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Sample records for determining micromechanical strain

  1. Determining Micromechanical Strain in Nitinol

    SciTech Connect

    Strasberg, Matthew; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    Nitinol is a superelastic alloy made of equal parts nickel and titanium. Due to its unique shape memory properties, nitinol is used to make medical stents, lifesaving devices used to allow blood flow in occluded arteries. Micromechanical models and even nitinol-specific finite element analysis (FEA) software are insufficient for unerringly predicting fatigue and resultant failure. Due to the sensitive nature of its application, a better understanding of nitinol on a granular scale is being pursued through X-ray diffraction techniques at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Through analysis of powder diffraction patterns of nitinol under increasing tensile loads, localized strain can be calculated. We compare these results with micromechanical predictions in order to advance nitinol-relevant FEA tools. From this we hope to gain a greater understanding of how nitinol fatigues under multi-axial loads.

  2. Implementation of Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Zhu, Linfa; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear response of composite plates under large strain and high strain rate loading. A recently developed strain dependent micromechanics model is extended to account for the shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of shear deformation effects are investigated to improve the development strain rate dependent micromechanics model. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio is developed. The revised micromechanics model is implemented into higher order laminate theory. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate transverse shear effects during impact.

  3. Implementation of Fiber Substructuring Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to impact loads. Previously, strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations developed to model the polymer matrix were incorporated into a mechanics of materials based micromechanics method. In the current work, the micromechanics method is revised such that the composite unit cell is divided into a number of slices. Micromechanics equations are then developed for each slice, with laminate theory applied to determine the elastic properties, effective stresses and effective inelastic strains for the unit cell. Verification studies are conducted using two representative polymer matrix composites with a nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation response. The computed results compare well to experimentally obtained values.

  4. A micromechanical damage and fracture model for polymers based on fractional strain-gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyden, S.; Li, B.; Weinberg, K.; Conti, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a simple one-parameter macroscopic model of distributed damage and fracture of polymers that is amenable to a straightforward and efficient numerical implementation. We show that the macroscopic model can be rigorously derived, in the sense of optimal scaling, from a micromechanical model of chain elasticity and failure regularized by means of fractional strain-gradient elasticity. In particular, we derive optimal scaling laws that supply a link between the single parameter of the macroscopic model, namely, the critical energy-release rate of the material, and micromechanical parameters pertaining to the elasticity and strength of the polymer chains and to the strain-gradient elasticity regularization. We show how the critical energy-release rate of specific materials can be determined from test data. Finally, we demonstrate the scope and fidelity of the model by means of an example of application, namely, Taylor-impact experiments of polyurea 1000 rods.

  5. Strains at the myotendinous junction predicted by a micromechanical model

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Bahar; Ames, Elizabeth G.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to create a finite element micromechanical model of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) to examine how the structure and mechanics of the MTJ affect the local micro-scale strains experienced by muscle fibers. We validated the model through comparisons with histological longitudinal sections of muscles fixed in slack and stretched positions. The model predicted deformations of the A-bands within the fiber near the MTJ that were similar to those measured from the histological sections. We then used the model to predict the dependence of local fiber strains on activation and the mechanical properties of the endomysium. The model predicted that peak micro-scale strains increase with activation and as the compliance of the endomysium decreases. Analysis of the models revealed that, in passive stretch, local fiber strains are governed by the difference of the mechanical properties between the fibers and the endomysium. In active stretch, strain distributions are governed by the difference in cross-sectional area along the length of the tapered region of the fiber near the MTJ. The endomysium provides passive resistance that balances the active forces and prevents the tapered region of the fiber from undergoing excessive strain. These model predictions lead to the following hypotheses: (i) the increased likelihood of injury during active lengthening of muscle fibers may be due to the increase in peak strain with activation and (ii) endomysium may play a role in protecting fibers from injury by reducing the strains within the fiber at the MTJ. PMID:21945569

  6. A Micromechanics Finite-Strain Constitutive Model of Fibrous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-01-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation; i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations, and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation, and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials. PMID:21927506

  7. A micromechanics finite-strain constitutive model of fibrous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-09-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation, i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials.

  8. Implementation of Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to impact loads. Previously, strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations developed to model the polymer matrix were implemented into a mechanics of materials based micromechanics method. In the current work, the computation of the effective inelastic strain in the micromechanics model was modified to fully incorporate the Poisson effect. The micromechanics equations were also combined with classical laminate theory to enable the analysis of symmetric multilayered laminates subject to in-plane loading. A quasi-incremental trapezoidal integration method was implemented to integrate the constitutive equations within the laminate theory. Verification studies were conducted using an AS4/PEEK composite using a variety of laminate configurations and strain rates. The predicted results compared well with experimentally obtained values.

  9. A Micromechanics Based Constitutive Model For Brittle Failure at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [1] and generalized by Desh- pande and Evans [2] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an ex- perimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evo- lution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive re- sponse. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from ˜ 10-6 to 103 s-1. Model parameters determined from from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent.

  10. A semi-micromechanic interlaminar strain analysis on curved-beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joh, Duksung

    1990-01-01

    Experimental analyses were performed for determination of interlaminar strains in circumferentially unidirectional curved beam specimens. Semi-circular and semi-elliptic carbon-epoxy specimens were subjected to opening mode tensile loadings. Whole field measurements were recorded at load levels from about 5 to more than 90 pct of failure loads. Contour maps of displacement fields were obtained by using moire interferometry, using reference gratings of 2400 lines/mm or 60,690 lines/in. Whole field contour maps of circumferential and interlaminar strains were obtained by using moire interferometry in a semi-micromechanic scale. Various anomalous effects were observed in the displacement fields. The zig-zag fringe patterns indicated that the fiber orientation in each layer was not truly circumferential. This deviation from the unidirectionality caused free-edge effects, such as interlaminar shear strains even at the axis of symmetry and the altered normal strains in the thickness direction. In the resin rich zones between layers, the tensile interlaminar strain was excessively large due to the large compliance. As the result of the combined effect of these anomalous behaviors, the values of the interlaminar tensile strains were larger than those predicted analytically. The modulus E sub 3 was actually smaller than the assumed value E sub 2 by 20 pct.

  11. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.

  12. Micromechanics-Based Permeability Evolution in Brittle Materials at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Bhat, Harsha S.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a micromechanics-based permeability evolution model for brittle materials at high strain rates (≥ 100 s^{-1}). Extending for undrained deformation the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, we now relate the damage-induced strains to micro-crack aperture. We then use an existing permeability model to evaluate the permeability evolution. This model predicts both the percolative and connected regime of permeability evolution of Westerly Granite during triaxial loading at high strain rate. This model can simulate pore pressure history during earthquake coseismic dynamic ruptures under undrained conditions.

  13. Micromechanical cohesion force measurements to determine cyclopentane hydrate interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Joshi, Sanjeev E; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2012-06-15

    Hydrate aggregation and deposition are critical factors in determining where and when hydrates may plug a deepwater flowline. We present the first direct measurement of structure II (cyclopentane) hydrate cohesive forces in the water, liquid hydrocarbon and gas bulk phases. For fully annealed hydrate particles, gas phase cohesive forces were approximately twice that obtained in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, and approximately six times that obtained in the water phase. Direct measurements show that hydrate cohesion force in a water-continuous bulk may be only the product of solid-solid cohesion. When excess water was present on the hydrate surface, gas phase cohesive forces increased by a factor of three, suggesting the importance of the liquid or quasi-liquid layer (QLL) in determining cohesive force. Hydrate-steel adhesion force measurements show that, when the steel surface is coated with hydrophobic wax, forces decrease up to 96%. As the micromechanical force technique is uniquely capable of measuring hydrate-surface forces with variable contact time, the present work contains significant implications for hydrate applications in flow assurance. PMID:22484169

  14. A Micro-Mechanically Based Continuum Model for Strain-Induced Crystallization in Natural Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Sunny Jigger

    Recent experimental results show that strain-induced crystallization can substantially improve the crack growth resistance of natural rubber. While this might suggest superior designs of tires or other industrial applications where elastomers are used, a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics of strain-induced crystallization in natural rubber has to be developed before any design process can be started. The objective of this work is to develop a computationally-accessible micro-mechanically based continuum model, which is able to predict the macroscopic behavior of strain crystallizing natural rubber. While several researchers have developed micro-mechanical models of partially crystallized polymer chains, their results mainly give qualitative agreement with experimental data due to a lack of good micro-macro transition theories or the lack of computational power. However, recent developments in multiscale modeling in polymers provide new tools to continue this early work. In this thesis, a new model is proposed to model strain-induced crystallization in natural rubber. To this end, a micro-mechanical model of a constrained partially crystallized polymer chain with an extended-chain crystal is derived and connected to the macroscopic level using the non-affine micro-sphere model. On the macroscopic level, a thermodynamically consistent framework for strain-crystallizing materials is developed, and a description of the crystallization kinetics is introduced. For that matter, an evolution law for crystallization based on the gradient of the macroscopic Helmholtz free energy function (chemical potential) in combination with a simple threshold function is used. A numerical implementation of the model is proposed and its predictive performance assessed using published data.

  15. Micromechanical stimulator for localized cell loading: fabrication and strain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli regulate cell structure and function during physiological processes. To understand the role of mechanical stimuli, engineered devices are developed to deliver controllable mechanical signals to cells cultured in vitro. Localized mechanical loading on selected cells are preferred when investigating intercellular communication. In this work, we fabricated and characterized a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-device for applying controlled compressive/tensile loads to selected live cells. The device consists of nine circular PDMS membranes serving as the loading sites; the loading parameters at each site are individually controllable. The in-plane strain upon PDMS membrane deflection was experimentally characterized. The result showed that for a circular membrane with 500 µm in diameter and 60 µm thick, the radial strain from -6% (compressive) to 25% (tensile) can be achieved at the membrane center. This device allows localized cell loading with minimal fabrication/operation complexity and ease of scaling-up. It is expected to foster the development of high throughput mechanical loading systems for a broad array of cellular mechanobiological studies.

  16. A micromechanical model for estimating alveolar wall strain in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-long; Chen, Ya-zhu; Hu, Zhao-yan

    2014-09-15

    To elucidate the micromechanics of pulmonary edema has been a significant medical concern, which is beneficial to better guide ventilator settings in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an adjoining two-alveoli model to quantitatively estimate strain and stress of alveolar walls in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs. The model takes into account the geometry of the alveolus, the effect of surface tension, the length-tension properties of parenchyma tissue, and the change in thickness of the alveolar wall. On the one hand, our model supports experimental findings (Perlman CE, Lederer DJ, Bhattacharya J. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 44: 34-39, 2011) that the presence of a liquid-filled alveolus protrudes into the neighboring air-filled alveolus with the shared septal strain amounting to a maximum value of 1.374 (corresponding to the maximum stress of 5.12 kPa) even at functional residual capacity; on the other hand, it further shows that the pattern of alveolar expansion appears heterogeneous or homogeneous, strongly depending on differences in air-liquid interface tension on alveolar segments. The proposed model is a preliminary step toward picturing a global topographical distribution of stress and strain on the scale of the lung as a whole to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:24947025

  17. Incorporation of Mean Stress Effects into the Micromechanical Analysis of the High Strain Rate Response of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program, to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. A micromechanics approach is employed in this work, in which state variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified to model the deformation of the polymer matrix, and a strength of materials based micromechanics method is used to predict the effective response of the composite. In the analysis of the inelastic deformation of the polymer matrix, the definitions of the effective stress and effective inelastic strain have been modified in order to account for the effect of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers. Two representative polymers, a toughened epoxy and a brittle epoxy, are characterized through the use of data from tensile and shear tests across a variety of strain rates. Results computed by using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with data generated via experiments. The procedure used to incorporate the constitutive equations within a micromechanics method is presented, and sample calculations of the deformation response of a composite for various fiber orientations and strain rates are discussed.

  18. Micromechanical Model for Deformation in Solids with Universal Predictions for Stress-Strain Curves and Slip Avalanches

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Karin A.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Uhl, Jonathan T.

    2009-05-01

    A basic micromechanical model for deformation of solids with only one tuning parameter (weakening {epsilon}) is introduced. The model can reproduce observed stress-strain curves, acoustic emissions and related power spectra, event statistics, and geometrical properties of slip, with a continuous phase transition from brittle to ductile behavior. Exact universal predictions are extracted using mean field theory and renormalization group tools. The results agree with recent experimental observations and simulations of related models for dislocation dynamics, material damage, and earthquake statistics.

  19. A combined fracture-micromechanics model for tensile strain-softening in brittle materials, based on propagation of interacting microcracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Bernhard; Hellmich, Christian; Mang, Herbert A.

    2007-02-01

    Strain-softening is the decline in stress at increasing strain. Although microcracking is a commonly accepted reason for strain-softening, the majority of theoretical developments involve macroscopic damage evolution laws. To improve this situation, we propose a micromechanics-based damage evolution law by combining (i) the propagation criterion for a single penny-shaped crack embedded in an infinite matrix subjected to remote stresses (taken from linear-elastic fracture mechanics) and (ii) stiffness estimates for representative material volumes comprising interacting microcracks (taken from continuum micromechanics). This combination allows for modelling tensile strain-softening as a result of propagation of interacting microcracks, i.e. as a microstructural effect. The initial degree of damage, i.e. the initial microcrack size and the number of microcracks per unit volume, implies two different types of model-predicted tensile strain-softening behaviour under strain control: (i) continuous strain-softening, which occurs in case of initial damage above a critical value, and (ii) an instantaneous stress drop at the peak load (snap-back), which occurs in case of initial damage below a critical value. Copyright

  20. Micromechanical modelling of short-term and long-term large-strain behaviour of polyethylene terephthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluektov, M.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; Govaert, L. E.; Yakimets, I.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2013-12-01

    A micromechanically based model is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) under uniaxial compression up to large strains and at different temperatures. The creep behaviour of isotropic PET is simulated and compared to experimental data to demonstrate the applicability of the model to describe the long-term response. The material is modelled as an aggregate of two-phase layered domains, where different constitutive laws are used for the phases. A hybrid interaction law between the domains is adopted. The crystalline phase is modelled with crystal plasticity and the amorphous phase with the Eindhoven Glassy Polymer model, taking into account material ageing effects. Model parameters for the selected constitutive laws of the phases are identified from uniaxial compression tests for fully amorphous material and semicrystalline material. Texture evolution during the deformation predicted by the model adequately matches previously observed texture evolution.

  1. Foam Micromechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, A.M.; Neilsen, M.K.; Reinelt, D.A.; Warren, W.E.

    1998-11-03

    Foam evokes many different images: waves breaking at the seashore, the head on a pint of Guinness, an elegant dessert, shaving, the comfortable cushion on which you may be seated... From the mundane to the high tech, foams, emulsions, and cellular solids encompass a broad range of materials and applications. Soap suds, mayonnaise, and foamed polymers provide practical motivation and only hint at the variety of materials at issue. Typical of mukiphase materiaIs, the rheoIogy or mechanical behavior of foams is more complicated than that of the constituent phases alone, which may be gas, liquid, or solid. For example, a soap froth exhibits a static shear modulus-a hallmark of an elastic solid-even though it is composed primarily of two Newtonian fluids (water and air), which have no shear modulus. This apparent paradox is easily resolved. Soap froth contains a small amount of surfactant that stabilizes the delicate network of thin liq- uid films against rupture. The soap-film network deforms in response to a macroscopic strain; this increases interracial area and the corresponding sur- face energy, and provides the strain energy of classical elasticity theory [1]. This physical mechanism is easily imagined but very challenging to quantify for a realistic three-dimensional soap froth in view of its complex geome- try. Foam micromechanics addresses the connection between constituent properties, cell-level structure, and macroscopic mechanical behavior. This article is a survey of micromechanics applied to gas-liquid foams, liquid-liquid emulsions, and cellular solids. We will focus on static response where the foam deformation is very slow and rate-dependent phenomena such as viscous flow can be neglected. This includes nonlinear elasticity when deformations are large but reversible. We will also discuss elastic- plastic behavior, which involves yield phenomena. Foam structures based on polyhedra packed to fill space provide a unify- ing geometrical theme. Because a two

  2. Coronary stent strut size dependent stress-strain response investigated using micromechanical finite element models.

    PubMed

    Savage, P; O'Donnell, B P; McHugh, P E; Murphy, B P; Quinn, D F

    2004-02-01

    Cardiovascular stents are metal scaffolds that are used in the treatment of atherosclerosis. These devices are typically composed of very thin struts (< or = 100 microm thickness, for coronary applications). At this size-scale the question arises as to the suitability of using bulk material properties in stent design. This paper investigates the use of finite element analysis to predict the mechanical failure of stent struts, typical of the strut size used in coronary stents. 316 L stainless steel in uniaxial loading was considered. To accurately represent the constitutive behavior of the material at this size-scale, a computational micromechanics approach was taken involving an explicit representation of the grain structure in the steel struts, and the use of crystal plasticity theory to represent the constitutive behavior of the individual grains. The development of the finite element models is discussed and results are presented for the predictions of tensile mechanical behavior as a function of strut thickness. The results showed that using this modelling approach, a size effect, already seen experimentally, is produced. This has significant implications for stent design, especially in the context of the desire to produce smaller stents for small bore neurovascular and peripheral artery applications. PMID:15008368

  3. A micro-mechanical model to determine changes of collagen fibrils under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michelle L.; Susilo, Monica E.; Ruberti, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Thao D.

