financially Explicit Population Viability Analysis of Maculinea alcon in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background The conservation of species structured in metapopulations involves an important dilemma of resource allocation: should investments be directed at restoring/enlarging habitat patches or increasing connectivity. This is still an open question for Maculinea species despite they are among the best studied and emblematic butterfly species, because none of the population dynamics models developed so far included dispersal. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed the first spatially and financially explicit Population Viability Analysis model for Maculinea alcon, using field data from The Netherlands. Implemented using the RAMAS/GIS platform, the model incorporated both local (contest density dependence, environmental and demographic stochasticities), and regional population dynamics (dispersal rates between habitat patches). We selected four habitat patch networks, contrasting in several basic features (number of habitat patches, their quality, connectivity, and occupancy rate) to test how these features are affecting the ability to enhance population viability of four basic management options, designed to incur the same costs: habitat enlargement, habitat quality improvement, creation of new stepping stone habitat patches, and reintroduction of captive-reared butterflies. The PVA model was validated by the close match between its predictions and independent field observations on the patch occupancy pattern. The four patch networks differed in their sensitivity to model parameters, as well as in the ranking of management options. Overall, the best cost-effective option was enlargement of existing habitat patches, followed by either habitat quality improvement or creation of stepping stones depending on the network features. Reintroduction was predicted to generally be inefficient, except in one specific patch network. Conclusions/Significance Our results underline the importance of spatial and regional aspects (dispersal and connectivity) in determining the impact of conservation actions, even for a species previously considered as sedentary. They also illustrate that failure to account for the cost of management scenarios can lead to very different conclusions. PMID:22719922

Radchuk, Viktoriia; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2012-01-01

396

Effects of individual and multiple fatty acids (palmitate, oleate and docosahaexenoic acid) on cell viability and lipid metabolism in LO2 human liver cells.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of fatty acids (FAs) on the cell viability and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in LO2 human liver cells. Palmitate (PA), oleate (OA) and docosahaexenoic acid (DHA) were used to represent saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, respectively. At concentrations of ?3.2 µg/ml, treatment with single FAs increased the viability of the LO2 cells. At FA concentrations of >3.2 µg/ml, cell viability following OA treatment was increased, but PA or DHA treatment at these concentrations reduced cell viability. Administration of mixtures of these FAs in three ratios (PA:OA:DHA = 1:2:1, 1:1:1 and 1:1:2, respectively) increased the cell viability compared with the control group. The intracellular triglyceride (TG) levels following all types of treatment were significantly increased and the accumulation of TGs was markedly increased with high doses of DHA. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? was significantly upregulated in all groups, with the exception of the 1:1:1 group at 3.2 µg/ml and the 1:1:2 group at 12.8 µg/ml. The expression levels of sterol regulatory-element binding protein?1c, liver X receptor ? and apolipoprotein C?I were significantly reduced in all groups with the exception of the DHA?treated group and the 1:2:1 groups at 3.2 and 12.8 µg/ml. In conclusion, these results indicate that the type, concentration and mixture ratios of FAs are all important in determining the cell viability and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in LO2 hepatocytes. PMID:25241938

Chen, Li; Wang, Chunhong; Huang, Shaoxin; Gong, Bin; Yu, Jun; Shi, Qun; Chen, Guoxun

2014-12-01

397

ToHajiilee Economic Development, Inc.(TEDI) Feasibility Study for Utility-Scale Solar  

SciTech Connect

ToÃ?Â?Hajiilee Economic Development, Inc. (TEDI) is the economic development entity representing the ToHajiilee Chapter of the Navajo Nation, also known as the CaÃ?Â?oncito Band of Navajo (CBN). Using DOE funding, TEDI assembled a team of qualified advisors to conduct a feasibility study for a utility-scale 30 MW Photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation facility on TEDI trust lands. The goal for this project has been to gather information and practical business commitments to successfully complete the feasibility analysis. The TEDI approach was to successively make informed decisions to select an appropriate technology best suited to the site, determine environmental viability of the site, secure options for the sale of generated power, determine practicality of transmission and interconnection of power to the local grid, and secure preliminary commitments on project financing. The feasibility study has been completed and provides TEDI with a practical understanding of its business options in moving forward with developing a solar project on CBN tribal lands. Funding from DOE has allowed TEDI and its team of professional advisors to carefully select technology and business partners and build a business model to develop this utility-scale solar project. As a result of the positive feasibility findings, TEDI is moving forward with finalizing all pre-construction activities for its major renewable energy project.

