Science.gov

Sample records for determining economic viability

  1. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider ineligible costs as set forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty relief. (b) We will consider sunk costs according...

  2. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider ineligible costs as set forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty relief. (b) We will consider sunk costs according...

  3. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will BSEE consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... determining economic viability? (a) We will not consider ineligible costs as set forth in § 203.89(h) in determining economic viability for purposes of royalty relief. (b) We will consider sunk costs according...

  4. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN... economic viability? (a) We will not consider ineligible costs as set forth in § 203.89(h) in...

  5. Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Economic Viability of Very Large Transport Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, modem aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This report contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft concept may be assessed. The assessment is evaluated with the FPI technique to determine the cumulative probability distributions of the design space, as bound by economic objectives and performance constraints. These distributions were compared to established targets for a comparable large capacity aircraft, similar in size to the Boeing 747-400. The conventional baseline configuration design space was determined to be unfeasible and marginally viable, motivating the infusion of advanced technologies, including reductions in drag, specific fuel consumption, wing weight, and Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation costs. The resulting system design space was qualitatively assessed with technology metric "k" factors. The infusion of technologies shifted the VLT design into regions of feasibility and greater viability. The study also demonstrated a method and relationship by which the impact of new technologies may be assessed in a more system focused approach.

  6. 30 CFR 203.68 - What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What pre-application costs will MMS consider in determining economic viability? 203.68 Section 203.68 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas,...

  7. Economic viability of access broadband multiservice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Dammicco, Giacinto; Mocci, Ugo

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the economic viability of alternative architectures for optical access networks providing broad band services to different subscriber classes in a metropolitan environment, is investigated by a specific tool, NEVE (Network Economic Viability Evaluator), developed for broad band multiservice network planning, service evolutionary scenarios assessment, evaluation of tariff strategies and other actions taken at stimulating the demand growth. As the viability target can be achieved in different ways, different studies can be carried out by NEVE. In the paper some of them are discussed, particularly the ones addressed: to evaluate the impact on viability of alternative service scenarios; to determine the critical mass of broad band subscribers and the critical joint service adoption cost; to evaluate cross subsidiary policies among different subscriber classes and services; to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to variations of demand parameters and tariffs.

  8. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    PubMed

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

  9. Rapid determination of yeast viability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.S.; Robinson, F.M.; Wang, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A modified simple staining method using Methylene blue to distinguish between live and dead cells has been developed. Methylene blue (0.025%, w/v) in full strength Ringer solution with 1% glucose (w/v) added is used as the standard staining solution. Satisfactory and reproducible results can be obtained through microscopic examination using this staining method. The ratio of viable cells to nonviable cells is constant for at least two days if the proper environmental conditions are provided. This method was used to demonstrate the effects of various factors that influence yeast viability.

  10. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  11. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  12. Sperm viability - Determination of sperm viability using fluorescence microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the percentage of viable sperm in a semen sample using stains that differentiates viable (live) sperm from nonviable (dead) sperm. Viable sperm are detected by SYBR-14, which stains the sperm nuclei green. Nonviable sperm are detected by propidium iodide (PI), which stains the sperm red...

  13. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Sulfur General § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  14. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Sulfur General § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  15. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Sulfur General § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  16. Wastewater treatment to enhance the economic viability of microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Pires, J C M; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Simões, M

    2013-08-01

    Microalgae culture is still not economically viable and it presents some negative environmental impacts, concerning water, nutrient and energy requirements. In this context, this study aims to review the recent advances on microalgal cultures in wastewaters to enhance their economic viability. We focused on three different culture concepts: (1) suspended cell systems, (2) cell immobilization, and (3) microalgae consortia. Cultures with suspended cells are the most studied. The nutrient removal efficiencies are usually high for wastewaters of different sources. However, biomass harvesting is difficult and a costly process due to the small cell size and lower culture density. On the other hand, the cell immobilization systems showed to be the solution for this problem, having as main limitation the nutrient diffusion from bulk to cells, which results in a reduced nutrient removal efficiency. The consortium between microalgae and bacteria enhances the growth of both microorganisms. This culture concept showed to be a promising technology to improve wastewater treatment, regarding not only nutrient removal but also biomass harvesting by bioflocculation. The aggregation mechanism must be studied in depth to find the process parameters that would lead to an effective and cheap harvesting process. PMID:23673923

  17. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  18. The economic viability of pursuing a space power system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a space power system requires no fundamental technological breakthroughs. There are, however, uncertainties regarding the degree to which necessary developments can be achieved or exceeded. An analysis is conducted concerning the implementation of a 5000 MW space-based solar power system based on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. The solar array is about 13 km long and 5 km wide. Placed in geosynchronous orbit, it provides power to the earth for 30 years. Attention is given to the economic feasibility of a space power system, a risk analysis for space power systems, and the use of the presented methodology for comparing alternative technology development programs.

  19. Economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Ogola, T D O; Nguyo, W K; Kosgey, I S

    2010-06-01

    To augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. Among the key organisations supporting the initiative is Heifer Project International-Kenya (HPIK). However, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the HPIK project have not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats to household income and the performance of the dairy goat enterprise using gross and net margins from dairy goat farming as an indicator of economic viability. A survey covering 71 farmers was carried out in the Coast, Nyanza, and the Rift Valley provinces of Kenya using a set of pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that, on average, the dairy goat enterprise contributed, correspondingly, about 15.2% and 4.8% to the total livestock and overall household income and was viable. Differences in gross and net margins across agroecological zones were attributed to milk prices. Despite the existence of non-viable enterprises in two of the provinces, the few present suggest the possibility of obtaining reliable incomes from the enterprise. Redoubling of effort or re-orientation of production to match the local and external requirements would, however, be necessary. Costs and revenues were similar across the agroecological zones. Farmers with positive gross margins had better milk and stock sales and vice versa. The success of a dairy goat enterprise is attributed to location and good management. Besides, farmers' awareness of the market demands within and outside the community is important in establishing production goals and may be crucial to achieving a positive gross margin. PMID:19937381

  20. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? 203.85 Section 203.85 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur...

  1. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? 203.85 Section 203.85 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES...

  2. Viability of Giardia intestinalis Cysts and Viability and Sporulation State of Cyclospora cayetanensis Oocysts Determined by Electrorotation

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, C.; Goater, A. D.; Pethig, R.; Smith, H. V.

    2001-01-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of C. cayetanensis oocysts (for which no vital dye assay is currently available) can also be determined by electrorotation, as can their sporulation state. Modeling of the electrorotational response of these organisms was used to determine their dielectric properties and to gain an insight into the changes occurring within them. Electrorotation offers a new, simple, and rapid method for determining the viability of parasites in potable water and food products and as such has important healthcare implications. PMID:11157220

  3. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  4. The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Kyle Joseph

    Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize. To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation. First, using real-time energy market price data from seven markets across the U.S. and the physical parameters of fourteen ESS technologies, the maximum potential IRR of each technology from price arbitrage was evaluated in each market, along with the optimal ESS system size. Additionally, the reductions in capital cost needed to achieve a 10% IRR were estimated for each ESS. The results indicate that the profit-maximizing size of an ESS is primarily determined by its technological characteristics (round-trip charge/discharge efficiency and self-discharge) and not market price volatility, which instead increases IRR. This analysis demonstrates that few ESS technologies are likely to be implemented by investors alone. Next, the effects of ESSs on system reliability are quantified. Using historic data for wind, solar, and conventional generation, a correlation-preserving, copula-transform model was implemented in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo framework for estimating system reliability indices. Systems with significant wind and solar penetration (25% or greater), even with added energy storage capacity, resulted in considerable decreases in generation adequacy. Lastly, rather than analyzing the reliability and costs in isolation of one another, system reliability, cost, and emissions were analyzed in 3-space to quantify and visualize the system tradeoffs. The modeling results implied that ESSs perform similarly to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems with respect to generation adequacy and system cost, with the primary difference being that the generation adequacy improvements are less for ESSs than that of NGCC systems and the increase in LCOE is greater for ESSs than NGCC systems. Although ESSs do not appear to offer greater benefits than NGCC systems for managing energy on time intervals of 1-hour or more, we conclude that future research into short-term power balancing applications of ESSs, in particular for frequency regulation, is necessary to understand the full potential of ESSs in modern electric interconnections.

  5. Economic viability of the Saudi Arabian petrochemical industry: methanol as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salem, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the pursuit of the diversification strategy, Saudi planners invested a sizable amount of oil surplus in export-oriented petrochemical projects at Jubail and Yanbu. For this strategy to be realized, the projects must be economically viable. Economic viability entails the presence of petrochemical plants that are self-sustaining and self-perpetuating in the long run without state subsidies. In view of the projects, heavy reliance on state subsidies along with their location in a remote area, far from the source of demand, it is hypothesized that, barring a significant shift in the development strategy, a dynamic industrial sector focusing on the development of the petrochemical industry is unlikely to emerge in Saudi Arabia and that the export-led growth strategy that accords it a key role in the nation's development is not likely to prove viable. In verifying the hypothesis, a comparative cost analysis was conducted comparing the cost structure at the Ibn-Sina methanol plant to a similar plant in Alberta, Canada. According to the authors forecast of methanol revenues and costs, the Saudi petrochemical industry exemplified by the methanol project emerges to be as a net absorber of rather than contributor to the nation's financial resources and in this regard appears to impede the process of capital formation and economic growth.

  6. Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. Brittany; Criss, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells. PMID:24056524

  7. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determine economic feasibility as well as financial viability. The borrower's consulting engineer may... success or failure of the facility is dependent on individual businesses, then the economic viability...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determine economic feasibility as well as financial viability. The borrower's consulting engineer may... success or failure of the facility is dependent on individual businesses, then the economic viability...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determine economic feasibility as well as financial viability. The borrower's consulting engineer may... success or failure of the facility is dependent on individual businesses, then the economic viability...

  10. Evaluating the Economic Viability of Universities by Using Price-Level-Adjusted Financial Data. Faculty Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, James L.; Snyder, Gerald E.

    Ways in which the external financial disclosures by universities may evaluate institutional economic viability are demonstrated. It is argued that the evaluation should take into account the effect of inflation and activity level. The evaluation model requires several years' information about revenues (general operating fund), the impact of…

  11. Determining the viability response of pine pollen to atmospheric conditions during long-distance dispersal.

    PubMed

    Bohrerova, Zuzana; Bohrer, Gil; Cho, Ki Don; Bolch, M Adam; Linden, Karl G

    2009-04-01

    Pollen of forest trees can move on the scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers, but the question of its viability during this long distance dispersal (LDD) has yet to be answered. While empirical studies of pollen viability in forest tree species are rare, controlled and scalable data to outdoor studies of the contribution of UV irradiation on pollen viability are not available. A simple protocol that allows the quantification of the viability response of pollen to UV, temperature, and humidity is developed and described here. Bench-scale conditions that approximate a wide range of atmospheric conditions including different humidity, temperature, and UV irradiation condition are used to determine the independent effects of each abiotic stress factor, and empirical functions are fitted and used to scale these bench-scale experiments to outdoor conditions. As a case study, pollen was sampled from two populations of Pinus taeda during two years and was used to quantify the decrease in viability due to atmospheric conditions during LDD. Contrary to maize pollen, P. taeda pollen viability decreased due to humid and cold conditions. The viability response of pollen to UV-A and UV-B corresponded to a viability reduction of about 10% after a full day of exposure. These laboratory findings were corroborated by an outdoor solar exposure experiment. The Fu-Liou online radiation model and a data set of radiosonde observations were used to estimate the typical conditions that would be encountered by LDD pollen. If initially caught in a strong updraft, dispersing P. taeda pollen could be carried many days and thousands of kilometers in the air. The empirical equations for P. taeda pollen viability reduction due to abiotic stresses predicted that 50% of the pollen would survive 24 hours of LDD under typical external conditions. The viable range of the pollen is, therefore, shorter than the physical dispersal distance. The methods used in our experiments are applicable for determination of dispersing pollen viability, especially when effects of different adverse conditions need to be separated. The empirical viability equations that resulted from our experiments can be used in an atmospheric dispersal model to estimate the viable range of tree pollen. PMID:19425429

  12. Economical Analysis of Different Clinical Approaches in Pre-Viability Amniorrhexis-A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Engemise, Samuel; Thompson, Fiona; Davies, William

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios following extreme preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (EPPROM) is traditionally associated with a high morbidity and mortality to both the mother and the baby. The clinical maternal evaluation and fetal ultrasound assessment may provide important prognostic information for the clinicians and should be taken into account when counselling the patients so as to provide them with enough information to make decision of continuing or interrupting the pregnancy. Current financial constraints on the National Healthcare Service (NHS) resources make it imperative for clinical decision-makers and budgetary planners to make the right decision of continuing or terminating a second trimester pre-viability amniorrhexis for desperate parents. To assess the economic consequences following EPPROM, the risk of infection to both baby and mother, psychological impact on the parents and associated complications and further disability after delivery on this fragile group of patients to the NHS resources. We review the clinical course, outcome, and the challenges to parents and health care professionals on three pregnancies complicated by EPPROM, occurring before 24 weeks' gestation with a membrane rupture to delivery interval (latent period) of 14 days or more. The anticipated birth of an extremely premature infant poses many challenges for parents and health care professionals. As parents are faced with difficult decisions that can have a long-term impact on the infant, family and country's resources, it is critical to provide the type of information and support that is needed by them. Taking all these into consideration with the period of ventilation and respiratory assistance in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is essential to provide maximum chances for survival, minimizing the risk for long term sequelae of the neonate and provides the parents enough time to decide on making the right decision with the associated guidance of the healthcare provider. PMID:26237250

  13. Economical Analysis of Different Clinical Approaches in Pre-Viability Amniorrhexis—A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Engemise, Samuel; Thompson, Fiona; Davies, William

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios following extreme preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (EPPROM) is traditionally associated with a high morbidity and mortality to both the mother and the baby. The clinical maternal evaluation and fetal ultrasound assessment may provide important prognostic information for the clinicians and should be taken into account when counselling the patients so as to provide them with enough information to make decision of continuing or interrupting the pregnancy. Current financial constraints on the National Healthcare Service (NHS) resources make it imperative for clinical decision-makers and budgetary planners to make the right decision of continuing or terminating a second trimester pre-viability amniorrhexis for desperate parents. To assess the economic consequences following EPPROM, the risk of infection to both baby and mother, psychological impact on the parents and associated complications and further disability after delivery on this fragile group of patients to the NHS resources. We review the clinical course, outcome, and the challenges to parents and health care professionals on three pregnancies complicated by EPPROM, occurring before 24 weeks’ gestation with a membrane rupture to delivery interval (latent period) of 14 days or more. The anticipated birth of an extremely premature infant poses many challenges for parents and health care professionals. As parents are faced with difficult decisions that can have a long-term impact on the infant, family and country’s resources, it is critical to provide the type of information and support that is needed by them. Taking all these into consideration with the period of ventilation and respiratory assistance in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is essential to provide maximum chances for survival, minimizing the risk for long term sequelae of the neonate and provides the parents enough time to decide on making the right decision with the associated guidance of the healthcare provider. PMID:26237250

  14. REVIEW OF METHODS THAT ARE USED TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 55 years a number of methods have been described for excysting Giardia cysts as a means of determining viability. The excystation methods for G. muris cysts are reliable and reproducible. However, methods published to date for the excystation of G. lamblia cysts, th...

  15. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part I: effect on the farmer's income.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Thewys T; Witters N; Van Slycken S; Ruttens A; Meers E; Tack FM; Vangronsveld J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up only relatively low amounts of metals, but that can be valorised as a feedstock for energy production. The effect on the income per hectare of growing energy maize instead of fodder maize seems positive, given the most likely values of variables and while keeping the basic income stable, originating from dairy cattle farming activities. We propose growing energy maize aiming at risk-reduction, and generating an alternative income for farmers, yet in the long run also generating a gradual reduction of the pollution levels. In this way, remediation is demoted to a secondary objective with sustainable risk-based land use as primary objective.

  16. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part I: effect on the farmer's income.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Van Slycken, S; Ruttens, A; Meers, E; Tack, F M G; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up only relatively low amounts of metals, but that can be valorised as a feedstock for energy production. The effect on the income per hectare of growing energy maize instead of fodder maize seems positive, given the most likely values of variables and while keeping the basic income stable, originating from dairy cattle farming activities. We propose growing energy maize aiming at risk-reduction, and generating an alternative income for farmers, yet in the long run also generating a gradual reduction of the pollution levels. In this way, remediation is demoted to a secondary objective with sustainable risk-based land use as primary objective. PMID:21166274

  17. A protocol for determination of conidial viability of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae from commercial products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daian Guilherme Pinto; Pauli, Giuliano; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for directly determining conidial viability have widespread use but also have limitations for quality control assessments of formulated mycoinsecticides, especially in emulsifiable oil. This study proposes a new method based on adaptations of already established protocols that use the direct viability method to make it more economical and accurate, thus enabling its use in the evaluation of formulated products. Appropriate parameters and conditions were defined using products based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the forms of pure conidia, fungus-colonized rice, ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion. The established protocol, named ESALQ, consists of the transfer of 150 μL of a suspension containing about 0.7 and 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL onto Rodac® plates with 5 mL of potato dextrose agar culture medium + 5 mg/L of Pentabiotic® and 10 μL/L of Derosal® (Carbendazim) and subsequent counting of germinated and non-germinated conidia. For the ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion formulations, prior to transferring the fungal suspension to the medium, rice should be decanted and the oil removed, respectively. This method was compared with another direct viability method and with the Colony-forming unit (CFU) and Fluorescence viability methods, comparing the accuracy obtained using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the analysis of each method. The results showed that in addition to the ease of application, the developed method has higher accuracy than the other methods (with a CV up to seven times lower than in the Standard method and up to 32 times lower than CFU). The CFU method underestimated the concentration of viable conidia in most of the tested fungal forms, and in the emulsifiable oil products, these values were 54% lower for B. bassiana and 84% lower for M. anisopliae. The adaptations and standardizations proposed in the ESALQ method showed effective improvements for routine quality assessment of mycoinsecticides. PMID:26432104

  18. Stressor timing, not cortisol, is an important embryo viability determinant in female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L R; Elliott, M; Nagler, J J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the timing of elevated cortisol levels in adult female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, achieved by silastic implants within the body cavity, had an effect on embryo viability. Cortisol-implanted fish experienced a significant increase in circulating levels of plasma cortisol compared with sham-implanted fish, and plasma cortisol remained elevated relative to sham-implanted fish for 4 months in each of the three treatment groups (0-4, 4-8 and 8-12 months). There were no significant differences in embryo viability, egg diameters or plasma 17?-oestradiol levels between the cortisol and sham-implanted treatments in any of the groups. There was a significant difference in the number of subfertile females (<80% embryo viability) when the three treatments were compared. The majority of the females (75%) implanted immediately postspawn (0-4 months) produced subfertile eggs, which was significantly higher than those treated 4-8 (33%) or 8-12 (17%) months postspawn. These results imply that silastic implantation can affect oocyte development, independent of plasma cortisol levels, leading to a reduction in embryo viability. PMID:26709244

  19. Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, C; Monette, F; Glaus, M; Laflamme, C B

    2011-01-01

    The black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system aims at efficient use of energy (biogas), water and nutrients but currently lacks evidence of economic viability to be considered a credible alternative to the conventional system. This study intends to demonstrate economic viability, identify main cost contributors and assess critical influencing factors. A technico-economic model was built based on a new neighbourhood in a Canadian context. Three implementation scales of source-separation system are defined: 500, 5,000 and 50,000 inhabitants. The results show that the source-separation system is 33% to 118% more costly than the conventional system, with the larger cost differential obtained by lower source-separation system implementation scales. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that vacuum toilet flow reduction from 1.0 to 0.25 L/flush decreases source-separation system cost between 23 and 27%. It also shows that high resource costs can be beneficial or unfavourable to the source-separation system depending on whether the vacuum toilet flow is low or normal. Therefore, the future of this configuration of the source-separation system lies mainly in vacuum toilet flow reduction or the introduction of new efficient effluent volume reduction processes (e.g. reverse osmosis). PMID:22170836

  20. A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractTITLE: A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYSABSTRACT BODY: Microelectrode array (MEA) recordings are increasingly being used as an in vitro method to detect and characte...

  1. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  2. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg. PMID:24220544

  3. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design. PMID:26872494

  4. Assessment of the efficiency and economic viability of various methods of treatment of sanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2007-12-01

    This study assesses the efficiency of various physico-chemical, biological and other tertiary methods for treating leachate. An evaluation study on the treatability of the leachate from methane phase bed (MPB) reactor indicated that at an optimum hydraulic retention time of 6 days, the efficiency of the reactor in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 91.29 and 82.69%, respectively. Recycling of the treated leachate through the municipal solid waste layers in the leachate recycling unit (LRU) resulted in a significant increase in the biodegradation of organics present in the leachate. Optimum BOD and COD removal efficiencies were achieved at the third recycle; additional recycling of the leachate did not produce any significant improvement. Physico-chemical treatment of the leachate demonstrated that alum and lime (Option 2) were more economical than coagulants lime and MgCO(3). A cost analysis of the economics of the various treatments revealed that the alternative treatment consisting of a MPB bed followed by a LRU and aerated lagoon is the most cost-effective treatment. However, the alternative consisting of a MPB followed by the LRU and a soil column, which is slightly more costly, would be the most appropriate treatment when adequate land is readily available. PMID:17505905

  5. Trypan blue dye is an effective and inexpensive way to determine the viability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospores.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in hundreds of amphibian declines and is the focus of a vast amount of research. Despite this, there is no reported efficient way to assess Bd viability. Discriminating between live and dead Bd would help determine the dose of live Bd zoospores and whether factors have lethal or sublethal effects on Bd. We tested whether trypan blue, a common stain to discriminate live and dead cells, could be used to assess Bd viability. We show that the proportion of live zoospores (zoospores that excluded the trypan blue dye) matched the proportion of known live zoospores added to cultures. In contrast, all of the zoosporangia stages of Bd stained blue. These results demonstrate that trypan blue can be used to determine the viability of Bd zoospores but not zoosporangia. We recommend using trypan blue to report the number of live zoospores to which hosts are exposed. PMID:24519684

  6. Simultaneous determination of bacterial viability and identity in biofilms using ethidium monoazide and fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Regan, J M; Oldenburg, P S; Park, H D; Harrington, G W; Noguera, D R

    2003-01-01

    A protocol for simultaneously interrogating bacterial viability and identity using in situ, culture-independent methods is described. Viability is assayed using ethidium monoazide (EMA) staining of cells with compromised membranes, and identity is determined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Experiments with planktonic cultures were used to demonstrate the compatibility of EMA staining and FISH after covalently bonding EMA to nucleic acids by photoreaction. Applications to biofilm samples showed that diffusion limitations in the biofilm matrix were not problematic and that effective discrimination of viable target cells within a mixed microbial community was possible. PMID:12701916

  7. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  8. Potential minability and economic viability of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia; a prefeasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Douglas W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a coal resource assessment of several areas in Armenia from 1997 to 1999. This report, which presents a prefeasibility study of the economic and mining potential of one coal deposit found and studied by the USGS team, was prepared using all data available at the time of the study and the results of the USGS exploratory work, including core drilling, trenching, coal quality analyses, and other ongoing field work. On the basis of information currently available, it is the authors? opinion that a small surface coal mine having about a 20-year life span could be developed in the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, specifically at the Dzoragukh site. The mining organization selected or created to establish the mine will need to conduct necessary development drilling and other work to establish the final feasibility study for the mine. The company will need to be entrepreneurial, profit oriented, and sensitive to the coal consumer; have an analytical management staff; and focus on employee training, safety, and protection of the environment. It is anticipated that any interested parties will be required to submit detailed mining plans to the appropriate Armenian Government agencies. Further development work will be required to reach a final decision regarding the economic feasibility of the mine. However, available information indicates that a small, economic surface mine can be developed at this locality. The small mine suggested is a typical surface-outcropstripping, contour mining operation. In addition, auger mining is strongly suggested, because the recovery of these low-cost mining reserves will help to ensure that the operation will be a viable, economic enterprise. (Auger mining is a system in which large-diameter boreholes are placed horizontally into the coal seam at the final highwall set as the economic limit for the surface mining operation). A special horizontal boring machine, which can be imported from Russia, is required for auger mining. Although auger-mining coal reserves do exist, the necessary development work will further verify the extent of these reserves and all of the other indicated reserves. The following items are based on the detailed study reported in this publication. Initial investment.?Following an investment of US $85,000 over a 12-month period in mine development drilling and other activities, a decision must be taken regarding further investment in an ongoing mining operation. If the new data support the opening of the surface mine, __________________________ 1Consultant, 6024 Morning Dew Drive, Austin, TX 78749. 2 U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 1 2 MINABILITY AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY, ANTARAMUT-KURTAN-DZORAGUKH COAL FIELD the $85,000 development cost is amortized over the first 10 years of mine production. If the new data do not support the opening of the mine, the $85,000 is considered a business development expense that may be written off against profits from other operations for income or other tax purposes or simply as a business loss. Total capital required.?The equipment costs will reach a total of $900,500 which will be amortized over a 7-year period to establish estimated coal mining costs. Estimated working capital costs are $300,000, which will be borrowed. Surface mining reserves.?Approximately 840,200 metric tonnes of surface minable coal reserves at 9.3 m3 of overburden per metric tonne of minable coal is indicated. Recovery of the minable coal at 85 percent will yield 714,000 recoverable metric tonnes of marketable as-mined coal. Auger mining reserves.?Auger-mining reserves of 576,000 metric tonnes are indicated. Recoverable auger-mining reserves of 202,000 metric tonnes (at 35-percent recovery) can be expected. Auger-mining production will vary according to the hole size being used, but, in either case, augering is a very profitable addition to the mining oper

  9. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  10. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  11. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  12. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  13. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  14. Pedicle viability as the determinant factor for conversion to free nipple graft

    PubMed Central

    Al-shaham, AA

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women with extremely large breasts have many complaints. Reduction mammaplasty improves shape and relieves physical symptoms and alleviates psychological complaints. Mammaplasty is a an evolving technique; no single method is ideal or suitable for all breasts. Many techniques are advocated for reduction mammaplasty, including the superior, vertical, horizontal, lateral and inferior (the most popular) pedicle techniques. Even after 60 years of development in breast reduction techniques, there are still reported incidences of nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative conversion to free nipple graft to prevent the complication of nipple necrosis when pedicle viability is grossly compromised. METHODS: Between January 2002 and March 2006, 66 patients (132 breasts) underwent reduction mammaplasty using the inferior pedicle technique. The patients presented with breast gigantism and required excision of more than 1000 g of breast tissue per side. The mean patient age was 34.81 years. Patients had neck, shoulder and back pain as well as psychological complaints. Data regarding sternal notch-to-nipple distances and inframammary fold-to-nipple distances were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. The weights of the excised breast tissue from either side were recorded. Viability of the pedicle flap was carefully monitored through perioperative clinical observation of skin colour, temperature, capillary refill and bleeding characteristics, and reassessed after pedicle folding and placement inside the newly tailored skin envelope. Nonvital NAC, as evaluated by the surgeon during surgery, necessitated conversion to the free nipple graft technique. RESULTS: During the course of the study, two patients (four breasts; 3.03%) exhibited impending gangrene to the NAC, and perioperative conversion to the free nipple graft was performed. In these two patients, the pedicle length ranged from 23 cm to 25 cm, and breast mass reduction ranged from 1950 g to 2250 g. CONCLUSION: Perioperative conversion to a free nipple-areola graft is always a good and safe option when impending gangrene to the NAC is evident during mammaplasty by inferior pedicle technique. PMID:21358860

  15. A comparison of the He Ne laser and ultrasound Doppler systems in the determination of viability of ischemic canine intestine.

    PubMed

    Rotering, R H; Dixon, J A; Holloway, G A; McCloskey, D W

    1982-12-01

    One of the most challenging intraoperative dilemmas continues to be determination of viability of ischemic bowel. Many techniques and devices are available to help the surgeon, probably the most useful of which is the ultrasound Doppler. A more recently developed system, the laser Doppler, has a flexible optical fiber and fine tip probe that can be approximated onto or endoscopically passed into the gastrointestinal tract. This study was undertaken to experimentally compare the He Ne laser and ultrasound Doppler systems in predicting viability of ischemic canine intestine. Twenty ischemic bowel zones were created in dogs by division of the mesenteric blood supply. Determination of the last site of antimesenteric serosal nor fusion was then marked with each Doppler. Additionally, the fine tip probe was endoscopically passed across the ischemic zone and mucosal perfusion determined. Thus, each zone was marked three times, each indicating the anticipated site of necrosis by each method. The animals were killed 24 hours later and the tissues studied histologically. The results demonstrated that both the serosally applied and endoscopically placed laser Doppler were closer to predicting the point of total transmural necrosis. The possible clinical advantage of this device in prevention of short gun syndromes is readily apparent. The additional asset of a flexible optical fiber than can be endoscopically or laparoscopically passed make it an even more attractive modality. The findings of this study attested to the superior sensitivity, ease of use, and objectivity of the laser Doppler when compared with the ultrasound system. PMID:7149823

  16. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"

  17. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  18. Multiple Freezing Points as a Test for Viability of Plant Stems in the Determination of Frost Hardiness 1

    PubMed Central

    McLeester, R. C.; Weiser, C. J.; Hall, T. C.