    Dynamic mechanical loading induces growth and remodeling in biological tissues. It can alter the degradation rate and intrinsic mechanical properties of collagen through cellular activity. Experiments showed that repeated cyclic loading of a dense collagen fibril substrate increased collagen stiffness and strength, lengthened the substrate, but did not significantly change the fibril areal fraction or fibril anisotropy (Susilo, et al. ``Collagen Network Hardening Following Cyclic Tensile Loading'', Interface Focus, submitted). We developed a model for the collagen fibril substrate (Tonge, et al. ``A micromechanical modeling study of the mechanical stabilization of enzymatic degradation of collagen tissues'', Biophys J, in press.) to probe whether changes in the fibril morphology and mechanical properties can explain the tissue-level properties observed during cyclic loading. The fibrils were modeled as a continuous distribution of wavy elastica, based on experimental measurements of fibril density and collagen anisotropy, and can experience damage after a critical stress threshold. Other mechanical properties in the model were fit to the stress response measured before and after the extended cyclic loading to determine changes in the strength and stiffness of collagen fibrils.

  4. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite Utilizing a Micromechanics Approach. Degree awarded by Cincinnati Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    Potential gas turbine applications will expose polymer matrix composites to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under extreme conditions. Specifically, analytical methods designed for these applications must have the capability of properly capturing the strain rate sensitivities and nonlinearities that are present in the material response. The Ramaswamy-Stouffer constitutive equations, originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals, have been modified to simulate the nonlinear deformation response of ductile, crystalline polymers. The constitutive model is characterized and correlated for two representative ductile polymers. Fiberite 977-2 and PEEK, and the computed results correlate well with experimental values. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented in a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics model to predict the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of a composite ply. Uniform stress and uniform strain assumptions are applied to compute the effective stresses of a composite unit cell from the applied strains. The micromechanics equations are successfully verified for two polymer matrix composites. IM7/977-2 and AS4/PEEK. The ultimate strength of a composite ply is predicted with the Hashin failure criteria that were implemented in the composite micromechanics model. The failure stresses of the two composite material systems are accurately predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The composite deformation model is implemented in LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic explicit finite element code. The matrix constitutive equations are converted into an incremental form, and the model is implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of a user defined material subroutine. The deformation response of a bulk polymer and a polymer matrix composite are predicted by finite element analyses. The results

  5. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  6. Micromechanical Study of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velikov, P. A.; Stchapov, N. P.; Lorenz, W. F.

    1945-01-01

    The Institut Scientifique Experimental des Transports at Moscow established toward the end of 1925 had since its inception included in its program the study of the mechanism of plastic deformation and the problems associated with it with reference to the materials of the means of transport. Before the program thus determined upon could be carried out, it was necessary to adopt a method of research, or, more exactly, a system of such methods. Because of the modest equipment of the laboratory of the recently established institute, the choice of any particular method was determined not only by the advantages it offered but also by the resources available. As a result of a series of studies and investigations, a method was determined upon which in this paper will be denoted as the micromechanical method. The underlying basis of this method is already known. As will be seen from the description that follows, the micromechanical method is merely a combination of the micrographic study of plastic deformations with mechanical tests on small specimens. It is a well-known fact that a number of investigators have largely employed and still are employing these two procedures and have thereby obtained good results. The authors of the present paper have found it useful to combine the two methods, by making the two studies simultaneously on the sane specimen.

  7. Strain Determination Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, M.; Graff, A.; Altmann, F.

    2010-11-24

    In the present paper we demonstrate the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for high resolution elastic strain determination. Here, we focus on analysis methods based on determination of small shifts in EBSD pattern with respect to a reference pattern using cross-correlation algorithms. Additionally we highlight the excellent spatial and depth resolution of EBSD and introduce the use of simulated diffraction patterns based on dynamical diffraction theory for sensitivity estimation. Moreover the potential of EBSD for strain analysis of strained thin films with particular emphasis on appropriate target preparation which respect to occurring lattice defects is demonstrated.

  8. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  9. Micromechanics and poroelasticity of hydrated cellulose networks.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Sanchez, P; Rincon, Mauricio; Wang, D; Brulhart, S; Stokes, J R; Gidley, M J

    2014-06-01

    The micromechanics of cellulose hydrogels have been investigated using a new rheological experimental approach, combined with simulation using a poroelastic constitutive model. A series of mechanical compression steps at different strain rates were performed as a function of cellulose hydrogel thickness, combined with small amplitude oscillatory shear after each step to monitor the viscoelasticity of the sample. During compression, bacterial cellulose hydrogels behaved as anisotropic materials with near zero Poisson's ratio. The micromechanics of the hydrogels altered with each compression as water was squeezed out of the structure, and microstructural changes were strain rate-dependent, with increased densification of the cellulose network and increased cellulose fiber aggregation observed for slower compressive strain rates. A transversely isotropic poroelastic model was used to explain the observed micromechanical behavior, showing that the mechanical properties of cellulose networks in aqueous environments are mainly controlled by the rate of water movement within the structure. PMID:24784575

  10. Micromechanical damage and fracture in elastomeric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyden, Stefanie

    This thesis aims at a simple one-parameter macroscopic model of distributed damage and fracture of polymers that is amenable to a straightforward and efficient numerical implementation. The failure model is motivated by post-mortem fractographic observations of void nucleation, growth and coalescence in polyurea stretched to failure, and accounts for the specific fracture energy per unit area attendant to rupture of the material. Furthermore, it is shown that the macroscopic model can be rigorously derived, in the sense of optimal scaling, from a micromechanical model of chain elasticity and failure regularized by means of fractional strain-gradient elasticity. Optimal scaling laws that supply a link between the single parameter of the macroscopic model, namely the critical energy-release rate of the material, and micromechanical parameters pertaining to the elasticity and strength of the polymer chains, and to the strain-gradient elasticity regularization, are derived. Based on optimal scaling laws, it is shown how the critical energy-release rate of specific materials can be determined from test data. In addition, the scope and fidelity of the model is demonstrated by means of an example of application, namely Taylor-impact experiments of polyurea rods. Hereby, optimal transportation meshfree approximation schemes using maximum-entropy interpolation functions are employed. Finally, a different crazing model using full derivatives of the deformation gradient and a core cut-off is presented, along with a numerical non-local regularization model. The numerical model takes into account higher-order deformation gradients in a finite element framework. It is shown how the introduction of non-locality into the model stabilizes the effect of strain localization to small volumes in materials undergoing softening. From an investigation of craze formation in the limit of large deformations, convergence studies verifying scaling properties of both local- and non-local energy

  11. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  12. Micromechanics of cellularized biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher A. R.; Cibula, Matthew; Feng, Jingchen; Krnacik, Emma A.; McIntyre, David H.; Levine, Herbert; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Collagen gels are widely used in experiments on cell mechanics because they mimic the extracellular matrix in physiological conditions. Collagen gels are often characterized by their bulk rheology; however, variations in the collagen fiber microstructure and cell adhesion forces cause the mechanical properties to be inhomogeneous at the cellular scale. We study the mechanics of type I collagen on the scale of tens to hundreds of microns by using holographic optical tweezers to apply pN forces to microparticles embedded in the collagen fiber network. We find that in response to optical forces, particle displacements are inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and asymmetric. Gels prepared at 21 °C and 37 °C show qualitative difference in their micromechanical characteristics. We also demonstrate that contracting cells remodel the micromechanics of their surrounding extracellular matrix in a strain- and distance-dependent manner. To further understand the micromechanics of cellularized extracellular matrix, we have constructed a computational model which reproduces the main experiment findings. PMID:26324923

  13. Micromechanisms with floating pivot

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-03-06

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use floating pivot structures to relieve some of the problems encountered in the use of solid flexible pivots.

  14. Delamination micromechanics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D. F.; Mahishi, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element analysis was developed which includes elastoplastic, orthotropic material response, and fracture initiation and propagation. Energy absorption due to physical failure processes characteristic of the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials is modeled. A local energy release rate in the presence of plasticity was defined and used as a criterion to predict the onset and growth of cracks in both micromechanics and macromechanics analyses. This crack growth simulation technique is based upon a virtual crack extension method. A three-dimensional finite element micromechanics model is used to study the effects of broken fibers, cracked matrix and fiber-matrix debond on the fracture toughness of the unidirectional composite. The energy release rates at the onset of unstable crack growth in the micromechanics analyses are used as critical energy release rates in the macromechanics analysis. This integrated micromechanical and macromechanical fracture criterion is shown to be very effective in predicting the onset and growth of cracks in general multilayered composite laminates by applying the criterion to a single-edge notched graphite/epoxy laminate subjected to implane tension normal to the notch.

  15. Critique of Macro Flow/Damage Surface Representations for Metal Matrix Composites Using Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidance for the formulation of robust, multiaxial, constitutive models for advanced materials is provided by addressing theoretical and experimental issues using micromechanics. The multiaxial response of metal matrix composites, depicted in terms of macro flow/damage surfaces, is predicted at room and elevated temperatures using an analytical micromechanical model that includes viscoplastic matrix response as well as fiber-matrix debonding. Macro flow/damage surfaces (i.e., debonding envelopes, matrix threshold surfaces, macro 'yield' surfaces, surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate, and surfaces of constant dissipation rate) are determined for silicon carbide/titanium in three stress spaces. Residual stresses are shown to offset the centers of the flow/damage surfaces from the origin and their shape is significantly altered by debonding. The results indicate which type of flow/damage surfaces should be characterized and what loadings applied to provide the most meaningful experimental data for guiding theoretical model development and verification.

  16. Neural Networks and Micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Ernst; Baidyk, Tatiana; Wunsch, Donald C.

    The title of the book, "Neural Networks and Micromechanics," seems artificial. However, the scientific and technological developments in recent decades demonstrate a very close connection between the two different areas of neural networks and micromechanics. The purpose of this book is to demonstrate this connection. Some artificial intelligence (AI) methods, including neural networks, could be used to improve automation system performance in manufacturing processes. However, the implementation of these AI methods within industry is rather slow because of the high cost of conducting experiments using conventional manufacturing and AI systems. To lower the cost, we have developed special micromechanical equipment that is similar to conventional mechanical equipment but of much smaller size and therefore of lower cost. This equipment could be used to evaluate different AI methods in an easy and inexpensive way. The proved methods could be transferred to industry through appropriate scaling. In this book, we describe the prototypes of low cost microequipment for manufacturing processes and the implementation of some AI methods to increase precision, such as computer vision systems based on neural networks for microdevice assembly and genetic algorithms for microequipment characterization and the increase of microequipment precision.

  17. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  18. Micromechanics of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The following summarizes the key points addressed during a tutorial session on the Micromechanics of Hearing that took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. The tutorial was intended to present an overview of basic ideas and to address topics of current interest relevant to the Workshop. The session was recorded, and the audio file and accompanying visual content of the presentation can be found in the Mechanics of Hearing Digital Library (www.mechanicsofhearing.org).

  19. Micromechanical uncooled photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.

    2000-04-01

    Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of uncooled IR detectors operate as micromechanical thermal detectors or micromechanical quantum detectors. We report on a new method for photon detection using electronic stresses in semiconductor microstructures. Photo-induced stress in semiconductor microstructures, is caused by changes in the charge carrier density in the conduction band and photon detection results from the measurement of the photon-induced bending of semiconductor microstructures. Small changes in position of microstructures are routinely measured in atomic force microscopy where atomic imaging of surfaces relies on the measurement of small changes in the bending of microcantilevers. Changes in the conduction band charge carrier density can result either from direct photo- generation of free charge carriers or from photoelectrons emitted from thin metal film surface in contact with a semiconductor microstructure which forms a Schottky barrier. In our studies we investigated three systems: (i) Si microstructures, (ii) InSb microstructures and (iii) Si microstructures coated with a thin excess electron-hole- pairs while for InSb photo-induced stress causes the crystal lattice to expand. We will present our results and discuss our findings.

  20. Micromechanical poroelastic finite element and shear-lag models of tendon predict large strain dependent Poisson's ratios and fluid expulsion under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Freedman, Benjamin R; Connizzo, Brianne K; Soslowsky, Louis J; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2015-08-01

    As tendons are loaded, they reduce in volume and exude fluid to the surrounding medium. Experimental studies have shown that tendon stretching results in a Poisson's ratio greater than 0.5, with a maximum value at small strains followed by a nonlinear decay. Here we present a computational model that attributes this macroscopic observation to the microscopic mechanism of the load transfer between fibrils under stretch. We develop a finite element model based on the mechanical role of the interfibrillar-linking elements, such as thin fibrils that bridge the aligned fibrils or macromolecules such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interfibrillar sliding and verify it with a theoretical shear-lag model. We showed the existence of a previously unappreciated structure-function mechanism whereby the Poisson's ratio in tendon is affected by the strain applied and interfibrillar-linker properties, and together these features predict tendon volume shrinkage under tensile loading. During loading, the interfibrillar-linkers pulled fibrils toward each other and squeezed the matrix, leading to the Poisson's ratio larger than 0.5 and fluid expulsion. In addition, the rotation of the interfibrillar-linkers with respect to the fibrils at large strains caused a reduction in the volume shrinkage and eventual nonlinear decay in Poisson's ratio at large strains. Our model also predicts a fluid flow that has a radial pattern toward the surrounding medium, with the larger fluid velocities in proportion to the interfibrillar sliding. PMID:25934322

  1. A numerical method for determining the strain rate intensity factor under plane strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, S.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Jeng, Y.-R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the classical model of rigid perfectly plastic solids, the strain rate intensity factor has been previously introduced as the coefficient of the leading singular term in a series expansion of the equivalent strain rate in the vicinity of maximum friction surfaces. Since then, many strain rate intensity factors have been determined by means of analytical and semi-analytical solutions. However, no attempt has been made to develop a numerical method for calculating the strain rate intensity factor. This paper presents such a method for planar flow. The method is based on the theory of characteristics. First, the strain rate intensity factor is derived in characteristic coordinates. Then, a standard numerical slip-line technique is supplemented with a procedure to calculate the strain rate intensity factor. The distribution of the strain rate intensity factor along the friction surface in compression of a layer between two parallel plates is determined. A high accuracy of this numerical solution for the strain rate intensity factor is confirmed by comparison with an analytic solution. It is shown that the distribution of the strain rate intensity factor is in general discontinuous.

  2. Composite micromechanical modeling using the boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the boundary element method for analyzing composite micromechanical behavior is demonstrated. Stress-strain, heat conduction, and thermal expansion analyses are conducted using the boundary element computer code BEST-CMS, and the results obtained are compared to experimental observations, analytical calculations, and finite element analyses. For each of the analysis types, the boundary element results agree reasonably well with the results from the other methodologies, with explainable discrepancies. Overall, the boundary element method shows promise in providing an alternative method to analyze composite micromechanical behavior.