Burpo, Rob

2012-02-29

398

Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

Munoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Diez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamano, J. N.; Martinez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

2014-01-01

399

Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses.  

PubMed

Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGF? signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles. PMID:25120361

Pan, Chih-Hong; Liu, Wen-Te; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lin, I-Chan; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

2014-01-01

400

Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shales reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: reservoir matrix and fluid characterization: fracture characterization; reservoir modeling and simulation; and, CO{sub 2} pilot flood and evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills field. In this report, accomplishments for this period are presented for: reservoir matrix and fluid characterization; fracture characterization; reservoir modeling and simulation; and technology transfer.

Toronyi, R.M.

1996-12-31

401

Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field. Progress to date is described.

Morea, M.F.

1998-04-23

402

The viability of native microbial communities in martian environment (model)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For today the important direction in astrobiology is the experimental simulation of extraterrestrial habitats with the assessment of survivability of microorganisms in such conditions. A new task is to investigate the resistance of native microbial ecosystems which are well adapted to the environment and develop unique protection mechanisms that enable to ensure biosphere formation. The purpose of this research was to study the viability of microorganisms as well as viability of native microbial communities of arid soils and permafrost under stress conditions simulating space environment and martian regolith environment, estimation of duration of Earth like life in the Martian soil. The experimental data obtained give the proof of the preservation of high population density, biodiversity, and reproduction activity under favorable conditions in the Earth analogues of Martian soil - arid soils (Deserts of Israel and Morocco) and permafrost (East Siberia, Antarctica), after the treatment of samples by ionizing radiation dose up to 100 kGy at the pressure of 1 torr, temperature (- 50oC) and in the presence of perchlorate (5%). It was shown that in simulated conditions close to the parameters of the Martian regolith, the diversity of natural bacterial communities was not decreased, and in some cases the activation of some bacterial populations occurred in situ. Our results allow suggesting that microbial communities like those that inhabit arid and permafrost ecosystems on the Earth, can survive at least 500 thousand years under conditions of near surface layer of the Martian regolith. Extrapolation of the data according to the intensity of ionizing radiation to the open space conditions allows evaluating the potential lifespan of cells inside meteorites as 20-50 thousand years at least. In this work new experimental data have been obtained confirming the occurrence of liquid water and the formation of wet soil layer due to sublimation of ice when the temperature of the soil changed (-50C - -2C). It was proved that in the wet layer the metabolic activity of microbial communities increased. This work is supported by RFBR Grant ? 13-04-01982 and in part by the Programs of fundamental researches of Presidium of RAS ?22, ?28

Vorobyova, Elena; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Anatolyi; Vdovina, Mariya; Lomasov, Vladimir

403

Economic Performance Through Timet  

Microsoft Academic Search

I Economic history is about the perfor- mance of economies through time. The ob- jective of research in the field is not only to shed new light on the economic past, but also to contribute to economic theory by providing an analytical framework that will enable us to understand economic change. A theory of economic dynamics comparable in precision to

DOUGLASS C. NORTH

1994-01-01

404

The Viability of the English Major in the Current Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an April, 2012 Wall Street Journal article titled "Wealth or Waste? Rethinking the Value of a Business Major," national reporter Melissa Korn explores an intriguing fact: the business major, the most popular major on college campuses for over 30 years and the discipline believed to be most economically viable by prospective college students and…

Hiner, Amanda

2012-01-01

405

ECONOMIC FREEDOM, POLITICAL FREEDOM, AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING: AC AUSALITY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a renewed interest has been shown in trying to further comprehend the factors that determine a country's rate of economic growth. This is important since a higher growth rate means greater national output, potentially higher living standards, and an enhanced ability to attain economic and social objectives. Earlier studies of the causes of economic growth focused on

W. Ken Farr; Richard A. Lord; J. Larry Wolfenbarger

406

Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) that is linked to realistic landscape simulations using a GIS-based

Michael A. Larson; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

2004-01-01

407

Percutaneous Treatment of Malignant Jaundice Due to Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Covered Viabil Stent Versus Uncovered Wallstents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare clinical effectiveness of Viabil-covered stents versus uncovered metallic Wallstents, for palliation of malignant jaundice due to extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 60 patients were enrolled in a prospective and randomized study. In half of the patients a bare Wallstent was used, and in the other half a Viabil biliary stent. Patients were followed up until death. Primary patency, survival, complication rates,

Miltiadis Krokidis; Fabrizio Fanelli; Gianluigi Orgera; Mario Bezzi; Roberto Passariello; Adam Hatzidakis

2010-01-01

408

EXTENDED EVALUATION OF AN 'IN VIVO' TERATOLOGY SCREEN UTILIZING POSTNATAL GROWTH AND VIABILITY IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

A teratology test system proposed by Chernoff and Kavlock (3,4) utilizes growth and viability for 3 days after birth to prioritize chemicals for standard teratology testing. The present study is an extended observation of the growth and viability of Chernoff and Kavlock's animals...