    1969-01-01

    A technique is presented for a simple, rapid, and reliable means of determining the viability of plant tissue subjected to freezing temperatures. Freezing curves of excised stems of Cornus stolonifera Michx., and several other genera were studied. Tissue temperature was recorded during freezing of plant stem sections. The heat of crystallization deflected the resultant freezing curves at points where tissue froze. Living stem sections of all genera studied revealed 2 freezing points, while dead tissue exhibited only 1. The influence of variables such as moisture content, sample size, thermocouple placement, and cooling rate on freezing curves was analyzed. Stem samples wrapped in moisture-proof film with a thermocouple inserted into the pith were frozen to a predetermined test temperature, thawed, and subjected to a second freezing cycle. The presence or absence of 2 freezing points in the second freezing cycle was used as a criterion for establishing viability. The results were immediately available and identical to results from regrowth tests which took about 20 days. PMID:16657031

  19. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  20. The economic viability of smallholder timber production under expanding açaí palm production in the Amazon Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Douglas R. Carter

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the economic potentials and limitations of tropical timber production and management at smallholder scales, with the most relevant research focusing on community forestry efforts. As a rare tropical example of long-lasting small-scale timber production, in this study we explore the economics of smallholder vertically integrated timber use to better understand the activity in the context of its primary land use alternative in the Amazon Estuary, açaí palm fruit production. We use data from landowner and firm surveys, participatory monitoring of firms, and detailed forest and sawmill operation monitoring to devise financial returns models of smallholder timber micro firms and açaí palm fruit production. We then compare the economics of the two activities to better understand how differences may shape decisions at the small holder scale that impact current land use shifts in the region.

  1. Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

  2. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

  3. Effects of chemical and physical agents on viability and infectivity of Encephalitozoon intestinalis determined by cell culture and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santillana-Hayat, Maud; Sarfati, Claudine; Fournier, Sandra; Chau, Françoise; Porcher, Raphaël; Molina, Jean-Michel; Derouin, Francis

    2002-06-01

    We combined tissue culture and flow cytometry to assess the activities of various temperatures, chemicals, and disinfectants on the viability and infectivity of spores of Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Surfanios and benzalkonium chloride, disinfectants currently used in the hospital, were remarkably efficient in destroying spore viability and infectivity. PMID:12019139

  4. Effects of Chemical and Physical Agents on Viability and Infectivity of Encephalitozoon intestinalis Determined by Cell Culture and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Santillana-Hayat, Maud; Sarfati, Claudine; Fournier, Sandra; Chau, Françoise; Porcher, Raphaël; Molina, Jean-Michel; Derouin, Francis

    2002-01-01

    We combined tissue culture and flow cytometry to assess the activities of various temperatures, chemicals, and disinfectants on the viability and infectivity of spores of Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Surfanios and benzalkonium chloride, disinfectants currently used in the hospital, were remarkably efficient in destroying spore viability and infectivity. PMID:12019139

  5. Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. Key Findings The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. Recommendations Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

  6. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation device: applied to the concentration and viability determination of Cryptosporidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goater, Andrew D.; Burt, Julian P. H.; Pethig, Ronald

    1997-09-01

    We describe a microelectrode device, fabricated using photolithography and laser ablation, that combines the electrokinetic effects of travelling wave dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Here it has been used to concentrate and then assay the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

  7. The Empirical Determination of Key Skills from an Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loo, Jasper B.; Toolsema, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Notwithstanding an impressive research tradition on key skills, no clear statistical criterion exists that is suitable to determine which skills may be considered key skills. This contribution proposes one possible methodology that can be used to identify key skills. Proposing an economic definition of the key skill concept and disentangling the…

  8. Determinants of Grades in Maths for Students in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of grades achieved in maths by first-year students in economics. We use individual administrative data from 1993 to 2005 to fit an educational production function. Our main findings suggest that good secondary school achievements and the type of school attended are significantly associated with maths…

  9. Debilitation in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria and Metarhizium anisopliae and implications with respect to viability determinations and mycopesticide quality assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viabilities of entomopathogenic fungal conidia comprising biopesticide products are most commonly determined by suspension of dry conidia from storage in a water/surfactant solution immediately before inoculation onto an agar-based germination substrate; conidia are then incubated at a moderate temp...

  10. Economic determinants of diet in older adults: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Methods Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ≥60 years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Results We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Conclusions Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive. PMID:23761410

  11. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Meers, E; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digesting the harvested contaminated biomass himself, by performing a Net Present Value (NPV) analysis on the digestion activity and by calculating the probability of a positive NPV of income resulting from the digestion installation. We investigate the trade off between the maximum price for energy maize that can be paid by the digestion activity and the minimum price that the farming activity needs to compensate for covering its production costs. Integrating the previous study in the current analysis results in an increase of total extra income for the farmer (i.e., from both growing energy maize and performing digestion). PMID:21166275

  12. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically viable when the kids diet consists mainly of either cow milk or fermented colostrum, especially when kids are slaughtered at 90 days of age. PMID:26584672

  13. NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

  14. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for... prior earned income, or who worked only part time outside the home, economic loss may be determined...

  15. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  16. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  17. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  18. Cable in Boston; A Basic Viability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauben, Jan Ward; And Others

    The viability of urban cable television (CATV) as an economic phenomenon is examined via a case study of its feasibility in Boston, a microcosm of general urban environment. To clarify cable's economics, a unitary concept of viability is used in which all local characteristics, cost assumptions, and growth estimates are structured dynamically as a…

  19. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  20. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  1. BALB/c-congenic ANP32B-deficient mice reveal a modifying locus that determines viability.

    PubMed

    Leo, Vonny I; Bunte, Ralph M; Reilly, Patrick T

    2016-02-14

    We previously found that deletion of the multifunctional factor ANP32B (a.k.a. SSP29, APRIL, PAL31, PHAPI2) resulted in a severe but strain-specific defect resulting in perinatal lethality. The difficulty in generating an adult cohort of ANP32B-deficient animals limited our ability to examine adult phenotypes, particularly cancer-related phenotypes. We bred the Anp32b-null allele into the BALB/c and FVB/N genetic background. The BALB/c, but not the FVB/N, background provided sufficient frequency of adult Anp32b-null (Anp32b(-/-)) animals. From these, we found no apparent oncogenic role for this protein in mammary tumorigenesis contrary to what was predicted based on human data. We also found runtism, pathologies in various organ systems, and an unusual clinical chemistry signature in the adult Anp32b(-/-) mice. Intriguingly, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis suggested that our colony retained an unlinked C57BL/6J locus at high frequency. Breeding this locus to homozygosity demonstrated that it had a strong effect on Anp32b(-/-) viability indicating that this locus contains a modifier gene of Anp32b with respect to development. This suggests a functionally important genetic interaction with one of a limited number of candidate genes, foremost among them being the variant histone gene H2afv. Using congenic breeding strategies, we have generated a viable ANP32B-deficient animal in a mostly pure background. We have used this animal to reliably exclude mouse ANP32B as an important oncogene in mammary tumorigenesis. Our further phenotyping strengthens the evidence that ANP32B is a widespread regulator of gene expression. These studies may also impact the choice of subsequent groups with respect to congenic breeding versus de novo zygote targeting strategies for background analyses in mouse genetics. PMID:26558540

  2. BALB/c-congenic ANP32B-deficient mice reveal a modifying locus that determines viability

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Vonny I.; Bunte, Ralph M.; Reilly, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that deletion of the multifunctional factor ANP32B (a.k.a. SSP29, APRIL, PAL31, PHAPI2) resulted in a severe but strain-specific defect resulting in perinatal lethality. The difficulty in generating an adult cohort of ANP32B-deficient animals limited our ability to examine adult phenotypes, particularly cancer-related phenotypes. We bred the Anp32b-null allele into the BALB/c and FVB/N genetic background. The BALB/c, but not the FVB/N, background provided sufficient frequency of adult Anp32b-null (Anp32b−/−) animals. From these, we found no apparent oncogenic role for this protein in mammary tumorigenesis contrary to what was predicted based on human data. We also found runtism, pathologies in various organ systems, and an unusual clinical chemistry signature in the adult Anp32b−/− mice. Intriguingly, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis suggested that our colony retained an unlinked C57BL/6J locus at high frequency. Breeding this locus to homozygosity demonstrated that it had a strong effect on Anp32b−/− viability indicating that this locus contains a modifier gene of Anp32b with respect to development. This suggests a functionally important genetic interaction with one of a limited number of candidate genes, foremost among them being the variant histone gene H2afv. Using congenic breeding strategies, we have generated a viable ANP32B-deficient animal in a mostly pure background. We have used this animal to reliably exclude mouse ANP32B as an important oncogene in mammary tumorigenesis. Our further phenotyping strengthens the evidence that ANP32B is a widespread regulator of gene expression. These studies may also impact the choice of subsequent groups with respect to congenic breeding versus de novo zygote targeting strategies for background analyses in mouse genetics. PMID:26558540

  3. 41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2 Section 101-5.104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SERVICES IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

  4. 41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2 Section 101-5.104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SERVICES IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

  5. 41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2 Section 101-5.104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SERVICES IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

  6. 41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2 Section 101-5.104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SERVICES IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

  7. 41 CFR 101-5.104-2 - Basis for determining economic feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economic feasibility. 101-5.104-2 Section 101-5.104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SERVICES IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-2 Basis for determining economic feasibility. (a) Whenever possible, determination of the economic feasibility of a proposed...

  8. Determination of Fares: Pricing Theory and Economic Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. C., III

    1972-01-01

    The concept of economic efficiency is described, its application to the pricing of air transport services, and its relevance as a policy objective are outlined. The first two sections discuss economic efficiency in general terms, whereas the third applies this norm to several airline pricing problems. The final section emphasizes the importance of industry behavior as a parameter in policy analysis.

  9. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo. PMID:25639526

  10. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  11. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  14. Some Economic Considerations for Determining Additional Educational Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Irving J.

    This conference paper analyzes educational finance from the standpoint of human capital, noting the external economic and social benefits that result from educational expenditures. A case is made for publicly sponsored adjustments to the market mechanism to insure an optimum allocation of educational resources. (LLR)

  15. The economic and political determinants of human (including health) rights.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and critique of the U.S. government's current emphasis on human rights; and (a) its limited focus on only some civil and political components of the original U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, and (b) its disregard for economic and social rights such as the rights to work, fair wages, health, education, and social security. The paper discusses the reasons for that limited focus and argues that, contrary to what is widely presented in the media and academe: (1) civil and political rights are highly restricted in the U.S.; (2) those rights are further restricted in the U.S. when analyzed in their social and economic dimensions; (3) civil and political rights are not independent of but rather intrinsically related to and dependent on the existence of socioeconomic rights; (4) the definition of the nature and extension of human rights in their civil, political, social, and economic dimensions is not universal, but rather depends on the pattern of economic and political power relations particular to each society; and (5) the pattern of power relations in the U.S. society and the western system of power, based on the right to individual property and its concomitant class structure and relations, is incompatible with the full realization of human rights in their economic, social, political, and civil dimensions. This paper further indicates that U.S. financial and corporate capital, through its overwhelming influence over the organs of political power in the U.S. and over international bodies and agencies, is primarily responsible for the denial of the human rights of the U.S. population and many populations throughout the world as well. PMID:631961

  16. Appropriate DevR (DosR)-Mediated Signaling Determines Transcriptional Response, Hypoxic Viability and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Vashist, Atul; Dhingra, Sakshi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Alka; Challu, Vijay K.; Ramanathan, V. D.; Kumar, Prahlad; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background The DevR(DosR) regulon is implicated in hypoxic adaptation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study was designed to decipher the impact of perturbation in DevR-mediated signaling on these properties. Methodology/Principal Findings M. tb complemented (Comp) strains expressing different levels of DevR were constructed in Mut1* background (expressing DevR N-terminal domain in fusion with AphI (DevRN-Kan) and in Mut2ΔdevR background (deletion mutant). They were compared for their hypoxia adaptation and virulence properties. Diverse phenotypes were noted; basal level expression (∼5.3±2.3 µM) when induced to levels equivalent to WT levels (∼25.8±9.3 µM) was associated with robust DevR regulon induction and hypoxic adaptation (Comp 9* and 10*), whereas low-level expression (detectable at transcript level) as in Comp 11* and Comp15 was associated with an adaptation defect. Intermediate-level expression (∼3.3±1.2 µM) partially restored hypoxic adaptation functions in Comp2, but not in Comp1* bacteria that co-expressed DevRN-Kan. Comp* strains in Mut1* background also exhibited diverse virulence phenotypes; high/very low-level DevR expression was associated with virulence whereas intermediate-level expression was associated with low virulence. Transcription profiling and gene expression analysis revealed up-regulation of the phosphate starvation response (PSR) in Mut1* and Comp11* bacteria, but not in WT/Mut2ΔdevR/other Comp strains, indicating a plasticity in expression pathways that is determined by the magnitude of signaling perturbation through DevRN-Kan. Conclusions/Significance A minimum DevR concentration of ∼3.3±1.2 µM (as in Comp2 bacteria) is required to support HspX expression in the standing culture hypoxia model. The relative intracellular concentrations of DevR and DevRN-Kan appear to be critical for determining dormancy regulon induction, hypoxic adaptation and virulence. Dysregulated DevRN-Kan-mediated signaling selectively triggers the PSR in bacteria expressing no/very low level of DevR. Our findings illustrate the important role of appropriate two-component- mediated signaling in pathogen physiology and the resilience of bacteria when such signaling is perturbed. PMID:22563409

  17. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... distributed at the present time. (iv) Notwithstanding any provision of Federal or state law, you must...

  18. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1...) Notwithstanding any provision of Federal or state law, you must not release an individual's personal net...

  19. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  20. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  1. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  2. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Claimants. § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did...

  3. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die),...

  4. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die),...

  5. Economics and the determination of Indian reserved water rights

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshire, D.S.; Merrill, J.L.; Watts, G.L.

    1983-10-01

    Economics plays a major role in the historically controversial Indian reserved water rights in which reserved rights differ from appropriated rights because Indian reservations predate other appropriated rights of settlers and miners. Other aspects of Indian reserved rights are their magnitude and their coexistence with the land regardless of use. Court decisions relating to practicably irrigable acres (PIA) are examined in terms of quantification of water rights and ethics. The legal analysis concludes that PIA will probably continue, but needs adjustments to the criteria to make them more strict and more appropriate. 62 references. (DCK)

  6. Multiplexing cell viability assays.

    PubMed

    Gerets, Helga H J; Dhalluin, Stéphane; Atienzar, Franck A

    2011-01-01

    Today, obtaining mechanistic insights into biological, toxicological, and pathological processes is of upmost importance. Researchers aim to obtain as many as possible data from one cell sample to understand the biological processes under study. Multiplexing, which is the ability to gather more than one set of data from the same sample, fulfills completely this objective. Obviously, multiplexing has several advantages compared to single plex experiments and probably the most important one is that data on various parameters at exactly the same time point on the same cells or group of cells can be obtained and consequently this may contribute to saving time and effort and a reduction of the costs.In this chapter, different endpoints were measured starting from two-seeded multiwell plates, namely, cell viability, caspase-3/7 activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) measurements. These -different endpoints were analyzed together to determine the cytotoxic properties of pharmaceutical compounds and/or reference compounds. A 96-well plate was designed to allow appropriate measurement of five doses of a compound in triplicate to determine the effect of the compound on the six different endpoints. The first four endpoints (cell viability, caspase-3/7 activity, LDH, and ATP) are discussed in detail in this chapter. AST and GLDH measurements are not discussed in detail as these are fully automatic measurements and thus behind the scope of this chapter.As an illustrating example, the reference compound tamoxifen was used to evaluate its cytotoxic properties using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cells. PMID:21468971

  7. Clinical utility and economic viability of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre: The experience of the centre Oscar Lambret.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, S; Devise, V; Pouliquen, G; Rocourt, N; Faivre-Pierret, M; Brongniart, S; Peugny, P; Ceugnart, L

    2012-07-01

    This paper will try and describe the installation of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre. Functional sequences become indispensable in the assessment of targeted treatments. It is only possible to carry out these treatments on a routine basis in acceptable examination times with 3T. The technical constraints are overcome with third generation MRI and the improvement of the spatial resolution in examination times reduced by 30 to 50% increases patient comfort. Nevertheless, the financial constraints represent a major handicap. It is not possible to obtain an economic balance with rates based on the cost and depreciation of 1.5T imagers that are half the price. PMID:22726637

  8. The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Shafqat

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

  9. The Performance of Economics Graduates over the Entire Curriculum: The Determinants of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, Kurtis J.; Schmitt, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the determinants of understanding in economics focus on performance in a single course or standardized exam. Taking advantage of a large data set available at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), the authors examined the performance of economics majors over an entire curriculum. They found that gender was not a significant predictor of…

  10. The Performance of Economics Graduates over the Entire Curriculum: The Determinants of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, Kurtis J.; Schmitt, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the determinants of understanding in economics focus on performance in a single course or standardized exam. Taking advantage of a large data set available at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), the authors examined the performance of economics majors over an entire curriculum. They found that gender was not a significant predictor of

  11. Economic Education in the Middle East: Are the Determinants of Success in Introductory Economics Any Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kherfi, Samer

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the determinants of success in introductory microeconomics, in the context of a Middle Eastern society but within an American educational setting. The data set is rich and covers over 3,500 students in one regional campus, allowing control for a wide range of student and class characteristics, one of which, nationality, is…

  12. Economic Education in the Middle East: Are the Determinants of Success in Introductory Economics Any Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kherfi, Samer

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the determinants of success in introductory microeconomics, in the context of a Middle Eastern society but within an American educational setting. The data set is rich and covers over 3,500 students in one regional campus, allowing control for a wide range of student and class characteristics, one of which, nationality, is

  13. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  14. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  15. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 600.503 Section 600.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Eligibility Determination for Certain Financial Assistance Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. In determining...

  16. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 600.503 Section 600.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Eligibility Determination for Certain Financial Assistance Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. In determining...

  17. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 600.503 Section 600.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Eligibility Determination for Certain Financial Assistance Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. In determining...

  18. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 600.503 Section 600.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Eligibility Determination for Certain Financial Assistance Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. In determining...

  19. 10 CFR 600.503 - Determining the economic interest of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 600.503 Section 600.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Eligibility Determination for Certain Financial Assistance Programs-General Statement of Policy § 600.503 Determining the economic interest of the United States. In determining...

  20. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  1. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants § 104.45 Determination of presumed...

  2. LIMITATIONS OF THE FLUORESCENT PROBE VIABILITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell viability commonly is determined flow cytometrically by the carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)/propidium iodide (PI) assay. FDA is taken up by the viable cell and converted via cytoplasmic esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis to carboxyfluorescein (CF). F fluorescence intensity is...

  3. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuels and materials recovery processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of various materials is demonstrated, using data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area as input. The processing facility, designed to handle 650 tpd of refuse, is described. Since materials revenues can be predicted with a higher degree of certainty than refuse fuel revenues, it is necessary to determine what revenues the sale of solid waste fuel will have to generate for projected economics to be the same as an alternative disposal practice. (1 diagram, 8 references, 6 tables)

  4. Viability of bacteria in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

  5. Green analytical chemistry introduction to chloropropanols determination at no economic and analytical performance costs?

    PubMed

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Orłowski, Aleksander; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-01-15

    In this study we perform ranking of analytical procedures for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol determination in soy sauces by PROMETHEE method. Multicriteria decision analysis was performed for three different scenarios - metrological, economic and environmental, by application of different weights to decision making criteria. All three scenarios indicate capillary electrophoresis-based procedure as the most preferable. Apart from that the details of ranking results differ for these three scenarios. The second run of rankings was done for scenarios that include metrological, economic and environmental criteria only, neglecting others. These results show that green analytical chemistry-based selection correlates with economic, while there is no correlation with metrological ones. This is an implication that green analytical chemistry can be brought into laboratories without analytical performance costs and it is even supported by economic reasons. PMID:26592608

  6. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  7. Viability and Hospital Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cannedy, Lloyd L.; Pointer, Dennis D.; Ruchlin, Hirsch S.

    1973-01-01

    The value and feasibility of utilizing viability as a dependent variable in hospital organizational research are demonstrated in a study of a sample of U.S. hospitals that failed in 1969. The 23 failed study hospitals and a set of matched nonfailed hospitals are compared, on the basis of 14 institutional characteristics for which data are available, in a two-phase multiple-regression analysis, with organizational viability, the dependent variable, specified as a dummy variable. The application to other health services research areas is discussed. PMID:4705215

  8. Understanding School Choice: Location as a Determinant of Charter School Racial, Economic, and Linguistic Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The author analyzes the revealed school preferences of parents in the Washington, D.C., and asks, "What is the main determinant of charter school choice and how does it create racial, economic, and linguistic segregation?" The author first establishes a theory of choice, which incorporates past research and adds an additional variable to our…

  9. Determination of an economical shipping route considering the effects of sea state for lower fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Myung-Il

    2013-06-01

    With increases in international oil prices, the proportion of fuel cost to the operational costs of a ship is currently increasing. To reduce fuel cost, a method for determining an economical route for a ship based on the acquisition of the sea state and the estimation of fuel consumption is proposed. The proposed method consists of three items. The first item is to acquire the sea state information in real time. The second item is to estimate the fuel consumption of a ship according to the sea state. The last item is to find an economical route for minimal fuel consumption based on the previous two items. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, it was applied to routing problems in various ocean areas. The result shows that the proposed method can yield economical ship routes that minimize fuel consumption. The results of this study can contribute to energy savings for environmentally friendly ships.

  10. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  11. Health care utilization in Ecuador: a multilevel analysis of socio-economic determinants and inequality issues.

    PubMed

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Chi, Chunhuei

    2010-05-01

    This article examines socio-economic determinants and inequality of health care utilization in Ecuador. Despite health reform efforts in Latin America, drastic socio-economic inequalities persist across the region, including Ecuador. Almost a third of Ecuador's population lack regular access to health services, while more than two-thirds have no health insurance and insufficient resources to pay for health care services. Using Andersen's model of health care utilization behaviour, relevant variables were selected from the 2004 National Demographic and Maternal & Child Health Survey (ENDEMAIN) household survey. Four outcomes were assessed: use of preventive services, number of curative visits, hospitalization, and use of antiparasitic medicines. Adjusting for various predisposing, enabling and need factors, a significant negative relationship was found between household economic status (as measured by assets and consumption quintiles) and utilization of preventive and curative services. The same was true for use of antiparasitic medicines. Further, indigenous ethnicity was found to be a significant negative predictor of health care utilization, regardless of economic status. These socio-economic inequalities in the use of health care services suggest the need for health care reform in Ecuador to address these issues more systematically. It is necessary for public health authorities to move forward on a reform that will expand coverage, particularly to indigenous and low- and middle-income households. PMID:19917653

  12. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel and materials recovery processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, H. W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.

  13. Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2012-01-15

    Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users' self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A generic case study models collective action and funding in wastewater management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determinants of success: economic assessment, funding policy and self-organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success indicators: conflict rate, funds needed to make cost shares fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method for analyzing centralized vs. decentralized disputes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If collective action has less benefits, innovative cost sharing may ensure success.

  14. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  15. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  16. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES) as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI). Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p < .001) is established between Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and CI values for stunting; the development indicator is not always linearly correlated with intra-state inequality in malnutrition prevalence. Results from multi-level models however show children from highest SES quintile posses 50 percent better nutritional status than those from the poorest quintile. Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states. PMID:20701758

  17. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  18. CYTOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia is the most common human intestinal protozoan parasite reported in the United States and England. The objective of the study was to develop a practical, reliable, rapid, microscopically-read method, comparable to excystation for determining the viability of Giardi...

  19. Analysis of economic determinants of fertility in Iran: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Moeeni, Maryam; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Torabi, Fatemeh; Heydari, Hassan; Mahmoudi, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last three decades, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Iran has fallen considerably; from 6.5 per woman in 1983 to 1.89 in 2010. This paper analyzes the extent to which economic determinants at the micro and macro levels are associated with the number of children in Iranian households. Methods: Household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) is linked to provincial data from the 2010 Iran Multiple-Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS), the National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011, and the 1985–2010 Iran statistical year books. Fertility is measured as the number of children in each household. A random intercept multilevel Poisson regression function is specified based on a collective model of intra-household bargaining power to investigate potential determinants of the number of children in Iranian households. Results: Ceteris paribus (other things being equal), probability of having more children drops significantly as either real per capita educational expenditure or real total expenditure of each household increase. Both the low- and the high-income households show probabilities of having more children compared to the middle-income households. Living in provinces with either higher average amount of value added of manufacturing establishments or lower average rate of house rent is associated to higher probability of having larger number of children. Higher levels of gender gap indices, resulting in household’s wife’s limited power over household decision-making, positively affect the probability of having more children. Conclusion: Economic determinants at the micro and macro levels, distribution of intra-household bargaining power between spouses and demographic covariates determined fertility behavior of Iranian households. PMID:25197678

  20. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures, experience and economic factors are significantly influencing behaviour (overall explaining 64% of the variance in behaviour). Three other models were run for the individual regions (England, Scotland and Wales). A smaller number of variables were included in each model to account for the smaller sample sizes. Results show lower but still high levels of variance explained for the individual models (about 40% for each country). The individual models' results are consistent with those of the total sample model. The results might suggest that ways to achieve behavioural change could include ensuring increased access of farmers to biosecurity information and advice sources. PMID:23194894

  1. A study to ascertain the viability of ultrasonic nondestructive testing to determine the mechanical characteristics of wood/agricultural hardboards with soybean based adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colen, Charles Raymond, Jr.

    There have been numerous studies with ultrasonic nondestructive testing and wood fiber composites. The problem of the study was to ascertain whether ultrasonic nondestructive testing can be used in place of destructive testing to obtain the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the wood/agricultural material with comparable results. The uniqueness of this research is that it addressed the type of content (cornstalks and switchgrass) being used with the wood fibers and the type of adhesives (soybean-based) associated with the production of these composite materials. Two research questions were addressed in the study. The major objective was to determine if one can predict the destructive test MOE value based on the nondestructive test MOE value. The population of the study was wood/agricultural fiberboards made from wood fibers, cornstalks, and switchgrass bonded together with soybean-based, urea-formaldehyde, and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Correlational analysis was used to determine if there was a relationship between the two tests. Regression analysis was performed to determine a prediction equation for the destructive test MOE value. Data were collected on both procedures using ultrasonic nondestructing testing and 3-point destructive testing. The results produced a simple linear regression model for this study which was adequate in the prediction of destructive MOE values if the nondestructive MOE value is known. An approximation very close to the entire error in the model equation was explained from the destructive test MOE values for the composites. The nondestructive MOE values used to produce a linear regression model explained 83% of the variability in the destructive test MOE values. The study also showed that, for the particular destructive test values obtained with the equipment used, the model associated with the study is as good as it could be due to the variability in the results from the destructive tests. In this study, an ultrasonic signal was used to determine the MOE values on nondestructive tests. Future research studies could use the same or other hardboards to examine how the resins affect the ultrasonic signal.

  2. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  3. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry, 1990: Viability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-19

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for his eighth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. Topics include: evolution of the US uranium industry, nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections, and attributes of industry viability.