  3. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  4. Probabilistic Fiber Composite Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate expected uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite properties. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using Monte Carlo simulation. The variables in which uncertainties are accounted for include constituent and void volume ratios, constituent elastic properties and strengths, and fiber misalignment. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to demonstrate fiber composite material property variations induced by random changes expected at the material micro level. Regression results are presented to show the relative correlation between predictor and response variables in the study. These computational procedures make possible a formal description of anticipated random processes at the intra-ply level, and the related effects of these on composite properties.

  5. Micromechanics of fracturing in nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ovid'ko, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of key experimental data and theoretical representations on fracture processes in nanoceramics is presented. The focuses are placed on crack growth in nanoceramics and their toughening micromechanics. Conventional toughening micromechanisms are discussed which effectively operate in both microcrystalline-matrix ceramics containing nanoinclusions and nanocrystalline-matrix ceramics. Particular attention is devoted to description of special (new) toughening micromechanisms related to nanoscale deformation occurring near crack tips in nanocrystalline-matrix ceramics. In addition, a new strategy for pronounced improvement of fracture toughness of ceramic materials through fabrication of ceramic–graphene nanocomposites is considered. Toughening micromechanisms are discussed which operate in such nanocomposites containing graphene platelets and/or few-layer sheets. PMID:25713442

  6. Micromechanics of fracturing in nanoceramics.

    PubMed

    Ovid'ko, I A

    2015-03-28

    An overview of key experimental data and theoretical representations on fracture processes in nanoceramics is presented. The focuses are placed on crack growth in nanoceramics and their toughening micromechanics. Conventional toughening micromechanisms are discussed which effectively operate in both microcrystalline-matrix ceramics containing nanoinclusions and nanocrystalline-matrix ceramics. Particular attention is devoted to description of special (new) toughening micromechanisms related to nanoscale deformation occurring near crack tips in nanocrystalline-matrix ceramics. In addition, a new strategy for pronounced improvement of fracture toughness of ceramic materials through fabrication of ceramic-graphene nanocomposites is considered. Toughening micromechanisms are discussed which operate in such nanocomposites containing graphene platelets and/or few-layer sheets. PMID:25713442

  7. A Micromechanical INS/GPS System for Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, N.; Brand, T.; Haley, R.; Socha, M.; Stoll, J.; Ward, P.; Weinberg, M.

    1995-01-01

    The cost and complexity of large satellite space missions continue to escalate. To reduce costs, more attention is being directed toward small lightweight satellites where future demand is expected to grow dramatically. Specifically, micromechanical inertial systems and microstrip global positioning system (GPS) antennas incorporating flip-chip bonding, application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) and MCM technologies will be required. Traditional microsatellite pointing systems do not employ active control. Many systems allow the satellite to point coarsely using gravity gradient, then attempt to maintain the image on the focal plane with fast-steering mirrors. Draper's approach is to actively control the line of sight pointing by utilizing on-board attitude determination with micromechanical inertial sensors and reaction wheel control actuators. Draper has developed commercial and tactical-grade micromechanical inertial sensors, The small size, low weight, and low cost of these gyroscopes and accelerometers enable systems previously impractical because of size and cost. Evolving micromechanical inertial sensors can be applied to closed-loop, active control of small satellites for micro-radian precision-pointing missions. An inertial reference feedback control loop can be used to determine attitude and line of sight jitter to provide error information to the controller for correction. At low frequencies, the error signal is provided by GPS. At higher frequencies, feedback is provided by the micromechanical gyros. This blending of sensors provides wide-band sensing from dc to operational frequencies. First order simulation has shown that the performance of existing micromechanical gyros, with integrated GPS, is feasible for a pointing mission of 10 micro-radians of jitter stability and approximately 1 milli-radian absolute error, for a satellite with 1 meter antenna separation. Improved performance micromechanical sensors currently under development will be

  8. Micromechanics and anatomical changes during early ontogeny of two lianescent Aristolochia species.

    PubMed

    Köhler, L; Speck, T; Spatz, H C

    2000-04-01

    The mechanical properties of young stems of Aristolochia macrophylla Lam. and Aristolochia brasiliensis Mart. et Zucc. were studied during elongation growth and primary differentiation. Data for the modulus of elasticity, for the viscoelastic behaviour caused by longitudinal tension and for the shear modulus resulting from torsion around a longitudinal axis were related to the underlying structural changes by quantitative analysis of stem anatomy, tissue distribution, ultrastructure, and cell wall biochemistry. The orientation of cellulose microfibrils was determined by light microscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction, and the lignin content was determined by thioglycolic acid derivatization and spectroscopic quantification. It was demonstrated that the increase in stability during early development is due to the complementary effects of increase in cell wall material, lignification, and cellulose microfibril alignment. A detailed micromechanical model, considering internal prestresses, is proposed to explain the characteristic biphasic stress-strain behaviour as well as the strain-hardening observed. PMID:10805439

  9. Micromechanics of Drosophila Audition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göpfert, M. C.; Robert, D.

    2003-02-01

    An analysis is presented of the auditory micromechanics of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this animal, the distal part of the antenna constitutes a resonantly tuned sound receiver, the vibrations of which are transduced by a chordotonal sense organ in the antenna's base. Analyzing the mechanical behavior of the antennal receiver by means of microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, we show that the auditory system of wild-type flies exhibits a hardening stiffness nonlinearity and spontaneously generates oscillations in the absence of external stimuli. According to the deprivation of these mechanical properties in mechanosensory mutants, the receiver's nonlinearity and oscillation activity are introduced by chordotonal auditory neurons. Requiring the mechanoreceptor-specific extracellular linker protein No-mechanoreceptor-potential-A (NompA), NompC mechanosensory transduction channels, Beethoven (Btv), and Touch-insensitive-larva-B (TilB), nonlinearity and oscillation activity of the fly's antennal receiver depend on prominent components of the auditory transduction machinery and seem to originate from motility of auditory receptor cilia.

  10. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  11. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  12. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) User Guide: Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triple ply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control), and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed; (2) different integration algorithms may be selected; (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented; and (4) a variety of fiber architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  13. A micromechanical theory of grain-size dependence in metal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, G. J.

    T HE EFFECT of grain-size on the elastoplastic behavior of metals is investigated from the micromechanics standpoint. First, based on the observations that dislocation pile-ups, formation of cell structures, and other inelastic activities influenced by the presence of grain boundary actually take place transcrystallinely, a grain-size dependent constitutive equation is proposed for the slip deformation of slip systems. By means of a modified Hill's self-consistent relation the local stress of a grain is calculated, and used in conjunction with this constitutive equation to evaluate the plastic strain of each constituent grain. The grain-size effect on the plastic flow of polycrystals then can be determined by an averaging process. To check the validity of the proposed theory it was finally applied to predict the stress-strain curves and flow stresses of a copper at various grain-sizes. The obtained results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. In-situ scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy Young's modulus determination of indium oxide microrods for micromechanical resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier; Hidalgo, Pedro; Maestre, David; Cremades, Ana Piqueras, Javier

    2014-04-21

    Electric field induced mechanical resonances of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods are studied by in-situ measurements in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope. Young's moduli of rods with different cross-sectional shapes are calculated from the resonance frequency, and a range of values between 131 and 152 GPa are obtained. A quality factor of 1180–3780 is measured from the amplitude-frequency curves, revealing the suitability of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods as micromechanical resonators. The Young's modulus, E, of one of the rods is also measured from the elastic response in the force-displacement curve recorded in an atomic force microscope. E values obtained by in-situ scanning electron microscopy and by atomic force microscopy are found to differ in about 8%. The results provide data on Young's modulus of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and confirm the suitability of in-situ scanning electron microscopy mechanical resonance measurements to investigate the elastic behavior of semiconductor microrods.

  15. The physical basis of how prion conformations determine strain phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motomasa; Collins, Sean R.; Toyama, Brandon H.; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2006-08-01

    A principle that has emerged from studies of protein aggregation is that proteins typically can misfold into a range of different aggregated forms. Moreover, the phenotypic and pathological consequences of protein aggregation depend critically on the specific misfolded form. A striking example of this is the prion strain phenomenon, in which prion particles composed of the same protein cause distinct heritable states. Accumulating evidence from yeast prions such as [PSI+] and mammalian prions argues that differences in the prion conformation underlie prion strain variants. Nonetheless, it remains poorly understood why changes in the conformation of misfolded proteins alter their physiological effects. Here we present and experimentally validate an analytical model describing how [PSI+] strain phenotypes arise from the dynamic interaction among the effects of prion dilution, competition for a limited pool of soluble protein, and conformation-dependent differences in prion growth and division rates. Analysis of three distinct prion conformations of yeast Sup35 (the [PSI+] protein determinant) and their in vivo phenotypes reveals that the Sup35 amyloid causing the strongest phenotype surprisingly shows the slowest growth. This slow growth, however, is more than compensated for by an increased brittleness that promotes prion division. The propensity of aggregates to undergo breakage, thereby generating new seeds, probably represents a key determinant of their physiological impact for both infectious (prion) and non-infectious amyloids.

  16. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  17. Micromechanics of ambient temperature cyclic fatigue loading in a composite of CAS glass ceramic reinforced with Nicalon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, C.Q.; Davidson, D.L.; Campbell, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    The behavior of a Nicalon fiber reinforced glass ceramic composite cyclicly loaded has been evaluated at ambient temperature using high-resolution micromechanical test methods. On this basis, the events leading to fracture have been found to be similar to those accompanying fracture in unidirectional tension tests. Matrix strains were determined locally at the point of matrix fracture. Crack opening displacements (CODs) were measured as a function of loading cycles, and fiber strains were determined, in some cases. It is concluded that debonding of fibers begins at the point of matrix cracking and rapidly increases. Most of the cyclic lifetime of the material is spent with fibers debonded over large distances (fractions of a millimeter); these fibers are pulled out of the matrix on each loading cycle. Final debond length, as determined by fractography, is a function of the number of cycles to fracture, and of the applied stress level. 23 refs.

  18. Strain Gage Measurement System to Determine Cryogenic Propellant Tank Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; St.Cyr, William W.; VanDyke, David; McVay, Greg; Mitchell, Mark; Langford, Lester

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of tank level, particularly for cryogenic propellants, has proven to be a difficult proposition. Current methods based on differential pressure, capacitance sensors, temperature sensors, etc.; do not provide sufficiently accurate or robust measurements, especially at run time. This paper describes a simple, but effective method to determine propellant volume by measuring very small deformations of the structure supporting the tank. Results of a laboratory study to validate the method, and experimental data from a deployed system are presented. A comparison with an existing differential pressure sensor shows that the strain gage system provides a very good quality signal even during pressurization.

  19. An electrostatically rebalanced micromechanical accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxenhorn, Burton; Greiff, Paul

    The design and test performance of a low-cost micromechanical accelerometer (MA) with integral electrodes, developed for use with the vibratory micromechanical gyro described by Boxenhorn and Greiff (1988), are reported. The MA is a monolithic Si device of size 300 x 600 microns and comprises a torsional pendulum with capacitive readout and an electrostatic torquer. Data from 360-deg sweep tests performed in a g-field are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. Results include bandwidth about 1 Hz, scale-factor error 480 ppm, stable bias of 260 microg over 203 min, and temperature effect 2100 microg/C on bias and -123 ppm/C on scale factor.

  20. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  1. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers in performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions, it must be based on a micromechanics approach that uses physically based deformation and life constitutive models, and it must allow one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Only then can such a model be used by a material scientist to investigate the effect of different deformation mechanisms on the overall response of the composite and, thereby, identify the appropriate constituents for a given application. However, if a micromechanical model is to be used in a large-scale structural analysis it must be (1) computationally efficient, (2) able to generate accurate displacement and stress fields at both the macro and micro level, and (3) compatible with the finite element method. In addition, new advancements in processing and fabrication techniques now make it possible to engineer the architectures of these advanced composite systems. Full utilization of these emerging manufacturing capabilities require the development of a computationally efficient micromechanics analysis tool that can accurately predict the effect of microstructural details on the internal and macroscopic behavior of composites. Computational efficiency is required because (1) a large number of parameters must be varied in the course of engineering (or designing) composite materials and (2) the optimization of a material's microstructure requires that the micromechanics model be integrated with

  2. Micromechanics in the Gerbil Hemicochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.-P.; Dallos, P.

    2003-02-01

    Micromechanical events in the cochlea represent the combined motions of all elements that convey vibrations from the basilar membrane (BM) to the stereocilia bundles of the inner hair cells, the sensory receptors of the mammalian cochlea. Because of the difficulty of visualizing the organ of Corti (OC), experimental data on micromechanics are extremely limited. Available results represent motions viewed either from one focal plane or from the surface of a cochlear preparation. The present experiments examine cochlear micromechanics at audio frequencies by using the hemicochlea that permits the viewing of all structures in a cochlear cross-section. Stroboscopic illumination and video-flow techniques have been used to quantify the motion of selected elements. The movements at different locations revealed a tuned response across frequencies with the best frequency increasing from more basal to more apical locations. Furthermore, the vibrations showed rotational components, such as rotations around a pivot point: the inner pillar foot. Inner and outer pillar cells, inner and outer hair cells, Deiters' cells and parts of the BM move together and form a so-called "rotating wedge". The movements of Hensen's cells represent a mode of vibration different from that of the rest of the OC.

  3. Micromechanical modeling of fiber fragmentation in a single fiber metal matrix composite specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean E.

    Micromechanical models have been developed in this study to predict the longitudinal mechanical behavior of unidirectional continuous fiber composite materials under a uniaxial applied effective strain of sufficient magnitude to cause irreversible damage in the form of brittle fiber fracture, interface damage resulting in a compliant interphase region, and matrix plasticity. A single fiber composite (SFC) specimen that consists of a single silicon carbide fiber embedded in an aluminum matrix with a thin interphase layer was used to investigate these effects. The objective of this research was to create a micromechanical model to predict the longitudinal constitutive behavior of the composite as damage occurs and to determine if the interfacial shear stress can be estimated from the fiber fragment length at a given effective strain. The aluminum matrix was modeled as either linear elastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, linear strain hardening, or power-law strain hardening. Before fiber fracture, the interphase layer forms a perfect bond between the fiber and matrix. During fiber fracture, the interphase is damaged and the interfacial bond becomes imperfect. The imperfect interface may be compliant or compliant and weak, and was modeled as a spring layer with vanishing thickness. The fiber fragments are assumed to be uniformly distributed such that the fragment lengths are equal at each load level. The Weibull distribution was used to relate the fiber fragment length to the tensile strength of the fiber. An increase in the applied effective strain causes successive fiber fractures, in that the fragments become increasingly shorter. The SFCs studied had either no fiber fractures, one fracture, or successive fractures; one of the four matrix material types; and either perfect, compliant, or compliant and weak interfaces. The finite element method was used to provide numerical solutions for the state of stress and fiber length at a given applied effective strain which

  4. Micromechanical Modeling Study of Mechanical Inhibition of Enzymatic Degradation of Collagen Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Theresa K; Ruberti, Jeffrey W; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates how the collagen fiber structure influences the enzymatic degradation of collagen tissues. We developed a micromechanical model of a fibrous collagen tissue undergoing enzymatic degradation based on two central hypotheses. The collagen fibers are crimped in the undeformed configuration. Enzymatic degradation is an energy activated process and the activation energy is increased by the axial strain energy density of the fiber. We determined the intrinsic degradation rate and characteristic energy for mechanical inhibition from fibril-level degradation experiments and applied the parameters to predict the effect of the crimped fiber structure and fiber properties on the degradation of bovine cornea and pericardium tissues under controlled tension. We then applied the model to examine the effect of the tissue stress state on the rate of tissue degradation and the anisotropic fiber structures that developed from enzymatic degradation. PMID:26682825

  5. Micromechanics Modeling of Fracture in Nanocrystalline Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Piascik, R. S.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystalline metals have very high theoretical strength, but suffer from a lack of ductility and toughness. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of these materials before their full potential can be achieved. Because classical fracture mechanics is based on the comparison of computed fracture parameters, such as stress intlmsity factors, to their empirically determined critical values, it does not adequately describe the fundamental physics of fracture required to predict the behavior of nanocrystalline metals. Thus, micromechanics-based techniques must be considered to quanti@ the physical processes of deformation and fracture within nanocrystalline metals. This paper discusses hndamental physicsbased modeling strategies that may be useful for the prediction Iof deformation, crack formation and crack growth within nanocrystalline metals.