409

STORAGE AND AGEING OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): EFFECT ON SEED VIABILITY AND VIGOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of viability and vigor compromises the agricultural usefulness of seeds and can also affect their nutritional properties. In this work, we examined the viability and vigor of freshly harvested French beans and of beans stored at approximately 8oC for 12 years. Quiescent seeds and seedlings grown until cotyledon abscission were subjected to germination and vigor tests, as well

Angelo Luiz Cortelazzo; Jaime Coutinho; Paulo Afonso Granjeiro

410

Rivalrous Benefit Taxation: The Independent Viability of Separate Agencies or Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We ask when firms with increasing returns can cover their costs independently by charging two- part tariffs (TPTs), a condition we call independent viability. To answer, we develop notions of substitutability and complementarity that account for the total value of goods and use them to find the maximum extractable surplus. We then show that independent viability is a sufficient condition

1993-01-01

411

Rivalrous Benefit Taxation: The Independent Viability of Separate Agencies or Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We ask when firms with increasing returns can cover their costs independently by charging two-part tariffs (TPTs), a condition we call independent viability. To answer, we develop notions of substitutability and complementarity that account for the total value of goods and use them to find the maximum extractable surplus. We then show that independent viability is a sufficient condition for

Aaron S. Edlin; Mario Epelbaum

1995-01-01

412

Rivalrous Benefit Taxation: The Independent Viability of Separate Agencies or Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We ask when firms with increasing returns can cover their costs independently by charging two-part tariffs (TPT's)---a condition we call independent viability. To answer, we develop notions of substitutability and complementarity that account for the total value of goods and use them to find the maximum extractable surplus. We then show that independent viability is a sufficient condition for existence

Aaron S. Edlin; Mario Epelbaum

1993-01-01

413

Cereal seed viability after 10 years of storage in active and base germplasm collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic testing of viability is crucial to operation of seedbanks because it permits the control of genetic erosion during storage. In this work, data obtained at the Spanish Genetic Resource Center (CRF-INIA) from the routine task of monitoring seed viability were analyzed. The accessions studied came from the active and base collections of oat, barley and wheat. All seed entered

Magdalena Ruiz; Isaura Mart??n; Celia de la Cuadra

1999-01-01

414

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

415

FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

and knowledge to apply economic theory and tools to address interesting problems. The School of Economics with government agencies, consulting firms, businesses, and non-profits. The M.A. in Economics, M.S. in Resource,600-$20,000) and scholarships are available on a competitive basis. The faculty nominates top-ranking applicants

Thomas, Andrew

416

Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

Vandyke, Melissa K.

2006-01-01

417

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability  

PubMed Central

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-01-01

418

Dicer regulates differentiation and viability during mouse pancreatic cancer initiation.  

PubMed

miRNA levels are altered in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most common and lethal pancreatic malignancy, and intact miRNA processing is essential for lineage specification during pancreatic development. However, the role of miRNA processing in PDA has not been explored. Here we study the role of miRNA biogenesis in PDA development by deleting the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in a PDA mouse model driven by oncogenic Kras. We find that loss of Dicer accelerates Kras driven acinar dedifferentiation and acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that has been shown to precede and promote the specification of PDA precursors. However, unconstrained ADM also displays high levels of apoptosis. Dicer loss does not accelerate development of Kras driven PDA precursors or PDA, but surprisingly, we observe that mouse PDA can develop without Dicer, although at the expense of proliferative capacity. Our data suggest that intact miRNA processing is involved in both constraining pro-tumorigenic changes in pancreatic differentiation as well as maintaining viability during PDA initiation. PMID:24788257

Morris, John P; Greer, Renee; Russ, Holger A; von Figura, Guido; Kim, Grace E; Busch, Anke; Lee, Jonghyeob; Hertel, Klemens J; Kim, Seung; McManus, Michael; Hebrok, Matthias

2014-01-01

419

Effect of autophagy on multiple myeloma cell viability.  