  4. Social, cultural, and economic determinants of age at birth of first child in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Rindfuss, R

    1980-11-01

    Summary In order to unravel the complex set of the determinants of fertility, we suggest that the child-bearing process be separated into a sequence of events and intervals. As the first step in the child-bearing process, age at first birth is a critical variable. Using data from the 1966-67 West Malaysia Family Survey, we formulate and test a model of the cultural, social and economic determinants of the timing of first birth among a sample of mothers, aged 30-44. Social origins, measured by the woman's father's occupation and the woman's birthplace are not important determinants, but education, early work experience, and ethnicity exercise very strong effects on the age at first birth. Age at first marriage mediates much of the effect of background variables, which suggest that there is little use of contraception to plan the first birth interval. The strong effect of ethnicity is consistent with a cultural interpretation, but important qualifications are noted. PMID:22077172

  5. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dinesh C; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  6. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh C.; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  7. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

  8. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. PMID:24517626

  9. Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Alihussein; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade there has been an increase in healthcare expenditures while at the same time the inequity in distribution of resources has grown. These two issues have urged the researchers to review the determinants of healthcare expenditures. In this study, we surveyed the determinants of health expenditures in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries. Methods: We used Panel data econometrics methods for the purpose of this research. For long term analysis, we used Pesaran cross sectional dependency test followed by panel unit root tests to show first whether the variables were stationary or not. Upon confirmation of no stationary variables, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test in order to show whether long term relationships exist between the variables. At the end, we estimated the model with Continuous-Updated Fully Modified (CUP-FM) estimator. For short term analysis also, we used Fixed Effects (FE) estimator to estimate the model. Results: A long term relationship was found between the health expenditures per capita and GDP per capita, the proportion of population below 15 and above 65 years old, number of physicians, and urbanisation. Besides, all the variables had short term relationships with health expenditures, except for the proportion of population above 65 years old. Conclusion: The coefficient of GDP was below 1 in the model. Therefore, health is counted as a necessary good in ECO countries and governments must pay due attention to the equal distribution of health services in all regions of the country. PMID:24596838

  10. Socio-Economic and Nutritional Determinants of Low Birth Weight in India

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Manzur; Perera, Nirmala K P Perera

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years) who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included in this study. Infant's LBW (<2500 grams) as outcome variable was examined in association with all independent predictors as infant's sex, maternal household wealth status, caste, age, education, body mass index (BMI), stature, anemia level, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, antenatal care received, and living place. Results: Almost 20% of the infants were born with LBW. Mother's low education level, BMI <18.5, short stature (height <145 centimeters) and lack of antenatal visits (<4 visits) were significant predictors of LBW. Male gender has a protective effect against LBW. Conclusion: Maternal education, nutritional status and antenatal care received are key determinants that need to be addressed to reduce prevalence of LBW in India. Continue implementation of multifaceted health promotion interventions are needed to address these factors effectively. PMID:25077077

  11. Relative importance of climatic, geographic and socio-economic determinants of malaria in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is influenced by variations in meteorological conditions, which impact the biology of the parasite and its vector, but also socio-economic conditions, such as levels of urbanization, poverty and education, which impact human vulnerability and vector habitat. The many potential drivers of malaria, both extrinsic, such as climate, and intrinsic, such as population immunity are often difficult to disentangle. This presents a challenge for the modelling of malaria risk in space and time. Methods A statistical mixed model framework is proposed to model malaria risk at the district level in Malawi, using an age-stratified spatio-temporal dataset of malaria cases from July 2004 to June 2011. Several climatic, geographic and socio-economic factors thought to influence malaria incidence were tested in an exploratory model. In order to account for the unobserved confounding factors that influence malaria, which are not accounted for using measured covariates, a generalized linear mixed model was adopted, which included structured and unstructured spatial and temporal random effects. A hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Using a stepwise model selection procedure, several explanatory variables were identified to have significant associations with malaria including climatic, cartographic and socio-economic data. Once intervention variations, unobserved confounding factors and spatial correlation were considered in a Bayesian framework, a final model emerged with statistically significant predictor variables limited to average precipitation (quadratic relation) and average temperature during the three months previous to the month of interest. Conclusions When modelling malaria risk in Malawi it is important to account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity and correlation between districts. Once observed and unobserved confounding factors are allowed for, precipitation and temperature in the months prior to the malaria season of interest are found to significantly determine spatial and temporal variations of malaria incidence. Climate information was found to improve the estimation of malaria relative risk in 41% of the districts in Malawi, particularly at higher altitudes where transmission is irregular. This highlights the potential value of climate-driven seasonal malaria forecasts. PMID:24228784

  12. The Impact of Socio-Economic Determinants on the Vaccination Rates with Rotavirus and Human Papiloma Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    GRDADOLNIK, Urška; SOČAN, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines. Methods Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined. Results Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=−0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables. Conclusion Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

  13. Application of Probabilistic Methods for the Determination of an Economically Robust HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Bandte, Oliver; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach for the determination of economically viable robust design solutions using the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) as a case study. Furthermore, the paper states the advantages of a probability based aircraft design over the traditional point design approach. It also proposes a new methodology called Robust Design Simulation (RDS) which treats customer satisfaction as the ultimate design objective. RDS is based on a probabilistic approach to aerospace systems design, which views the chosen objective as a distribution function introduced by so called noise or uncertainty variables. Since the designer has no control over these variables, a variability distribution is defined for each one of them. The cumulative effect of all these distributions causes the overall variability of the objective function. For cases where the selected objective function depends heavily on these noise variables, it may be desirable to obtain a design solution that minimizes this dependence. The paper outlines a step by step approach on how to achieve such a solution for the HSCT case study and introduces an evaluation criterion which guarantees the highest customer satisfaction. This customer satisfaction is expressed by the probability of achieving objective function values less than a desired target value.

  14. Exercising choice: the economic determinants of physical activity behaviour of an employed population.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Roberts, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Lack of physical activity is a major contributing factor to the worldwide obesity epidemic, and to the overall burden of disease. The deindustrialisation of developed economies and move to more sedentary employment has impacted on the opportunities of working individuals to participate in physical activity. This can have negative effects on productivity and worker health potentially influencing economic growth. Thus, it is important to determine the factors influencing the frequency of participation in physical activity for employed individuals. This paper uses a modified time allocation framework to explore this issue. We use data from the first six waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey (HILDA). The analysis examines frequency of participation in physical activity using a generalised random effects ordered probit model. We control for non-parallel cut-points between the physical activity categories and individual heterogeneity, as well as exploring differences across gender. The results indicate that there is a time trade-off between non-market work, market work, and the frequency of physical activity participation. This effect is moderated by gender. For example, dependent children have a larger negative effect on the frequency of physical activity participation for women. Education and marriage have a larger negative effect on the frequency of participation for men. The findings suggests that policies which make exercise more convenient, and hence decrease the opportunity cost of exercise, will help to encourage more frequent participation in physical activity for working adults. PMID:21757272

  15. Cost and Economics for Advanced Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Market sensitivity and weight-based cost estimating relationships are key drivers in determining the financial viability of advanced space launch vehicle designs. Due to decreasing space transportation budgets and increasing foreign competition, it has become essential for financial assessments of prospective launch vehicles to be performed during the conceptual design phase. As part of this financial assessment, it is imperative to understand the relationship between market volatility, the uncertainty of weight estimates, and the economic viability of an advanced space launch vehicle program. This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a business case for advanced space flight design with respect to the changing nature of market conditions and the complexity of determining accurate weight estimations during the conceptual design phase. The expected uncertainty associated with these two factors drives the economic risk of the overall program. The study incorporates Monte Carlo simulation techniques to determine the probability of attaining specific levels of economic performance when the market and weight parameters are allowed to vary. This structured approach toward uncertainties allows for the assessment of risks associated with a launch vehicle program's economic performance. This results in the determination of the value of the additional risk placed on the project by these two factors.

  16. Factors Determining Student Retention of Economic Knowledge after Completing the Principles-of-Microeconomics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)

  17. Interactions between Cultural and Economic Determinants of Divorce in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.; Poortman, Annerigt

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between gendered family roles and divorce in The Netherlands. Cultural and economic aspects of this relationship are distinguished. Economic hypotheses argue that the likelihood of divorce is increased if women work for pay and have attractive labor market resources. Cultural hypotheses argue that divorce…

  18. Getting More Bang for the Buck: Determining the Economic Rationale of Vocational Education. A VES Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, Kerry R.; Pershing, James A.

    Vocational education in the United States has come under increased scrutiny, and its proponents need the tools to convince the critics of its merits. Many economic conditions have a strong impact on vocational education, and understanding of economics is important in offering a rationale of vocational education. In a time of shrinking revenues,…

  19. Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…

  20. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  1. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  2. Some aspects of socio-economic determinants of mortality in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaisie, S K

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of mortality levels and trends continue to be inadequate in Africa, largely because of the lack of reliable and adequate information on deaths. A series of estimates depicting mortality levels and trends has been prepared by demographers, different kinds of data and employing different estimation procedures, but knowledge of the "true" structure of mortality in tropical Africa is virtually nonexistent. Because of these problems only a "bird's eye view" of the prevailing situation in tropical Africa is presented. The discussion -- directed to mortality by sex and age, by residence, and by cause -- is based on secondary and fragmentary data. Socioeconomic and cultural determinants of mortality are also examined. Available information on male and female mortality indicates that the death rates for males are higher than they are for females. Early childhood mortality (1-4 years) in tropical Africa is relatively high compared with the other age groups, including infants. Mortality differentials have been noted among geographical and administrative units and subdivisions of populations within the various countries of tropical Africa. Also, urban dwellers enjoy a higher expectation of life at birth than do rural dwellers. Communicable diseases are the main killers in tropical Africa. Persistent poverty and malnutrition, poor housing, unhealthy conditions in the growing cities, nonexistence of health facilities in the rural areas, rapid population expansion, and low levels of education are among the factors impeding progress in reducing mortality in tropical Africa. The need exists to express development goals in terms of the progressive reduction and eventual elimination of malnutrition, disease, illiteracy, squalor, and inequalities. Future trends in mortality in tropical Africa may depend more than they have in the recent past on economic and social development. PMID:12262582

  3. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  4. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  5. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  6. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  7. Examining Gifted Students Who Are Economically At-Risk to Determine Factors that Influence Their Early Reading Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lora Battle

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the "Frequency with which parents read to their children, Preschool Exposure" and the initial "Age" that students "who are economically at-risk" were first exposed to significant literacy activities at home or in a preschool setting affected their reading grades. Students "who are economically…

  8. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational...

  9. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational...

  10. The Determinants of Library Subscription Prices of the Top-Ranked Economics Journals: An Econometric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chressanthis, George A.; Chressanthis, June D.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that subscription price increases for academic journals have been the area of single greatest concern to librarians during the past decade. Finds that systematic variations in library prices across economics journals offer explainable reasons. (CFR)

  11. Assessment of Campus Viability. Report of the Viability Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Allentown.

    This document presents a format for evaluating the viability of individual campuses in the Pennsylvania State University System (PSUS) including criteria and a process to apply them. A viable campus is defined as having a clear mission with a demonstrable agreement among administrative and faculty visions, having adequate resources, involving the…

  12. The Family Farm in California. Final Report of the Small Farm Viability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Economic Development, Sacramento. Community Services Administration.

    Most of California's farms are relatively small, family run operations, and their future has been called into question by current agricultural trends. The Small Farm Viability Planning Project was initiated to identify obstacles to small farm economic viability and make recommendations to the state on policies and actions that might reduce these…

  13. Financial Viability of Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salant, Priscilla; Saupe, William

    1986-01-01

    Survey information from 1,616 farm families in Wisconsin, Mississippi, and Tennessee was used to construct a viability ratio measuring a family's ability to meet its obligations from total income. Coupled with other farm characteristics, the ratio allows policymakers to see why some farms are viable and others are not. (JHZ)

  14. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a

  15. One Generation of Self-Determination: Native American Economic Self-Reliance in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jojola, Theodore S.; Agoyo, Herman

    This paper examines changes in federal policy that have encouraged economic development by American Indian tribes, and presents examples from New Mexico. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 guaranteed federal provision of education and other services to the tribes, but the newly reorganized tribal governments were regulated almost exclusively by…

  16. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  17. Economic, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Are There Differences between Asia and Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagodzinski, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. On…

  18. Determining the economic liability of implementing irrigation on small-scale farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small, limited resource farmers are often the primary providers of fresh foods for rural communities. However, they face often insurmountable economic challenges to staying in business. The small and limited resource farmer has declined at an alarming rate. The reasons for the decline or disappearan...

  19. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

  20. Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis at the Kenya – Uganda Transboundary

    PubMed Central

    Rutto, Jane Jemeli; Osano, Odipo; Thuranira, Elias Gitonga; Kurgat, Richard Kiptum; Odenyo, Victor Agab Omondi

    2013-01-01

    Background Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.) infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. Results Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7%) applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a larger extent than Uganda (2.1%). Conclusion Knowledge on tsetse and its control methods, culture, farming practice, demographic and socio-economic variables explained occurrence of HAT better than landscape features. PMID:23638206

  1. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  2. 26 CFR 53.4958-5 - Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the revenues of one or more activities of the organization... Taxes § 53.4958-5 Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or...

  3. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  4. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. PMID:26680687

  5. Deaths from alcohol and violence in Moscow: socio-economic determinants.

    PubMed

    Chenet, L; Leon, D; Mckee, M; Vassin, S

    1998-03-01

    The authors "examine the association between accidental, violent and alcohol related adult mortality in the Russian capital and socio-economic status characteristics such as educational status, occupational group and marital status.... The probability of death from alcohol related diseases increased as education level decreased, with those men failing to complete secondary education over two and a half times as likely to die from these causes than men with higher education. Blue collar workers were also much more likely to die from these causes than white collar workers. Marriage had a marked protective effect for both men and women." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293879

  6. Economic and technical feasibility of utilizing fish waste as organic nutrients for farm/horticultural use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gargasz, R.E.; Pye, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical and economic viability of utilizing fish wastes and other organic residues as organic peat nutrients for agriculture/horticulture applications are presented. The project tasks included: (1) Reputable analysis of the waste products to determine the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash as well as trace elements; (2) Technical feasibility of reducing these organic wastes into nutrients, valuable and assimilable by agricultural or horticultural crops or as a high protein animal feed; and (3) The economic viability of commercializing, manufacturing, and marketing these waste products as a specialty plant growth substance/high protein feed supplement.

  7. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

  8. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  9. Determining economic benefits of satellite data in short-range forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.; Hinton, B.

    1981-01-01

    The chances of enhanced short term weather predictions and economic benefits from the use of GOES satellite data were examined. Results for a meteorological consulting firm before and after the introduction of GOES data were chosen as the method, and monetary benefits were selected as the measure. Services were provided for use by road and street departments, commodities dealers, and marine clients of the consulting firm. The Man-computer Interactive Data Access Program (McIDAS) was employed to furnish 1/2 hour visual or IR imagery for remote access. The commodities clients reconnected the GOES real-time imagery once the study was completed, while the consulting firm, which was personnel and not equipment intensive, did not. Further development of the flexibility of access to the GOES data and improvements in the projected grids are indicated.

  10. A viability analysis of fishery controlled by investment rate.

    PubMed

    Sanogo, C; Rassi, N; Ben Miled, S; Jerry, C

    2013-09-01

    This work presents a stock/effort model describing both harvested fish population and fishing effort dynamics. The fishing effort dynamic is controlled by investment which corresponds to the revenue proportion generated by the activity. The dynamics are subject to a set of economic and biological state constraints. The analytical study focuses on the compatibility between state constraints and controlled dynamics. By using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal situations and management options that guarantee a sustainable system. PMID:24002567

  11. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible... determination of disability made by the Social Security Administration as evidence of disability without...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  15. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in rural northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of global decline in under-five mortality, the goal of achieving MDG 4 still remains largely unattained in low and middle income countries as the year 2015 closes-in. To accelerate the pace of mortality decline, proven interventions with high impact need to be implemented to help achieve the goal of drastically reducing childhood mortality. This paper explores the association between socio-economic and demographic factors and under-five mortality in an impoverished region in rural northern Ghana. Methods We used survey data on 3975 women aged 15–49 who have ever given birth. First, chi-square test was used to test the association of social, economic and demographic characteristics of mothers with the experience of under-five death. Subsequently, we ran a logistic regression model to estimate the relative association of factors that influence childhood mortality after excluding variables that were not significant at the bivariate level. Results Factors that significantly predict under-five mortality included mothers’ educational level, presence of co-wives, age and marital status. Mothers who have achieved primary or junior high school education were 45% less likely to experience under-five death than mothers with no formal education at all (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001). Monogamous women were 22% less likely to experience under-five deaths than mothers in polygamous marriages (OR = 0.78, p = 0.01). Similarly, mothers who were between the ages of 35 and 49 were about eleven times more likely to experience under-five deaths than those below the age of 20 years (OR = 11.44, p < 0.001). Also, women who were married had a 27% less likelihood (OR = 0.73, p = 0.01) of experiencing an under-five death than those who were single, divorced or widowed. Conclusion Taken independently, maternal education, age, marital status and presence of co-wives are associated with childhood mortality. The relationship of these indicators with women’s autonomy, health seeking behavior, and other factors that affect child survival merit further investigation so that interventions could be designed to foster reductions in child mortality by considering the needs and welfare of women including the need for female education, autonomy and socioeconomic well-being. PMID:25145383

  16. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to significantly different results in regards to the relative profitability of the different technologies and configurations. This is the case both with a deterministic and a stochastic analysis, as shown in the tables below. The flexibility in output products clearly adds substantial value to the HPE-ALWR and HTE-HTGR plants. In fact, under the GBM assumption for prices, the HTE-HTGR plant becomes more profitable than the SI-HTGR configuration, although SI-HTGR has a much lower levelized cost. For the HTE-HTGR plant it is also profitable to invest in additional electric turbine capacity (Case b) in order to fully utilize the heat from the nuclear reactor for electricity production when this is more profitable than producing hydrogen. The technologies are all at the research and development stage, so there are significant uncertainties regarding the technology cost and performance assumptions used in this analysis. As the technologies advance, the designers need to refine the cost and performance evaluation to provide a more reliable set of input for a more rigorous analysis. In addition, the durability of the catalytic activity of the materials at the hydrogen plant during repetitive price cycling is of prime importance concerning the flexibility of switching from hydrogen to electricity production. However, given the potential significant economic benefit that can be brought from cogeneration with the flexibility to quickly react to market signals, DOE should consider R&D efforts towards developing durable materials and processes that can enable this type of operation. Our future work will focus on analyzing a range of hydrogen production technologies associated with an extension of the financial analysis framework presented here. We are planning to address a variety of additional risks and options, such as the value of modular expansion in addition to the co-generation capability (i.e., a modular increase in the hydrogen production capacity of a plant in a given market with rising hydrogen demand), and contrast that with economies-of-scale of large-unit designs.

  17. Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

  18. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  19. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bifano, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific PV development assistance field tests including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  20. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies regarding opinions and perceptions about barriers and determinants of health services’ accessibility in economic migrants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access to health services is an important health determinant. New research in health equity is required, especially amongst economic migrants from developing countries. Studies conducted on the use of health services by migrant populations highlight existing gaps in understanding which factors affect access to these services from a qualitative perspective. We aim to describe the views of the migrants regarding barriers and determinants of access to health services in the international literature (1997–2011). Methods A systematic review was conducted for Qualitative research papers (English/Spanish) published in 13 electronic databases. A selection of articles that accomplished the inclusion criteria and a quality evaluation of the studies were carried out. The findings of the selected studies were synthesised by means of metasynthesis using different analysis categories according to Andersen’s conceptual framework of access and use of health services and by incorporating other emergent categories. Results We located 3,025 titles, 36 studies achieved the inclusion criteria. After quality evaluation, 28 articles were definitively synthesised. 12 studies (46.2%) were carried out in the U.S and 11 studies (42.3%) dealt with primary care services. The participating population varied depending mainly on type of host country. Barriers were described, such as the lack of communication between health services providers and migrants, due to idiomatic difficulties and cultural differences. Other barriers were linked to the economic system, the health service characteristics and the legislation in each country. This situation has consequences for the lack of health control by migrants and their social vulnerability. Conclusions Economic migrants faced individual and structural barriers to the health services in host countries, especially those with undocumented situation and those experimented idiomatic difficulties. Strategies to improve the structures of health systems and social policies are needed. PMID:23245431

  1. On the socio-economic determinants of antenatal care utilization in Azerbaijan: evidence and policy implications for reforms.

    PubMed

    Habibov, Nazim N

    2011-04-01

    Azerbaijan is a country with one of the highest child mortality rates in the regions of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Drawing on the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines the utilization of antenatal care in Azerbaijan to identify the socio-economic determinants of the usage, and its frequency, timing and quality. Consequently, binomial logit, two ordered logit and negative binomial regression models are specified to estimate the effect of various socio-economic characteristics on the likelihood of utilization. Place of living is an important determinant of antenatal healthcare utilization in Azerbaijan. It is important in determining the likelihood of utilization, its timing and quality of care received, whereas it is not significant in the model predicting the frequency of antenatal utilization. Women's education is also significant in three models out of four. Education is important in explaining the frequency and timing of utilization as well as the quality of services received, but it is not significant in predicting the likelihood of utilization. Wealth gradient is another important determinant of antenatal care utilization in Azerbaijan inasmuch as it is significant in explaining the likelihood of prenatal care utilization and its frequency. In addition, two variables, birth order and desirability of the last child or current pregnancy, are significant only in explaining the likelihood of utilization. Therefore, we confirm the findings of previous studies, which reported that the utilization of prenatal health care is a multistage process in which decisions are sequential. Although the same set of factors may affect decision-making at all stages, the effect of these factors is different at different stages. Implications for reforms in the healthcare sector to improve antenatal care utilization in Azerbaijan are provided and discussed. PMID:20598213

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Tuberculosis Viability Microscopy for Assessing Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Bravard, Marjory A.; Valencia, Teresa; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?It is difficult to determine whether early tuberculosis treatment is effective in reducing the infectiousness of patients' sputum, because culture takes weeks and conventional acid-fast sputum microscopy and molecular tests cannot differentiate live from dead tuberculosis. Methods.?To assess treatment response, sputum samples (n = 124) from unselected patients (n = 35) with sputum microscopypositive tuberculosis were tested pretreatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of empiric first-line therapy. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, quantitative culture, and acid-fast auramine microscopy were all performed in triplicate. Results.?Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy predicted quantitative culture results such that 76% of results agreed within 1 logarithm (rS = 0.85; P < .0001). In 31 patients with non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, viability and quantitative culture results approximately halved (both 0.27 log reduction, P < .001) daily. For patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and available data, by treatment day 9 there was a >10-fold reduction in viability in 100% (24/24) of cases and quantitative culture in 95% (19/20) of cases. Four other patients subsequently found to have MDR tuberculosis had no significant changes in viability (P = .4) or quantitative culture (P = .6) results during early treatment. The change in viability and quantitative culture results during early treatment differed significantly between patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and those with MDR tuberculosis (both P < .001). Acid-fast microscopy results changed little during early treatment, and this change was similar for non-MDR tuberculosis vs MDR tuberculosis (P = .6). Conclusions.?Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy is a simple test that within 1 hour predicted quantitative culture results that became available weeks later, rapidly indicating whether patients were responding to tuberculosis therapy. PMID:25537870

  3. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  4. Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (χ2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p < 0.0001). Malaria occurrence was higher among the households living in bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities. PMID:24991410

  5. Is the Spatial Distribution of Mankind's Most Basic Economic Traits Determined by Climate and Soil Alone?

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jan; Sieber, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Background Several authors, most prominently Jared Diamond (1997, Guns, Germs and Steel), have investigated biogeographic determinants of human history and civilization. The timing of the transition to an agricultural lifestyle, associated with steep population growth and consequent societal change, has been suggested to be affected by the availability of suitable organisms for domestication. These factors were shown to quantitatively explain some of the current global inequalities of economy and political power. Here, we advance this approach one step further by looking at climate and soil as sole determining factors. Methodology/Principal Findings As a simplistic ‘null model’, we assume that only climate and soil conditions affect the suitability of four basic landuse types – agriculture, sedentary animal husbandry, nomadic pastoralism and hunting-and-gathering. Using ecological niche modelling (ENM), we derive spatial predictions of the suitability for these four landuse traits and apply these to the Old World and Australia. We explore two aspects of the properties of these predictions, conflict potential and population density. In a calculation of overlap of landuse suitability, we map regions of potential conflict between landuse types. Results are congruent with a number of real, present or historical, regions of conflict between ethnic groups associated with different landuse traditions. Furthermore, we found that our model of agricultural suitability explains a considerable portion of population density variability. We mapped residuals from this correlation, finding geographically highly structured deviations that invite further investigation. We also found that ENM of agricultural suitability correlates with a metric of local wealth generation (Gross Domestic Product, Purchasing Power Parity). Conclusions/Significance From simplified assumptions on the links between climate, soil and landuse we are able to provide good predictions on complex features of human geography. The spatial distribution of deviations from ENM predictions identifies those regions requiring further investigation of potential explanations. Our findings and methodological approaches may be of applied interest, e.g., in the context of climate change. PMID:20463959

  6. Measurement of the viability of Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and test both a flow cytometry method (FCM) and a direct count method (DCM) that both use fluorescent stains to determine the viability of Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), an obligate intracellular bacterium and the cause of proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs and other animal species. Live LI were passaged in cell culture and harvested from infected McCoy cells. Dead LI were prepared by exposing live LI to 70% isopropyl alcohol for 30 min. Seven samples with dead:live ratios of 0:100 (live control), 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, and 100:0 (dead control) were prepared for testing by both the FCM and the DCM. For the FCM, TO-PRO-3 iodine was applied to the samples, and viable LI were counted. For the DCM, the samples were stained with LIVE/DEAD BacLight, which contains SYTO 9 and propidium iodine, then filtered through 0.2-μm Nuclepore black polycarbonate filters, viewed, and counted with the use of an epifluorescence microscope. Data were evaluated by estimating 95% limits of agreement and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The limits of agreement between the FCM and the DCM versus the standard ratio of added LI showed mean differences not equal to zero, suggesting that systematic bias was introduced. The CCC showed almost perfect agreement (r = 0.9898). With a specific fluorescent probe, the FCM is useful and as good as the DCM for determining LI viability. PMID:16479724

  7. Socio-Economic Status Determines Risk of Receptive Syringe Sharing Behaviors among Iranian Drug Injectors; A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6 months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n = 434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6 months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6 months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.50–10.94), and were single (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them. PMID:25852577

  8. Social and economic determinants of pediatric health inequalities: the model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sereni, Fabio; Edefonti, Alberto; Lepore, Marta; Agostoni, Carlo; Sandoval Diaz, Mabel; Silva Galan, Yajaira; Montini, Giovanni; Tognoni, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this review is to deal with priorities and strategies to significantly tackle inequalities in the management of pediatric diseases in low-middle-income countries. This issue has become a focal point of epidemiological and public health, with special reference to chronic nontransmissible diseases. We will provide our readership with an essential overview of the cultural, institutional, and political events, which have occurred over the last 20 y and which have produced the current general framework for epidemiology and public health. Then the most recent epidemiological data will be evaluated, in order to quantify the interaction between the medical components of the disease profiles and their socioeconomic determinants. Finally, a focus will be added on models of pediatric chronic kidney diseases, which are in our opinion amongst the most sensitive markers of the interplay between health and society. Collaborative, pediatrician-initiated, multicentre projects in these fields should be given priority in calls for grants supported by public agencies. The involvement of a critical mass of those working in the "fringes" of pediatric care is a final, essential mean by which significant results can be produced under the sole responsibility and research interest of centers of excellence. PMID:26466076

  9. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) viability is, therefore, critical in deciding whether a patient with coronary artery disease and severe LV dysfunction should undergo revascularization, receive a heart transplant, or remain on medical therapy. Assessment of Left Ventricular Viability Techniques for assessing myocardial viability depend on the measurement of a specific characteristic of viable myocytes such as cell membrane integrity, preserved metabolism, mitochondria integrity, and preserved contractile reserve. In Ontario, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioactive 201thallium is the most commonly used technique followed by dobutamine echocardiography. Newer techniques include SPECT using technetium tracers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and PET, the subject of this review. Positron Emission Tomography PET is a nuclear imaging technique based on the metabolism of radioactive analogs of normal substrates such as glucose and water. The radiopharmaceutical used most frequently in myocardial viability assessment is F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog. The procedure involves the intravenous administration of FDG under controlled glycemic conditions, and imaging with a PET scanner. The images are reconstructed using computer software and analyzed visually or semi-quantitatively, often in conjunction with perfusion images. Dysfunctional but stunned myocardium is characterized by normal perfusion and normal FDG uptake; hibernating myocardium exhibits reduced perfusion and normal/enhanced FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism mismatch), whereas scar tissue is characterized by reduction in both perfusion and FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism match). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used a search strategy similar to that used in the 2001 ICES review to identify English language reports of health technology assessments and primary studies in selected databases, published from January 1, 2001 to April 20, 2005. Patients of interest were those with CAD and severe ventricular dysfunction being considered for revascularization that had undergone viability assessment using either PET and/or other noninvasive techniques. The outcomes of interest were diagnostic and predictive accuracy with respect to recovery of regional or global LV function, long-term survival and cardiac events, and quality of life. Other outcomes of interest were impact on treatment decision, adverse events, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Of 456 citations, 8 systematic reviews/meta-analyses and 37 reports on primary studies met the selection criteria. The reports were categorized using the Medical Advisory Secretariat levels of evidence system, and the quality of the reports was assessed using the criteria of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) developed by the Centre for Dissemination of Research (National Health Service, United Kingdom). Analysis of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were conducted for all data as well as stratified by mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). There were no randomized controlled trials. The included studies compared PET with one or more other noninvasive viability tests on the same group of patients or examined the long-term outcomes of PET viability assessments. The quality assessment showed that about 50% or more of the studies had selection bias, interpreted tests without blinding, excluded uninterpretable segments in the analysis, or did not have clearly stated selection criteria. Data from the above studies were integrated with data from the 2001 ICES review for analysis and interpretation. Summary of Findings The evidence was derived from populations with moderate to severe ischemic LV dysfunction with an overall quality that ranges from moderate to low. PET appears to be a safe technique for assessing myocardial viability. CAD patients with moderate to severe ischemic LV dysfunction and residual viable myocardium had significantly lower 2-year mortality rate (3.2%) and higher event-free survival rates (92% at 3 years) when treated with revascularization than those who were not revascularized but were treated medically (16% mortality at 2-years and 48% 3-year event-free survival). A large meta-analysis and moderate quality studies of diagnostic accuracy consistently showed that compared to other noninvasive diagnostic tests such as thallium SPECT and echocardiography, FDG PET has: Higher sensitivity (median 90%, range 71%–100%) and better negative likelihood ratio (median 0.16, range 0–0.38; ideal <0.1) for predicting regional myocardial function recovery after revascularization. Specificity (median 73%, range 33%–91%) that is similar to other radionuclide imaging but lower than that of dobutamine echocardiography Less useful positive likelihood ratio (median 3.1, range 1.4 –9.2; ideal>10) for predicting segmental function recovery. Taking positive and negative likelihood ratios together suggests that FDG PET and dobutamine echocardiography may produce small but sometimes important changes in the probability of recovering regional wall motion after revascularization. Given its higher sensitivity, PET is less likely to produce false positive results in myocardial viability. PET, therefore, has the potential to identify some patients who might benefit from revascularization, but who would not have been identified as suitable candidates for revascularization using thallium SPECT or dobutamine echocardiography. PET appears to be superior to other nuclear imaging techniques including SPECT with 201thallium or technetium labelled tracers, although recent studies suggest that FDG SPECT may have comparable diagnostic accuracy as FDG PET for predicting regional and global LV function recovery. No firm conclusion can be reached about the incremental value of PET over other noninvasive techniques for predicting global function improvement or long-term outcomes in the most important target population (patients with severe ischemic LV dysfunction) due to lack of direct comparison. An Ontario-based economic analysis showed that in people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction and who were found to have no viable myocardium or indeterminate results by thallium SPECT, the use of PET as a follow-up assessment would likely result in lower cost and better 5-year survival compared to the use of thallium SPECT alone. The projected annual budget impact of adding PET under the above scenario was estimated to range from $1.5 million to $2.3 million. Conclusion In patients with severe LV dysfunction, that are deemed to have no viable myocardium or indeterminate results in assessments using other noninvasive tests, PET may have a role in further identifying patients who may benefit from revascularization. No firm conclusion can be drawn on the impact of PET viability assessment on long-term clinical outcomes in the most important target population (i.e. patients with severe LV dysfunction). PMID:23074467