  6. Adhesion, friction and micromechanical properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics, both in monolithic and coating form, are reviewed. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials, and metals. For the simplicity of discussion, the tribological properties of concern in the processes are separated into two parts. The first part discusses the pull-off force (adhesion) and the shear force required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces. The role of chemical bonding in adhesion and friction, and the effects of surface contaminant films and temperature on tribological response with respect to adhesion and friction are discussed. The second part deals with abrasion of ceramics. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The scratch technique of determining the critical load needed to fracture interfacial adhesive bonds of ceramic deposited on substrates is also addressed.

  7. Method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James H.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface.

  8. Method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.

    1998-06-16

    A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.

  9. Three-dimensional micromechanical modeling of voided polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, M.; Parks, D. M.; Boyce, M. C.

    2002-02-01

    A three-dimensional micromechanical unit cell model for particle-filled materials is presented. The cell model is based on a Voronoi tessellation of particles arranged on a body-centered cubic (BCC) array. The three-dimensionality of the present cell model enables the study of several deformation modes, including uniaxial, plane strain and simple shear deformations, as well as arbitrary principal stress states. The unit cell model is applied to studies on the micromechanical and macromechanical behavior of rubber-toughened polycarbonate. Different load cases are examined, including plane strain deformation, simple shear deformation and principal stress states. For a constant macroscopic strain rate, the different load cases show that the macroscopic flow strength of the blend decreases with an increase in void volume fraction, as expected. The main mechanism for plastic deformation is broad shear banding across inter-particle ligaments. The distributed nature of plastic straining acts to reduce the amount of macroscopic strain softening in the blend as the initial void volume fraction is increased. In the case of plane strain deformation, the plastic flow is observed to initiate across inter-particle ligaments in the direction of constraint. This particular mode of deformation could not have been captured using a two-dimensional, plane strain idealization of cylindrical voids in a matrix. The potential for localized crazing and/or cavitation in the matrix is addressed. It is observed that the introduction of voids acts to relieve hydrostatic stress in the matrix material, compared to the homopolymer. It is also seen that the predicted peak hydrostatic stress in the matrix is higher under plane strain deformation than under triaxial tension (with equal lateral stresses), for the same macroscopic stress triaxiality. The effect of void volume fraction on the macroscopic uniaxial tension behavior of the different blends is examined using a Considère construction for

  10. Micromechanical modeling of temperature-dependent initiation fracture toughness in advanced aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, M.J.; Somerday, B.P.; Gangloff, R.P.; Lach, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    The temperature dependence of the plane-strain initiation fracture toughness (K{sub JICi}) is modeled micromechanically for a variety of advanced aluminum alloys that fail by microvoid processes. Materials include precipitation-hardened ingot metallurgy, spray formed, submicron-grain-size powder metallurgy, and metal-matrix composite alloys. A critical-plastic-strain-controlled model, employing tensile yield strength, elastic modulus, work hardening, and reduction of area measurements, successfully predicts K{sub JICi} versus temperature for eight alloys, providing a strong confirmation of this approach. Modeling shows that K{sub JICi} is controlled by the interplay between the temperature dependencies of the intrinsic failure locus {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub f}{sup p}({sigma}{sub m}/{sigma}{sub fl}) and the crack-tip stress/strain fields governed by alloy flow properties. Uncertainties in {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub f}{sup p}({sigma}{sub m}/{sigma}{sub fl}), as well as the critical distance (volume) for crack-tip damage evolution, hinder absolute predictions of K{sub JICi}. Critical distance (calculated from the model) correlates with the nearest-neighbor spacing of void-nucleating particles and with the extent of primary void growth determined from quantitative fractography. These correlations suggest a means to predict absolute plane-strain fracture toughness.

  11. Micromechanical Models of Helical Superstructures in Ligament and Tendon Fibers Predict Large Poisson’s Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Shawn P.; Maas, Steve A.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the Poisson’s ratio in tendon and ligament tissue greatly exceed the isotropic limit of 0.5. This is indicative of volume loss during tensile loading. The microstructural origin of the large Poisson’s ratios is unknown. It was hypothesized that a helical organization of fibrils within a fiber would result in a large Poisson’s ratio in ligaments and tendons, and that this helical organization would be compatible with the crimped nature of these tissues, thus modeling their classic nonlinear stress strain behavior. Micromechanical finite element models were constructed to represent crimped fibers with a super helical organization, composed of fibrils embedded within a matrix material. A homogenization procedure was performed to determine both the effective Poisson’s ratio and the Poisson function. The results showed that helical fibril organization within a crimped fiber was capable of simultaneously predicting large Poisson’s ratios and the nonlinear stress strain behavior seen experimentally. Parametric studies revealed that the predicted Poisson’s ratio was strongly dependent on the helical pitch, crimp angle and the material coefficients. The results indicated that, for physiologically relevant parameters, the models were capable of predicting the large Poisson’s ratios seen experimentally. It was concluded that helical organization within a crimped fiber can produce both the characteristic nonlinear stress strain behavior and large Poisson’s ratios, while fiber crimp alone could only account for the nonlinear stress-strain behavior. PMID:20181336

  12. Quantification of damage evolution for a micromechanical model of ductile fracture in spallation of tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.; Tonks, D.L.; Hixon, R.; Addessio, F.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present quantification of micromechanical features such as voids that comprise the ductile fracture obtained under uniaxial strain condition in a spall test of commercial purity tantalum. Two evolutionary parameters of ductile fracture void formation are quantified: (i) the void volume fraction (porosity) and its distribution with respect to the distance from the main spall fracture plane, and (ii) void diameter distribution. The results complement the discussion of the implications of void clustering and linking for micromechanical modeling of ductile fracture as presented in a paper by D. L. Tonks et al. in this volume.

  13. The micromechanical behavior of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium under uniaxial tension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arévalo, F M; Farfán, M; Covarrubias, D; Zenit, R; Pulos, G

    2010-11-01

    The micromechanical behavior of lyophilized glutaraldehyde bovine pericardium undergoing uniaxial tension was studied by digital image correlation. The experiments were conducted simultaneously at macromechanical and micromechanical levels, to correlate the mechanical response of this biomaterial at different scales. From the experiments, displacement and force data were acquired; in addition, an image sequence of each sample surface was registered with a high-definition camera. With the images, it was possible to obtain the vector displacement field between pairs of images and then the in-plane strain was calculated. The secant and final moduli of this material were obtained at macromechanical and micromechanical levels. A good agreement between the micro and macro moduli was observed. This analysis is a useful alternative technique for studying this biomaterial when local properties are needed for medical applications. PMID:20826372

  14. Implementation of Improved Transverse Shear Calculations and Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Analyses of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Lin-Fa; Kim, Soo; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear and strain rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composite laminated plates under high strain rate impact loadings. A recently developed strength of materials based micromechanics model, incorporating a set of nonlinear, strain rate dependent constitutive equations for the polymer matrix, is extended to account for the transverse shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of transverse shear deformation are investigated in order to improve the developed strain rate dependent micromechanics model. The validities of these assumptions are investigated using numerical and theoretical approaches. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio of the composite is developed. The revised micromechanics model is then implemented into a higher order laminated plate theory which is modified to include the effects of inelastic strains. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the mechanical response of composite plates under high strain rate loadings. Results show the transverse shear stresses cannot be neglected in the impact problem. A significant level of strain rate dependency and material nonlinearity is found in the deformation response of representative composite specimens.

  15. Noninvasive in vivo determination of residual strains and stresses.

    PubMed

    Donmazov, Samir; Piskin, Senol; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-06-01

    Vascular growth and remodeling during embryonic development are associated with blood flow and pressure induced stress distribution, in which residual strains and stresses play a central role. Residual strains are typically measured by performing in vitro tests on the excised vascular tissue. In this paper, we investigated the possibility of estimating residual strains and stresses using physiological pressure-radius data obtained through in vivo noninvasive measurement techniques, such as optical coherence tomography or ultrasound modalities. This analytical approach first tested with in vitro results using experimental data sets for three different arteries such as rabbit carotid artery, rabbit thoracic artery, and human carotid artery based on Fung's pseudostrain energy function and Delfino's exponential strain energy function (SEF). We also examined residual strains and stresses in the human swine iliac artery using the in vivo experimental ultrasound data sets corresponding to the systolic-to-diastolic region only. This allowed computation of the in vivo residual stress information for loading and unloading states separately. Residual strain parameters as well as the material parameters were successfully computed with high accuracy, where the relative errors are introduced in the range of 0-7.5%. Corresponding residual stress distributions demonstrated global errors all in acceptable ranges. A slight discrepancy was observed in the computed reduced axial force. Results of computations performed based on in vivo experimental data obtained from loading and unloading states of the artery exhibited alterations in material properties and residual strain parameters as well. Emerging noninvasive measurement techniques combined with the present analytical approach can be used to estimate residual strains and stresses in vascular tissues as a precursor for growth estimates. This approach is also validated with a finite element model of a general two-layered artery

  16. Local structure determination in strained-layer semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woicik, Joseph C.

    The theory of elasticity accurately describes the deformations of macroscopic bodies under the action of applied stress [1]. In this review, we examine the internal mechanisms of elasticity for strained-layer semiconductor heterostructures. In particular, we present extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to show how the bond lengths and bond angles in semiconductor thin-alloy films change with strain when they are grown coherently on substrates with different lattice constants. The structural distortions measured by experiment are compared to valence-force field (VFF) calculations and other theoretical models. Atomic switching and interfacial strain at buried interfaces are also discussed.

  17. Micromechanical analysis of porous SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepe, V.; Auricchio, F.; Marfia, S.; Sacco, E.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper deals with computational micromechanical analyses of porous shape memory alloy (SMA). Porous SMAs are considered composite materials made of a dense SMA matrix including voids. A three-dimensional constitutive law is presented for the dense SMA able to reproduce the pseudo-elastic as well as the shape memory effects and, moreover, to account for the different elastic properties of the austenite and martensite phases. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is developed and the overall behavior of the porous SMA is recovered studying a representative volume element. Comparisons between the numerical results, recovered using the proposed modeling, and experimental data available in the literature are presented. The case of closed and open porosity is investigated. Parametric studies have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of the porosity, the shape and orientation of the pores on the overall mechanical response and, mainly, on the energy absorption dissipation capability.

  18. Determination of Predominance of Influenza Virus Strains in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Garten, Rebecca J.; Palekar, Rakhee; Cerpa, Mauricio; Mirza, Sara; Ropero, Alba Maria; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Moen, Ann; Bresee, Joseph; Shaw, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-01-01

    During 2001–2014, predominant influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in South America predominated in all or most subsequent influenza seasons in Central and North America. Predominant A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in North America predominated in most subsequent seasons in Central and South America. Sharing data between these subregions may improve influenza season preparedness. PMID:26079140

  19. Micromechanisms of thermomechanical fatigue: A comparison with isothermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) experiments were conducted on Mar-M 200, B-1900, and PWA-1480 (single crystals) over temperature ranges representative of gas turbine airfoil environments. The results were examined from both a phenomenological basis and a micromechanical basis. Depending on constituents present in the superalloy system, certain micromechanisms dominated the crack initiation process and significantly influenced the TMF lives as well as sensitivity of the material to the type TMF cycle imposed. For instance, high temperature cracking around grain boundary carbides in Mar-M 200 resulted in short in-phase TMF lives compared to either out-of-phase or isothermal lives. In single crystal PWA-1480, the type of coating applied was seen to be the controlling factor in determining sensitivity to the type of TMF cycle imposed. Micromechanisms of deformation were observed over the temperature range of interest to the TMF cycles, and provided some insight as to the differences between TMF damage mechanisms and isothermal damage mechanisms. Finally, the applicability of various life prediction models to TMF results was reviewed. Current life prediction models based on isothermal data must be modified before being generally applied to TMF.

  20. A viscoplastic micromechanical model for the yield strength of nanocrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, R; Bringa, E; Caro, A

    2006-03-14

    In this paper we present a micromechanical approach based on Fast Fourier Transforms to study the role played by dislocation glide and grain boundary (GB) accommodation in the determination of the plastic behavior of nanostructured materials. For this, we construct unit cells representing self-similar polycrystals with different grain sizes in the nanometer range and use local constitutive equations for slip and GB accommodation. We study the effect of grain size, strain rate and pressure on the local and effective behavior of nanostructured fcc materials with parameters obtained from experiments and atomistic simulations. Predictions of a previous qualitative pressure-sensitive model for the effective yield strength behind a shock front are substantially improved by considering strain partition between slip and GB activity. Under quasiestatic conditions, assuming diffusion-controlled mechanisms at GB, the model predicts a strain-rate sensitivity increase in nanocrystalline samples with respect to the same coarse-grained material of the same order as in recently published experiments.

  1. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  2. Elongated Tetrakaidecahedron Micromechanics Model for Space Shuttle External Tank Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of microstructural characterization studies and physical and mechanical testing of BX-265 and NCFI24-124 foams are reported. A micromechanics model developed previously by the authors is reviewed, and the resulting equations for the elastic constants, the relative density, and the strength of the foam in the principal material directions are presented. The micromechanics model is also used to derive equations to predict the effect of vacuum on the tensile strength and the strains induced by exposure to vacuum. Using a combination of microstructural dimensions and physical and mechanical measurements as input, the equations for the elastic constants and the relative density are applied and the remaining microstructural dimensions are predicted. The predicted microstructural dimensions are in close agreement with the average measured values for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. With the microstructural dimensions, the model predicts the ratio of the strengths in the principal material directions for both foams. The model is also used to predict the Poisson s ratios, the vacuum-induced strains, and the effect of vacuum on the tensile strengths. However, the comparison of these predicted values with the measured values is not as favorable.

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains determined by disk diffusion].

    PubMed

    Llanes Caballero, R; Acosta Giraldo, J C; Sosa Puente, J; Guzmán Hernández, D; Gutiérrez González, O; Llop Hernández, A

    1999-01-01

    The Gonoccocus Laboratory of "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute carried out a study of in vitro susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime ceftriaxone, cefotaxine and ciprofoxacin by means of a disk diffusion method with the culture medium agar base GC plus supplement. In the first phase, the method was standardized and the reference N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 strain was used whereas in the second phase, 50 gonococcal strains isolated in 8 provinces during 1995 and 1996 were examined. The results of such standardization confirmed that the antimicrobial susceptibility values were within the allowable limits. 52 and 34% of strains were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline respectively and all of them showed susceptibility to the rest of evaluated antimicrobial drugs. We recommend the use of the disk diffusion method for surveillance of gonococci resistance to these drugs in our country. PMID:10887570

  4. Rotamer strain as a determinant of protein structural specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, G. A.; Johnson, E. C.; Desjarlais, J. R.; Handel, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present direct evidence for a change in protein structural specificity due to hydrophobic core packing. High resolution structural analysis of a designed core variant of ubiquitin reveals that the protein is in slow exchange between two conformations. Examination of side-chain rotamers indicates that this dynamic response and the lower stability of the protein are coupled to greater strain and mobility in the core. The results suggest that manipulating the level of side-chain strain may be one way of fine tuning the stability and specificity of proteins. PMID:10631975

  5. [Identification and determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of 31 clinical strains of Acinetobacter other than A. baumannii].