PubMed

Because accumulation of potentially toxic malfolded protein may be extensive in immunoglobulin-producing multiple myeloma (MM) cells, we investigated the phenomenon of autophagy in myeloma, a physiologic process that can protect against malfolded protein under some circumstances. Autophagy in MM cell lines that express and secrete immunoglobulin and primary specimens was significantly increased by treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agent thapsigargin, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Inhibition of basal autophagy in these cell lines and primary cells by use of the inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine resulted in a cytotoxic effect that was associated with enhanced apoptosis. Use of small interfering RNA to knock down expression of beclin-1, a key protein required for autophagy, also inhibited viable recovery of MM cells. Because the data suggested that autophagy protected MM cell viability, we predicted that autophagy inhibitors would synergize with bortezomib for enhanced antimyeloma effects. However, the combination of these drugs resulted in an antagonistic response. In contrast, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine did synergize with thapsigargin for an enhanced cytotoxic response. These data suggest that autophagy inhibitors have therapeutic potential in myeloma but caution against combining such drugs with bortezomib. PMID:19509276

Hoang, Bao; Benavides, Angelica; Shi, Yijiang; Frost, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Alan

2009-07-01

420

Normal viability of Kai1/Cd82 deficient mice.  

PubMed

The KAI1/CD82 tetraspanin is a widely expressed cell surface molecule thought to organize diverse cellular signaling processes. KAI1/CD82 suppresses metastasis but not tumorigenicity, establishing it as one of a class of metastasis suppressor genes. In order to further assess its functions, we have characterized the phenotypic properties of Kai1/Cd82 deleted mice, including viability, fertility, lymphocyte composition, blood chemistry and tissue histopathology, and of their wild-type and heterozygote littermates. Interestingly, Kai1/Cd82(-/-) showed no obvious genotype associated defects in any of these processes and displayed no genotype associated histopathologic abnormalities after 12 or 18 months of life. Expression profiles of non-immortal, wild-type and Kai1/Cd82(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblast (MEFs) indicated distinct sex-specific and genotype-specific profiles. These data identify 191 and 1,271 differentially expressed transcripts (by twofold at P < 0.01) based on Kai1/CD82 genotype status in female and male MEFs, respectively. Differentially expressed genes in male MEFs were surprisingly enriched for cell division related processes, suggesting that Kai1/Cd82 may functionally affect these processes. This suggests that Kai/Cd82 has an unappreciated role in the early establishment of proliferation and division when challenged with a new environment that might play a role in adaptability to new metastatic sites. PMID:23401136

Risinger, John I; Custer, Mary; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Simpson, R Mark; Hoover, Shelley B; Webster, Joshua D; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Tessarollo, Lino; Barrett, J Carl

2014-08-01

421

Effect of Magnetic Fields on Tumor Growth and Viability  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Most methods of intervention involve combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and ionizing radiation. Both chemotherapy and ionizing radiation can be effective against many types of cancer, but they also harm normal tissues. The use of nonionizing, magnetic fields has shown early promise in a number of in vitro and animal studies. Our study tested the effect of varying durations of magnetic exposure on tumor growth and viability in mice injected with breast cancer cells. Cancer cells were labeled through stable expression of firefly luciferase for monitoring of tumor growth and progression by using an in vivo imaging system. We hypothesized that magnetic field exposure would influence tumor growth and progression. Our results showed that exposure of the mice to magnetic fields for 360 min daily for as long as 4 wk suppressed tumor growth. Our study is unique in that it uses an in vivo imaging system to monitor the growth and progression of tumors in real time in individual mice. Our findings support further exploration of the potential of magnetic fields in cancer therapeutics, either as adjunct or primary therapy. PMID:22330249

Tatarov, Ivan; Panda, Aruna; Petkov, Daniel; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Thompson, Keyata; Kavirayani, Anoop; Lipsky, Michael M; Elson, Edward; Davis, Christopher C; Martin, Stuart S; DeTolla, Louis J

2011-01-01

422

Determining the viability of rental price to benchmark Islamic home financing products : Evidence from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the possibility of relying on the rental rate to price Islamic home financing product. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By comparing two models consisting of either rental rate or lending rate (LR) and selected macroeconomic variables that could influence property value, the study focuses on the Malaysian data covering the period from 1990

Rosylin Mohd Yusof; Salina H. Kassim; M. Shabri A. Majid; Zarinah Hamid

2011-01-01

423

DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA MURIS' CYST VIABILITY BY DIFFERENTIAL INTERFERENCE CONTRAST, PHASE, OR BRIGHTFIELD MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent experiments have demonstrated that fluorogenic substrates are taken up by Giardia cysts and that an excellent correlation exists between animal infectivity and vital staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) for viable cysts and propidium iodide (PI) for non-viable cysts. ...