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Climatic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ram K; Goodin, Douglas G; Neises, Daniel; Anderson, Gary A; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) prevalence in four contiguous states of Midwestern United States, and to determine the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors associated with this disease. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify space and time only trends and spatio-temporal interaction effect in the case reports submitted to the state health departments in the region. Various socio-economic, environmental and climatic covariates screened a priori in a bivariate procedure were added to a main-effects Bayesian model in progressive steps to evaluate important drivers of RMSF space-time patterns in the region. Our results show a steady increase in RMSF incidence over the study period to newer geographic areas, and the posterior probabilities of county-specific trends indicate clustering of high risk counties in the central and southern parts of the study region. At the spatial scale of a county, the prevalence levels of RMSF is influenced by poverty status, average relative humidity, and average land surface temperature (>35°C) in the region, and the relevance of these factors in the context of climate-change impacts on tick-borne diseases are discussed. PMID:26942604

  11. Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation. PMID:22239949

  12. Hierarchical Bayesian Spatio–Temporal Analysis of Climatic and Socio–Economic Determinants of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Ram K.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Neises, Daniel; Anderson, Gary A.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) prevalence in four contiguous states of Midwestern United States, and to determine the impact of environmental and socio–economic factors associated with this disease. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify space and time only trends and spatio–temporal interaction effect in the case reports submitted to the state health departments in the region. Various socio–economic, environmental and climatic covariates screened a priori in a bivariate procedure were added to a main–effects Bayesian model in progressive steps to evaluate important drivers of RMSF space-time patterns in the region. Our results show a steady increase in RMSF incidence over the study period to newer geographic areas, and the posterior probabilities of county-specific trends indicate clustering of high risk counties in the central and southern parts of the study region. At the spatial scale of a county, the prevalence levels of RMSF is influenced by poverty status, average relative humidity, and average land surface temperature (>35°C) in the region, and the relevance of these factors in the context of climate–change impacts on tick–borne diseases are discussed. PMID:26942604

  13. Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural extent of hyperenhancement was significantly related to the likelihood of improvement in contractility after revascularization. However, the LVEF in the patient population was 43% prior to revascularization. It is important to know whether the technique has the same degree of accuracy in patients who have more severe LV dysfunction and who would most benefit from an assessment of myocardial viability. “Substantial” viability used as a measure of a patient’s ability to recover after revascularization has not been definitively reported (how much viability is enough?). Patients with severe LV dysfunction are more likely to have mixtures of surviving myocardium, including normal, infarcted, stunned and hibernating myocardium (Cowley et al., 1999). This may lead to a lack of homogeneity of response to testing and to revascularization and contribute to inter- and intra-study differences. There is a need for a large prospective study with adequate follow-up time for patients with CAD and LV dysfunction (LVEF<35%) comparing MRI and an alternate imaging technique. There is some evidence that MRI has comparable sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to PET for determining myocardial viability. However, there is a lack of evidence comparing the accuracy of these two techniques to predict LV function recovery. In addition, some studies refer to PET as the gold standard for the assessment of myocardial viability. Therefore, PET may be an ideal noninvasive imaging comparator to MRI for a prospective study with follow-up. To date, there is a lack of cost-effectiveness analyses (or any economic analyses) of functional cardiac MRI versus an alternate noninvasive imaging method for the assessment of myocardial viability/perfusion. Conclusion There is some evidence that the accuracy of functional cardiac MRI compares favourably with alternate imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. There is insufficient evidence whether functional cardiac MRI can better select which patients [who have CAD and severe LV dysfunction (LVEF <35%)] may benefit from revascularization compared with an alternate noninvasive imaging technology. There is insufficient evidence whether functional cardiac MRI can better select which patients should proceed to invasive coronary angiography for the definitive diagnosis of CAD, compared with an alternate noninvasive imaging technology. There is a need for a large prospective (potentially multicentre) study with adequate follow-up time for patients with CAD and LV dysfunction (LVEF<35%) comparing MRI and PET. Since longer follow-up time may be associated with restenosis or graft occlusion, it has been suggested to have serial measurements after revascularization (Cowley et al., 1999). PMID:23074446

  14. Graphene's Viability for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marcos; Hall, Karla; Rojas, Richard; Santarius, John; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2015-11-01

    Graphene is a source of interest for multiple applications due to its unusual electronic and physical properties. As a coating material, it has reduced oxidation of the main substrate, though no effort has been reported of testing it under fusion conditions. A number of experimental studies have established that defect-free graphene is an excellent barrier material for gases. We explore its viability to maintain a significant pressure difference under ion irradiation. Deuterium is used as a projectile on graphene coated silicon over a range of 10-50 keV energies and various fluences. The vacancy yield (amount of damage) and natural resonance for graphene are found at around 1350 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1, respectively. Damage of each sample is quantified via Raman spectroscopy (RS) using the ratio of the intensities at these wavenumbers. Graphene is also tested here as a coating for some fusion components. Though tungsten is a very promising divertor and first wall candidate, after intense irradiation, it is prone to developing fuzz or grass structures, leading to a diminished lifetime. Graphene grown on tungsten is tested under reactor conditions with 30 keV He ions at several fluences, and the sputtering of both materials is studied via RS and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This work was supported by the Graduate Engineering Research Scholars and the TEAM-Science program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. Effect of storage time on the viability of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term cryopreserved semen viability can impact the National Animal Germplasm Program’s (NAGP) sampling strategy and ability to reconstitute livestock populations. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to determine if prolonged storage of cryopreserved sperm impacts cell viability. Cryoprese...

  16. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  17. Priorities of Low-Income Urban Residents for Interventions to Address the Socio-Economic Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Kotwani, Namrata; Garrett, Joanne; Rivera, Ivonne; Davies-Cole, John; Carter-Nolan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the priorities of low-income urban residents for interventions that address the socio-economic determinants of health. Methods We selected and estimated the cost of 16 interventions related to education, housing, nutrition, employment, health care, healthy behavior, neighborhood improvement, and transportation. Low-income residents of Washington, D.C. (N=431) participated in decision exercises to prioritize these interventions. Results Given a budget valued at approximately twice an estimated cost of medical and dental care ($885), the interventions ultimately prioritized by the greatest percentage of individuals were: health insurance (95%), housing vouchers (82%) dental care (82%), job training (72%), adult education (63%), counseling (68%), healthy behavior incentives (68%), and job placement (67%). The percentages of respondents who received support for housing, adult education, and job training and placement were far less than the percentage who prioritized these interventions. Conclusions Poor and low-income residents’ priorities may usefully inform allocation of social services that affect health. PMID:21099082

  18. Role of Maxillofacial Trauma Scoring Systems in Determining the Economic Burden to Maxillofacial Trauma Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between severity of maxillofacial injuries determined by trauma scoring systems and its economic burden to patients in terms of cost and duration of hospitalization. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval a retrospective chart review was undertaken at Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital to identify patients admitted with maxillofacial injuries between January 2006 and December 2008. Patients with incomplete records, associated injuries, debilitating systemic diseases and patients treated under local anesthesia were excluded. Details regarding the nature and severity of injury and treatment were recorded in addition to the total treatment cost and duration of hospitalization. Maxillofacial injury severity was scored using maxillofacial injury severity score (MFISS) and facial injury severity scale (FISS). The MFISS and FISS scores were correlated with two surrogate markers of the economic burden namely cost and duration of hospitalization. Results: A total of 162 patients with maxillofacial injuries were identified (108 males, 54 females; mean age = 32.4 years). Road traffic accidents were the cause of injury in 114 patients (70.4%) and only 29 patients (17.9%) had medical insurance coverage. The mean MFISS and FISS scores were 14.04 (standard deviation [SD] = 9.19; range = 3-42) and 4.40 (SD = 3.17; range = 1-14), respectively. The mean cost and duration of hospitalization of the patients were Indian rupees (INR) 13877.28 (SD = 8252.59; range = INR 5250-42960) and 4.12 days (SD = 1.5; range = 2-8 days) respectively. Pearson’s correlation between the MFISS and FISS scores and the cost and duration of hospitalization, revealed statistically significant correlations (MFISS vs. cost - R = 0.862, P < 0.001; MFISS vs. duration - R = 0.828, P < 0.01; FISS vs. cost - R = 0.845, P < 0.01; FISS vs. duration - R = 0.819, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, maxillofacial injury severity measured by MFISS and FISS scores are predictable indicators of the economic burden to the patients. PMID:25954069

  19. Spatial and Temporal Measurements of Temperature and Cell Viability in Response to Nanoparticle Mediated Photothermal Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Jon R; Rodgers, Amanda; Harvie, Erica; Carswell, William; Torti, Suzy; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Rylander, Christopher; Rylander, Nichole M

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Nanoparticle enhanced photothermal therapy is a promising alternative to tumor resection. However, quantitative measurements of cellular response to these treatments are limited. This paper introduces a Bimodal Enhanced Analysis of Spatiotemporal Temperature (BEAST) algorithm to rapidly determine the viability of cancer cells in vitro following photothermal therapy alone or in combination with nanoparticles. Materials & Methods: To illustrate the capability of the BEAST viability algorithm, single wall carbon nanohorns were added to renal cancer (RENCA) cells in vitro and time-dependent spatial temperature maps measured with an infrared camera during laser therapy were correlated with post-treatment cell viability distribution maps obtained by cell-staining fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: The BEAST viability algorithm accurately and rapidly determined the cell viability as function of time, space, and temperature.

  20. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs to be higher to compensate. An artisan cheese company that has not achieved the recognition needed to achieve a premium price may not find distribution through distributors profitable. PMID:26476951

  1. Effects of cryoprotectants on viability of Lactobacillus reuteri CICC6226.

    PubMed

    Li, Baokun; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Freeze-drying is commonly used to preserve probiotics, but it could cause cell damage and loss of viability. The cryoprotectants play an important role in the conservation of viability during freeze-drying. In this study, we investigated the survival rates of Lactobacillus reuteri CICC6226 in the presence of cryoprotectants such as sucrose, trehalose, and reconstituted skim milk (RSM). In addition, we determined the activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ATPases immediately following the freeze-drying. The results showed that the differences in HK and PK activities with and without the cryoprotectants during freeze-drying were not significant, but cell viability and activities of LDH and ATPase were significantly different (P<0.01) prior to and after freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the results showed that the maintenance of the membrane integrity and fluidity was improved in the presence of the 10% trehalose or 10% RSM than other treatments during freeze-drying. These results have provided direct biochemical and metabolic evidence of injured cell during freeze-drying. Freeze-drying damaged membrane structure and function of cell and inactivated enzymes (LDH and ATPases). The results imply that LDH and ATPases are key markers and could be used to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants on viability and metabolic activities of L. reuteri CICC6226 during freeze-drying. PMID:21626024

  2. Sorting Out Bacterial Viability with Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, M.; Hanstorp, D.; Hagberg, P.; Enger, J.; Nyström, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a method, using laser, optical tweezers and direct microscopic analysis of reproductive potential and membrane integrity, to assess single-cell viability in a stationary-phase Escherichia coli population. It is demonstrated here that a reduction in cell integrity, determined by using the fluorescent nucleic acid stain propidium iodide, correlated well with a reduction in cell proliferating potential during the stationary-phase period studied. Moreover, the same cells that exhibited reduced integrity were found to be the ones that failed to divide upon nutrient addition. A small but significant number of the intact cells (496 of 7,466 [6.6%]) failed to replicate. In other words, we did not find evidence for the existence of a large population of intact but nonculturable cells during the stationary-phase period studied but it is clear that reproductive ability can be lost prior to the loss of membrane integrity. In addition, about 1% of the stationary-phase cells were able to divide only once upon nutrient addition, and in a few cases, only one of the two cells produced by division was able to divide a second time, indicating that localized cell deterioration, inherited by only one of the daughters, may occur. The usefulness of the optical trapping methodology in elucidating the mechanisms involved in stationary-phase-induced bacterial death and population heterogeneity is discussed. PMID:10986260

  3. Evolution under Fertility and Viability Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nagylaki, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Evolution at a single multiallelic locus under arbitrary weak selection on both fertility and viability is investigated. Discrete, nonoverlapping generations are posited for autosomal and X-linked loci in dioecious populations, but monoecious populations are studied in both discrete and continuous time. Mating is random. The results hold after several generations have elapsed. With an error of order s [i.e., O(s)], where s represents the selection intensity, the population evolves in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Provided the change per generation of the fertilities and viabilities due to their explicit time dependence (if any) is O(s 2), the rate of change of the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions is O(s2). If the change per generation of the viabilities and genotypic fertilities is smaller than second order [i.e., o(s2)], then to O(s 2) the rate of change of the mean fitness is equal to the genic variance. The mean fitness is the product of the mean fertility and the mean viability; in dioecious populations, the latter is the unweighted geometric mean of the mean viabilities of the two sexes. Hence, as long as there is significant gene frequency change, the mean fitness increases. If it is the fertilities of matings that change slowly [at rate o(s 2)], the above conclusions apply to a modified mean fitness, defined as the product of the mean viability and the square root of the mean fertility. PMID:3557116

  4. Assessment of skin flap viability using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Liu, Quan

    2012-12-01

    The accurate assessment of skin flap viability is vitally important in reconstructive surgery. Early identification of vascular compromise increases the change of successful flap salvage. The ability to determine tissue viability intraoperatively is also extremely useful when the reconstructive surgeon must decide how to inset the flap and whether any tissue must be discarded. Visible diffuse reflectance and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy, which yield different sets of biochemical information, have not been used in the characterization of skin flap viability simultaneously to our best knowledge. We performed both diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements on a reverse MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model to identify the additional value of auto-fluorescence spectroscopy to the assessment of flap viability. Our result suggests that auto-fluorescence spectroscopy appears to be more sensitive to early biochemical changes in a failed flap than diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which could be a valuable complement to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the assessment of flap viability.

  5. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Mendes, Tiago Antônio Oliveira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique. PMID:25866820

  6. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain. PMID:20146773

  7. Radiolabeled red cell viability. I. Comparison of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of autologous stored red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 99m/Tc red cell (RBC) and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in additive media (Nutracel) for 42 or 49 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 99m/Tc value was 1.23. In this experiment we also calculated /sup 51/Cr RBC viability by both the single-isotope method (extrapolation) and the double-isotope method (using /sup 125/I human serum albumin for an independent plasma volume) in the same volunteers. The corresponding viability values were not significantly different. The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 111/In-oxine RBC and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 other normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) for 1 or 15 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 111/In value was 1.1. Use of these 24-hour viability ratios as conversion factors permits direct comparison of /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 111/In RBC viability with a /sup 51/Cr standard, and therefore expands the application of these newer RBC radiolabels.

  8. Viability of Loma salmonae (Microsporidia) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R W; Kent, M L; Adamson, M L

    2000-12-01

    The viability of the fish-infecting microsporidian Loma salmonae Morrison and Sprague, 1981 was determined under laboratory conditions by polar filament extrusion and infectivity to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Extrusion rates of isolated spores decreased from 51.0% to 0.0% by 100 days after storage in fresh or sea water at 4 degrees C. Spores stored up to 95 days in either solution infected 80.0-100.0% of exposed chinook, although no spores infected fish at 100 days in one trial. Viability in Earl's balanced salt solution was tested up to 50 days, with 23.7% of spores extruding filaments and 80.0% of exposed chinook becoming infected. Spores frozen to -20 degrees C or -70 degrees C were unable to infect fish. PMID:11133113

  9. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  10. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  11. The effect of ultrasound-related stimuli on cell viability in microfluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In ultrasonic micro-devices, contrast agent micro-bubbles are known to initiate cavitation and streaming local to cells, potentially compromising cell viability. Here we investigate the effects of US alone by omitting contrast agent and monitoring cell viability under moderate-to-extreme ultrasound-related stimuli. Results Suspended H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to ultrasonic fields within a glass micro-capillary and their viability monitored under different US-related stimuli. An optimal injection flow rate of 2.6 mL/h was identified in which, high viability was maintained (~95%) and no mechanical stress towards cells was evident. This flow rate also allowed sufficient exposure of cells to US in order to induce bioeffects (~5 sec), whilst providing economical sample collection and processing times. Although the transducer temperature increased from ambient 23°C to 54°C at the maximum experimental voltage (29 Vpp), computational fluid dynamic simulations and controls (absence of US) revealed that the cell medium temperature did not exceed 34°C in the pressure nodal plane. Cells exposed to US amplitudes ranging from 0–29 Vpp, at a fixed frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.05 sec), revealed that viability was minimally affected up to ~15 Vpp. There was a ~17% reduction in viability at 21 Vpp, corresponding to the onset of Rayleigh-like streaming and a ~60% reduction at 29 Vpp, corresponding to increased streaming velocity or the potential onset of cavitation. At a fixed amplitude (29 Vpp) but with varying frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.02-0.50 sec), cell viability remained relatively constant at tsw ≥ 0.08 sec, whilst viability reduced at tsw < 0.08 sec and minimum viability recorded at tsw = 0.05 sec. Conclusion The absence of CA has enabled us to investigate the effect of US alone on cell viability. Moderate-to-extreme US-related stimuli of cells have allowed us to discriminate between stimuli that maintain high viability and stimuli that significantly reduce cell viability. Results from this study may be of potential interest to researchers in the field of US-induced intracellular drug delivery and ultrasonic manipulation of biological cells. PMID:23809777

  12. Borderline viability: controversies in caring for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Leuthner, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Controversy surrounding the decision to resuscitate at the limits or borderline of viability has been at the center of neonatal ethical debate for decades. This debate has led to numerous reports from individual institutions, councils, and advisory committees that all have remarkable consistency in the development of gestational age-based guidelines. This article reviews legal or regulatory concerns that may contradict ethical discussion and guidelines, discriminatory and scientific basis concerns with consensus guidelines, and personal controversy about how to determine best interest. Guidelines are a reasonable place to start in helping determine parental authority and autonomy. The article also addresses controversies raised in counseling and costs. PMID:25459775

  13. Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

  14. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:23990833

  15. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  16. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  17. The Convergence Theory Reconsidered: Political and Economic Determinants of Social Welfare Effort, A Cross-National Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Joseph W.; Williamson, John B.

    The convergence theory asserts that industrial nations are becoming increasingly alike due to their economic and technological development. Most interpretations of the convergence theory either state or imply that political factors are unimportant in shaping the common welfare state toward which all industrial nations are converging. Using data on…

  18. Economic Time Series Modeling to Determine the Feasibility of Incorporating Drinking Water Treatment in Water Quality Trading

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical steps required to evaluating the feasiblity of establishing a water quality trading market in a testbed watershed is described. Focus is given toward describing the problem of thin markets as a specifi barrier to successful trading. Economic theory for considering an...

  19. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  20. Fluorescence of testicle. An indication of viability of spermatic cord after torsion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H C; Kendall, A R; Karafin, L

    1975-01-01

    We present an objective measure of testicular viability intended to aid the surgeon in salvaging the testicle at the time of operation for torsion of the spermatic cord. Following the intravenous administration of 5 to 10 cc. of sodium fluorescein, the viability of the untwisted testicle can be determined by its fluorescence when exposed to a portable long wavelength Wood ultraviolet light source. PMID:1114535

  1. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  2. Storage and Viability of Hedychium Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species generally flower in the summer and fall, but some bloom in winter and spring times. The different flowering times of the species implies that there is a need to find a way for storing and conserving viable pollen. The maintenance of pollen viability depends on several factors, incl...

  3. Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    The metapopulation viability analysis package, VORTEX, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean fecundity for a significant probability of persisting for the next 100 years. Metapopulation structure (i.e. the delineation of populations within the metapopulation) and interpopulation dispersal rates had varying effects on model results; however, spatially-structured metapopulations exhibited lower viability than that reported for single-population models. The models were most sensitive to variation in survivorship; hence, additional mortality data will improve their accuracy. With this information, such models become useful tools in identifying successful management objectives; and sensitivity analyses, even in the absence of some data, may indicate which options are likely to be most effective. Metapopulation viability models are best suited for developing conservation strategies for achieving recovery objectives based on maintaining an externally derived, target population size and structure.

  4. Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa

    2013-04-01

    Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets. PMID:23212836

  5. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Steffens, D; Braghirolli, D I; Fernandes, R A; Netto, C A; Pranke, P

    2012-02-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  6. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  7. The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of the…

  8. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  9. Viability of nonminimally coupled f (R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    In this work we explore the viability of nonminimally coupled matter-curvature gravity theories, namely the conditions required for the absence of tachyon instabilities and ghost degrees of freedom. We contrast our finds with recent claims of a pathological behaviour of this class of models, which resorted to, in our view, an incorrect analogy with k-essence.

  10. Economics of Distance Education Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaser, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    According to Gartner a certain hype of e-Learning was followed by a downturn but eLearning will continue to be an important factor in learning scenarios. However the economic viability of e-learning projects will be questioned with more scrutiny than in earlier periods. Therefore it seems to be a good opportunity to see what can be learned from…

  11. The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  12. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  13. Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

  14. The viability of the concept of a primary health care team in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Boerma, T

    1987-01-01

    The concept of a team approach in primary health care (PHC) is an integral part of the overall PHC strategy and is advocated at many occasions. Its theoretical advantages are multiple, even though very few sound studies exist on the effectiveness of PHC team. The viability of the concept of PHC teams is affected by two groups of factors. The first group is related to (health) manpower problems in developing countries with its underlying economic causes. The second group of factors is associated with the viability of the PHC concept in general. This pertains to decentralization, intersectoral collaboration and community participation which all affect the viability of the concept of PHC teams. PMID:3686105

  15. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

  16. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  17. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  18. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  19. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  20. Assessing yeast viability from cell size measurements?

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, Pierre; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Roger, Jean-Michel; Ghommidh, Charles

    2010-08-20

    During microbial cell cultures, environmental conditions affect cell physiology and subsequently process efficiency. Physiological changes result in changing cell morphology, such as cell size variations. The aim of this work was to study cell size evolution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population exposed to various stresses during alcoholic batch fermentations, and to evaluate the potential use of cell size measurements to infer cell viability. During a reference culture, without perturbation, viability as assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI) remained 100% and mean cell diameter was found to be above 5microm. A rapid temperature shift from 33 to 43 degrees C at 50gl(-1) of ethanol resulted in an immediate arrest of growth and triggered a progressive loss of viability from 100% to 0% and a decrease of mean cell diameter from 5.2 to 3.7microm. Cell size distribution curves obtained with a cell counter showed an increasing subpopulation of significantly smaller cells. At single-cell level, combined microscopy size measurements and PI staining showed that this subpopulation was exclusively composed of dead cells. Similar results were obtained after acetic acid or furfural additions. Accordingly, a multivariate data analysis was achieved to estimate the ratio of dead cells from cell size distributions obtained using the cell counter. PMID:20599572

  1. A Search Algorithm for Determination of Economic Order Quantity in a Two-Level Supply Chain System with Transportation Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirayesh Neghab, Mohammadali; Haji, Rasoul

    This study considers a two-level supply chain system consisting of one warehouse and a number of identical retailers. In this system, we incorporate transportation costs into inventory replenishment decisions. The transportation cost contains a fixed cost and a variable cost. We assume that the demand rate at each retailer is known and the demand is confined to a single item. First, we derive the total cost which is the sum of the holding and ordering cost at the warehouse and retailers as well as the transportation cost from the warehouse to retailers. Then, we propose a search algorithm to find the economic order quantities for the warehouse and retailers which minimize the total cost.

  2. A rapid, economical, and accurate method to determining the physical risk of storm marine inundations using sedimentary evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan F.

    2015-04-01

    The majority of physical risk assessments from storm surge inundations are derived from synthetic time series generated from short climate records, which can often result in inaccuracies and are time-consuming and expensive to develop. A new method is presented here for the wet tropics region of northeast Australia. It uses lidar-generated topographic cross sections of beach ridge plains, which have been demonstrated to be deposited by marine inundations generated by tropical cyclones. Extreme value theory statistics are applied to data derived from the cross sections to generate return period plots for a given location. The results suggest that previous methods to estimate return periods using synthetic data sets have underestimated the magnitude/frequency relationship by at least an order of magnitude. The new method promises to be a more rapid, economical, and accurate assessment of the physical risk of these events.