    PubMed

    Freney, J; Bouvet, P J; Tixier, C

    1989-01-01

    Precise identification and determination of MICs of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter identified to other species than the hospital species A. baumannii were carried out. On 260 Acinetobacter strains isolated in an hospital over a 6 months period, 31 strains (12 p. cent) were identified to species other than A. baumannii. Among these 31 strains, A. Iwoffii sensu stricto (16 strains) and A. haemolyticus (6 strains) were mostly recovered. Eight glucose oxidizing strains were identified to A. haemolyticus (6 strains), Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (2 strains), and A. Iwoffii sensu stricto (1 strain). Antibiotic susceptibilities of these strains were greater than those commonly observed with A. baumannii strains. PMID:2930020

  6. Micromechanics of Spray-On Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the thermo-mechanical response of the Space Shuttle External Tank spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) material is critical, to NASA's Return to Flight effort. This closed-cell rigid polymeric foam is used to insulate the metallic Space Shuttle External Tank, which is at cryogenic temperatures immediately prior to and during lift off. The shedding of the SOFI during ascent led to the loss of the Columbia, and eliminating/minimizing foam lass from the tank has become a priority for NASA as it seeks to resume scheduled space shuttle missions. Determining the nature of the SOFI material behavior in response to both thermal and mechanical loading plays an important role as any structural modeling of the shedding phenomenon k predicated on knowledge of the constitutive behavior of the foam. In this paper, the SOFI material has been analyzed using the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) micromechanics model, which has recently been extended to admit a triply-periodic 3-D repeating unit cell (RUC). Additional theoretical extensions that mere made in order to enable modeling of the closed-cell-foam material include the ability to represent internal boundaries within the RUC (to simulated internal pores) and the ability to impose an internal pressure within the simulated pores. This latter extension is crucial as two sources contribute to significant internal pressure changes within the SOFI pores. First, gas trapped in the pores during the spray process will expand or contract due to temperature changes. Second, the pore pressure will increase due to outgassing of water and other species present in the foam skeleton polymer material. With HFGMC's new pore pressure modeling capabilities, a nonlinear pressure change within the simulated pore can be imposed that accounts for both of these sources, in addition to stmdar&-thermal and mechanical loading; The triply-periodic HFGMC micromechanics model described above was implemented within NASA GRC's MAC

  7. Method of Manufacturing a Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers.The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  8. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks. PMID:22778654

  9. Micromechanical models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Marrey, Ramesh V.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and analytical micromechanical models are presented to predict the thermoelastic behavior of a textile composite. In the numerical model, the unit-cell is discretized with finite elements, and periodic boundary conditions are imposed between opposite faces of the unit-cell. For a thin textile composite, stress gradients effects through the thickness are demonstrated. The consequent difference in the stiffness and strength behavior of thick and thin composites are discussed. The numerical model is implemented to predict 3-D thermo-elastic constants for a thick textile composite, and the plate thermo-mechanical properties for a thin textile composite. The numerical model is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses due to processing to predict the composite failure envelopes. An analytical model - Selective Averaging Method (SAM) - is proposed, which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging to estimate the 3-D elastic constants. Both the models are tested and verified for several examples by comparing the stiffness properties with elasticity solutions and available results.

  10. Computational micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element of bituminous composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Hasan; Ghauch, Ziad G.; Dhasmana, Heena; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-03-01

    Micromechanical computational modeling is used in this study to determine the smallest domain, or Representative Volume Element (RVE), that can be used to characterize the effective properties of composite materials such as Asphalt Concrete (AC). Computational Finite Element (FE) micromechanical modeling was coupled with digital image analysis of surface scans of AC specimens. Three mixtures with varying Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS) of 4.75 mm, 12.5 mm, and 25 mm, were prepared for digital image analysis and computational micromechanical modeling. The effects of window size and phase modulus mismatch on the apparent viscoelastic response of the composite were numerically examined. A good agreement was observed in the RVE size predictions based on micromechanical computational modeling and image analysis. Micromechanical results indicated that a degradation in the matrix stiffness increases the corresponding RVE size. Statistical homogeneity was observed for window sizes equal to two to three times the NMAS. A model was presented for relating the degree of statistical homogeneity associated with each window size for materials with varying inclusion dimensions.

  11. Computational micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element of bituminous composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Hasan; Ghauch, Ziad G.; Dhasmana, Heena; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-08-01

    Micromechanical computational modeling is used in this study to determine the smallest domain, or Representative Volume Element (RVE), that can be used to characterize the effective properties of composite materials such as Asphalt Concrete (AC). Computational Finite Element (FE) micromechanical modeling was coupled with digital image analysis of surface scans of AC specimens. Three mixtures with varying Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS) of 4.75 mm, 12.5 mm, and 25 mm, were prepared for digital image analysis and computational micromechanical modeling. The effects of window size and phase modulus mismatch on the apparent viscoelastic response of the composite were numerically examined. A good agreement was observed in the RVE size predictions based on micromechanical computational modeling and image analysis. Micromechanical results indicated that a degradation in the matrix stiffness increases the corresponding RVE size. Statistical homogeneity was observed for window sizes equal to two to three times the NMAS. A model was presented for relating the degree of statistical homogeneity associated with each window size for materials with varying inclusion dimensions.

  12. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. PMID:26807767

  13. Use of Ti Plasmid DNA Probes for Determining Tumorigenicity of Agrobacterium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Thomas J.; Norelli, John L.; Katz, Barbara H.; Bishop, Andrew L.

    1990-01-01

    Probes consisting of T-DNA genes from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were used for determining tumorigenicity of strains. Two 32P-labeled probes hybridized with 28 of 28 tumorigenic strains of the pathogen but not with 20 of 22 nontumorigenic strains. One probe, pTHE17, consists of all but the far left portion of the T-DNA of strain C58. Probe SmaI7 consists of SmaI fragment 7 of pTiC58, including onc genes 1, 4, and 6a and most of 2. Another probe, pAL4044, consisting of the vir region of strain Ach-5, hybridized with several nontumorigenic as well as tumorigenic strains. Colony hybridizations were done with 28 tumorigenic and 22 nontumorigenic Agrobacterium strains. About 106 CFU of the different tumorigenic strains were detectable with this method. Southern analyses confirmed the presence or absence of Ti plasmids in strains for which tumorigenicity was questioned. Colony hybridization with the T-DNA probes provides a rapid and sensitive means for determining the tumorigenic nature of Agrobacterium strains. Images PMID:16348218

  14. Use of Ti plasmid DNA probes for determining tumorigenicity of agrobacterium strains

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.J.; Norelli, J.L.; Katz, B.H.; Bishop, A.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Probes consisting of T-DNA genes from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were used for determining tumorigenicity of strains. Two {sup 32}P-labeled probes hybridized with 28 of 28 tumorigenic strains of the pathogen but not with 20 of 22 nontumorigenic strains. One probe, pTHE17, consists of all but the far left portion of the T-DNA of strain C58. Probe SmaI7 consists of SmaI fragment 7 of pTiC58, including onc genes 1, 4, and 6a and most of 2. Another probe, pAL4044, consisting of the vir region of strain Ach-5, hybridized with several nontumorigenic as well as tumorigenic strains. Colony hybridizations were done with 28 tumorigenic and 22 nontumorigenic Agrobacterium strains. About 10{sup 6} CFU of the different tumorigenic strains were detectable with this method. Southern analyses confirmed the presence or absence of Ti plasmids in strains for which tumorigenicity was questioned. Colony hybridization with the T-DNA probes provides a rapid and sensitive means for determining the tumorigenic nature of Agrobacterium strains.

  15. Incorporating Micro-Mechanics Based Damage Models into Earthquake Rupture Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990 and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over a wide range of strain rates. Model parameters determined from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. After this verification step the constitutive law was incorporated into a Finite Element Code focused on simulating dynamic earthquake ruptures with specific focus on the ends of the fault (fault tip process zone) and the resulting strong ground motion radiation was studied.

  16. Experimental determination of the strain and strain rate dependence of the fraction of plastic work converted to heat

    SciTech Connect

    Hodowany, J.; Ravichandran, G.; Rosakis, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    When metals are deformed dynamically, there is insufficient time for heat generated by plastic deformation to be conducted to the surroundings. Thus, the conversion of plastic work into heat at high strain rates can result in significant temperature increases, which contribute to thermal softening, thereby altering a material`s constitutive response. The fraction of plastic work converted to heat represents the strength of the coupling term between temperature and mechanical fields in thermalmechanical problems involving plastic flow. The experimental determination of this constitutive function is important since it is an integral part of the formulation of coupled thermomechanical field equations. This fraction also plays an important role in failure mode characterization for metals deforming at high rates of strain, such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands. This investigation systematically examines the rate of conversion of plastic work to heat in metals under dynamic loading. Temperature was measured in-situ using an array of high speed In-Sb infrared detectors. The plastic work rate and the heat generation rate were determined directly from experimental data. The ratio of heat generation rate to plastic work rate, i.e., the relative rate at which plastic work is converted to heat, was calculated from this data. The functional dependence of this quantity upon strain and strain rate is reported for 1020 steel, 2024 aluminum, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, and C300 maraging steel.

  17. Cyclic stress-strain curve determination for D6AC steel by three methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtigall, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    The room temperature cyclic stress-strain was determined for D6AC low alloy steel by three different methods. The method that involves the use of a single specimen monotonic tension test after cyclic straining provided the best agreement with the accepted basic method which requires a number of companion specimen tests. The single specimen test is also the simplest to conduct.

  18. Analogy among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Shian; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-10-01

    We wish to illuminate the analogous link between microfluidic-based devices, and the already established pairing of micromechanics and microelectronics to create a triangular/three-way scientific relationship as a means of interlinking familial disciplines and accomplishing two primary goals: (1) to facilitate the modeling of multidisciplinary domains; and, (2) to enable us to co-simulate the entire system within a compact circuit simulator (e.g., Cadence or SPICE). A microfluidic channel-like structure embedded in a micro-electro-mechanical resonator via our proposed CMOS-MEMS technology is used to illustrate the connections among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics. PMID:23963526

  19. The Relationship Between Constraint and Ductile Fracture Initiation as Defined by Micromechanical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, Tina L.; Sheppard, Sheri D.

    1994-01-01

    initiation loads and to calculate the associated (critical) global fracture parameters. The loads are verified experimentally, and microscopy is used to measure pre-crack length, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and the amount of stable crack growth. Results for A516-70 steel indicate that the constraint-modified, critical strain criterion with a critical length approximately equal to the grain size (0.0025 inch) provides accurate predictions of crack initiation. The critical void growth criterion is shown to considerably underpredict crack initiation loads with the same critical length. The relationship between the critical value of the J-integral for ductile crack initiation and crack depth for SECT and SECB specimens has been determined using the constraint-modified, critical strain criterion, demonstrating that this micromechanical model can be used to correct in-plane constraint effects due to crack depth and bending vs. tension loading. Finally, the relationship developed for the SECT specimens is used to predict the behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe specimens.

  20. A micromechanical approach to elastic and viscoelastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pasa Dutra, V.F.; Maghous, S. Campos Filho, A.; Pacheco, A.R.

    2010-03-15

    Some aspects of the constitutive behavior of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) are investigated within a micromechanical framework. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of creep of such materials. The linear elastic behavior is first examined by implementation of a Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The micromechanical predictions for the overall stiffness prove to be very close to finite element solutions obtained from the numerical analysis of a representative elementary volume of FRC modeled as a randomly heterogeneous medium. The validation of the micromechanical concepts based on comparison with a set of experiments, shows remarkable predictive capabilities of the micromechanical representation. The second part of the paper is devoted to non-ageing viscoelasticity of FRC. Adopting a Zener model for the behavior of the concrete matrix and making use of the correspondence principle, the homogenized relaxation moduli are derived analytically. The validity of the model is established by mean of comparison with available experiment measurements of creep strain of steel fiber reinforced concrete under compressive load. Finally, the model predictions are compared to those derived from analytical models formulated within a one-dimensional setting.

  1. Simultaneous strain measurement with determination of a zero strain reference for the medial and lateral ligaments of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Satoru; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Yamakoshi, Kenichi; Yamanoi, Takahiro

    2002-09-01

    The strain changes of the central part of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and the tibiocalcaneal ligament (TCL) were measured simultaneously for a full range of ankle motion. Twelve fresh frozen amputated ankles were used. To measure the strain changes of the ligaments, a Galium-Indium-filled silastic strain transducer was implanted in the center of each ligament. The zero strain reference was determined immediately after the measurement of strain changes in five of the 12 ankles by tensile testing of each bone-ligament-bone preparation. The maximum strain change of the ATFL, the PTFL, the CFL and the TFL were 7.9%, 5.9%, 5.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The ATFL was elongated in plantar flexion and shortened in dorsiflexion. The PTFL and the CFL were shortened in plantar flexion and elongated in dorsiflexion. The TCL was the longest around the neutral position and became shorter in planter flexion and dorsiflexion. The results showed that the ATFL was taut in plantar flexion over 16.2 degrees, the PTFL and the CFL were taut in dorsiflexion over 18 degrees and 17.8 degrees respectively, and the TCL was taut between 9.5 degrees of dorsiflexion and 9.5 degrees of plantar flexion. The length change pattern was different among the ankle ligaments, although there was only a slight difference between that of the PTFL and the CFL. This study provides fundamental data useful in studying ankle ligament reconstruction. PMID:12356180

  2. Micromechanical analysis of native and cross-linked collagen type I fibrils supports the existence of microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; van der Werf, K O; Dijkstra, P J; Feijen, J; Bennink, M L

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of individual collagen fibrils of approximately 200 nm in diameter were determined using a slightly adapted AFM system. Single collagen fibrils immersed in PBS buffer were attached between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface to perform tensile tests at different strain rates and stress relaxation measurements. The stress-strain behavior of collagen fibrils immersed in PBS buffer comprises a toe region up to a stress of 5 MPa, followed by the heel and linear region at higher stresses. Hysteresis and strain-rate dependent stress-strain behavior of collagen fibrils were observed, which suggest that single collagen fibrils have viscoelastic properties. The stress relaxation process of individual collagen fibrils could be best fitted using a two-term Prony series. Furthermore, the influence of different cross-linking agents on the mechanical properties of single collagen fibrils was investigated. Based on these results, we propose that sliding of microfibrils with respect to each other plays a role in the viscoelastic behavior of collagen fibrils in addition to the sliding of collagen molecules with respect to each other. Our finding provides a better insight into the relationship between the structure and mechanical properties of collagen and the micro-mechanical behavior of tissues. PMID:22301184

  3. Method for determining the hardness of strain hardening articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a rapid nondestructive method for determining the extent of strain hardening in an article of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy. The method comprises saturating the article with a magnetic field from a permanent magnet, measuring the magnetic flux emanating from the article, comparing the measurements of the magnetic flux emanating from the article with measured magnetic fluxes from similarly shaped standards of the alloy with known amounts of strain hardening to determine the hardness.

  4. A micromechanical device that monitors arterial pressure during general anesthesia and in intensive care units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A. V.; Luchinin, V. V.; Kuzmina, K. A.; Klyavinek, A. S.; Karelov, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    A vibroacoustic fiber optic system that consists of micromechanical components designated for use in medicine and biology is reviewed. A theoretical analysis of a fiber optic microphone is done and its optimal construction parameters are determined. The possibility of using the developed system with magnetic resonance tomography to noninvasively measure man's arterial pressure is specified.

  5. A probabilistic approach to composite micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, T. A.; Bellini, P. X.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate expected uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite properties. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using Monte Carlo simulation. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to demonstrate fiber composite material properties at the micro level. Regression results are presented to show the relative correlation between predicted and response variables in the study.

  6. Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model.