  3. Salinity effects on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of three Perkinsus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La, Peyre M.; Casas, S.; La, Peyre J.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the range of conditions in which many Perkinsus species may proliferate, making it difficult to predict conditions favorable for their expansion, to identify conditions inducing mortality, or to identify instances of potential cross-infectivity among sympatric host species. In this study, the effects of salinity on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki were determined. Specifically, this research examined the effects of 5 salinities (7, 11, 15, 25, 35???), (1) without acclimation, on the viability and metabolic activity of 2 isolates of each Perkinsus species, and (2) with acclimation, on the viability, metabolic activity, size and number of 1 isolate of each species. P. chesapeaki showed the widest range of salinity tolerance of the 3 species, with high viability and cell proliferation at all salinities tested. Although P. chesapeaki originated from low salinity areas (i.e. <15???), several measures (i.e. cell number and metabolic activity) indicated that higher salinities (15, 25???) were more favorable for its growth. P. olseni, originating from high salinity areas, had better viability and proliferation at the higher salinities (15, 25, 35???). Distinct differences in acute salinity response of the 2 P. olseni isolates at lower salinities (7, 11???), however, suggest the need for a more expansive comparison of isolates to better define the lower salinity tolerance. Lastly, P. marinus was more tolerant of the lower salinities (7 and 11???) than P. olseni, but exhibited reduced viability at 7???, even after acclimation. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  4. Lactate as a Novel Quantitative Measure of Viability in Schistosoma mansoni Drug Sensitivity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie; Zphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays by applying schistosomula and adult worms to establish a proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected the viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomulum numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested, and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple surrogate marker to be measured to determine Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and the commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate interassay comparisons of potencies and, thus, concerted drug discovery approaches. PMID:25487803

  5. Lactate as a novel quantitative measure of viability in Schistosoma mansoni drug sensitivity assays.

    PubMed

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays by applying schistosomula and adult worms to establish a proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected the viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomulum numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested, and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple surrogate marker to be measured to determine Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and the commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate interassay comparisons of potencies and, thus, concerted drug discovery approaches. PMID:25487803

  6. Low socio-economic environmental determinants of children's physical activity in Coventry, UK: A Qualitative study in parents

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, E.L.J.; Duncan, M.J.; Birch, S.L.; Cox, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children's physical activity (PA) is affected by socio-economic status (SES) and the environment. Children are not fully autonomous in their decision making; parental decisions thus affect how children utilise their surrounding environments for PA. The aim was to examine environmental influences on children's PA from a qualitative perspective in parents from low SES wards in Coventry, UK. Method 59 parents of children in year 4 (aged 8–9years) completed the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. 16 of these parents took part in focus group discussions examining environmental facilitators and barriers to their child's PA (March–April, 2013). Results Emerging themes related to physical (i.e. poor access, safety and quality of the neighbourhood) and social environment (i.e. ‘rough’ neighbourhood due to crime and anti-social behaviour) influences on the PA behaviour of children. The parents believed these environmental factors resulted in the children engaging in greater sedentary activity (watching TV) indoors. The school environment was perceived as a supportive physical environment for children's PA behaviour. Conclusion Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF). Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in. PMID:26844037

  7. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  8. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    PubMed

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries. PMID:23276290

  9. From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

  10. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    PubMed

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (??m) sensing probe. PMID:23835805

  11. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. PMID:25429386

  12. Limits of fetal viability and its enhancement.

    PubMed

    Breborowicz, G H

    2001-01-01

    According to Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, viable of a fetus it means having reached such a stage of development as to be capable of living, under normal conditions, outside the uterus. Viability exists as a function of biomedical and technological capacities, which are different in different parts of the world. As a consequence, there is, at the present time, no worldwide, uniform gestational age that defines viability. Viability is not an intrinsic property of the fetus because viability should be understood in terms of both biological and technological factors. It is only in virtue of both factors that a viable fetus can exist ex utero and thus later achieve independent moral status. Moreover, these two factors do not exist as a function of the autonomy of the pregnant woman. When a fetus is viable, that is, when it is of sufficient maturity so that it can survive into the neonatal period and later achieve independent moral status given the availability of the requisite technological support, and when it is presented to the physician, the fetus is a patient. In the United States viability presently occurs at approximately 24 weeks of gestational age (Chervenak, L.B. McCullough; Textbook of Perinatal Medicine, 1998). In Portugal, the mortality increase significantly with GA<25 weeks. At 25 weeks mortality was 44.4% and at 26 weeks was 24.4% (I. Macedo et al. Matemidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Lisbon, 2000). In Poland during last years we observe also a very significant decrease of perinatal mortality. There are several aspects of fetal viability: ethical, social, psychological and medical. Ethical aspects There is a compelling conceptual and clinical reason to reject Primum non nocere as the primary principle of perinatal ethics; virtually all medical interventions involve unavoidable risks of harm, for example, amniocentesis. If Primum non nocere were to be made the primary principle of perinatal ethics, virtually all of perinatal medicine would be unethical. Social aspects Greatly increased advances in perinatal medicine lead on one hand to a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Even in the high-income countries, the available resources are scarce in relation to these demands a high quality of care expected and demanded by both the health care professionals and patients, but on the other hand the resources available for responding to the expectations and demands are becoming increasingly stretched. Medical aspects During the preconceptional period the most important actions are: family planning, education, analysis of previous obstetrical miscarriages and prevention of congenital malformations (folic acid). Pregnancy presents several problems, which can significantly influence fetal viability. Proper management of these problems can improve perinatal outcome. Among others prevention of prematurity is the most important goal of contemporary perinatal medicine. Enhancement of fetal viability There are several possibilities to enhance fetal viability. The most important are: organization of perinatal care, introduction of new technologies to perinatal medicine, intensive fetal therapy and early detection of fetal distress. Three levels system of perinatal care, transport in utero, introduction and promotion of new methods, continues education of staff are characteristic for the modern organization of perinatal medicine. Echocardiography, Color Doppler Energy, 3D sonography, prenatal diagnosis (cordocentesis, analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood,.), fetal pulse oximetry, mathematical analysis of the signal are the methods which should be used at the highest level of perinatal care. Today, the prospect of survival is only about 1 in 10 at 23 weeks, and if the child lives it is more likely to be handicapped that not. At 24 weeks the chance of a normal survivor is about 50%, and after this the odds are in favor of a normal survivor. Considering this data, intensive care should be an optional choice for fetuses at 23 and 24 weeks of gestation and should be offered to every fetus at 25 weeks or more. PMID:11753511

  13. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  14. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  15. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

  16. Rapid Endospore Viability Assay of Clostridium sporogenes spores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Wan; Ponce, Adrian

    2009-08-15

    A rapid Endospore Viability Assay (EVA), previously developed for Bacillus spores, was modified for enumeration of germinable Clostridium sporogenes spores. The EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released during stage I germination and quantified by terbium (III) ion Tb-DPA luminescence. Germination of C. sporogenes spores in aqueous suspension was induced by L-alanine and NaHCO(3) addition, and germinable endospore numbers were determined by reference to a standard curve. Determination of the fractions of germinable C. sporogenes spores by EVA and phase-contrast microscopy yielded comparable results of 54.0%+/-2.9% and 59.3%+/-2.6%, respectively, while only 32.3%+/-5.3% of spores produced colonies on reinforced clostridial medium (RCM). Rates of germination were measured as a function of temperature (30 degrees C-60 degrees C) using EVA, yielding a linear relationship between the square root of the rate constant and inverse temperature. PMID:19540610

  17. Socio-economic determinants of child labour and attitudes to child labour among school children in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Omokhodion, S I

    2004-12-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to compare the characteristics of working and non-working school children. Two hundred and thirty one working and 236 non-working children were interviewed. The socio economic factors associated with child labour were trading as mother's occupation, father's educational status, religion, family type (monogamous vs polygamous) and type of residence. Family type (OR = 0.562, 95% C.I. 0.353-0.897, p = 0.016), religion (OR = 0.559, 95% C.I. 0.361-0.867, p = 0.009) and trading as mother's occupation (O.R = 2.49, 95% CI 1.68-3.68, p = 0.000) were sustained on logistic regression analysis. With regard to attitude to child work, 186 (40%) of all respondents thought that children should be allowed to work. The majority of those who held this opinion 150, were child workers. Ten percent of working children had themselves chosen to work without any parental influence to do so. Seventy five respondents had ever repeated a class. Forty nine of these were working children a prevalence of 21% of repeaters compared to 26 non working children, (11%.) p = 0.004. Sixty eight percent of children aspiring to careers in artisan trades were child workers. Road traffic accidents and poor school performance were the commonest adverse effects of child labour indicated by school children. Parents should be educated about the adverse effects of child labour on child development. As poverty is one of the major root causes of child labour, free and compulsory primary education may help to reduce the notion of child work as an option for survival in poor families. PMID:15977436

  18. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  19. Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

    1992-01-01

    One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

  20. Cell viability in a wet silica gel.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Areva, Sami; Wilson, Timothy; Viitala, Reeta; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2009-11-01

    A modified two-step sol-gel route using silicon ethoxide (TEOS) has been used to synthesize amorphous sol-gel-derived silica, which has been successfully used as a cell encapsulation matrix for 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and CRL-2595 epithelial cells due to its non-toxicity. The sol-gel procedure comprised a first, low pH hydrolysis step, followed by a neutral condensation-gelation step. A high water-to-TEOS ratio and the addition of d-glucose as a porogen and source of nutrients were chosen to minimize silica dissolution and improve the biocompatibility of the process. Indeed, the cell integrity in the encapsulation process was preserved by alcohol removal from the starting solution. Cells were then added in a buffered medium, causing rapid gelation and entrapment of the cells within a randomly structured siloxane matrix in the shape of a monolith, which was maintained in the wet state. MTT and alamarBlue assays were used to check the cytotoxicity of the silica gels and the viability of entrapped cells at initial times in contact with silica. To improve cell attachment, cell clumping experiments - where groups of cells were formed - were designed, rendering improved viability. The obtained materials are therefore excellent candidates for designing tissue-culture scaffolds and implantable bioreactors for biomedical applications. PMID:19481618

  1. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  2. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report. [In Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept. Three different classes of building are investigated, namely: single-family residence; multi-family residence; and commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in three different climatic regions: Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. Computer programs - ACESIM for the residences and CACESS for the office building - were used, each comprised of four modules: loads; design; simulation; and economic. For each building type in each geographic location, the economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of a number of conventional systems. The results of this analysis indicate that the economic viability of the ACES is very sensitive to the assumed value of the property tax, maintenace cost, and fuel-escalation rates, while it is relatively insensitive to the assumed values of other parameters. Fortunately, any conceivable change in the fuel-escalation rates would tend to increase the viability of the ACES concept. An increase in the assumed value of the maintenance cost or property tax would tend to make the ACES concept less viable; a decrease in either would tend to make the ACES concept more viable. The detailed results of this analysis are given in Section 5.4 of Volume II. 2 figures, 21 tables.

  3. Ideology and 'A' Level Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)

  4. A quick, convenient and economical method for the reliable determination of methylglyoxal in millimolar concentrations: the N-acetyl-L-cysteine assay.

    PubMed

    Wild, Rebekka; Ooi, Lezanne; Srikanth, Velandai; Münch, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    The determination of methylglyoxal (MG) concentrations in vivo is gaining increasing importance as high levels of MG are linked to various health impairments including complications of diabetes. In order to standardize the measurements of MG in body fluids, it is necessary to precisely determine the concentration of MG stock solutions used as analytical standards. The "gold standard" method for the determination of MG concentration in the millimolar range is an enzyme-catalyzed endpoint assay based on the glyoxalase I catalyzed formation of S-lactoylglutathione. However, as this assay used purified glyoxalase I enzyme, it is quite expensive. Another method uses a derivation reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but this substance is explosive and needs special handling and storage. In addition, precipitation of the product methylglyoxal-bis-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrozone during the reaction limits the reliability of this method. In this study, we have evaluated a new method of MG determination based on the previously published fast reaction between MG and N-acetyl-L-cysteine at room temperature which yields an easily detectable condensation product, N-α-acetyl-S-(1-hydroxy-2-oxo-prop-1-yl)cysteine. When comparing these three different assays for the measurement of MG concentrations, we find that the N-acetyl-L-cysteine assay is the most favorable, providing an economical and robust assay without the need for the use of hazardous or expensive reagents. PMID:22580513

  5. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment.

    PubMed

    Nocker, Andreas; Fernández, Priscilla Sossa; Montijn, Roy; Schuren, Frank

    2012-08-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to gain more insight into why cells might not form colonies and to optimize production processes. To evaluate their usefulness, we applied in this study a multiparameter viability assay to selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirae, and Staphylococcus aureus) subjected to air-drying in the absence or presence of supplements. Tests included growth on solid culture medium and the measurement of membrane integrity, membrane potential, esterase and respiratory activities using fluorescent dyes. All measured parameters were responsive to desiccation stress. Results suggested that extending plate count analysis with cultivation-independent methods can greatly enhance resolution especially for moderate stress conditions, which do not get reflected in plate counts due to cellular recovery. Whereas plate counts reflect the final effect on viability, immediate measurement of cellular functions provides a snapshot picture of the fitness status at a specific point in time. Special emphasis was given to MgCl(2) which in concentrations≥50mM dramatically increased the bacterial susceptibility to desiccation in the case of the gram-negative bacteria and to a lesser extent also for the gram-positive bacteria. The study in addition confirmed a good agreement of results obtained with the recently developed real-time viability (RTV) assay and the BacLight LIVE/DEAD method in combination with a fluorescence plate reader. PMID:22575714

  6. Survey of the Definition of Fetal Viability and the Availability, Indications, and Decision Making Processes for Post-Viability Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormalities and Health Conditions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the definition of fetal viability and the availability, indications, and decision making processes for post-viability termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities and health conditions in Canada. An online survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists, and the Canadian Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who provide direct counselling to, or management of, prenatal patients in Canada (total sample size 815). Results of this study showed that the majority of respondents indicated that their centre will offer post-viability termination of pregnancy (98/123; 80 %). Sixty-seven percent (68/101) of respondents reported the definition of fetal viability to be 24 weeks' gestation. Most respondents reported that a collaborative decision making process was used to determine if post-viability termination of pregnancy would be offered (136/170; 80 %). For conditions presumed to be lethal/likely lethal, the majority of respondents would "sometimes" or "always" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy, whereas for conditions presumed to have a mild effect, the majority of respondents would "rarely" or "never" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy. Ninety percent (77/86) of respondents reported that perinatal hospice is offered as an alternative to termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that although post-viability termination is available in many provinces in Canada, variation in the definition of fetal viability and indications appear to exist. While these variations may lead to unequal access to post-viability termination of pregnancy across Canada, they might also represent the complexity of the decision making process and the importance of examining individual factors to ensure that the most appropriate decision is made in each case. PMID:26536885

  7. Resilience and vulnerability to a natural hazard: A mathematical framework based on viability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    This deals with the response of a coupled human and natural system (CHANS) to a natural hazard by using the concepts of resilience and vulnerability within the mathematical framework of viability theory. This theory applies to time-evolving systems such as CHANS and assumes that their desirable properties can be defined as a subset of their state space. Policies can also apply to influence the dynamics of such systems: viability theory aims at finding the policies which keep the properties of a controlled dynamical system for so long as no disturbance hits it. The states of the system such that the properties are guaranteed constitute what is called the viability kernel. This viability framework has been extended to describe the response to a perturbation such as a natural hazard. Resilience describes the capacity of the CHANS to recover by getting back in the viability kernel, where its properties are guaranteed until the onset of the next major event. Defined for a given controlled trajectory that the system may take after the event ends, resilience is (a) whether the system comes back to the viability kernel within a given budget such as a time constraint, but also (b) a decreasing function of vulnerability. Computed for a given trajectory as well, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for a certain trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of an associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Computing the resilience and vulnerability of a trajectory enables the viability framework to describe the response of both deterministic and stochastic systems to hazards. In the deterministic case, there is only one response trajectory for a given action policy, and methods exist to find the actions which yield the most resilient trajectory, namely the least vulnerable trajectory for which recovery is complete. In the stochastic case however, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the resilience and vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield either the policies that maximize the probability of being resilient by achieving recovery within a given time horizon, or these which minimize a given vulnerability statistic. These objectives are different and can be in contradiction, so that trade-offs may have to be considered between them. The approach is illustrated in both the deterministic and stochastic cases through a simple model of lake eutrophication, for which the desirable ecological properties of the lake conflict with the economic interest of neighboring farmers.

  8. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  9. Ice-Binding Protein Derived from Glaciozyma Can Improve the Viability of Cryopreserved Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Jun; Shim, Hye Eun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Hur, Young Baek

    2015-12-28

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) can inhibit ice recrystallization (IR), a major cause of cell death during cryopreservation. IBPs are hypothesized to improve cell viability after cryopreservation by alleviating the cryoinjury caused by IR. In our previous studies, we showed that supplementation of the freezing medium with the recombinant IBP of the Arctic yeast Glaciozyma sp. (designated as LeIBP) could reduce post-thaw hemolysis of human red blood cells and increase the survival of cryopreserved diatoms. Here, we showed that LeIBP could improve the viability of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), human preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1), and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were evaluated. These mammalian cells were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution with or without 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP at a cooling rate of -1°C/min in a -80°C freezer overnight. The minimum effective concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of LeIBP was determined, based on the viability of HeLa cells after treatment with LeIBP during cryopreservation and the IR inhibition assay results. The post-thaw viability of mammalian cells was examined. In all cases, cell viability was significantly enhanced by more than 10% by LeIBP supplementation in 5% DMSO/5% FBS: viability increased by 20% for HeLa cells, 28% for NIH/3T3 cells, 21% for MC3T3-E1, 10% for CHO-K1, and 20% for HaCaT. Furthermore, addition of LeIBP reduced the concentrations of toxic DMSO and FBS down to 5%. Therefore, we demonstrated that LeIBP can increase the viability of cryopreserved mammalian cells by inhibiting IR. PMID:26323271

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  11. [Health Impact Assessments (HIA): an intersectoral process for action on the social, economic and environmental determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, Louise; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Simos, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a practice that has grown in popularity worldwide, since the end of the 1990s. Originally used in the framework of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), HIA has become enriched through the addition of knowledge and principles based on the social determinants of health and the tackling of health inequalities, and has been brought to bear on the policy-planning process at all levels of government. HIA has three overlapping objectives: to assess the potential effects of a policy on health, to encourage citizen and stakeholder participation in the impact analysis process, and to inform the decision-making process. This article briefly defines HIA; defines its standardized process in successive steps, which allows users to give structure to their actions and to establish the steps to be followed (detection, framing, analysis, recommendations and evaluation); and offers three examples of HIA in three different situations: the Geneva canton of Switzerland; Rennes, France; and in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. Together, these illustrations show that HIA is a promising strategy to influence local decisions and to integrate health into projects and policies at the local and regional levels. PMID:24737808

  12. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of the associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Due to the stochastic nature of the system, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield the policies which, among available policies, minimize a given trajectory. Thus, this viability framework gives indication on both the possible consequences of a hazard or an environmental change, and on the policies that can mitigate or avert it. It also enables to assess the benefits of extending the set of available policy options, and we define adaptive capacity as the reduction in a given vulnerability statistic due to the introduction of new policy options.

  13. Extending the viability of acute brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andr; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 612?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  14. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. PMID:25494697

  15. Tissue viability: the facts and the law.

    PubMed

    Culley, F

    Accountability remains an integral part of nursing, irrespective of occupational status or setting. The leaflet reminds nurses involved in direct care, as well as those in advisory, educational or promotional roles, of the need to consider and fulfil professional obligations towards a vulnerable and expectant public. The need to select resources that will support, not replace, skilled nursing is crucial. As nurses expand their practice they may face greater risk of litigation, but the boundaries should be clarified through job descriptions, employer approved policy statements and UKCC standards. Being asked to account for actions or omissions of care may be perceived as daunting. However, complaints may help drive quality improvement as well as staff development. A sense of perspective is needed to prevent defensive practice, allowing the potential of autonomous and accountable professionals being realised in the delivery of tissue viability services. PMID:9735805

  16. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  17. Dry heat effects on survival of indigenous soil particle microflora and particle viability studies of Kennedy Space Center soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruschmeyer, O. R.; Pflug, I. J.; Gove, R.; Heisserer, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on attempts to obtain data concerning the dry heat resistance of particle microflora in Kennedy Space Center soil samples. The in situ dry heat resistance profiles at selected temperatures for the aggregate microflora on soil particles of certain size ranges were determined. Viability profiles of older soil samples were compared with more recently stored soil samples. The effect of increased particle numbers on viability profiles after dry heat treatment was investigated. These soil particle viability data for various temperatures and times provide information on the soil microflora response to heat treatment and are useful in making selections for spacecraft sterilization cycles.

  18. Use of flow cytometry to assess chondrocyte viability after laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Charlton C.; Basu, Reshmi; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Lasers have been shown to cause permanent shape change in cartilage via photothermally induced mechanical stress relaxation. While the biophysical properties of cartilage during laser irradiation have been studied, tissue viability following laser irradiation has not been fully characterized. In this study, cell viability staining and flow cytometry were used to determine chondrocyte viability following photothermal stress relaxation. Porcine septal cartilage slabs (10 X 25 X 1.5 mm) were irradiated with light from a Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.32 micrometer, 25 W/cm2) while surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance were recorded. Each slab received one, two, or three laser exposures (respective exposure times of 6.7, 7.2, 10 s), determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance, which correlate with mechanical stress relaxation. Irradiated samples were then divided into two groups analyzed immediately and at five days following laser exposure (the latter group was maintained in culture). Chondrocytes were isolated following serial enzymatic digestion with hyaluronidase, protease, and collagenase II for a total of 17 hours. Chondrocytes were then stained using SYTOR/DEAD RedTM (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) wherein live cells stained green (530 nm) and dead cells stained red (630 nm) when excited at 488 nm. A flow cytometer (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) was then used to detect differential cell fluorescence; size; granularity; and the number of live cells, dead cells, and post irradiation debris in each treatment population. Nearly 60% of chondrocytes from reshaped cartilage samples isolated shortly after irradiation, were viable as determined using flow cytometry while non- irradiated controls were 100 percent viable. Specimens irradiated two or three times with the laser demonstrated increasing amounts of cellular debris along with a reduction in chondrocyte viability: 31 percent following two laser exposures, and 16 percent after three laser exposures. In those samples maintained in culture medium and assayed 5 days after irradiation, viability was reduced by 28 to 88 percent, with the least amount of deterioration in untreated and singly irradiated samples. Functional fluorescent dyes combined with flow cytometric analysis successfully determines the effect of laser irradiation on the viability of reshaped cartilage. The flow cytometric approach to viability is accurate, fast, and can handle large sample numbers and sizes. Most importantly, since the method reveals that a single laser exposure of 6.7 s (sufficient for sustained shape change) causes less than 40 percent acute reduction in viability, photothermal reshaping of cartilage may be further researched as a clinical alternative to conventional techniques.

  19. Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (λ = 1.45 μm, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

  20. Socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL in people living with HIV in Belgium: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk P.; Vermeir, Peter; Mariman, An; De Rick, Ann; Van Der Gucht, Bea; Pelgrom, Jolanda; Van Wanzeele, Filip; Verhofstede, Chris; Vandijck, Dominique M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1 infection has evolved from a lethal to a chronic disease. As such, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome variable. The purpose of this study was to identify socio-economic, behavioural, (neuro)psychological and clinical determinants of HRQoL among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods This study was conducted between 1 January and 31 December 2012 at the AIDS Reference Centre of Ghent University Hospital, a tertiary care referral centre in Belgium. Validated self-report questionnaires were administered to collect socio-demographic data, to assess HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study-HIV), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and adherence to HAART (Short Medication Adherence Questionnaire) and to screen for neurocognitive dysfunction. Results A total of 237 people participated, among whom 187 (78.9%) were male. Mean age was 45.8±10.7 years and 144 (63.7%, 144/226) participants were homosexual. Median physical and mental health score (PHS, MHS) were 55.6 (IQR 48.2–60.6) and 52.0 (IQR 44.2–57.9), respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that incapacity to work, depressive symptoms, neurocognitive complaints (NCCs), dissatisfaction with the patient–physician relationship and non-adherence were all negatively associated with HRQoL. Conclusions Socio-economic (work status), behavioural (adherence) and (neuro)psychological (depressive symptoms, NCCs) determinants independently impact HRQoL among this cohort of PLHIV. Clinical parameters (viral load, CD4 cell count) were not independently associated with HRQoL. PMID:24331754

  1. The effects of particulate metals on cell viability of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatuji; Takeda, Shoji; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2002-06-01

    Effects of fifteen particulate objects, fourteen metals and one non-metal on cell viability of osteoblast-like cells were studied in vitro, to determine whether an adverse effect on cells could be induced by the particulate form or soluble ions. The Al, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and Fe particulates depressed cell viability at higher particulate concentrations, but their extracts yielded no effect on cells except for Mo. On the other hand, little difference in cell viability between particulates and extracts was observed for Cu, Si, V, W, and Co. However, Mn and Ni yielded more adverse effects on cells in the case of the particulates than the extracts. These findings suggested that the effects of particulates on cells depended upon the direct effects of contact between particulates and cells, the indirect effects of dissolved ions and the kinds of particulate elements. PMID:12238782

  2. Validation of algal viability treated with total residual oxidant and organic matter by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghyun; Choi, Eun Joo; Rhie, Kitae

    2015-08-15

    Algal cell growth after starch and oxidant treatments in seawater species (Isochrysis galbana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and freshwater species (Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus obliquus) were evaluated by flow cytometry with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining to determine algal viability. Growth of algal cell was found to be significantly different among groups treated with NaOCl, starch and/or sodium thiosulfate, which are active substance (Total Residual Oxidant; TRO as Cl2), organic compound to meet efficacy testing standard and neutralizer of TRO by Ballast Water Management Convention of International Maritime Organization, respectively. The viability of algal cell treated with TRO in starch-add culture of 5days after treatment and neutralization was decreased significantly. ATP contents of the treated algal cells corresponded to the FL1 fluorescent signal of flow cytometry with FDA staining. I. galbana was the most sensitive to TRO-neutralized cultures during viability analysis. PMID:26095986

  3. Analysis of Yeast Sporulation Efficiency, Spore Viability, and Meiotic Recombination on Solid Medium.

    PubMed

    Börner, G Valentin; Cha, Rita S

    2015-11-01

    Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, yeast cells initiate a differentiation program in which meiosis is induced and spores are formed. During meiosis, one round of genome duplication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation (meiosis I and meiosis II) to generate four haploid nuclei. Meiotic recombination occurs during prophase I. During sporogenesis, each nucleus becomes surrounded by an individual spore wall, and all four haploid spores become contained as a tetrad within an ascus. Important insights into the meiotic function(s) of a gene of interest can be gained by observing the effects of gene mutations on spore viability and viability patterns among tetrads. Moreover, recombination frequencies among viable spores can reveal potential involvement of the gene during meiotic exchange between homologous chromosomes. Here, we describe methods for inducing spore formation on solid medium, determining spore viability, and measuring, via tetrad analysis, frequencies of crossing over and gene conversion as indicators of meiotic chromosome exchange. PMID:26527763

  4. Seed viability in declining populations of Caladenia rigida (Orchidaceae): are small populations doomed?

    PubMed

    Faast, R; Facelli, J M; Austin, A D

    2011-01-01

    Despite comparatively good rates of pollination and seed production, some populations of the endangered terrestrial orchid Caladenia rigida continue to decline. To determine whether seed quality may be limiting reproductive potential, we assessed seed viability among declining populations of C.rigida (in the southern part of its distribution) and among populations that are regarded as stable (in the northern part of its distribution). We also compared differences in seed viability to plant traits, population size and habitat characteristics (soil properties, canopy cover, presence of proximate vegetation). Seed capsules from southern populations were significantly smaller, with only 9% of seeds being viable, compared to 36% in capsules from northern populations. Soil phosphorus concentrations differed between regions, but other habitat characteristics did not correlate with seed viability. Using calculations based on seedling recruitment data from other Caladenia species, we predict that seed output is insufficient to ensure the long-term persistence of the smallest C.rigida populations. PMID:21134091

  5. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon encountering nutrients. Challenge experiments shown that starved cells were avirulent for a fish host model. Conclusions Specific morphological and ultrastructural changes allowed F. columnare cells to remain viable under adverse conditions. Those changes were reversed by the addition of nutrients. This bacterium can survive in water without nutrients for extended periods of time although long-term starvation appears to decrease cell fitness and resulted in loss of virulence. PMID:23163917

  6. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

  7. Novel Sensor-Enabled Ex Vivo Bioreactor: A New Approach towards Physiological Parameters and Porcine Artery Viability

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra; Venkataraman, Divya; Kumar, Saranya; Mogal, Vishal; Ortiz, Raphael; Loo, Joachim; Venkatraman, Subbu; Steele, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to design and construct an ex vivo bioreactor system to assess the real time viability of vascular tissue. Porcine carotid artery as a model tissue was used in the ex vivo bioreactor setup to monitor its viability under physiological conditions such as oxygen, pressure, temperature, and flow. The real time tissue viability was evaluated by monitoring tissue metabolism through a fluorescent indicator “resorufin.” Our ex vivo bioreactor allows real time monitoring of tissue responses along with physiological conditions. These ex vivo parameters were vital in determining the tissue viability in sensor-enabled bioreactor and our initial investigations suggest that, porcine tissue viability is considerably affected by high shear forces and low oxygen levels. Histological evaluations with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining show intact endothelium with fresh porcine tissue whereas tissues after incubation in ex vivo bioreactor studies indicate denuded endothelium supporting the viability results from real time measurements. Hence, this novel viability sensor-enabled ex vivo bioreactor acts as model to mimic in vivo system and record vascular responses to biopharmaceutical molecules and biomedical devices. PMID:26609536

  8. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  9. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  10. Sociodemographic and Economic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity for Public-school Children in Geneva State, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Emilien; Mahler, Per; Elia, Nadia; Cerruti, Bernard; Chastonnay, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence, socioeconomic and demographic determinants of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from Geneva. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Public School of Geneva canton in Switzerland. A total of 8544 public school children were collected and analyzed: 2577 were in second grade, 2641 in fifth grade and 3326 in eighth grade. To identify overweight and obesity we used the definition issued by the International Obesity Task Force. Child characteristics included gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) of father and mother, and school grade. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine potential predictors of overweight/obesity. Results: The prevalence of overweight or obese children was 14.4% in second grade, 17.3% in fifth grade and 18.6% in eighth grade. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal that children that have a low economic status or certain citizenships are more likely to be overweight or obese. Children of Kosovar origin, have a higher risk of OBO in second grade (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–4.00), fifth grade (adjusted OR = 2.36 95% CI: 1.27–4.39) and in eighth grade (adjusted OR = 2.15 95% CI: 1.27–4.39). Association between SES and overweight was high with regards to the father's SES in fifth grade (adjusted OR = 4.21 95% CI: 2.83–6.25). Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is associated to socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. The analyzes reveals that children with a low economic status and/or from certain countries are more likely to be overweight or obese than Swiss children. There is an urgent need for action to prevent further increase in overweight or obesity among children. PMID:26015862

  11. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

    2000-04-24

    The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

  12. The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1994-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

  13. Economics of residue harvest: Regional partnership evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic analyses on the viability of corn (Zea mays, L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production have largely been based on simulation modeling. While some studies have utilized field research data, most field-based analyses have included a limited number of sites and a narrow geographic distributi...

  14. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena.

    PubMed

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M

    2016-06-01

    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors. PMID:26939692

  15. Tissue viability: understanding the mechanisms of injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sharon L

    This article provides an overview of the pathophysiological processes that relate to tissue viability. Processes such as cellular damage, oedema and the inflammatory response are also discussed. Nursing management and the role of tissue viability nurses are briefly examined. PMID:17175784

  16. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are able to maintain their viability and basic function in normal urine

    PubMed Central

    Aghamajidi, Azin; Babaie, Hesam; Amirjamshidi, Narges; Abedian, Zeinab; Khorasani, Hamidreza; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Similar to inflammatory cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can also infiltrate in to kidney and urinary tracts and subsequently excreted by urine. In this study we determined the viability rate and response to phytohemagglutinin-A (PHA) of human PBMCs in normal urine. Methods: A number of 1×106 ficoll-hypaque isolated PBMCs were dispensed in 1 ml normal urine and 6 molar urea and RPMI-1640+FBS10 % were considered as negative and positive control, respectively. After 20, 60 and 120 minutes the viability of these cells was measured by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. 1×105 of PBMCs were isolated from urine and cultured as triplicate in RPMI-1640`supplemented with FBS 10% and PHA for 96hr. MTT assay was performed to determine the PBMCs response to PHA. These experiments were repeated three times independently. Results: There was no significant difference between the viability rates of the PBMCs incubated in urine and positive control after 20, 60 and 120 minutes. Overall, there was a significant difference in trends of viability rate across the three groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that not only PBMCs remained remarkably alive in urine after 120 minutes, but can also respond to PHA up to 60 minutes after incubation in urine. These data open a new avenue in the designation for cell culture-based techniques in urine cell analysis. PMID:26958332

  17. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  18. Microbial engineering strategies to improve cell viability for biochemical production.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Teo, Wei Suong; Ling, Hua; Chen, Binbin; Kang, Aram; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2013-11-01

    Efficient production of biochemicals using engineered microbes as whole-cell biocatalysts requires robust cell viability. Robust viability leads to high productivity and improved bioprocesses by allowing repeated cell recycling. However, cell viability is negatively affected by a plethora of stresses, namely chemical toxicity and metabolic imbalances, primarily resulting from bio-synthesis pathways. Chemical toxicity is caused by substrates, intermediates, products, and/or by-products, and these compounds often interfere with important metabolic processes and damage cellular infrastructures such as cell membrane, leading to poor cell viability. Further, stresses on engineered cells are accentuated by metabolic imbalances, which are generated by heavy metabolic resource consumption due to enzyme overexpression, redistribution of metabolic fluxes, and impaired intracellular redox state by co-factor imbalance. To address these challenges, herein, we discuss a range of key microbial engineering strategies, substantiated by recent advances, to improve cell viability for commercially sustainable production of biochemicals from renewable resources. PMID:23403071

  19. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  20. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  1. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60-90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  2. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60–90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  3. Introducing Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    The booklet outlines and presents examples of basic economics concepts. Objectives are to help elementary and secondary teachers introduce economic concepts in the classroom and to help teachers grasp some of the fundamentals of economics. The document is divided into seven sections. Each section presents concepts, offers three supporting

  4. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  5. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  6. A bacteriophage detection tool for viability assessment of Salmonella cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, E; Martins, V C; Nóbrega, C; Carvalho, C M; Cardoso, F A; Cardoso, S; Dias, J; Deng, D; Kluskens, L D; Freitas, P P; Azeredo, J

    2014-02-15

    Salmonellosis, one of the most common food and water-borne diseases, has a major global health and economic impact. Salmonella cells present high infection rates, persistence over inauspicious conditions and the potential to preserve virulence in dormant states when cells are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). These facts are challenging for current detection methods. Culture methods lack the capacity to detect VBNC cells, while biomolecular methods (e.g. DNA- or protein-based) hardly distinguish between dead innocuous cells and their viable lethal counterparts. This work presents and validates a novel bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial detection tool to detect and assess Salmonella viability. Salmonella Enteritidis cells in a VBNC physiological state were evaluated by cell culture, flow-cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, and further assayed with a biosensor platform. Free PVP-SE1 phages in solution showed the ability to recognize VBNC cells, with no lysis induction, in contrast to the minor recognition of heat-killed cells. This ability was confirmed for immobilized phages on gold surfaces, where the phage detection signal follows the same trend of the concentration of viable plus VBNC cells in the sample. The phage probe was then tested in a magnetoresistive biosensor platform allowing the quantitative detection and discrimination of viable and VBNC cells from dead cells, with high sensitivity. Signals arising from 3 to 4 cells per sensor were recorded. In comparison to a polyclonal antibody that does not distinguish viable from dead cells, the phage selectivity in cell recognition minimizes false-negative and false-positive results often associated with most detection methods. PMID:24055938

  7. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  8. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  9. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. PMID:26348409

  10. A study of different buffers to maximize viability of an oral Shigella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi; Lal, Manjari; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2015-11-17

    Live, whole cell killed and subunit vaccines are being developed for diarrheal diseases caused by V. cholerae, Shigella species, ETEC, and Campylobacter. Some of these vaccines can be administered orally since this route best mimics natural infection. Live vaccines administered orally have to be protected from the harsh acidic gastric environment. Milk and bicarbonate solutions have been administered to neutralize the stomach acid. For many Shigella vaccine trials, 100-120 ml of a bicarbonate solution is ingested followed by the live vaccine candidate, which is delivered in 30 ml of bicarbonate, water or saline. It is not clear if maximum bacterial viability is achieved under these conditions. Also, volumes of neutralizing buffer that are optimal for adults may be unsuitable for children and infants. To address these questions, we performed studies to determine the viability and stability of a Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate, WRSS1, in a mixture of different volumes of five different buffer solutions added to hydrochloric acid to simulate gastric acidity. Among the buffers tested, bicarbonate solution, rotavirus buffer and CeraVacx were better at neutralizing acid and maintaining the viability of WRSS1. Also, a much smaller volume of the neutralizing buffer was sufficient to counteract stomach acid while maintaining bacterial viability. PMID:26428454

  11. Effect of storage and preservation methods on viability in transplantable human skin allografts.

    PubMed

    Bravo, D; Rigley, T H; Gibran, N; Strong, D M; Newman-Gage, H

    2000-06-01

    This study compared the metabolic activity of fresh skin samples to that of cadaver human skin allografts processed and stored by current tissue banking methods. We chose to use two metabolic assays as surrogate measures for viability in these grafts. Skin allografts stored either in liquid media at 4 degrees C for varying periods of time or stored by cryopreservation were quantitatively assessed for viability by tetrazolium reduction and oxygen consumption assays. These measurements were compared to viability assessments of fresh autograft skin. Human cadaver skin grafts, after procurement and just prior to further tissue bank processing, exhibited approximately 60% of the metabolic activity found in fresh skin samples obtained from living surgical donors. If allowed an overnight (18-24 h) incubation period at 37 degrees C, cadaver samples showed a recovery of their metabolic activity to 95% of that found in the autograft skin samples. When stored in liquid media at 4 degrees C, the cadaver skin declined steadily in cellular metabolic activity, arriving in less than 5 days storage at a measurement below that of cryopreserved skin. The cryopreserved skin was measured both immediately after thawing and dilution of cryoprotectant, as well as after equilibration and overnight incubation. Skin cryopreserved with dimethylsulfoxide Me(2)SO retained higher viability than glycerol cryopreserved skin. Residual concentrations of cryoprotectants were determined following typical recommendations for thawing and diluting skin allografts. The implications of these findings for transplantation and tissue banking are discussed. PMID:10751705

  12. Comparison of methods used for assessing the viability and vitality of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2014-11-01

    Determination of cell viability is the most commonly used method for assessing the impact of various types of stressors in toxicity research and in industrial microbiology studies. Viability is defined as a percentage of live cells in a whole population. Although cell death is one of the consequences of toxicity, chemical or physical factors may exert their toxic effects through a number of cellular alterations that may compromise cell ability to divide without necessarily leading to cell death. This aspect represents the term 'cell vitality' defined as physiological capabilities of cells. It is important to note that cell viability and cell vitality represent two different aspects of cell functions, and both are required for the estimation of the physiological state of a cell after exposure to various types of stressors and chemical or physical factors. In this paper, we introduced a classification of available methods for estimating both viability and vitality in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells (wild-type and Δsod1 mutant) in which the effects of selected oxidants causing oxidative stress is evaluated. We present the advantages as well as disadvantages of the selected methods and assess their usefulness in different types of research. PMID:25154541

  13. Effects of fat preparation methods on the viabilities of autologous fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung-Won; Min, Kyung-Hee; Chang, Hak; Kim, Sukwha; Heo, Eun-Ju

    2010-10-01

    Fat grafts are commonly used in plastic surgery, but their unpredictable absorption rates are a considerable disadvantage. Furthermore, no agreement has been reached regarding the method that best enables fat graft survival. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preparation methods on fat graft viability. Fat tissue was harvested from the remnants of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps by syringe aspiration. Harvested fat tissue was prepared using three different methods: centrifugation, metal sieve concentration, and cotton gauze concentration. To evaluate the viabilities of fat cells, XTT assays were performed. For the study, 18 nude mice were allocated to three groups: the centrifugation, metal sieve, and cotton gauze groups (6 mice per group). Prepared fat (1 ml) was injected into the nuchal area of the mice, and 12 weeks later, grafts were dissected to determine graft survival rates and subjected to histologic analysis. No significant differences were observed in graft survival rates and histologic findings (necrosis and vascularity) between the three groups. However, histologic analysis found the metal sieve group to have significantly lower fat cell viability and more inflammation than the other two groups. The findings suggest that the closed centrifugation technique has no advantage over the open cotton gauze technique in terms of fat graft viability, and that the metal sieve concentration method is deficient as a preparation method because it can cause grafted fat degradation. PMID:20442997

  14. Vitamin D3 regulates cell viability in gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sungmin; Lee, Young-Suk; Shim, Hye-Eun; Yoon, Sik; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2011-09-01

    A low serum level of vitamin D has been associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal tract cancers. However, the effects of vitamin D3 have not been investigated in gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. In the present study, we found that vitamin D3 treatment significantly suppressed the viability of gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, vitamin D3 had a synergistic effect with other anti-cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, adriamycin, and vinblastine, for suppressing cell viability. To determine the underlying mechanism involved in the regulation of viability by vitamin D3, we examined the effects of vitamin D3 on expression of hedgehog signaling target genes, which has been associated with gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. Vitamin D3 treatment decreased the level of mRNA expression of patched1, Gli1, cyclin D1, and Bcl2, suggesting the possibility that vitamin D3 may act through regulation of hedgehog signaling. From the above results, we conclude that vitamin D3 regulates cell viability in gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:22025972

  15. The role of the clinical nurse specialist in tissue viability.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, M

    The development of tissue viability clinical nurse specialists in the UK has occurred rapidly and haphazardly over the last decade. Lack of role definition has created ambiguity and additional demands which are not so apparent within more established specialist nurse roles. Many specialist nurses in tissue viability are currently practising without adequate supervision frameworks which may compromise both personal and professional role satisfaction. Evaluation of the specific contribution of tissue viability specialist nurses is problematic for a variety of reasons. These, together with the identification of those factors thought to contribute to role conflict, will be discussed. PMID:8845674

  16. Assessment of the commercial viability of selected options for on-orbit servicing (OOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Andrew Robert; Kingston, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the commercial viability of on-orbit servicing of communications satellites in geostationary orbit. Previous studies have shown the technical feasibility of servicing as well as the financial viability of some missions, in particular refuelling, therefore this paper analyses these repair missions and life extension missions. A simple parametric model for simulating communications satellite revenue streams is developed and the results are used to determine the maximum possible revenue for a servicing satellite operator. From this, the maximum cost of the servicing satellite as a proportion of the cost of the communications satellite is determined under three profit scenarios representing zero profit, acceptable profit to an operator in a mature industry and acceptable profit to an operator in an emerging industry. The results show that while servicing is financially viable (zero profit scenario), those missions which result in an increase in Comsat life which is a multiple of the mission duration are more likely to be commercially viable. Refuelling is therefore viable in all cases but life extension in most cases is only marginally viable. Repair missions to satellites which are partially operable are also unlikely to deliver sufficient value to justify carrying out servicing. Also the timing of a servicing mission in relation to the expected remaining life expectancy is a major factor in determining the mission's viability.

  17. Single-cell analysis of cell viability after a biocide treatment unveils an absence of positive correlation between two commonly used viability markers

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Adrien; Dukan, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination among viable/active or dead/inactive cells in a microbial community is a vital question to address issues on ecological microbiology or microbiological quality control. It is commonly assumed that metabolically active cells (ChemchromeV6 [CV6] procedure) correspond to viable cells (direct viable count procedure [DVC]), although this assumption has never been demonstrated and is therefore a matter of debate. Indeed, simultaneous determination of cell viability and metabolic activity has never been performed on the same cells. Here, we developed a microfluidic device to investigate the viability and the metabolic activity of Escherichia coli cells at single-cell level. Cells were immobilized in a flow chamber in which different solutions were sequentially injected according to different scenarios. By using time-lapse microscopy combined with automated tracking procedures, we first successfully assessed the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity at single-cell level. Applying these two procedures on the same cells after a hypochlorous acid (HOCl) treatment, we showed that the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity were anticorrelated. These results indicate that the relation between CV6 uptake and cell viability may be partially incorrect. Care must be taken in using the terms “CV6-positive” and “viable” synonymously. PMID:23281341

  18. Single-cell analysis of cell viability after a biocide treatment unveils an absence of positive correlation between two commonly used viability markers.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Adrien; Dukan, Sam

    2013-02-01

    Discrimination among viable/active or dead/inactive cells in a microbial community is a vital question to address issues on ecological microbiology or microbiological quality control. It is commonly assumed that metabolically active cells (ChemchromeV6 [CV6] procedure) correspond to viable cells (direct viable count procedure [DVC]), although this assumption has never been demonstrated and is therefore a matter of debate. Indeed, simultaneous determination of cell viability and metabolic activity has never been performed on the same cells. Here, we developed a microfluidic device to investigate the viability and the metabolic activity of Escherichia coli cells at single-cell level. Cells were immobilized in a flow chamber in which different solutions were sequentially injected according to different scenarios. By using time-lapse microscopy combined with automated tracking procedures, we first successfully assessed the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity at single-cell level. Applying these two procedures on the same cells after a hypochlorous acid (HOCl) treatment, we showed that the ability of cells to divide and their metabolic activity were anticorrelated. These results indicate that the relation between CV6 uptake and cell viability may be partially incorrect. Care must be taken in using the terms "CV6-positive" and "viable" synonymously. PMID:23281341

  19. Accurate and rapid viability assessment of Trichoderma harzianum using fluorescence-based digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mainul; Corkidi, Gabriel; Galindo, Enrique; Flores, Celia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2002-12-20

    Fluorescence microscopy and image analysis were evaluated in order to assess the viability of Trichoderma harzianum, an economically important filamentous fungus. After the evaluation of the two most commonly used fluorochromes, acridine orange (AO) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as metabolic indicator stains, AO gave ambiguous results and therefore FDA was chosen. The lower stability at room temperature and fast fluorescence intensity decay (50% after only 30 s of illumination in UV light) could be overcome by the use of a digital image acquisition system including frame grabber and a video camera. Fresh (live) fungal hyphae emitted bright green fluorescence when stained with this dye (7.5 microg/L), whereas a total absence of fluorescence was observed when using sterilized (dead) fungal cells. Fresh cells were subjected to different lethal and sublethal treatments and the percentage of FDA stained fluorescent hyphae was then measured over the total hyphal area (% of FDA-stained area) by image analysis. At the same time, samples were cultivated in shake flasks in order to correlate this % of FDA-stained area with its growth rate, a functional indicator of viability. The linear correlation (r = 0.979) was: growth rate (g/L x h) = 2.25 x 10(-3) (% of FDA-stained area). This method was used to evaluate the viability of the fungus under two different fermentation conditions in a 10-L bioreactor. Estimated viable biomass during fermentation was strongly influenced by the process conditions. The use of FDA, with computer-aided quantitative image analysis, has made it possible to rapidly and reliably quantify the viability of T. harzianum. PMID:12378609

  20. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

  1. Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2010-01-01

    Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

  2. Tissue viability imaging for quantification of skin erythema and blanching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2010-02-01

    Naked eye observation has up to recently been the main method of determining skin erythema (vasodilatation) and blanching (vasoconstriction) in skin testing. Since naked eye observation is a highly subjective and investigatordependent method, it is difficult to attain reproducibility and to compare results reported by different researchers performing their studies at different laboratories. Consequently there is a need for more objective, quantitative and versatile methods in the assessment of alterations in skin erythema and blanching caused by internal and external factors such as the intake of vasoactive drugs, application of agents on the skin surface and by constituents in the environment. Since skin microcirculation is sensitive to applied pressure and heat, such methods should preferably be noninvasive and designed for remote use without touching the skin. As skin microcirculation further possesses substantial spatial variability, imaging techniques are to be preferred before single point measurements. An emerging technology based on polarization digital camera spectroscopy - Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) - fulfills these requirements. The principles of TiVi (1) and some of its early applications (2-5) are addressed in this paper.

  3. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam W; Bailey, Larissa L

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  4. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Green, Adam W.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  5. Viability of fibroblast-seeded ligament analogs after autogenous implantation.

    PubMed

    Bellincampi, L D; Closkey, R F; Prasad, R; Zawadsky, J P; Dunn, M G

    1998-07-01

    Fibroblast-seeded collagen scaffolds or ligament analogs are potentially useful for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. To provide lasting benefits, the seeded cells must survive implantation within the harsh synovial environment of the knee joint. Our objective was to determine the in vivo fate of autogenous fibroblast-seeded ligament analogs as a function of fibroblast source (anterior cruciate ligament or skin), implantation site (knee joint or subcutaneous space), and time after implantation (1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks). Before implantation, fibroblasts were labeled with PKH26-GL, a fluorescent membrane dye. Immediately after retrieval of the implant, the viability of the labeled seeded cells was assessed under a fluorescent microscope. Viable seeded fibroblasts remained attached to the collagen fibers within the ligament analogs for at least 4 weeks (skin fibroblasts) or 6 weeks (anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts) after implantation. A larger number of viable seeded cells were consistently observed in the subcutaneous space than in the knee joint. Scaffold resorption prevented observation at the 8-week time period. Fibroblast-seeded ligament analogs remained viable for prolonged periods in the knee joint and therefore have the potential to influence the formation and remodeling of neoligament tissue after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. PMID:9747781

  6. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Willem Visser, Claas; Henke, Sieger; Leijten, Jeroen; Saris, Daniël B F; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here, we present an analytical model describing the cell viability after impact as a function of the cell-surrounding droplet characteristics. The model connects (1) the cell survival as a function of cell membrane elongation, (2) the membrane elongation as a function of the cell-containing droplet size and velocity, and (3) the substrate properties. The model is validated by cell viability measurements in cell spraying, which is a method for biofabrication and used for the treatment of burn wounds. The results allow for rational optimization of any droplet-based cell deposition technology, and we include practical suggestions to improve the cell viability in cell spraying. PMID:26065378

  7. In vitro radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca microfilariae

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, H.L.; Wakeman, J.M.; Crouch, R.K.; James, E.R.

    1989-02-01

    A radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca cervicalis using (/sup 3/H)2-deoxy-D-glucose in Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.5, at 30 C is described and compared to the traditional visual motility assay. A correlation of r = 0.92 between the assays was found, with the radiolabel uptake method apparently a more sensitive indicator of microfilarial viability.

  8. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  9. Technology developments to enable the commercial viability of the Fischer-Tropsch process

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The well established Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technologies for catalytic conversion of coal-based synthesis gas to hydrocarbon liquid and wax products have been practiced for many years in locations (such as South Africa) where political reasons have forced the production operations even though unusual commercial competitive economics would not be sufficiently attractive to justify the process. This has generated a substantive technical experience with F-T technologies and products that is currently being adapted to use with syngas produced from coal, natural gas, and other sources of hydrocarbon gas in many niche markets over the world. Energy International, one of the Williams Companies, is currently developing this process for use in near-term commercial applications based on improvements in catalyst and process design that can substantially reduce the economic cost of producing hydrocarbon fuels, chemicals, and waxes. This improved economic basis for use of F-T technology derives from on-going efforts supported by the Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and Energy International. In important laboratory developments and evaluations, the use of cobalt catalysts has been shown to have the potential for greater products yields and better controls on the reactor operating conditions so as to produce the more desirable and economically effective sets of quality products. This presentation will review the technical improvements achieved with the new catalysts and the impact on the economic viability of the F-T process.

  10. Non-destructive monitoring of viability in an ex vivo organ culture model of osteochondral tissue.

    PubMed

    Elson, K M; Fox, N; Tipper, J L; Kirkham, J; Hall, R M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2015-01-01

    Organ culture is an increasingly important tool in research, with advantages over monolayer cell culture due to the inherent natural environment of tissues. Successful organ cultures must retain cell viability. The aim of this study was to produce viable and non-viable osteochondral organ cultures, to assess the accumulation of soluble markers in the conditioned medium for predicting tissue viability. Porcine femoral osteochondral plugs were cultured for 20 days, with the addition of Triton X-100 on day 6 (to induce necrosis), camptothecin (to induce apoptosis) or no toxic additives. Tissue viability was assessed by the tissue destructive XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide tetrazolium salt) assay method and LIVE/DEAD® staining of the cartilage at days 0, 6 and 20. Tissue structure was assessed by histological evaluation using haematoxylin & eosin and safranin O. Conditioned medium was assessed every 3-4 days for glucose depletion, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Necrotic cultures immediately showed a reduction in glucose consumption, and an immediate increase in LDH, GAG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Apoptotic cultures showed a delayed reduction in glucose consumption and delayed increase in LDH, a small rise in MMP-2 and MMP-9, but no significant effect on GAGs released into the conditioned medium. The data showed that tissue viability could be monitored by assessing the conditioned medium for the aforementioned markers, negating the need for tissue destructive assays. Physiologically relevant whole- or part-joint organ culture models, necessary for research and pre-clinical assessment of therapies, could be monitored this way, reducing the need to sacrifice tissues to determine viability, and hence reducing the sample numbers necessary. PMID:26122871

  11. Heparin can improve the viability of transfected cystic fibrosis cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, Anca; Hjelte, Lena; Hagenfeldt, Lars; Roomans, Godfried M

    2004-09-17

    Cationic liposomes are widely used as gene transfer agents in in vitro and in vivo studies of cystic fibrosis. In this study we report comparative results of cationic mediated transfection in several cell lines. We have tested epithelial cell lines expressing the wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane protein CFTR (bronchial epithelium-16HBE14o-, submucosal gland-Calu3) and their cystic fibrosis counterparts (CFBE41o-, CFSMEo-), as well as baby hamster kidney fibroblast cell lines (BHK) heterologously expressing human CFTR. The cells were transfected with a green fluorescent protein plasmid complexed with commercial cationic liposome (Geneporter2, GP) and 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI). At the end of the incubation (2 hours), low molecular weight heparin was added in order to reduce the toxicity of the lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency and cell viability were measured by flow cytometry. Determination of fatty acid composition of cellular phospholipids was performed by capillary gas chromatography. The short incubation time was sufficient to obtain satisfactory transfection in all cell lines studied. Cells treated with PEI-complexes had lower transfection efficiency and viability compared to GP in all tested cell lines. DeltaF508 CFTR carrying airway epithelial cells were easier to transfect but had lower viability compared to their healthy counterparts. This was, however not the case for the BHK cells. The fatty acid analysis showed characteristic polyunsaturated fatty acid patterns, which correlated with the viability of the transfected cells. Low molecular mass heparin added at the end of the lipoplex incubation time could help to maintain the viability of the cells, without interfering with the transfection efficiency. PMID:15325846

  12. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  13. Effect of silver nanoparticle geometry on methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and osteoblast viability.

    PubMed

    Actis, Lisa; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Ong, Joo L

    2015-07-01

    Orthopedic implant failure as a result of bacterial infection affects approximately 0.5-5% of patients. These infections are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus which is capable of attaching and subsequently forming a biofilm on the implant surface, making it difficult to eradicate with systemic antibiotics. Further, with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative treatments are necessary. Silver nanoparticles have received much attention for their broad spectrum antibacterial activity which has been reported to be both size and shape dependent. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of three different geometries on their effect on microbial susceptibility as well as evaluate their effect on bone cell viability. Silver nanoparticles of spherical, triangular and cuboid shapes were synthesized by chemical reduction methods. The susceptibility of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus was evaluated a 24 h period and determined using a colorimetric assay. Further, the viability of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells in the presence of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of 7 days by AlmarBlue fluorescence assay. hFOB morphology was also evaluated by light microscopy imaging. Results indicated that silver nanoparticle geometry did not have an effect on microbiota susceptibility or hFOB viability. However, high concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5 nM) conferred significant susceptibility towards the bacteria and significantly reduced hFOB viability. It was also found that the hFOBs exhibited an increasingly reduced viability to lower silver nanoparticle concentrations with an increase in exposure time. PMID:26194976

  14. Viability of freeze dried microencapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Nevala, Laura; Räikkönen, Johanna; Heljo, Petteri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2012-09-29

    Encapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 has been successfully used in experimental cell therapy of retinal degenerations and Parkinson's disease, but the long-term storage of encapsulated cells is still an unresolved question. Reconstitution of viable encapsulated cells from dry form would benefit the development of cell therapy products. We freeze dried and reconstituted microencapsulated ARPE19 and ARPE19-SEAP cells. Cross-linked alginate matrix with polycation (poly-l-lysine, cationic starch) coating was used for microencapsulation. Cell viability was assessed with fluorescence microscopy and oxygen consumption of the cells. Freeze dried and reconstituted cell microcapsules were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). We show partial viability of microencapsulated cells after freeze-drying. Unlike poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, cationic starch supported microcapsule shape and cell viability during freeze-drying. Trehalose pre-treatment augmented cell viability. Likewise, some lyoprotectants (trehalose, glycerol) enabled preservation of cell viability. Upon reconstitution the freeze dried cell microcapsules rapidly regained their original spherical shape. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that microencapsulated cells can retain their viability during freeze-drying. Therefore, this approach can be further optimized for the benefit of cell therapy product development. PMID:22820032

  15. Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; Gonzlez, Jos Luis

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

  16. IDSs reconsider the viability of risk contracting.

    PubMed

    Benoff, M; Harris, J M

    2000-09-01

    As financial success with risk contracting continues to elude many IDSs, some of these organizations have started questioning their overall mission as risk-bearing entities. To determine whether to continue to assume risk, an IDS should consider its market environment, the commitment of its provider constituents to the organization, its core competencies, the likelihood of success with risk contracting, and alternatives. To determine its future course, the IDS should engage in a strategic-planning process that includes all IDS stakeholders. Such a process can help build consensus regarding the IDS's market characteristics and benefits of IDS membership; determine the IDS's appropriate roles, services, and functions; and evaluate resources required to pursue the desired strategy. The process should include planning for various possible future scenarios, and results should be communicated to all IDS provider constituents. PMID:11066386

  17. Economic Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Alstyne, Carol

    Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

  18. Economics 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this one-credit economics course for secondary schools in Manitoba (Canada) is to help students develop skills in business education and to provide them with basic information about how the Canadian economic system affects business, government, and the individual. The course requires 110 to 220 hours of instruction. Students study

  19. Surviving Unemployment: Economic Resources and Job Loss Duration in Blue Collar Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Examines the economic resources of displaced blue-collar workers (n=324) coping with job loss for varying lengths of time. Data revealed the pivotal role of unemployment benefits in maintaining a household's economic viability. Findings suggest that the service needs of unemployed workers may become much greater as their economic plight deepens.…

  20. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

  1. [Economic evaluation in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Detournay, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Economics was only recently considered as a dimension of health technology assessment in France. Yet there are always limits in resources that we collectively agree to devote to health. A comparative "economic" appraisal is therefore needed to guide health choices and contribute to price regulation. Methodologies are based on the determination of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with a reference. The interpretation of these ratios is never isolated from the context of the decision. Health economic evaluation is not involved in healthcare rationing, but it contributes to the rationality of decisions in the interest of the overall population. PMID:24939547

  2. Viability and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-02-01

    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli. PMID:19961357

  3. New Device for High-Throughput Viability Screening of Flow Biofilms ▿

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Michael R.; Conant, Carolyn G.; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian; Schwartz, Michael; Matin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Control of biofilms requires rapid methods to identify compounds effective against them and to isolate resistance-compromised mutants for identifying genes involved in enhanced biofilm resistance. While rapid screening methods for microtiter plate well (“static”) biofilms are available, there are no methods for such screening of continuous flow biofilms (“flow biofilms”). Since the latter biofilms more closely approximate natural biofilms, development of a high-throughput (HTP) method for screening them is desirable. We describe here a new method using a device comprised of microfluidic channels and a distributed pneumatic pump (BioFlux) that provides fluid flow to 96 individual biofilms. This device allows fine control of continuous or intermittent fluid flow over a broad range of flow rates, and the use of a standard well plate format provides compatibility with plate readers. We show that use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bacteria, staining with propidium iodide, and measurement of fluorescence with a plate reader permit rapid and accurate determination of biofilm viability. The biofilm viability measured with the plate reader agreed with that determined using plate counts, as well as with the results of fluorescence microscope image analysis. Using BioFlux and the plate reader, we were able to rapidly screen the effects of several antimicrobials on the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 flow biofilms. PMID:20435763

  4. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Amy Russell; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  5. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  6. Quantitative assessment of cell viability and apoptosis in cultured epidermal autografts: application to burn therapy.