    PubMed

    Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests. PMID:24835472

  7. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  8. Three-dimensional micromechanical models for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mustafa Hakan

    This study presents a new three-dimensional (3D) micromechanics-based nonlinear framework for the analysis of pultruded composite structures. The proposed material modeling framework is a nested micromechanical approach that explicitly recognizes the different composite systems within the cross-section of a pultruded composite member. The 3D lamination theory is used to generate a homogenized nonlinear effective response using a through-thickness representative stacking sequence. Different 3D micromechanical models can be used to represent the composite layers within the repeating stacking sequence, e.g. roving layer, continuous filament mat (CFM), and woven fabrics. The proposed modeling framework is applied for pultruded composite material systems made from roving and CFM. The roving layer is idealized using an existing 3D nonlinear micromechanics model for a unidirectional fiber reinforced material. A simple nonlinear micromechanical model for the CFM layer is introduced and implemented. The overall modeling approach is able to predict both the elastic and nonlinear response of the composite material based on the in-situ properties and response of the fiber and matrix constituents. Experimental data, from off-axis tests of pultruded plates, is used to verify the proposed modeling approach. The 3D modeling framework shows good prediction capabilities for the overall effective elastic constants, as well as the nonlinear multi-axial stress-strain response. In addition, a simple degradation and damage modeling is coupled with the proposed analysis framework. Several applications are performed for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded composite structures, such as progressive failure analysis of notched plates, bending of short beams, and damage analysis of pultruded FRP bolted connections.

  9. Determination of Constant Strain Gradients of Elastically Bent Crystal Using X-ray Mirage Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongsukswat, Sukswat; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Hirano, Kenji; Ju, Dongying; Negishi, Riichirou; Shimojo, Masayuki; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2012-07-01

    Two experimental approaches are studied to determine a parameter of the strain gradient in an elastically bent crystal. In one approach, the parameter is determined by measuring the third peak of the X-ray mirage interference fringes and in the other, by measuring the region where no mirage diffraction beam reaches on the lateral surface of the crystal. Using the X-rays from synchrotron radiation, the mirage fringes have been observed in the 220 reflection of the Si crystal whose strain is controlled in cantilever bending. These two approaches both give accurate values of the parameter of the strain gradient, showing good agreement with the values calculated using elastic theory. In addition, the residual strain due to gravity is observed by measuring mirage fringes when the bending force becomes zero.

  10. A spider's biological vibration filter: micromechanical characteristics of a biomaterial surface.

    PubMed

    Young, Seth L; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Erko, Maxim; Barth, Friedrich G; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor; Politi, Yael; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-11-01

    A strain-sensing lyriform organ (HS-10) found on all of the legs of a Central American wandering spider (Cupiennius salei) detects courtship, prey and predator vibrations transmitted by the plant on which it sits. It has been suggested that the viscoelastic properties of a cuticular pad directly adjacent to the sensory organ contribute to the organ's pronounced high-pass characteristics. Here, we investigate the micromechanical properties of the cuticular pad biomaterial in search of a deeper understanding of its impact on the function of the vibration sensor. These properties are considered to be an effective adaptation for the selective detection of signals for frequencies >40 Hz. Using surface force spectroscopy mapping we determine the elastic modulus of the pad surface over a temperature range of 15-40 °C at various loading frequencies. In the glassy state, the elastic modulus was ~100 MPa, while in the rubbery state the elastic modulus decreased to 20 MPa. These data are analyzed according to the principle of time-temperature superposition to construct a master curve that relates mechanical properties, temperature and stimulus frequencies. By estimating the loss and storage moduli vs. temperature and frequency it was possible to make a direct comparison with electrophysiology experiments, and it was found that the dissipation of energy occurs within a frequency window whose position is controlled by environmental temperatures. PMID:25065547

  11. Micromechanical Modeling of R-Curve Behaviors in Human Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwai S.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of bone fracture increases with age because of a variety of factors that include, among others, decreasing bone quantity and quality due to increasing porosity and crack density with age. Experimental evidence has indicated that changes in bone microstructure and trace mineralization with age can result in different crack-tip strain field and fracture response, leading to different fracture mechanisms and R-curve behaviors. In this paper, a micromechanical modeling approach is developed to predict the R-curve response of bone tissue by delineating fracture mechanisms that lead to microdamage and ligament bridging by incorporating the influence of increasing porosity and crack density with age. The effects of age on fracture of human femur cortical bone due to porosity (bone quantity) and bone quality (crack density) with age are then examined via the micromechanical model. PMID:23158217

  12. Micromechanics-Based Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates Using Different Constituent Failure Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncada, Albert M.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting failure in a composite can be done with ply level mechanisms and/or micro level mechanisms. This paper uses the Generalized Method of Cells and High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics theories, coupled with classical lamination theory, as implemented within NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells. The code is able to implement different failure theories on the level of both the fiber and the matrix constituents within a laminate. A comparison is made among maximum stress, maximum strain, Tsai-Hill, and Tsai-Wu failure theories. To verify the failure theories the Worldwide Failure Exercise (WWFE) experiments have been used. The WWFE is a comprehensive study that covers a wide range of polymer matrix composite laminates. The numerical results indicate good correlation with the experimental results for most of the composite layups, but also point to the need for more accurate resin damage progression models.

  13. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.

  14. Yield function for metal powder compaction based on micromechanics of particle deformation

    SciTech Connect

    PavanaChand, C.; KrishnaKumar, R.

    1996-09-15

    A new method based on the micromechanics of powder particle deformation for evaluating the yield function parameters is attempted. 2D particles in close packed arrangements with two different starting relative densities are considered. These unit cells are studied under plane strain conditions for basic densification response using Large Strain elasto-plastic Finite Element Analysis. Macroscopic values of stresses and the relative densities are recorded for different loading paths. Within the basic form of Shima`s yield function these material parameters are computed. The yield function parameters thus computed are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results reported on copper powder.

  15. Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, J.; Marset, zsolt; Rodriguez, A.W.; Reid, M. T.H.; McCauley, A. P.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Bao, Y.; Johnson, S. G.; Chan, Ho Bun

    2013-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations give rise to van der Waals and Casimir forces that dominate the interaction between electrically neutral objects at sub-micron separations. Under the trend of miniaturization, such quantum electrodynamical effects are expected to play an important role in micro- and nano-mechanical devices. Nevertheless, so far the Casimir force has been experimentally observed only in situations involving an external object manually positioned close to a micromechanical element on a silicon chip. Here, we demonstrate the Casimir effect between two silicon components on the same substrate. In addition to providing an integrated and compact platform for Casimir force measurements, this scheme also opens the possibility of tailoring the Casimir force using lithographically defined components of non-conventional shapes on a single micromechanical chip.

  16. Probabilistic micromechanics for high-temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    The three-year program of research had the following technical objectives: the development of probabilistic methods for micromechanics-based constitutive and failure models, application of the probabilistic methodology in the evaluation of various composite materials and simulation of expected uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite properties, and influence of the uncertainties in composite properties on the structural response. The first year of research was devoted to the development of probabilistic methodology for micromechanics models. The second year of research focused on the evaluation of the Chamis-Hopkins constitutive model and Aboudi constitutive model using the methodology developed in the first year of research. The third year of research was devoted to the development of probabilistic finite element analysis procedures for laminated composite plate and shell structures.

  17. Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from different foods in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and bacteriocin sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from animal derived foods. With disc diffusion assay, all fourteen L. monocytogenes strains were susceptible to the antibiotics, including penicillin G, vancomycin, ...

  18. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  19. Synchronization of Micromechanical Oscillators Using Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mian; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Barnard, Arthur; McEuen, Paul; Lipson, Michal

    2012-12-01

    Synchronization, the emergence of spontaneous order in coupled systems, is of fundamental importance in both physical and biological systems. We demonstrate the synchronization of two dissimilar silicon nitride micromechanical oscillators, that are spaced apart by a few hundred nanometers and are coupled through an optical cavity radiation field. The tunability of the optical coupling between the oscillators enables one to externally control the dynamics and switch between coupled and individual oscillation states. These results pave a path toward reconfigurable synchronized oscillator networks.

  20. Determination of a Dynamic Feeding Strategy for Recombinant Pichia pastoris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of certain strain specific parameters of recombinant P. pastoris strains is required to be able to set up a feeding regime for fed-batch cultivations. To date, these parameters are commonly determined either by time-consuming and labor-intensive continuous cultivations or by several, consecutive fed-batch cultivations. Here, we describe a fast method based on batch experiments with methanol pulses to extract certain strain characteristic parameters, which are required to set up a dynamic feeding strategy for P. pastoris strains based on specific substrate uptake rate (qs). We further describe in detail the course of actions which have to be taken to obtain the desired dynamics during feeding. PMID:24744034

  1. Determination of third-order elastic moduli via parameters of bulk strain solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, F. E.; Samsonov, A. M.; Semenov, A. A.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    A method is proposed aimed for determination of the third-order elastic moduli (Murnaghan moduli) based on the estimation of measured parameters of bulk strain solitons in the three main waveguide configurations, a rod, a plate, and a shell. Formulas connecting the third-order moduli of the waveguide material and the parameters of a solitary strain wave (amplitude, velocity, full width at half-maximum) are derived. If the soliton parameters measured in three waveguide types manufactured from the same material are available, determination of the third-order elastic moduli is reduced to the solution of a system of three algebraic equations with a nondegenerate matrix.

  2. Micromechanics Modeling of Composites Subjected to Multiaxial Progressive Damage in the Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Amold, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The high-fidelity generalized method of cells composite micromechanics model is extended to include constituent-scale progressive damage via a proposed damage model. The damage model assumes that all material nonlinearity is due to damage in the form of reduced stiffness, and it uses six scalar damage variables (three for tension and three for compression) to track the damage. Damage strains are introduced that account for interaction among the strain components and that also allow the development of the damage evolution equations based on the constituent material uniaxial stress strain response. Local final-failure criteria are also proposed based on mode-specific strain energy release rates and total dissipated strain energy. The coupled micromechanics-damage model described herein is applied to a unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite and a proprietary polymer matrix composite. Results illustrate the capability of the coupled model to capture the vastly different character of the monolithic (neat) resin matrix and the composite in response to far-field tension, compression, and shear loading.

  3. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of clinical and nonclinical origin by molecular typing and determination of putative virulence traits

    PubMed Central

    Klingberg, Trine Danø; Lesnik, Urska; Arneborg, Nils; Raspor, Peter; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of clinical and nonclinical origin were compared by pulse field gel electrophoresis. Complete separation between strains of clinical origin and food strains by their chromosome length polymorphism was not obtained even though there was a tendency for the clinical and food strains to cluster separately. All the investigated strains, except for one food strain, were able to grow at temperatures ≥37 °C but not at 42 °C. Great strain variations were observed in pseudohyphal growth and invasiveness, but the characters were not linked to strains of clinical origin. The adhesion capacities of the yeast strains to a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2) in response to different nutritional availabilities were determined, as were the effects of the strains on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across polarized monolayers of Caco-2 cells. The yeast strains displayed very low adhesion capacities to Caco-2 cells (0.6–6.2%), and no significant difference was observed between the strains of clinical and nonclinical origin. Both S. cerevisiae strains of clinical and non-clinical origin increased the TER of polarized monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Based on the results obtained in this study, no specific virulence factor was found that clearly separated the strains of clinical origin from the strains of nonclinical origin. On the contrary, all investigated strains of S. cerevisiae were found to strengthen the epithelial barrier function. PMID:18355272

  4. Cervical strain determined by ultrasound elastography and its association with spontaneous preterm delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Garcia, Maynor; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Yeo, Lami; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if there is an association between cervical strain, evaluated using ultrasound elastography, and spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) <37 weeks of gestation. Methods One hundred and eighty nine (189) women at 16–24 weeks of gestation were evaluated. Ultrasound elastography was used to estimate cervical strain in three anatomical planes: one mid-sagittal in the same plane used for cervical length measurement, and two cross sectional images: one at the level of the internal cervical os, and the other at the level of the external cervical os. In each plane, two regions of interest (endocervix and entire cervix) were examined; a total of six regions of interest were evaluated. Results The prevalence of sPTD was 11% (21/189). Strain values from each of the six cervical regions correlated weakly with cervical length (r= −0.24, p<0.001 to r= −0.03, p=0.69). Strain measurements obtained in a cross sectional view of the internal cervical os were significantly associated with sPTD. Women with strain values ≤25th centile in the endocervical canal (0.19) and in the entire cervix (0.14) were 80% less likely to have a sPTD than women with strain values >25th centile (endocervical: odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03–0.96; entire cervix: OR 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03–0.9). Additional adjustment for gestational age, race, smoking status, parity, maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and previous preterm delivery did not appreciably alter the magnitude or statistical significance of these associations. Strain values obtained from the external cervical os and from the sagittal view were not associated with sPTD. Conclusion Low strain values in the internal cervical os were associated with a significantly lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery <37 weeks of gestation. PMID:24356388

  5. Comparison of Four Methods for Determining Lysostaphin Susceptibility of Various Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kusuma, Caroline M.; Kokai-Kun, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Lysostaphin is an endopeptidase that cleaves the pentaglycine cross-bridges of the staphylococcal cell wall rapidly lysing the bacteria. Recently, lysostaphin has been examined for its potential to treat infections and to clear Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, requiring a reliable method for determining the lysostaphin susceptibility of strains of S. aureus. We compared four methods for determining the lysostaphin susceptibility of 57 strains of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin intermediately susceptible S. aureus (VISA), mupirocin-resistant S. aureus, and various defined genetic mutants of S. aureus. Three reference lysostaphin-resistant S. aureus variants were also included in the assays as negative controls. The assays examined included turbidity, MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and disk diffusion assays. All of the strains of S. aureus tested, including a VISA strain which had previously been reported to be lysostaphin resistant, were susceptible to lysostaphin by all four methods. The three reference lysostaphin-resistant variants were resistant by all four methods. The disk diffusion assay was the simplest method to differentiate lysostaphin-susceptible S. aureus strains from lysostaphin-resistant variants, while the MBC assay could be used as a follow-up assay if required. In the disk diffusion assay, all strains of S. aureus tested revealed zones of inhibition of ≥11 mm using a 50-μg lysostaphin disk, while the three reference lysostaphin-resistant S. aureus variants had no zones of inhibition. In MBC assays, concentrations of lysostaphin ranging from 0.16 μg/ml to 2.5 μg/ml were found to cause a 3 log or greater drop from the initial CFU of S. aureus within 30 min for all strains tested. PMID:16048934

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  7. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  8. Micromechanics of plastic deformation and phase transformation in a three-phase TRIP-assisted advanced high strength steel: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan; Sung, Hyokyung; Chen, Peng; Kumar, Sharvan; Bower, Allan F.

    2015-05-01

    The micromechanics of plastic deformation and phase transformation in a three-phase advanced high strength steel are analyzed both experimentally and by microstructure-based simulations. The steel examined is a three-phase (ferrite, martensite and retained austenite) quenched and partitioned sheet steel with a tensile strength of ~980 MPa. The macroscopic flow behavior and the volume fraction of martensite resulting from the austenite-martensite transformation during deformation were measured. In addition, micropillar compression specimens were extracted from the individual ferrite grains and the martensite particles, and using a flat-punch nanoindenter, stress-strain curves were obtained. Finite element simulations idealize the microstructure as a composite that contains ferrite, martensite and retained austenite. All three phases are discretely modeled using appropriate crystal plasticity based constitutive relations. Material parameters for ferrite and martensite are determined by fitting numerical predictions to the micropillar data. The constitutive relation for retained austenite takes into account contributions to the strain rate from the austenite-martensite transformation, as well as slip in both the untransformed austenite and product martensite. Parameters for the retained austenite are then determined by fitting the predicted flow stress and transformed austenite volume fraction in a 3D microstructure to experimental measurements. Simulations are used to probe the role of the retained austenite in controlling the strain hardening behavior as well as internal stress and strain distributions in the microstructure.

  9. Granular micromechanics based micromorphic model predicts frequency band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anil; Poorsolhjouy, Payam

    2016-03-01

    Granular materials are typically characterized by complex structure and composition. Continuum modeling, therefore, remains the mainstay for describing properties of these material systems. In this paper, we extend the granular micromechanics approach by considering enhanced kinematic analysis. In this analysis, a decomposition of the relative movements of interacting grain pairs into parts arising from macro-scale strain as well as micro-scale strain measures is introduced. The decomposition is then used to formulate grain-scale deformation energy functions and derive inter-granular constitutive laws. The macro-scale deformation energy density is defined as a summation of micro-scale deformation energy defined for each interacting grain pair. As a result, a micromorphic continuum model for elasticity of granular media is derived and applied to investigate the wave propagation behavior. Dispersion graphs for different cases and different ratios between the microscopic stiffness parameters have been presented. It is seen that the model has the capability to present band gaps over a large range of wave numbers.

  10. Sequence determination of a mildly virulent strain (CU-2) of Gallid herpesvirus type 2 using 454 pyrosequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete DNA sequence of the mildly virulent Gallid herpesvirus type 2 strain CU-2 was determined and consists of 176,922 bp with an overall gene organization typical of class E alphaherpesviruses. Phylogenetically, this strain partitions in its own branch between the virulent strains RB-1B, Md1...

  11. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  12. Determining a Prony Series for a Viscoelastic Material From Time Varying Strain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzikang, Chen

    2000-01-01

    In this study a method of determining the coefficients in a Prony series representation of a viscoelastic modulus from rate dependent data is presented. Load versus time test data for a sequence of different rate loading segments is least-squares fitted to a Prony series hereditary integral model of the material tested. A nonlinear least squares regression algorithm is employed. The measured data includes ramp loading, relaxation, and unloading stress-strain data. The resulting Prony series which captures strain rate loading and unloading effects, produces an excellent fit to the complex loading sequence.

  13. A micromechanics-based strength prediction methodology for notched metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical micromechanics based strength prediction methodology was developed to predict failure of notched metal matrix composites. The stress-strain behavior and notched strength of two metal matrix composites, boron/aluminum (B/Al) and silicon-carbide/titanium (SCS-6/Ti-15-3), were predicted. The prediction methodology combines analytical techniques ranging from a three dimensional finite element analysis of a notched specimen to a micromechanical model of a single fiber. In the B/Al laminates, a fiber failure criteria based on the axial and shear stress in the fiber accurately predicted laminate failure for a variety of layups and notch-length to specimen-width ratios with both circular holes and sharp notches when matrix plasticity was included in the analysis. For the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates, a fiber failure based on the axial stress in the fiber correlated well with experimental results for static and post fatigue residual strengths when fiber matrix debonding and matrix cracking were included in the analysis. The micromechanics based strength prediction methodology offers a direct approach to strength prediction by modeling behavior and damage on a constituent level, thus, explicitly including matrix nonlinearity, fiber matrix debonding, and matrix cracking.

  14. Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC): User Guide. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Bednarcyk, B. A.; Wilt, T. E.; Trowbridge, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC/ GMC is a versatile form of research software that "drives" the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC/GMC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein 1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, 2) different integration algorithms may be selected, 3) a variety of material constitutive models (both deformation and life) may be utilized and/or implemented, and 4) a variety of fiber architectures (both unidirectional, laminate and woven) may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements contained within the supplied library of RVEs or input directly by the user, and 5) graphical post processing of the macro and/or micro field quantities is made available.

  15. Using digital image correlation to determine bone surface strains during loading and after adaptation of the mouse tibia.

    PubMed

    Sztefek, Pavel; Vanleene, Maximilien; Olsson, Robin; Collinson, Rebecca; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Previous models of cortical bone adaptation, in which loading is imposed on the bone, have estimated the strains in the tissue using strain gauges, analytical beam theory, or finite element analysis. We used digital image correlation (DIC), tracing a speckle pattern on the surface of the bone during loading, to determine surface strains in a murine tibia during compressive loading through the knee joint. We examined whether these surface strains in the mouse tibia are modified following two weeks of load-induced adaptation by comparison with contralateral controls. Results indicated non-uniform strain patterns with isolated areas of high strain (0.5%), particularly on the medial side. Strain measurements were reproducible (standard deviation of the error 0.03%), similar between specimens, and in agreement with strain gauge measurements (between 0.1 and 0.2% strain). After structural adaptation, strains were more uniform across the tibial surface, particularly on the medial side where peak strains were reduced from 0.5% to 0.3%. Because DIC determines local strains over the entire surface, it will provide a better understanding of how strain stimulus influences the bone response during adaptation. PMID:20005517

  16. Strain-specific determinants of beet curly top geminivirus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Choi, I R; Stenger, D C

    1995-02-01

    The Logan and CFH strains of the geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) possess cis- and trans-DNA replication factors which exhibit specificity and are not functionally interchangeable. We demonstrate that the cis-acting replication specificity element is entirely contained within a 82- to 97-bp fragment which includes most of the viral DNA origin of replication. We also demonstrate that the strain-specific trans-acting replication determinant is located within amino acid residues 3-89 of the BCTV C1 replication protein. Transient replication assays indicated that chimeric BCTV genomes containing reciprocally exchanged regions of the CFH and Logan genomes were replication competent when the cis- and trans-replication specificity elements were derived from the same strain. Two reciprocal chimeric viral genomes with heterologous cis- and trans-replication elements were incapable of self-replication, yet could trans-replicate one another in a coinoculation experiment. Only chimeric genomes possessing the Logan trans-replication element were capable of mobilizing and amplifying a transgenic Logan derived DI-DNA. DI-DNA mobilization and amplification occurred in transient replication assays even when the helper virus genome was incapable of self-replication, providing that the trans-replication element was derived from the Logan strain. These results genetically define specific regions of the BCTV C1 replication protein determining viral DNA replication origin recognition and provide clear evidence that strains of BCTV have evolved specific cis- and trans-replication factors which functionally define the Logan and CFH strains as distinct viral agents. PMID:7856103

  17. Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this annual progress report is to summarize the work effort and results accomplished from July 1987 through July 1988 on NASA Research Grant NAG1-659 entitled Micromechanics of Composite Laminate Compressive Failure. The report contains: (1) the objective of the proposed research, (2) the summary of accomplishments, (3) a more extensive review of compression literature, (4) the planned material (and corresponding properties) received to date, (5) the results for three possible specimen geometries, experimental procedures planned, and current status of the experiments, and (6) the work planned for the next contract year.

  18. Micromechanics of high temperature deformation and failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasser, S. N.; Weertman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The micromechanics of the constitutive behavior of elastoplastic materials at high temperatures was examined. The experimental work focused on the development of microscopic defects in superalloys (Waspaloy), especially the formation of voids at grain boundary carbides, and slip induced surface cracks within grains upon cyclic loading at high temperatures. The influence of these defects on the life expectancy of the material was examined. The theoretical work consists of two parts: (1) analytical description of the mechanisms that lead to defects observed experimentally; and (2) development of macroscopic elastoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations based on mechanical modeling.

  19. Approximate Micromechanics Treatise of Composite Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A formalism is described for micromechanic impact of composites. The formalism consists of numerous equations which describe all aspects of impact from impactor and composite conditions to impact contact, damage progression, and penetration or containment. The formalism is based on through-the-thickness displacement increments simulation which makes it convenient to track local damage in terms of microfailure modes and their respective characteristics. A flow chart is provided to cast the formalism (numerous equations) into a computer code for embedment in composite mechanic codes and/or finite element composite structural analysis.

  20. Straining GOR tolerance determinations are a measure of G-duration not G-level tolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1999-03-01

    Straining gradual G onset rate (GOR) tolerances are considered by physiologists as a measure of G-level tolerance. Using recently developed G-level and G-duration mathematical models, it was found that straining GOR tolerances may well be a measure of tolerance to G-duration. G-duration tolerance was determined to be limited with the onset of fatigue and not cardiovascular insufficiency. G-level tolerances that were predicted using a mathematical model were higher than determined using straining GOR tolerance measurements of subjects on a centrifuge. Also the G-duration tolerance mathematical model showed that those centrifuge subjects had not expended all of their "energy reserve" during their sustained G exposure most probably because of the onset of fatigue. Even if they were able to use all of their potential energy reserve, their G-duration tolerance would not have allowed them to reach the maximum G-level predicted with the G-level tolerance model. It is therefore concluded that the straining GOR tolerance profile, with G onset rates of 0.1G/s, is not a measure of G-level tolerance, as has been assumed, but is a measure of G-duration tolerance. These findings have significant safety implications world-wide since this straining GOR profile is commonly used as a G-level tolerance fighter-pilot-selection determination; i.e. pilot selection standards for G-level tolerance are not a measure of G-level tolerance. In testing equipment design changes, the proper G tolerance profiles must be used to correctly measure its impact on G tolerance. PMID:11543406

  1. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  2. Determination of a zero strain reference for the anteromedial band of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Beynnon, B D; Tohyama, H; Johnson, R J; Nichols, C E; Renström, P; Pope, M H

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify a method previously used to determine a reference length for calculations of anterior cruciate ligament strain. In nine knee specimens, an arthroscopic force probe and a Hall effect transducer were placed in the anteromedial band of the ligament. Anteroposterior-directed shear loads then were applied to the knee joint with the knee flexed to 30 degrees. From the sigmoidal curve for shear load versus displacement of the anterior cruciate ligament midsubstance, the length of the transducer at the inflection point was determined graphically by two independent examiners. Previous studies suggested that the inflection point corresponds to the slack-taut transition of the anteromedial band. The force probe was used to determine the actual length of the transducer when the anteromedial band became load bearing. No significant differences were found between the reference lengths determined by the inflection point method and the force probe. The force probe demonstrated that the anterior cruciate ligament became load bearing when an anterior shear load of 8.8 N was applied to the tibia with the knee at 30 degrees of flexion. Furthermore, multiple cycles of anteroposterior shear loading did not influence these values. The force probe verified that the inflection method provides a reasonable estimate of the absolute strain reference (within 0.7% strain). PMID:7983554

  3. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  4. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  5. Pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantitative ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    One potential approach to the quantitative acquisition of discriminatory information that can isolate a single structural state is pattern recognition. The pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantiative ultrasonics are outlined. The concepts, terminology, and techniques of statistical pattern recognition are reviewed. Feature extraction and classification and states of the structure can be determined via a program of ultrasonic data generation.

  6. Strain-Based Damage Determination Using Finite Element Analysis for Structural Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagaraja; Aguilo, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    A damage determination method is presented that relies on in-service strain sensor measurements. The method employs a gradient-based optimization procedure combined with the finite element method for solution to the forward problem. It is demonstrated that strains, measured at a limited number of sensors, can be used to accurately determine the location, size, and orientation of damage. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the general procedure. This work is motivated by the need to provide structural health management systems with a real-time damage characterization. The damage cases investigated herein are characteristic of point-source damage, which can attain critical size during flight. The procedure described can be used to provide prognosis tools with the current damage configuration.

  7. Determination of Strain Field on the Superior Surface of Excised Larynx Vocal Folds Using DIC

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Hani; Young, Jonathan; Yang, Justin C. W.; Mongeau, Luc; Miri, Amir K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective/Hypothesis The objective of the present study was to quantify the mechanical strain and stress in excised porcine larynges during self-oscillation using digital image correlation (DIC) method. The use of DIC in the excised larynx setup may yield accurate measurements of the vocal fold displacement field. Study Design Ex vivo animal larynx. Methods Measurements were performed using excised porcine larynges on a humidified flow bench, equipped with two high-speed cameras and a commercially available DIC software. Surface deformations were calculated from digital images recorded at 3000 frames per second during continuous self-oscillation for four excised porcine larynges. Larynx preparation consisted of removing the supraglottal wall and the false folds. DIC yielded the deformation field on the superior visible surface of the vocal folds. Measurement data for adducted and freely suspended vocal folds were also used to estimate the distribution of the initial prephonatory strain field. An isotropic constitutive law, the polymer eight-chain model, was used to estimate the surface distributions of planar stresses from the strain data. Results The Lagrangian normal strain values were between ~16% and ~29% along the anterior-posterior direction. The motion of material points on the vocal fold surface described an elliptical trajectory during oscillation. A phase difference was observed between the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral component of the displacement. The strain data and eight-chain model yielded a maximum stress of ~4 kPa along the medial-lateral direction on the superior surface. Conclusion DIC allowed the strain field over the superior surface of an excised porcine larynx to be quantified during self-oscillation. The approach allowed the determination of the trajectory of specific points on the vocal fold surface. The results for the excised larynx were found to be significantly different than previous results obtained using

  8. Designing a Micro-Mechanical Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Mainieri, R.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Micro-mechanical electronic systems are chips with moving parts. They are fabricated with the same techniques that are used to manufacture electronic chips, sharing their low cost. Micro-mechanical chips can also contain electronic components. By combining mechanical parts with electronic parts it becomes possible to process signal mechanically. To achieve designs comparable to those obtained with electronic components it is necessary to have a mechanical device that can change its behavior in response to a small input - a mechanical transistor. The work proposed will develop the design tools for these complex-shaped resonant structures using the geometrical ray technique. To overcome the limitations of geometrical ray chaos, the dynamics of the rays will be studied using the methods developed for the study of nonlinear dynamical systems. T his leads to numerical methods that execute well in parallel computer architectures, using a limited amount of memory and no inter-process communication.

  9. Simplified Micromechanics of Plain Weave Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    A micromechanics based methodology to simulate the complete hygro-thermomechanical behavior of plain weave composites is developed. This methodology is based on micromechanics and the classical laminate theory. The methodology predicts a complete set of thermal, hygral and mechanical properties of plain woven composites, generates necessary data for use in a finite element structural analysis, and predicts stresses all the way from the laminate to the constituent level. This methodology is used in conjunction with a composite mechanics code to analyze and predict the properties/response of a generic graphite/epoxy woven textile composite and a plain weave ceramic composite. The fiber architecture, including the fiber waviness and fiber end distributions through the thickness, is properly accounted for. Predicted results compare reasonably well with those from detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses as well as available experimental data. However, the main advantage of the proposed methodology is its high computational efficiency as compared with three-dimensional finite element analyses.

  10. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  11. Probing the micro-mechanical behavior of bone via high-energy x-rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Almer, J.; Stock, S. R.; X-Ray Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Bone is a highly-adaptive, particulate-reinforced composite which, through a complex hierarchical structure, achieves excellent mechanical performance. The composite preserves, to a large degree, the desirable properties of the individual components: high toughness of the bone matrix, collagen fibrils stabilized by water, and high stiffness of the reinforcing phase, nano-sized crystallites of carbonated apatite. Understanding bone fragility (osteoporosis) requires quantifying mechanical input to bone and identifying 'weak-link' microstructures. This mechanical input has been quantified in vivo with strain gages attached to cortical bone, but attached strain gages do not probe subsurface mechanical response. We addressed this shortcoming recently by appling wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering to canine fibula sections, to study the micro-mechanical response of bone on different length scales. These data provide a unique view of load partition between the constituent phases of bone, and here we extend these measurements to an entire rat tibia, where strain gradients due to bending are anticipated. Tibiae of 14 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. A 3D microCT rendering of the sample and definitions of the loading (y) and transverse (x) directions appear in Fig.1, with the y-axis approximately parallel to the bone's longitudinal axis. Due to the curved shape of the tibia, significant sample bending in the x-direction was anticipated even under uniaxial compression, similar to that expected in vivo (there was little curvature in the y-z plane). The sample cross-section at y=0 was determined by microCT to be approximately 4 mm{sup 2}. The sample was potted in epoxy and compressed in a load frame designed for in situ x-ray scattering studies. Loading was in displacement control, at a rate of 0.06 {micro}m/sec. The aggregate macroscopic response was followed using a load cell combined with strain gages located on both the 'convex' (-x) and 'concave' (+x) sides of

  12. On the Finite Element Implementation of the Generalized Method of Cells Micromechanics Constitutive Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    The Generalized Method of Cells (GMC), a micromechanics based constitutive model, is implemented into the finite element code MARC using the user subroutine HYPELA. Comparisons in terms of transverse deformation response, micro stress and strain distributions, and required CPU time are presented for GMC and finite element models of fiber/matrix unit cell. GMC is shown to provide comparable predictions of the composite behavior and requires significantly less CPU time as compared to a finite element analysis of the unit cell. Details as to the organization of the HYPELA code are provided with the actual HYPELA code included in the appendix.