    PubMed

    Vernez, M; Raffoul, W; Gailloud-Matthieu, M C; Egloff, D; Senechaud, I; Panizzon, R G; Benathan, M

    2003-09-01

    Cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) have been used in the treatment of burns for almost two decades but the clinical results are still inconsistent. In a group of 37 patients with extensive burn wounds admitted to the University Hospital of Lausanne, CEA take ranged between 10 and 100% with a mean of 65%. To investigate CEA efficacy in burns, twelve CEA preparations were tested for their biological properties with particular emphasis on the balance between cell viability and apoptosis. Apoptosis was evaluated by in situ end-labeling (TUNEL), detection of DNA fragments in CEA extracts and analysis of caspase-3 activity. All CEA samples displayed a high cell viability (> 90%) and a low apoptosis rate (< 6%). However, several biological parameters including the activity of transglutaminase showed wide interindividual variability suggesting that CEA therapeutic efficacy could be partly determined by intrinsic biological factors. PMID:14655859

  7. Polyphenolic extracts of edible flowers incorporated onto atelocollagen matrices and their effect on cell viability.

    PubMed

    López-García, Jorge; Kuceková, Zdenka; Humpolíček, Petr; Mlček, Jiři; Sáha, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen. PMID:24177700

  8. Effect of preservation on the viability and allergenic potency of dried BCG vaccine*

    PubMed Central

    Obayashi, Yoji; Kawasaki, Jiro; Yoshioka, Takeo; Shimao, Tadao; Noguchi, Tokujiro

    1956-01-01

    Although many studies have been made on the lyophilization of BCG vaccine, few reports on its stability have appeared. The amount of living bacilli present in the vaccine and its allergenic potency can be considered to be an indication of the stability of the vaccine. The authors have already reported on the change in viability of vaccines preserved for 17 months; in this paper two experiments on lots of vaccines preserved for three years are discussed. The authors determined changes in viability after storage and examined tuberculin reactions one to eighteen months after vaccination. It was observed that the vaccines which had a relatively high potency at the time of lyophilization maintained their ability to induce allergy for at least two years. PMID:13342928

  9. Cellular viability effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on cerebellar neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA) participates in the control of cell death inducing the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ANA degrading enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), would induce cellular death. Experiments were performed in cerebellar granule neurons cultured with the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) as well as endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and cellular viability was determined by MTT test. Neurons cultured with URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) displayed a decrease in cellular viability. In addition, if cultured with OEA (25 nM) or PEA (100 nM), cellular death was found. These results further suggest that URB597, OEA or PEA promote cellular death. PMID:21854612

  10. Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

  11. Swarm Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

    The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

  12. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  13. Exploring the dark side of MTT viability assay of cells cultured onto electrospun PLGA-based composite nanofibrous scaffolding materials.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruiling; Shen, Mingwu; Cao, Xueyan; Guo, Rui; Tian, Xuejiao; Yu, Jianyong; Shi, Xiangyang

    2011-07-21

    One major method used to evaluate the biocompatibility of porous tissue engineering scaffolding materials is MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The MTT cell viability assay is based on the absorbance of the dissolved MTT formazan crystals formed in living cells, which is proportional to the number of viable cells. Due to the strong dye sorption capability of porous scaffolding materials, we propose that the cell viability determined from the MTT assay is likely to give a false negative result. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of the adsorption of MTT formazan on the accuracy of the viability assay of cells cultured onto porous electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers, HNTs (halloysite nanotubes)/PLGA, and CNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes)/PLGA composite nanofibrous mats. The morphology of electrospun nanofibers and L929 mouse fibroblasts cultured onto the nanofibrous scaffolds were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The viability of cells proliferated for 3 days was evaluated through the MTT assay. In the meantime, the adsorption of MTT formazan onto the same electrospun nanofibers was evaluated and the standard concentration-absorbance curve was obtained in order to quantify the contribution of the adsorbed MTT formazan during the MTT cell viability assay. We show that the PLGA, and the HNTs- or CNTs-doped PLGA nanofibers display appreciable MTT formazan dye sorption, corresponding to 35.6-50.2% deviation from the real cell viability assay data. The better dye sorption capability of the nanofibers leads to further deviation from the real cell viability. Our study gives a general insight into accurate MTT cytotoxicity assessment of various porous tissue engineering scaffolding materials, and may be applicable to other colorimetric assays for analyzing the biological properties of porous scaffolding materials. PMID:21647502

  14. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruwez, R.; De Frenne, P.; De Schrijver, A.; Leroux, O.; Vangansbeke, P.; Verheyen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. Methods In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11 943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Key Results Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Conclusions Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. PMID:24284814

  15. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Suresh, Anil K; Holton, Gregory A; McKeown, Catherine K; Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P; Joy, David Charles; Allison, Martin R; Brown, Steven D; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of nanomaterial interactions in the environment.

  17. Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadèr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

    2011-02-01

    Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

  18. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  19. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  20. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, B.; Kroop, S.A.; Nepola, I.V.; Grantham, A.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply.

  1. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. PMID:27198768

  2. Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen

    2012-06-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations. PMID:22653866

  3. Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlut, N.G.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to management. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Miska, K B; Cain, G D

    2010-06-01

    Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study, the effect of MS on the viability and infectivity of ocysts was investigated. The development of isolated, unsporulated oocysts of both Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima was inhibited, in a dose-related manner (IC(50) 8 to 14 microg/ml), by exposure to aqueous MS. Most treated oocysts failed to develop beyond early stages of sporulation. To determine the effect of MS on infectivity, isolated oocysts of E. tenella , Eimeria acervulina , and E. maxima were exposed for 24 hr to aqueous concentrations of MS ranging from 0 to 1,000 microg/ml. Treated oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and parameters of coccidiosis infection were compared to chickens inoculated with equal numbers of untreated oocysts. In a dose-related manner, MS significantly reduced the infectivity of oocysts with maximum effect observed at a dose of 300 microg/ml. When a mixture of oocysts containing 3 coccidian species was exposed to 300 microg/ml MS, from 0 to 24 hr, infectivity of oocysts was significantly reduced after a minimum of 12 hr of exposure. Treatment of aqueous slurries of litter samples obtained from commercial poultry houses, with 300 microg/ml MS for 24 hr, prevented the sporulation of eimerian oocysts in the litter samples relative to untreated control samples. The results indicate that MS could be used to reduce coccidial contamination of poultry litter. PMID:20557209

  5. Economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M F; Aguiar-Ibanez, R; Nixon, J

    2006-06-01

    Given the need to assess the value for money of healthcare treatments, economic evaluation has been gaining popularity over the past ten years. Studies comparing the costs and consequences of alternative healthcare interventions have been published in all fields of healthcare. This article describes the basic forms of economic evaluation and outlines the key methodological features to be considered in the critical appraisal of studies. Issues such as the appropriateness of the study question, the selection of alternatives to be compared, the measurement of costs and consequences, and the assessment of uncertainty are discussed. Additionally, an analytical critique of economic evaluations undertaken in Singapore is provided, and the prospects for economic evaluation in the future are discussed. PMID:16752012

  6. Dead or Alive: Molecular Assessment of Microbial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Meschke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based analytical methods, ranging from species-targeted PCRs to metagenomics, have greatly expanded our understanding of microbiological diversity in natural samples. However, these methods provide only limited information on the activities and physiological states of microorganisms in samples. Even the most fundamental physiological state, viability, cannot be assessed cross-sectionally by standard DNA-targeted methods such as PCR. New PCR-based strategies, collectively called molecular viability analyses, have been developed that differentiate nucleic acids associated with viable cells from those associated with inactivated cells. In order to maximize the utility of these methods and to correctly interpret results, it is necessary to consider the physiological diversity of life and death in the microbial world. This article reviews molecular viability analysis in that context and discusses future opportunities for these strategies in genetic, metagenomic, and single-cell microbiology. PMID:25038100

  7. Myocardial Viability and Revascularization: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pavan; Ivanov, Alexander; Ramasubbu, Kumudha

    2016-06-01

    The initial observation of functional recovery in dysfunctional myocardium following revascularization led to the introduction of the concept of hibernating myocardium. Since then, the pathophysiologic basis of hibernating myocardium has been well described. Multiple imaging modalities have been utilized to prospectively detect viable myocardium and thus predict its functional recovery following revascularization. It has been hypothesized that viability imaging will be instrumental in the selection of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy likely to benefit from revascularization. Multiple observational studies built a large body of evidence supporting this concept. However, data from prospective studies failed to substantiate utility of viability testing. This review aims to summarize the current literature and describe the role of viability imaging in current clinical practice as well as future directions. PMID:27115143

  8. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  9. Ecological Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  10. Behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitution versus complementarity. Changes in absolute response rate are analyzed in relation to elasticity and intensity of demand. The economic concepts of substitution and complementarity are related to traditional behavioral studies of choice and to the matching relation. The economic approach has many implications for the future of behavioral research and theory. In general, economic concepts are grounded on a dynamic view of reinforcement. The closed-economy methodology extends the generality of behavioral principles to situations in which response rate and obtained rate of reinforcement are interdependent. Analysis of results in terms of elasticity and intensity of demand promises to provide a more direct method for characterizing the effects of “motivational” variables. Future studies of choice should arrange heterogeneous reinforcers with varying elasticities, use closed economies, and modulate scarcity or income. The economic analysis can be extended to the study of performances that involve subtle discriminations or skilled movements that vary in accuracy or quality as opposed to rate or quantity, and thus permit examination of time/accuracy trade-offs. PMID:16812401

  11. Pilot-scale production and viability analysis of freeze-dried probiotic bacteria using different protective agents.

    PubMed

    Savini, Michele; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®) using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean(®)) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances. PMID:22254025

  12. Pilot-scale Production and Viability Analysis of Freeze-Dried Probiotic Bacteria Using Different Protective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Michele; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean®) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances. PMID:22254025

  13. Application of wide-field optical coherence tomography to monitoring of viability of rat brain in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of OCT in monitoring the viability of the brain. It was confirmed that after an overdose of pentobarbital sodium salt for an euthanasia, the OCT signal intensity increased before cardiac arrest and finally became 2.7 times, and by periodically changing the tissue temperature from 20 to 32 °C in vivo, average correlation coefficients between the ratio of signal intensity (RSI) and temperature were determined to be -0:42 to -0:50. RSI reversibly changed with subsequent variations of temperatures and finally increased rapidly just before cardiac arrest. These results indicate that RSI could correspond to decreases in viability.

  14. Arctic Economics Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-01

    AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery,more » costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.« less

  15. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  16. Effect of HUVEC apoptosis inducing proteinase from Vipera lebetina venom (VLAIP) on viability of cancer cells and on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Samel, Mari; Trummal, Katrin; Siigur, Ene; Siigur, Jüri

    2012-09-15

    Three cancer cell lines, the human androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3, androgen dependent LNCaP prostate cancer and human chronic myeloid leukaemia cell line K-562, were treated with Sephadex G-100 sf fractions of Vipera lebetina venom and with HUVEC apoptosis inducing heterodimeric metalloproteinase (VLAIP) from the same venom. The venom was separated into nine fractions using size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100 sf. The effect of V. lebetina venom gel filtration fractions on the viability of studied cancer cells was different: high molecular mass fractions were the most effective on PC-3 cells. The viability of LNCaP cells was inhibited most strongly by the third fraction. The first and the second fractions contain different metalloproteinases including VLAIP that also most effectively reduced the viability of PC-3 cells. VLAIP decreased PC-3 cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but did not induce apoptosis as shown by DNA fragmentation assay. VLAIP induced changes in cell shape, rounding up and detachment. VLAIP inhibited the PC-3 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins collagen I, fibronectin and vitronectin but not to fibrinogen. VLAIP had no significant effect on the viability of LNCaP and K-562 cells. VLAIP was also capable to inhibit ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation dose-dependently. IC(50) was determined to be 1.89 μM and 0.94 μM, respectively. PMID:22781133

  17. Assessment of losses in honey yield due to the chalkbrood disease, with reference to the determination of its economic injury levels in Egypt.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zaghloul OA; Mourad AK; El Kady MB; Nemat FM; Morsy ME

    2005-01-01

    In Egypt, the chalk brood (CHB) disease caused by the fungus, Ascosphaera apis Maassen started again infesting the honeybee, Apis melifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies after a cessation pause of seven to nine years. For the first time, an attempt has been made to look into the problem of the CHB disease from the view point of assessing losses in both clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) and chinus (Chinus molus) honey yields. In this regard, two techniques were adopted. Under the natural conditions of the experimental apiary (first technique), loss in clover honey was 18.412 +/- 0.663%, on average, whereas the average loss in chinus honey was 18.332 +/- 1.536%. In the second technique of loss appraisal (artificial infection). The tested honeybee colonies were artificially infected with four sources of A. apis infection, I.e. black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains and water, in addition to controls to create the so-called "different levels of infection". The mean percentages of losses in clover honey were 30.06 +/- 1.807, 27.95 +/- 1.062; 21.13 +/- 0.987; 16.96 +/- 0.672 and 0.00 +/- 0.00 for black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains, water and control, respectively. Taking into account the relationship between number of resulted mummies in each source of infection and % loss in clover honey, it could be concluded that as the resulted mummies increased, the corresponding clover honey yield decreased in each source of infection. It was noticed that the % loss in clover honey differed as the used technique differed. For example, the percentage loss in clover honey produced from colonies exposed to the natural conditions was relatively less than that of the artificially infected ones. This has been discussed in the text. However, the causative pathogen of CHB disease resulted in serious decrease in honey production. Loss appraisal is a perquisite step for the determination of the economic injury levels (EILs). By regressing % loss in clover honey yield against the total number of fallen mummies, the linear equation was worked out to be: Y = 0.242 + 0.040 x (r2 = 0.99, F = 62408.865). Depending on the total costs of controlling CHB disease, the EIL values were 31.875 and 11.250 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, subsequently. As to the chinus honey the corresponding EILs were 18.940 and 6.683 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, in respect, as a result of adopting the regression formula: Y = -6.762 + 0.101 X. As for the clover honey (artificial infection) the EIL values were 39.844 and 14.063 mummies/ colony in case of using cedar oil and thymol grains, subsequently. These values were worked out using the formula Y = 5.871 + 0.032 X. From the practical point of view, apiarists should not use thymol or cedar oil as fallen mummies don't reach the suggested EILs values to minimize control costs as much as possible.

  18. Perceptions of tissue viability nurses of their current roles.

    PubMed

    Fox, C

    This qualitative and quantitative study was undertaken on a national scale. It identifies the perception of the role of the tissue viability nurse by its incumbents through the circulation of postal questionnaires sent to 173 identified tissue viability nurses, of which 87 responded. A constant comparative analysis of the responses identified the repetitive phrases and key words for the qualitative data. The quantitative responses were facilitated through the use of closed questions. The research facilitated four areas of discussion: role overview; perceived levels of education; positive/negative aspects of the role; types of wound contact and reasons. PMID:12146177

  19. Rapid viability assessment of yeast cells using vital staining with 2-NBDG, a fluorescent derivative of glucose.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Bong; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2002-06-01

    A fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), which had been developed previously for the analysis of glucose uptake activity by living cells, was investigated to evaluate its applicability for assaying the viability of yeasts. Fluorescence intensities of the yeast population were measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry upon exposure to antifungal agents after staining with 2-NBDG and were compared to the number of colony forming units (CFU). A good correlation was obtained between the yeast viability, determined by the CFU, and the accumulation of 2-NBDG by yeast cells (correlation constant: r=0.98). Susceptibility testing of amphotericin B and miconazole against yeast strains by plate count and 2-NBDG fluorescence method yielded corresponding results. In conclusion, we found that staining with 2-NBDG is a rapid and sensitive method for the assessment of yeast cell viability. PMID:12038577

  20. Viability changes: Microbiological analysis of dental casts

    PubMed Central

    Žilinskas, Juozas; Junevičius, Jonas; Ramonaitė, Agnė; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Sakalauskienė, Jurgina

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the survival of the most prevalent oral bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) in dental casts, and compared changes in the amounts of these microorganisms at different time intervals to determine how long dental casts may pose threat to the health of dental personnel and patients. Material/Methods When manufacturing the casts, regular water was replaced with sterile distilled water, where suspensions of the studied bacteria or the fungus at certain concentrations were prepared. When the dental casts were fully set (solidified), plaster shavings were examined immediately after the contact of the studied microorganism with the plaster, as well as after 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Following that, we measured how the amount of the studied bacteria and fungi in 1 gram of the plaster changed within the studied period of time. Results Klebsiella pneumoniae survived in plaster for up to 4 days, and the reduction in the number of these bacteria became statistically significant after 1 day (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus remained viable in plaster for up to 4 days, and the number of these bacteria dropped after 1 day (p<0.05). Escherichia coli disappeared after 2 days, and a reduction was already observed after 2 hours (p<0.05). Candida albicans in plaster models died within 2 days, and a reduction in their number was observed after 1 day (p<0.05). Conclusions The microorganisms did not multiply in the gypsum casts and their number significantly dropped instead of increasing. PMID:24902637

  1. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

  2. Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, W.E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

  3. A platinum-based covalent viability reagent for single-cell mass cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fienberg, Harris G; Simonds, Erin F; Fantl, Wendy J; Nolan, Garry P; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    In fluorescence-based flow cytometry, cellular viability is determined with membrane-impermeable fluorescent reagents that specifically enter and label plasma membrane-compromised nonviable cells. A recent technological advance in flow cytometry uses antibodies conjugated to elemental metal isotopes, rather than to fluorophores, to allow signal detection by atomic mass spectrometry. Unhampered by the limitations of overlapping emission fluorescence, mass cytometry increases the number of parameters that can be measured in single cells. However, mass cytometry is unable to take advantage of current fluorescent viability dyes. An alternative methodology was therefore developed here in which the platinum-containing chemotherapy drug cisplatin was used to resolve live and dead cells by mass cytometry. In a 1-min incubation step, cisplatin preferentially labeled nonviable cells from both adherent and suspension cultures, resulting in a platinum signal quantifiable by mass cytometry. This protocol was compatible with established sample processing steps for intracellular cytometry. Furthermore, the live/dead ratios were comparable between mass- and fluorescence-based cytometry. Importantly, although cisplatin is a known DNA-damaging agent, a 1-min "pulse" of cisplatin did not induce observable DNA damage or apoptotic responses even within 6-h post-exposure. Cisplatin can therefore be used as a viability reagent for a wide range of mass cytometry protocols. PMID:22577098

  4. On-chip microelectrode impedance analysis of mammalian cell viability during biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachita; Blackburn, Tobias; Hu, Weiwei; Wiltberger, Kelly; Velev, Orlin D

    2014-09-01

    The characterization of cell viability is a challenging task in applied biotechnology, as no clear definition of cell death exists. Cell death is accompanied with a change in the electrical properties of the membrane as well as the cell interior. Therefore, changes in the physiology of cells can be characterized by monitoring of their dielectric properties. We correlated the dielectric properties of industrially used mammalian cells, sedimented over interdigitated microelectrodes, to the AC signal response across the chip. The voltage waveforms across the electrodes were processed to obtain the circuit impedance, which was used to quantify the changes in cell viability. We observed an initial decrease in impedance, after which it remained nearly constant. The results were compared with data from the dye exclusion viability test, the cell specific oxygen uptake rate, and the online viable cell density data from capacitance probes. The microelectrode technique was found to be sensitive to physiological changes taking place inside the cells before their membrane integrity is compromised. Such accurate determination of the metabolic status during this initial period, which turned out to be less well captured in the dye exclusion tests, may be essential for several biotechnology operations. PMID:25332745

  5. Viability of cancer cells exposed to pulsed electric fields: the role of pulse charge.

    PubMed

    Krassowska, Wanda; Nanda, Gurvinder S; Austin, Melissa B; Dev, Sukhendu B; Rabussay, Dietmar P

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to collect a comprehensive set of data that related lethal effects of electric fields to the duration of the pulse. Electric pulses of different strengths and durations were applied to a suspension of HEp-2 cells (epidermoid carcinoma of the human larynx) using a six-needle electrode array connected through an autoswitcher to a square wave generator. Pulse durations varied from 50 micros to 16 ms and the ranges of electric field were adjusted for each duration to capture cell viabilities between 0% and 100%. After pulsation, cells were incubated for 44 h at 37 degrees C, and their viability was measured spectrophotometrically using an XTT assay. For each pulse duration (d), viability data were used to determine the electric field that killed half of the cells (E50). When plotted on logarithmic axes, E50 vs. d was a straight line, leading to a hyperbolic relationship: E50=const/d. This relationship suggests that the total charge delivered by the pulse is the decisive factor in killing HEp-2 cells. PMID:12572658

  6. Viability Is Associated with Melanin-Based Coloration in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Milzani, Aldo; Costanzo, Alessandra; Colombo, Graziano; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Pigmentation of body surface in animals can have multiple determinants and accomplish diverse functions. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the main animal pigments, being responsible of yellow, brownish-red and black hues, and have partly common biosynthetic pathways. Many populations of vertebrates show individual variation in melanism, putatively with large heritable component. Genes responsible for eu- or pheomelanogenesis have pleiotropic but contrasting effects on life-history traits, explaining the patterns of covariation observed between melanization and physiology (e.g. immunity and stress response), sexual behavior and other characters in diverse taxa. Yet, very few studies in the wild have investigated if eu- and pheomelanization predict major fitness traits like viability or fecundity. In this correlative study, by contrasting adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) matched for age, sex, breeding site, and year and date of sampling, we show that males but not females that survived until the next year had paler, relatively more eu- than pheomelanic pigmentation of ventral body feathers. Better performance of individuals that allocate relatively more to eumelanogenesis was expected based on previous evidence on covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and specific traits related to immunity and susceptibility to stress. However, together with the evidence of no covariation between viability and melanization among females, this finding raises the question of the mechanisms that maintain variation in genes for melanogenesis. We discuss the possibility that eu- and pheomelanization are under contrasting viability and sexual selection, as suggested by larger breeding and sperm competition success of darker males from other barn swallow subspecies. PMID:23573254

  7. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  8. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  9. Quantification of lactate-dehydrogenase and cell viability in postmortem human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Caviedes-Bucheli, Javier; Avendao, Nuvia; Gutierrez, Rhina; Hernndez, Sandra; Moreno, Gloria Cristina; Romero, Mara Consuelo; Muoz, Hugo Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Understanding pulp repair and regeneration requires being familiar with this tissue's behavior under extreme conditions, such as postmortem state where an abrupt interruption of tissue blood supply occurs. The purpose of this study was to quantify cell viability and the amount of lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) expressed in human pulp tissue 6, 12, and 24 hours postmortem to establish how long dental pulp remains viable after death. Pulp samples were obtained from 14 unidentified corpses of people who had received lethal injuries in car accidents or from gunshot wounds; they had at least three caries- and restoration-free incisors. Half of each sample was used for determining cell viability at three different time intervals. The rest of each sample was used for quantifying LDH expression at the same time intervals. Another 14 pulp samples were obtained from live patients' healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons to assess normal LDH value in pulp tissue. The results showed cell viability decreasing from 89 to 68 to 41% measured 6, 12, and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. LDH expression in healthy pulps was 246 U/mg pulp weight. Expression increased after death from 249 U/mg at 6 hours to 337 U/mg at 12 hours. LDH expression decreased to 131 U/mg 24 hours postmortem. These findings are valuable in understanding dental pulp survival capability under extreme conditions that may have important clinical significance in terms of repair and regeneration. PMID:16500222

  10. Effects of purification and fluorescent staining on viability of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Ramanuj; Randhawa, Baljit; Krahenbuhl, James L

    2005-09-01

    Over the years, researchers have carried out experiments with Mycobacterium leprae obtained from either human multibacillary lesions, or infected armadillo tissues, or infected footpad tissues of conventional mice as well as athymic nu/nu mice. In general, these sources of leprosy bacilli are satisfactory for most biochemical and mouse footpad studies, but less than satisfactory for studies in cell biology and immunology where contaminating host tissues pose a serious problem. We examined the utility of a procedure for eliminating mouse footpad tissue from M. leprae suspension using sodium hydroxide solution and its subsequent effect on the viability of the organism by determining the rate of palmitic acid oxidation, bacterial membrane integrity, and growth in the mouse footpad. We found that treating M. leprae suspension, obtained from infected nu/nu mouse footpad, with 0.1N NaOH for 3 min was sufficient to remove the majority of mouse tissue without adversely affecting the viability of the organism. This is a simple and rapid method to get suspensions of nu/nu footpad-derived viable M. leprae essentially free of host tissues, which can be a research reagent for studying the host-pathogen relationship in leprosy. We also report here a method for labeling M. leprae with the fluorescent dye PKH26, without compromising on the viability of the organism. This method may be useful in intracellular trafficking studies of M. leprae or in other cell biology studies that require tracking of the bacteria using fluorescent tag. We observed the staining to be stable in vitro over considerable lengths of time and did not affect the viability of the bacteria. PMID:16830641

  11. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P < 0.05; P = 0.009), the percentage of apoptotic keratocytes increased (P < 0.05) significantly, and CD34 and α-SMA expression remained unchanged (P > 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours. PMID:25699261

  12. Fever-Range Hyperthermia vs. Hypothermia Effect on Cancer Cell Viability, Proliferation and HSP90 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V.; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. Materials and Methods A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Results Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. Conclusions The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands. PMID:25635828

  13. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Emilie L.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Sanchez, Javier; Bach, Horacio; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg P.

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12) as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants. PMID:26447691

  14. Automated Quantification of Tumor Viability in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model after Chemoembolization Using Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'inca, Hadrien; Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saida Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Pascale, Florentina; Laurent, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The rabbit VX2 tumor is a fast-growing carcinoma model commonly used to study new therapeutic devices, such as catheter-based therapies for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The evaluation of tumor viability after such locoregional therapies is essential to directing hepatocellular carcinoma management. We used infrared microspectroscopy for the automatic characterization and quantification of the VX2 liver tumor viability after drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE). The protocol consisted of K-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The K-means clustering was used to classify the spectra from the infrared images of control or treated tumors and to build a database of many tissue spectra. On the basis of this reference library, the PCA-LDA analysis was used to build a predictive model to identify and quantify automatically tumor viability on unknown tissue sections. For the DEB group, the LDA model determined that the surface of tumor necrosis represented 91.6% ± 8.9% (control group: 33.1% ± 19.6%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004) and the viable tumor 2.6% ± 4% (control group: 62.2% ± 15.2%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004). Tissue quantification measurements correlated well with tumor necrosis (r = 0.827, P < 0.0001) and viable tumor (r = 0.840, P < 0.0001). Infrared imaging and PCA-LDA analysis could be helpful for easily assessing tumor viability. PMID:25979795

  15. Direct Evaluation of Myocardial Viability and Stem Cell Engraftment Demonstrates Salvage of the Injured Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul J.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Ge, Xiaohu; Matsuura, Yuka; Toma, Ildiko; Metzler, Scott; Kooreman, Nigel G.; Ramunas, John; Holbrook, Colin; McConnell, Michael V.; Blau, Helen; Harnish, Phillip; Rulifson, Eric; Yang, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The mechanism of functional restoration by stem cell therapy remains poorly understood. Novel manganese-enhanced MRI and bioluminescence reporter gene imaging (BLI) were applied to follow myocardial viability and cell engraftment, respectively. Human-placenta-derived amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) demonstrate unique immunoregulatory and pre-cardiac properties. In this study, the restorative effects of three AMC-derived sub-populations were examined in a murine myocardial injury model: 1) unselected AMCs (uAMCs), 2) ckit+AMCs (c+AMCs), and 3) AMC-derived iPSCs (MiPSCs). Objective Determine the differential restorative effects of the AMC-derived sub-populations in the murine myocardial injury model using multi-modality imaging. Methods and Results SCID mice underwent left anterior descending artery ligation and were divided into 4 treatment arms: 1) normal saline control (n=14), 2) uAMCs (n=10), 3) c+AMCs (n=13), and 4) MiPSCs (n=11). Cardiac MRI assessed myocardial viability and left ventricular (LV) function while BLI assessed stem cell engraftment over a four-week period. Immunohistological labeling and RT-PCR of the explanted myocardium were performed. The uAMC and c+AMC treated mice demonstrated transient LV functional improvement. However, the MiPSCs exhibited a significantly greater increase in LV function compared to all the other groups during the entire four-week period. LV functional improvement correlated with increased myocardial viability and sustained stem cell engraftment. The MiPSCs treated animals lacked any evidence of de novo cardiac differentiation. Conclusion The functional restoration seen in MiPSCs was characterized by increased myocardial viability and sustained engraftment without de novo cardiac differentiation, indicating salvage of the injured myocardium. PMID:25654979

  16. In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides *

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xu-xia; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Yan-bo; Li, Wei-fen

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of two photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris HZ0301 and Rhodobacter sphaeroides HZ0302, as probiotics in aquaculture. The viability of HZ0301 and HZ0302 in simulated gastric transit conditions (pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 gastric juices) and in simulated small intestinal transit conditions (pH 8.0, with or without 0.3% bile salts) was tested. The effects of HZ0301 and HZ0302 on the viability and permeability of intestinal epithelial cell in primary culture of tilapias, Oreochromis nilotica, were also detected. All the treatments were determined with three replicates. The simulated gastric transit tolerance of HZ0301 and HZ0302 strains was pH-dependent and correspondingly showed lower viability at pH 2.0 after 180 min compared with pH 3.0 and pH 4.0. Both HZ0301 and HZ0302 were tolerant to simulated small intestine transit with or without bile salts in our research. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among three treatments including the control and the groups treated with HZ0301 or HZ0302 both in intestinal epithelial cell viability and membrane permeability, showing no cell damage. In summary, this study demonstrated that HZ0301 and HZ0302 had high capacity of upper gastrointestinal transit tolerance and were relatively safe for intestinal epithelial cells of tilapias. PMID:17726751

  17. Effects of linoleate on cell viability and lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhixiong; Wang, Jiwen; Tang, Hui; Li, Liang; Lv, Jia; Han, Chunchun; Xia, Lu; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    Studies have shown linoleate could not only promote cell viability but also affect lipid metabolism in mammals. However, to what degree these effects are mediated by steatosis in goose primary hepatocytes is unknown. In this study, the effect of linoleate on the lipid metabolic homeostasis pathway was determined. We measured the mRNA levels of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis, lipid deposition, ?-oxidation, and assembly and secretion of VLDL-TGs in goose (Anser cygnoides) primary hepatocytes. Linoleate significantly increased goose hepatocyte viability, and linoleate at 0.125 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM all showed a significant effect on TG accumulation. However, with increasing linoleate concentrations, the extracellular TG concentration and extracellular VLDL gradually decreased. DGAT1, DGAT2, PPAR?, PPAR?, FoxO1, MTP, PLIN and CPT-1 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. With increasing linoleate concentrations, the changes in DGAT1, DGAT2, PPAR? and CPT-1 gene expression, which regulates hepatic TG synthesis and fatty acid oxidation, first increased and then decreased. Additionally, FoxO1 and MTP gene expression was reduced with increasing linoleate concentrations, and the change in PLIN gene expression was increased at all concentrations, similar to the regulation of intracellular TG accumulation. In conclusion, linoleate regulated TG accumulation and increased hepatocyte viability. The data suggest that linoleate does promote goose hepatocyte viability and steatosis, which may up-regulate TG synthesis-relevant gene expression, suppress assembly and secretion of VLDL-TGs, and increase fatty acid oxidation properly to function of goose primary hepatocytes. PMID:21295151

  18. Species-specific viability analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial species coexist commonly in mixed communities, for instance those occurring in microbial infections of humans. Interspecies effects contribute to alterations in composition of communities with respect to species and thus, to the course and severity of infection. Therefore, knowledge concerning growth and viability of single species in medically-relevant mixed communities is of high interest to resolve complexity of interspecies dynamics and to support development of treatment strategies. In this study, a flow cytometric method was established to assess the species-specific viability in defined three-species mixed cultures. The method enables the characterization of viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus, which are relevant to lung infections of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The method combines fluorescence detection by antibody and lectin labeling with viability fluorescence staining using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide. In addition, species-specific cell enumeration analysis using quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (qT-RFLP) was used to monitor the growth dynamics. Finally, to investigate the impact of substrate availability on growth and viability, concentrations of main substrates and metabolites released were determined. Results For each species, the time course of growth and viability during mixed culture cultivations was obtained by using qT-RFLP analysis in combination with flow cytometry. Comparison between mixed and pure cultures revealed for every species differences in growth properties, e.g. enhanced growth of P. aeruginosa in mixed culture. Differences were also observed for B. cepacia and S. aureus in the time course of viability, e.g. an early and drastic reduction of viability of S. aureus in mixed culture. Overall, P. aeruginosa clearly dominated the mixed culture with regard to obtained cell concentrations. Conclusions In combination with qT-RFLP analysis, the methods enabled monitoring of species-specific cell concentrations and viability during co-cultivation of theses strains. Experimental findings suggest that the predominance of P. aeruginosa over B. cepacia and S. aureus in mixed culture under the chosen cultivation conditions is promoted by more efficient substrate consumption of P. aeruginosa, and antagonistic interspecies effects induced by P. aeruginosa. PMID:24606608

  19. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  20. Improvement in the Viability of Cryopreserved Cells by Microencapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Morinaga, Yukihiro; Ujihira, Masanobu; Oka, Kotaro; Tanishita, Kazuo

    The advantages of microencapsulated cells over those of suspended cells were evaluated for improving viability in cryopreservation. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were selected as the test biological cells and then microencapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate membranes. These microencapsulated PC12 cells were frozen by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at various cooling rates, from 0.5 to 10°C/min. Their latent heat was measured during freezing from 4 to -80°C. The post-thaw viability was evaluated by dopamine-concentration measurement and by trypan blue exclusion assay. Results showed that at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1°C/min, the latent heat of microencapsulated PC12 cells was lower than that of suspended cells. This lower latent heat is caused by the fact that the extra-microcapsule froze and the intra-capsule remained unfrozen due to the formation of ice crystals in the extra-capsule space. The post-thaw viability of microencapsulated PC12 cells was improved when the cooling rate was 0.5 or 1°C/min, compared with that of suspended cells. Therefore, in microencapsulated PC12 cells, maintaining the intra-microcapsules in an unfrozen state during freezing reduces the solution effect and thus improves the post-thaw viability.

  1. Effect of Lanthanide Complex Structure on Cell Viability and Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 μM) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 μM complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

  2. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  3. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  4. Developing a Predictive Metric to Assess School Viability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John T.; Tichy, Karen L.; Collins, Alan; Schwob, John

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a wide range of parish school indicators that can be used to predict long-term viability. The study reported in this article explored the relationship between demographic variables, financial variables, and parish grade school closures in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. Specifically, this study investigated whether…

  5. Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study the effect of MS on the viability ...

  6. Viability of stored seed: extension by cathodic protection.

    PubMed

    Pammenter, N W; Adamson, J H; Berjak, P

    1974-12-20

    Placing seeds on a negatively charged conductor extended their viability during artificial aging. Such cathodic protection may reduce free radical attack by providing a source of electrons. The results stupport the hypothesis of free radical damage to cellular components and are consistent with such damage being important in deteriorative senescence changes. PMID:17818626

  7. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  8. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  9. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  10. EFFECT OF FUMIGATION ON VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBERSOUM) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of volunteer potato requires an integrated approach and soil fumigation is one tactic known to reduce population densities of certain weeds. The effect of 1,3-D and metham sodium on potato tuber viability were tested in sealed glass jars at various doses, incubation temperatures, and tim...

  11. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  12. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC4(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the ...

  13. Airship economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  14. Quantitative investigation into methods for evaluating neocortical slice viability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In cortical and hippocampal brain slice experiments, the viability of processed tissue is usually judged by the amplitude of extracellularly-recorded seizure-like event (SLE) activity. Surprisingly, the suitability of this approach for evaluating slice quality has not been objectively studied. Furthermore, a method for gauging the viability of quiescent tissue, in which SLE activity is intentionally suppressed, has not been documented. In this study we undertook to address both of these matters using the zero-magnesium SLE model in neocortical slices. Methods Using zero-magnesium SLE activity as the output parameter, we investigated: 1) changes in the pattern (amplitude, frequency and length) of SLE activity as slice health either deteriorated; or was compromised by altering the preparation methodology and; 2) in quiescent tissue, whether the triggering of high frequency field activity following electrode insertion predicted subsequent development of SLE activity and hence slice viability. Results SLE amplitude was the single most important variable correlating with slice viability, with a value less than 50?V indicative of tissue unlikely to be able to sustain population activity for more than 3060minutes. In quiescent slices, an increase in high frequency field activity immediately after electrode insertion predicted the development of SLE activity in 100% of cases. Furthermore, the magnitude of the increase in spectral power correlated with the amplitude of succeeding SLE activity (R2 40.9%, p?viability and can be applied independent of the mechanism of tissue activation. PMID:24195598

  15. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2015-07-30

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  16. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  17. Growth habit and leaf economics determine gas exchange responses to high elevation in an evergreen tree, a deciduous shrub and a herbaceous annual.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zuomin; Haworth, Matthew; Feng, Qiuhong; Cheng, Ruimei; Centritto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at high elevations necessitates physiological and morphological plasticity to enable photosynthesis (A) under conditions of reduced temperature, increased radiation and the lower partial pressure of atmospheric gases, in particular carbon dioxide (pCO2). Previous studies have observed a wide range of responses to elevation in plant species depending on their adaptation to temperature, elevational range and growth habit. Here, we investigated the effect of an increase in elevation from 2500 to 3500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on three montane species with contrasting growth habits and leaf economic strategies. While all of the species showed identical increases in foliar δ(13)C, dark respiration and nitrogen concentration with elevation, contrasting leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic responses were observed between species with different leaf economic strategies. The deciduous shrub Salix atopantha and annual herb Rumex dentatus exhibited increased stomatal (Gs) and mesophyll (Gm) conductance and enhanced photosynthetic capacity at the higher elevation. However, evergreen Quercus spinosa displayed reduced conductance to CO2 that coincided with lower levels of photosynthetic carbon fixation at 3500 m a.s.l. The lower Gs and Gm values of evergreen species at higher elevations currently constrains their rates of A. Future rises in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) will likely predominantly affect evergreen species with lower specific leaf areas (SLAs) and levels of Gm rather than deciduous species with higher SLA and Gm values. We argue that climate change may affect plant species that compose high-elevation ecosystems differently depending on phenotypic plasticity and adaptive traits affecting leaf economics, as rising [CO2] is likely to benefit evergreen species with thick sclerophyllous leaves. PMID:26433706

  18. Growth habit and leaf economics determine gas exchange responses to high elevation in an evergreen tree, a deciduous shrub and a herbaceous annual

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zuomin; Haworth, Matthew; Feng, Qiuhong; Cheng, Ruimei; Centritto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at high elevations necessitates physiological and morphological plasticity to enable photosynthesis (A) under conditions of reduced temperature, increased radiation and the lower partial pressure of atmospheric gases, in particular carbon dioxide (pCO2). Previous studies have observed a wide range of responses to elevation in plant species depending on their adaptation to temperature, elevational range and growth habit. Here, we investigated the effect of an increase in elevation from 2500 to 3500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on three montane species with contrasting growth habits and leaf economic strategies. While all of the species showed identical increases in foliar δ13C, dark respiration and nitrogen concentration with elevation, contrasting leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic responses were observed between species with different leaf economic strategies. The deciduous shrub Salix atopantha and annual herb Rumex dentatus exhibited increased stomatal (Gs) and mesophyll (Gm) conductance and enhanced photosynthetic capacity at the higher elevation. However, evergreen Quercus spinosa displayed reduced conductance to CO2 that coincided with lower levels of photosynthetic carbon fixation at 3500 m a.s.l. The lower Gs and Gm values of evergreen species at higher elevations currently constrains their rates of A. Future rises in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) will likely predominantly affect evergreen species with lower specific leaf areas (SLAs) and levels of Gm rather than deciduous species with higher SLA and Gm values. We argue that climate change may affect plant species that compose high-elevation ecosystems differently depending on phenotypic plasticity and adaptive traits affecting leaf economics, as rising [CO2] is likely to benefit evergreen species with thick sclerophyllous leaves. PMID:26433706

  19. Economic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    The signals had been there for years. Task force reports and researchers all predicted it. Then, in the late 1990s, the economic collapse in this blue-collar region of central Maine began. First, the Cascade Co. closed its textile mill. Then the C.F. Hathaway Co. shut down, and Dumont Industries followed suit soon after. Several stores and other…

  20. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  1. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  2. Basketball Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinman, Daniel; Scheinman, Ted

    This teaching unit offers five economics lessons related to basketball. Lessons include: (1) "Money, Money, Money in the Basketball Player's World"; (2) "Take Me to the Basketball Game Lesson"; (3) "What Does It Take?"; (4) "Productivity of a Basketball Player"; and (5) "Congratulations! You Just Won the NBA Championships." Most of the lessons

  3. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  4. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  5. Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual introduction for teachers explains economic growth and how it is measured. Four instructional units follow, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit which offers young students an opportunity to interview puppet workers, set up a classroom corner store, and learn the importance of capital resources for increasing productivity…

  6. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and

  7. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control. PMID:1030807

  8. Impact of thermal effects induced by ultrasound on viability of rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, T; Secomski, W; Bilmin, K; Nowicki, A; Grieb, P

    2014-07-01

    In order to have consistent and repeatable effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on various cancer cells or tissue lesions we should be able to control a delivered ultrasound energy and thermal effects induced. The objective of this study was to investigate viability of rat C6 glioma cells in vitro depending on the intensity of ultrasound in the region of cells and to determine the exposure time inducing temperature rise above 43 °C, which is known to be toxic for cells. For measurements a planar piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 20 mm and a resonance frequency of 1.06 MHz was used. The transducer generated tone bursts with 94 μs duration, 0.4 duty-cycle and initial intensity ISATA (spatial averaged, temporal averaged) varied from 0.33 W/cm(2) to 8 W/cm(2) (average acoustic power varied from 1 W to 24 W). The rat C6 glioma cells were cultured on a bottom of wells in 12-well plates, incubated for 24h and then exposed to ultrasound with measured acoustic properties, inducing or causing no thermal effects leading to cell death. Cell viability rate was determined by MTT assay (a standard colorimetric assay for assessing cell viability) as the ratio of the optical densities of the group treated by ultrasound to the control group. Structural cellular changes and apoptosis estimation were observed under a microscope. Quantitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to determine the maximal exposure time that does not lead to the thermal effects above 43 °C in the region of cells for each initial intensity of the tone bursts used as well as the threshold intensity causing cell death after 3 min exposure to ultrasound due to thermal effects. The averaged threshold intensity was found to be about 5.7 W/cm(2). PMID:24589258

  9. Triptolide reduces the viability of osteosarcoma cells by reducing MKP-1 and Hsp70 expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LEI; JIANG, BO; WANG, DONG; LIU, WEI; ZHANG, HUAWU; LIU, WEISHENG; QIU, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone tumor found in adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to determine whether triptolide, a diterpene epoxide extracted from the Tripterygium plant, was able effectively decrease the viability of osteosarcoma cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms are also investigated. The human osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63 were used in this study. The U-2 OS and MG-63 cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, 25 or 50 nM triptolide. Cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide only were used as the no drug treatment control. A commercial MTT kit was used to determine the effects of triptolide on cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is frequently overexpressed in tumor tissues, possibly related to the failure of a number of chemotherapeutics. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a chaperone molecule that is able to increase drug resistance. The protein expression levels of MKP-1 and Hsp70 were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicate that triptolide effectively reduced the viability of the osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, triptolide was found to effectively reduce MKP-1 expression and Hsp70 levels. Further analysis showed that triptolide reduced MKP-1 mRNA expression in the U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. Triptolide reduced Hsp70 mRNA expression levels in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. These results suggest that triptolide effectively decreases the viability of osteosarcoma cells. These effects may be associated with the decreased expression of MKP-1 and Hsp70 levels. These results suggest that triptolide may be used in the treatments of osteosarcoma. PMID:27168842

  10. Impact of release dynamics of laser-irradiated polymer micropallets on the viability of selected adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Mismar, Wael; Wang, Yuli; Small, Donald W.; Ras, Mat; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Sims, Christopher E.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2012-01-01

    We use time-resolved interferometry, fluorescence assays and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to examine the viability of confluent adherent cell monolayers to selection via laser microbeam release of photoresist polymer micropallets. We demonstrate the importance of laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position relative to the glass–pallet interface in governing the threshold energies for pallet release as well as the pallet release dynamics. Measurements using time-resolved interferometry show that increases in laser pulse energy result in increasing pallet release velocities that can approach 10 m s−1 through aqueous media. CFD simulations reveal that the pallet motion results in cellular exposure to transient hydrodynamic shear stress amplitudes that can exceed 100 kPa on microsecond timescales, and which produces reduced cell viability. Moreover, CFD simulation results show that the maximum shear stress on the pallet surface varies spatially, with the largest shear stresses occurring on the pallet periphery. Cell viability of confluent cell monolayers on the pallet surface confirms that the use of larger pulse energies results in increased rates of necrosis for those cells situated away from the pallet centre, while cells situated at the pallet centre remain viable. Nevertheless, experiments that examine the viability of these cell monolayers following pallet release show that proper choices for laser microbeam pulse energy and focal volume position lead to the routine achievement of cell viability in excess of 90 per cent. These laser microbeam parameters result in maximum pallet release velocities below 6 m s−1 and cellular exposure of transient hydrodynamic shear stresses below 20 kPa. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic understanding that relates pallet release dynamics and associated transient shear stresses with subsequent cellular viability. This provides a quantitative, mechanistic basis for determining optimal operating conditions for laser microbeam-based pallet release systems for the isolation and selection of adherent cells. PMID:22158840

  11. Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jang, Min-Chul; Jang, Pung-Kuk; Ju, Se-Jong; Lee, Tea-Kyun; Chang, Man

    2003-06-01

    Egg production, egg viability and fecal pellet production were determined for individual Acartia omorii, which were fed diets of two species of diatoms ( Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and three species of dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella trochoidea, Heterocapsa triquetra and Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Diets were analyzed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Depending on the diet, egg production of A. omorii varied over time, diminishing with some diets ( S. trochoidea, C. polykrikoides, P. tricornutum). This rate of reduction was much more rapid for a diet of C. polykrikoides, which caused egg production to decrease to ca. 2.4 eggs f -1 d -1 in only four days. As for all diets, egg viability was high at the beginning but with the C. polykrikoides and P. tricornutum diets, it rapidly decreased with time. Fecal pellet production also varied with time, depending on the diet. Egg production rate was closely correlated with fecal pellet production. There was no direct relationship between egg viability and egg production rate, but both egg production and viability were affected by the nutritional quality of food. Egg viability was also highly dependent on the composition of fatty acids in the eggs. Egg viability showed positive correlation with the ratio of ω3:ω6 groups among egg fatty acids, and negative correlation with the ratio of 20:5 ( n-3) : 22:6 ( n-3). While comparing several diets, egg production rate was higher on diets ( H. triquetra and S. trochoidea) containing ample amounts of essential fatty acids such as 18:4 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3). The results suggest that fertility of A. omorii was dependent upon the quality of the food, and dinoflagellate diets, with the exception of C. polykrikoides, were preferable to diatom diets.

  12. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-11-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  13. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-11-08

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  14. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1997-04-25

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  15. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1998-04-23

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1997-10-24

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  17. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the long term experiment lost the outer layer of their coat without affecting the viability since they were still protected by the middle and the inner layer of the coating. This research highlights a new protocol to perform spaceflight experiments inside the ISS with fungal spores in microgravity conditions, under the additional effect of possible cosmic radiation. According to this protocol the results are expressed in terms of viability, microscopic and morphological changes.

  18. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of viability in the Roe vs. Wade decision was intended to apply only to abortion (and is diminishing there), state courts have accepted viability as equating personhood and have used the concept to decide medical treatment, wrongful death, and criminal cases. In order to resolve the inconsistencies exhibited by these decisions, states should be allowed to make all decisions regarding the treatment of fetuses. PMID:8568420

  19. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation; viability and motility results were correlated, but independent of fertilization. For pallid sturgeon sperm (experiment 4), MT with 5-10% MeOH showed significantly higher sperm quality and fertilization parameters. Membrane integrity can be used as a predictor of fertilization by cryopreserved sperm, however additional sperm quality parameters, supplementary to motility and membrane integrity, would be useful in the refining and optimizing cryopreservation protocols with acipenseriform sperm. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  20. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  1. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  2. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  3. What has happened to suicides during the Greek economic crisis? Findings from an ecological study of suicides and their determinants (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is a controversy about the impact of economic crisis on suicide rates in Greece. We analysed recent suicide data to identify who has been most affected and the relationships to economic and labour market indicators. Setting Greece. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-specific and sex-specific suicide rates in Greece for the period 2003–2012 were calculated using data provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority. We performed a join-point analysis to identify discontinuities in suicide trends between 2003 and 2010, prior to austerity, and in 2011–2012, during the period of austerity. Regression models were used to assess relationships between unemployment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and suicide rates for the entire period by age and sex. Results The mean suicide rate overall rose by 35% between 2010 and 2012, from 3.37 to 4.56/100 000 population. The suicide mortality rate for men increased from 5.75 (2003–2010) to 7.43/100 000 (2011–2012; p<0.01). Among women, the suicide rate also rose, albeit less markedly, from 1.17 to 1.55 (p=0.03). When differentiated by age group, suicide mortality increased among both sexes in the age groups 20–59 and >60 years. We found that each additional percentage point of unemployment was associated with a 0.19/100 000 population rise in suicides (95% CI 0.11 to 0.26) among working age men. Conclusions We found a clear increase in suicides among persons of working age, coinciding with austerity measures. These findings corroborate concerns that increased suicide risk in Greece is a health hazard associated with austerity measures. PMID:25807950

  4. Economic analysis of non-taxed commercial solar hot water systems and combined heating and hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic analysis of nontaxed commercial solar systems is presented. A realistic evaluation of current cost effectiveness of nontaxed commercial solar energy systems is provided. Economic considerations involved in the decisions to invest in a solar system are described. Easy to use tools to make rational decisions regarding economic viability of nontaxed commercial solar energy systems in a particular application are outlined.

  5. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  6. Viability of vector-tensor theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es

    2009-02-15

    We present a detailed study of the viability of general vector-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of an arbitrary temporal background vector field. We find that there are six different classes of theories which are indistinguishable from General Relativity by means of local gravity experiments. We study the propagation speeds of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and obtain the conditions for classical stability of those models. We compute the energy density of the different modes and find the conditions for the absence of ghosts in the quantum theory. We conclude that the only theories which can pass all the viability conditions for arbitrary values of the background vector field are not only those of the pure Maxwell type, but also Maxwell theories supplemented with a (Lorentz type) gauge fixing term.

  7. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  8. Effect of sperm cryopreservation on the European eel sperm viability and spermatozoa morphology.

    PubMed

    Asturiano, J F; Marco-Jiménez, F; Peñaranda, D S; Garzón, D L; Pérez, L; Vicente, J S; Jover, M

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of cryopreservation of European eel sperm both on the sperm viability and the spermatozoa head morphology. Spermatozoa morphology was evaluated with computer-assisted morphology analysis after collection in fresh samples, after adding the freezing medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant and, finally, after the cryopreservation process and thawing. Cell viability was assessed, in both fresh and thawed samples, by Hoechst 33258 staining. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to determine the percentage of motile cells and to measure motility parameters in sperm samples. A significant decrease of head perimeter (12.56%) and area (17.90%) was detected from spermatozoa in fresh to thawed samples, indicating that cells do not recover the original size after the cryopreservation process. CASA was used to measure the percentage of motile cells (51.9%) and spermatozoa motility parameters such as curvilinear, straight line and angular path velocities, as well as beating cross frequency. This technique was employed in the fresh sperm samples but proteins present at the freezing medium (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) made impossible to use this last technique in thawed samples. When sperm viability was assessed by Hoechst staining, a significant decrease of approximately 15% (73.10 vs 58.26%) of alive spermatozoa was registered from fresh to thawed samples. The percentage of motile cells measured by CASA in fresh samples (51.9%) was lower than the percentage of alive cells determined by Hoechst stainning, suggesting the existence of different batches of spermatozoa in different stages of development, even during the eight to tenth weeks of treatment, when the highest sperm quality was found. PMID:17348973

  9. PAC1R agonist maxadilan enhances hADSC viability and neural differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoling; Yu, Rongjie; Xu, Ying; Lian, Ruiling; Yu, Yankun; Cui, Zekai; Ji, Qingshan; Chen, Junhe; Li, Zhijie; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. However, little is known about its presence or effects in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). In this study, the expression of PACAP type I receptor (PAC1R) was first confirmed in hADSCs. Maxadilan, a specific agonist of PAC1R, could increase hADSC proliferation as determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and cell cycle analysis and promote migration as shown in wound-healing assays. Maxadilan also showed anti-apoptotic activity in hADSCs against serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis based on Annexin V/propidium iodide analysis and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan correlated with the down-regulation of Cleaved Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 as well as up-regulation of Bcl-2. The chemical neural differentiation potential could be enhanced by maxadilan as indicated through quantitative PCR, Western blot and cell morphology analysis. Moreover, cytokine neural redifferentiation of hADSCs treated with maxadilan acquired stronger neuron-like functions with higher voltage-dependent tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents, higher outward potassium currents and partial electrical impulses as determined using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Maxadilan up-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway associated with dimer-dependent activity of PAC1R, promoting cell viability that was inhibited by XAV939, and it also activated the protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway associated with ligand-dependent activity of PAC1R, enhancing cell viability and neural differentiation potential that was inhibited by H-89. In summary, these results demonstrated that PAC1R is present in hADSCs, and maxadilan could enhance hADSC viability and neural differentiation potential in neural differentiation medium. PMID:26798992

  10. Economic Impact Analysis. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc., Syracuse, NY.

    A study determined the economic impact of each dollar invested in Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. (LVA). The analysis included 217 interviews, 165 in New York and 52 in Wisconsin; analysis of economic impact; and statistical validation and analysis. For every dollar spent by LVA, the value created (return) to the overall economy was a…

  11. The Economic Case for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The case for education can be made from many perspectives. This paper makes the case for education based on economic outcomes. Surveying the most recent empirical evidence, it shows the crucial role of education for individual and societal prosperity. Education is a leading determinant of economic growth, employment, and earnings in modern

  12. The Economic Case for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The case for education can be made from many perspectives. This paper makes the case for education based on economic outcomes. Surveying the most recent empirical evidence, it shows the crucial role of education for individual and societal prosperity. Education is a leading determinant of economic growth, employment, and earnings in modern…

  13. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5?mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ?1?mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ?2?mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE. PMID:25658580

  14. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

  15. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Slart, R.H.J.A.; Bax, J.J.; van der Wall, E.E.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Jager, P.L.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696432

  16. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  17. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. PMID:20153167

  18. Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

  19. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  20. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  1. Economic evaluation of a solar hot-water system--Palm Beach County, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report projects solar-energy costs and savings for residential hot-water system over 20 year period. Evaluation uses technical and economic models with inputs based on working characteristics of installed system. Primary analysis permits calculation of economic viability for four other U.S. sites.

  2. The effect of tuning cold plasma composition on glioblastoma cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term "plasma dosage" to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  3. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  4. Hydroxyethyl disulfide as an efficient metabolic assay for cell viability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Donglan; Ward, Kathleen M.; Prendergast, George C.; Ayene, Iraimoudi S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate (PMS). However, sensitivity is inherently limited because their reduction relies on mitochondrial bioreduction and cellular transport of PMS, as well as accessibility to tetrazolium chemicals. In this study, we identify hydroxethyldisulfide (HEDS) as an inexpensive probe that can measure cellular metabolic activity without the need of PMS. In tissue culture medium, HEDS accurately quantitated metabolically active live cells in a linear manner superior to tetrazolium based and other assays. Cell toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, etoposide), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, acetaminophen), toxins (Phenyl arsine oxide, arsenite) or ionizing radiation was rapidly determined by the HEDS assay. We found that HEDS was superior to other commonly used assays for cell viability determinations in its solubility, membrane permeability, and intracellular conversion to a metabolic reporter that is readily transported into the extracellular medium. Our findings establish the use of HEDS in a simple, rapid and low cost assay to accurately quantify viable cells. PMID:22321380

  5. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  6. Effect of bradykinin on nitric oxide production, urea synthesis and viability of rat hepatocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Settimio; Martino, Guglielmo; Mazzulla, Sergio; Chimenti, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Background It is well known that cytotoxic factors, such as lipopolysaccharides, derange nitrogen metabolism in hepatocytes and nitric oxide (NO) is involved among the other factors regulating this metabolic pathway. Hepatocytes have been shown to express large levels of NO following exposure to endotoxins, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide and/or cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-1. The control role of arginine in both urea and NO biosynthesis is well known, when NO is synthesized from arginine, by the NOS reaction, citrulline is produced. Thus, the urea cycle is bypassed by the NOS reaction. Many authors demonstrated in other cellular types, like cardiomyocytes, that bradykinin caused the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The simultaneous increase of NO and ROS levels could cause peroxynitrite synthesis, inducing damage and reducing cell viability. The aim of this research is to study the effect of bradykinin, a proinflammatory mediator, on cell viability and on urea production in cultures of rat hepatocytes. Results Hepatocytes were treated with bradykinin, that stimulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO release was determined using 4,5 diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA), as fluorescent indicator of NO. Addition of the NOS inhibitor, Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), to the culture medium inhibited the increase of NO production. Exposure of hepatocytes to bradykinin 0,1 mM for 2 hours resulted in a significant decrease of urea synthesis. Cell viability, instead, showed a significant decrease 24 hours after the end of bradykinin treatment as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. L-NAME addition recovered urea production and cell viability at control values. Conclusion The findings suggest that the cell toxicity, after bradykinin treatment, effectively depends upon exposure to increased NO levels and the effects are prevented by L-NAME. The results show also that the increased NO synthesis induces a reduced urea production, that is another index of cell damage. PMID:15670332

  7. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells (Morone saxatilis) on viability, intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial membrane potential (''m), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as determined by flow cytometry; motion activati...

  8. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells on viability, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (D'm), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium) as determined by flow cy...

  9. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    PubMed Central

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions. PMID:10485865

  10. Controlling laser-induced jet formation for bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells with high viability and high resolution.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Pages, Emeline; Ducom, Alexandre; Fontaine, Aurelien; Guillemot, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    Laser-assisted bioprinting is a versatile, non-contact, nozzle-free printing technique which has demonstrated high potential for cell printing with high resolution. Improving cell viability requires determining printing conditions which minimize shear stress for cells within the jet and cell impact at droplet landing. In this context, this study deals with laser-induced jet dynamics to determine conditions from which jets arise with minimum kinetic energies. The transition from a sub-threshold regime to jetting regime has been associated with a geometrical parameter (vertex angle) which can be harnessed to print mesenchymal stem cells with high viability using slow jet conditions. Finally, hydrodynamic jet stability is also studied for higher laser pulse energies which give rise to supersonic but turbulent jets. PMID:25215452

  11. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J.; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z′ = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples. PMID:26383544

  12. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  13. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  14. 45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official will entertain a timely request for amendment of the...

  15. 45 CFR 1302.20 - Grantee to show both legal status and financial viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... viability. 1302.20 Section 1302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... both legal status and financial viability. (a) Upon the occurrence of a change in the legal condition... viability. Failure to make this showing may result in suspension, termination or denial of refunding....

  16. 45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official will entertain a timely request for amendment of the...

  17. 45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official will entertain a timely request for amendment of the...

  18. 45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official will entertain a timely request for amendment of the...

  19. Basic Economic Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  20. Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodilus yacare.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Laura B T; Sabbag, Omar J

    2015-03-01

    The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 1990's, but it has gaps in its production, as there are no norms for the commercial breeding of these animals in captivity. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity. Therefor, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a farm located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, identifying relevant items of costs in the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity. The economic results for the breeding of this animal were positive, with profitability ratios higher than 70%. PMID:25806993