  13. Micromechanical modeling of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.; Taylor, P.A.; Wise, J.L.; Furnish, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    Funded as a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project, the work reported here focuses on the development of a computational methodology to determine the dynamic response of heterogeneous solids on the basis of their composition and microstructural morphology. Using the solid dynamics wavecode CTH, material response is simulated on a scale sufficiently fine to explicitly represent the material`s microstructure. Conducting {open_quotes}numerical experiments{close_quotes} on this scale, the authors explore the influence that the microstructure exerts on the material`s overall response. These results are used in the development of constitutive models that take into account the effects of microstructure without explicit representation of its features. Applying this methodology to a glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) composite, the authors examined the influence of various aspects of the composite`s microstructure on its response in a loading regime typical of impact and penetration. As a prerequisite to the microscale modeling effort, they conducted extensive materials testing on the constituents, S-2 glass and epoxy resin (UF-3283), obtaining the first Hugoniot and spall data for these materials. The results of this work are used in the development of constitutive models for GRP materials in transient-dynamics computer wavecodes.

  14. Micromechanics-Based Inelastic Finite Element Analysis Accomplished Via Seamless Integration of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Trowbridge, D.

    2001-01-01

    A critical issue in the micromechanics-based analysis of composite structures becomes the availability of a computationally efficient homogenization technique: one that is 1) Capable of handling the sophisticated, physically based, viscoelastoplastic constitutive and life models for each constituent; 2) Able to generate accurate displacement and stress fields at both the macro and the micro levels; 3) Compatible with the finite element method. The Generalized Method of Cells (GMC) developed by Paley and Aboudi is one such micromechanical model that has been shown to predict accurately the overall macro behavior of various types of composites given the required constituent properties. Specifically, the method provides "closed-form" expressions for the macroscopic composite response in terms of the properties, size, shape, distribution, and response of the individual constituents or phases that make up the material. Furthermore, expressions relating the internal stress and strain fields in the individual constituents in terms of the macroscopically applied stresses and strains are available through strain or stress concentration matrices. These expressions make possible the investigation of failure processes at the microscopic level at each step of an applied load history.

  15. A micromechanics constitutive model of transformation plasticity with shear and dilatation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q. P.; Hwang, K. C.; Yu, S. W.

    B ASED on micromechanics, thermodynamics and microscale t → m transformation mechanism considerations a micromechanics constitutive model which takes into account both the dilatation and shear effects of the transformation is proposed to describe the plastic, pseudoelastic and shape memory behaviors of structural ceramics during transformation under different temperatures. In the derivation, a constitutive element (representative material sample) was used which contains many of the transformed m-ZrO 2 grains or precipitates as the second phase inclusions embedded in an elastic matrix. Under some basic assumptions, analytic expressions for the Helmholtz and complementary free energy of the constitutive element are derived in a self-consistent manner by using the Mori-Tanaka method which takes into account the interaction between the transformed inclusions. The derived free energy is a function of externally applied macroscopic stress (or strain), temperature, volume fraction of transformed phase and the averaged stressfree transformation strain (eigenstrain) of all the transformed inclusions in the constitutive element, the latter two quantities being considered to be the internal variables describing the micro-structural rearrangement in the constitutive element. In the framework of the Hill-Rice internal variable constitutive theory, the transformation yield function and incremental stress strain relations, in analogy to the theory of metal plasticity, for proportional and non-proportional loading histories are derived, respectively. The theoretical predictions are compared with the available experimental data of Mg-PSZ and Ce-TZP polycrystalline toughening ceramics.

  16. Some guidelines for determining foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain matching by serology.

    PubMed

    Mattion, Nora; Goris, Nesya; Willems, Tom; Robiolo, Blanca; Maradei, Eduardo; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Perez, Alejandro; Smitsaart, Eliana; Fondevila, Norberto; Palma, Eduardo; De Clercq, Kris; La Torre, José

    2009-01-29

    The selection of matching strains for use in outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus can be assessed in vivo or by serological r-value determination. Sera from animals involved in vaccine potency and cross-protection trials performed using the "Protection against Podal Generalization" (PPG) test for two serotype A strains were collected and analyzed by the virus neutralization test (VNT) and liquid-phase ELISA (lpELISA) in three laboratories. The average VNT r-values for medium and high serum titer classes from the A(24) Cruzeiro vaccinated animals were in line with the A/Arg/01 heterologous PPG outcome for all testing laboratories, suggesting that the vaccine strain A(24) Cruzeiro is unlikely to protect against the field isolate A/Arg/01. The corresponding lpELISA r-values were slightly higher and indicate a closer relationship between both strains. Pooling of serum samples significantly reduced the inter-animal and inter-trial variation. The results suggest that a suitable reference serum for vaccine matching r-value experiments might be a pool or a medium to high VNT or lpELISA titer serum. Furthermore, the VNT seems to produce the most reproducible inter-laboratory results. More work is, however, needed in order to substantiate these claims. PMID:19041355

  17. Surface strain-field determination of tympanic membrane using 3D-digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Montes, María del S.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz, Silvino; Perez, Carlos; de la Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In order to increase the understanding of soft tissues mechanical properties, 3D Digital Holographic Interferometry (3D-DHI) was used to quantify the strain-field on a cat tympanic membrane (TM) surface. The experiments were carried out applying a constant sound-stimuli pressure of 90 dB SPL (0.632 Pa) on the TM at 1.2 kHz. The technique allows the accurate acquisition of the micro-displacement data along the x, y and z directions, which is a must for a full characterization of the tissue mechanical behavior under load, and for the calculation of the strain-field in situ. The displacements repeatability in z direction shows a standard deviation of 0.062 μm at 95% confidence level. In order to realize the full 3D characterization correctly the contour of the TM surface was measured employing the optically non-contact two-illumination positions contouring method. The x, y and z displacements combined with the TM contour data allow the evaluation its strain-field by spatially differentiating the u(m,n), v(m,n), and w(m,n) deformation components. The accurate and correct determination of the TM strain-field leads to describing its elasticity, which is an important parameter needed to improve ear biomechanics studies, audition processes and TM mobility in both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis of ear functionality and its modeling.

  18. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  19. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  20. Stress distributions and material properties determined in articular cartilage from MRI-based finite strains.

    PubMed

    Butz, Kent D; Chan, Deva D; Nauman, Eric A; Neu, Corey P

    2011-10-13

    The noninvasive measurement of finite strains in biomaterials and tissues by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables mathematical estimates of stress distributions and material properties. Such methods allow for non-contact and patient-specific modeling in a manner not possible with traditional mechanical testing or finite element techniques. Here, we employed three constitutive (i.e. linear Hookean, and nonlinear Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin) relations with known loading conditions and MRI-based finite strains to estimate stress patterns and material properties in the articular cartilage of tibiofemoral joints. Displacement-encoded MRI was used to determine two-dimensional finite strains in juvenile porcine joints, and an iterative technique estimated stress distributions and material properties with defined constitutive relations. Stress distributions were consistent across all relations, although the stress magnitudes varied. Material properties for femoral and tibial cartilage were found to be consistent with those reported in literature. Further, the stress estimates from Hookean and Neo-Hookean, but not Mooney-Rivlin, relations agreed with finite element-based simulations. A nonlinear Neo-Hookean relation provided the most appropriate model for the characterization of complex and spatially dependent stresses using two-dimensional MRI-based finite strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a new and computationally efficient technique incorporating MRI-based deformation with mathematical modeling to non-invasively evaluate the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and materials. PMID:21920526

  1. Micro-mechanics of ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punning, Andres; Põldsalu, Inga; Kaasik, Friedrich; Vunder, Veiko; Aabloo, Alvo

    2015-04-01

    Commonly, modeling of the bending behavior of the ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators is based on the classical mechanics of cantilever beam. It is acknowledged, that the actuation of the ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators is symmetric about the centroid - the convex side of the actuator is expanding and the concave side is contracting for exactly the same amount, while the thickness of the actuator remains invariant. Actuating the IEAP actuators and sensors under scanning electron microscope (SEM), in situ, reveals that for some types of them this approach is incorrect. Comparison of the SEM micrographs using the Digital Image Correction (DIC) method results with the precise strain distribution of the IEAP actuators in two directions: in the axial direction, and in the direction of thickness. This information, in turn, points to the physical processes taking place within the electrodes as well as membrane of the trilayer laminate of sub-millimeter thickness. Comparison of the EAP materials, engaged as an actuator as well as a sensor, reveals considerable differences between the micro-mechanics of the two modes.

  2. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1997-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule.

  3. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1997-04-15

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

  4. Readout of micromechanical cantilever sensor arrays by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrmeister, Jana; Fuss, Achim; Saurenbach, Frank; Berger, Ruediger; Helm, Mark

    2007-10-15

    The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air.

  5. Readout of micromechanical cantilever sensor arrays by Fabry-Perot interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeister, Jana; Fuss, Achim; Saurenbach, Frank; Berger, Rüdiger; Helm, Mark

    2007-10-01

    The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air. PMID:17979440

  6. Influence of pyrogenic particles on the micromechanical behavior of thin sol-gel layers.

    PubMed

    Schönstedt, B; Garnweitner, G; Barth, N; Mühlmeister, A; Kwade, A

    2011-07-01

    Coatings based on sol-gel technology with different types of nanoparticles embedded into the sol-gel matrix were fabricated, and the resulting properties were investigated. Pyrogenic silica nanoparticles were added to the sol before coating. The silica particles varied in primary particle size and agglomerate size, and in their surface modification. The particles were wetted in ethanol and dispersed to certain finenesses. The difference in agglomerate size was partly caused by varying particle types, but also by the dispersing processes that were applied to the particles. The resulting coatings were examined by visual appearance and SEM microscopy. Furthermore, their micromechanical properties were determined by nanoindentation. The results show an important influence from the added nanoparticles and their properties on the visual appearance as well as the micromechanical behavior of the sol-gel coatings. It is shown that, in fact, the particle size distribution can have a major impact on the coating properties as well as the surface modification. PMID:21630652

  7. Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.

  8. Micromechanics-based strength and lifetime prediction of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandorawalla, Tozer Jamshed

    With the increasing use of composite materials for diverse applications ranging from civil infrastructure to offshore oil exploration, the durability of these materials is an important issue. Practical and accurate models for lifetime will enable engineers to push the boundaries of design and make the most efficient use of composite materials, while at the same time maintaining the utmost standards of safety. The work described in this dissertation is an effort to predict the strength and rupture lifetime of a unidirectional carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite using micromechanical techniques. Sources of material variability are incorporated into these models to predict probabilistic distributions for strength and lifetime. This approach is best suited to calculate material reliability for a desired lifetime under a given set of external conditions. A systematic procedure, with experimental verification at each important step, is followed to develop the predictive models in this dissertation. The work begins with an experimental and theoretical understanding of micromechanical stress redistribution due to fiber fractures in unidirectional composite materials. In-situ measurements of fiber stress redistribution are made in macromodel composites where the fibers are large enough that strain gauges can be mounted directly onto the fibers. The measurements are used to justify and develop a new form of load sharing where the load of the broken fiber is redistributed only onto the nearest adjacent neighbors. The experimentally verified quasi-static load sharing is incorporated into a Monte Carlo simulation for tensile strength modeling. Very good agreement is shown between the predicted and experimental strength distribution of a unidirectional composite. For the stress-rupture models a time and temperature dependent load-sharing analysis is developed to compute stresses due to an arbitrary sequence of fiber fractures. The load sharing is incorporated into a simulation

  9. Tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance determinants detected in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from honey samples.

    PubMed

    López, A C; de Ortúzar, R V M; Alippi, A M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance determinants in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from honey samples. Of a total of 77 isolates analyzed, 30 (39%) exhibited resistance to tetracyclines according to the results of a disk diffusion method. Resistant strains (n=30) were screened by PCR for the presence of the resistant determinants tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetW, otrA and otrB and their MIC values for tetracycline, oxytetracycline and minocycline were assessed. According to the PCR results, 23 isolates (77%) presented at least one tetracycline or oxytetracycline resistance determinant. The tetK genotype was present in 10 isolates while the tetL, tetM, and otrA genotypes were present in 3, 2, and 5 isolates, respectively. In addition, 2 isolates of the tetK plus tetM genotype, 1 of the tetK plus tetL genotype, and 1 of the tetK plus otrA genotype were found. All isolates were tetW, tetO and otrB negatives. On the other hand, 7 isolates (23%) showed a tetracycline-resistant and/or minocycline-resistant phenotype (MIC) but did not carry any of the tet or otr determinants investigated in this study. This research has shown that B. cereus isolates from honey samples contain a variety of tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance genes, including the tetK and tetL determinants which encode for efflux proteins, and tetM and otrA, which encode for ribosomal protection proteins. These findings indicate that strains isolated from honeys could represent a reservoir for tetracycline resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tetracycline-resistant and oxytetracycline-resistant B. cereus strains carrying the tetK determinant, and also the first report of oxytetracycline-resistant and tetracycline-resistant Bacillus species carrying the otrA determinant. PMID:19213248

  10. The importance of anchorage in determining a strained protein loop conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, A.; Kautz, R. A.; Adelman, D. M.; Fox, R. O.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the role of the conformational restriction imposed by constrained ends of a protein loop on the determination of a strained loop conformation. The Lys 116-Pro 117 peptide bond of staphylococcal nuclease A exists in equilibrium between the cis and trans isomers. The folded protein favors the strained cis isomer with an occupancy of 90%. This peptide bond is contained in a solvent-exposed, flexible loop of residues 112-117 whose ends are anchored by Val 111 and Asn 118. Asn 118 is constrained by 2 side-chain hydrogen bonds. We investigate the importance of this constraint by replacing Asn 118 with aspartate, alanine, and glycine. We found that removing 1 or more of the hydrogen bonds observed in Asn 118 stabilizes the trans configuration over the cis configuration. By protonating the Asp 118 side chain of N118D through decreased pH, the hydrogen bonding character of Asp 118 approached that of Asn 118 in nuclease A, and the cis configuration was stabilized relative to the trans configuration. These data suggest that the rigid anchoring of the loop end is important in establishing the strained cis conformation. The segment of residues 112-117 in nuclease A provides a promising model system for study of the basic principles that determine polypeptide conformations. Such studies could be useful in the rational design or redesign of protein molecules. PMID:8003973

  11. Creep of a C-S-H gel: a micromechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Sanahuja, Julien; Dormieux, Luc

    2010-03-01

    Both clays and calcium silicate hydrates(the main hydration products of Portland cements) exhibit a microstructure made up of lamellar particles. The microscopic mechanism responsible for the macroscopic creep of such materials is often described as the relative sliding of the sheets. This paper proposes a micromechanical approach to estimate the macroscopic creep behavior rising from this microscopic mechanism. The asymptotic evolution of creep at both short- and long-term is especially investigated. More precisely, a non-vanishing initial elastic strain is retrieved. At long-term, a threshold on porosity appears. At lower porosities, the creep evolution admits an asymptotic strain. At higher porosities, it admits an asymptotic strain rate. PMID:20209241

  12. Micromechanics of inelastic compaction in micritic and allochemical limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdova, Veronika; Baud, Patrick; Zhu, Wei; Wu, Lily; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-05-01

    , inelastic compaction in the micritic Tavel limestone is associated with pore collapse that seems to initiate from stress concentrations at the surface of an equant pore, which induce a ring of localized cataclastic damage in its periphery. Damage appeared to develop preferentially around the macropores. While our observations for Indiana and Majella limestones suggested that the micromechanical process is qualitatively similar, they also showed that the spatial distribution of damage in the allochemical limestones can be complicated by its uneven partitioning among the allochems, micrite and sparite. In Indiana limestone, many allochems remain relatively intact even after the cement has undergone significant microcracking and fragmentation, with the implication that significant strength contrast exists between the allochems and cement. In Majella limestone, the asymmetry in damage intensity is not as pronounced, suggesting a less pronounced mechanical contrast between rudist shells and cement. In the three limestones, significant mechanical twinning was observed in samples deformed to relatively high level of non-elastic strain. Motivated by the microstructural observations a new model has recently been developed, that treats a limestone as a dual porosity medium, with the total porosity partitioned between macroporosity and microporosity.

  13. Strain Determination On Curved Surfaces Using Far-Field Objective Laser Speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, F. P.; Kin, C. C.

    1982-06-01

    Most of the laser speckle methods utilize subjective speckles in that speckles are recorded through a lens whose aperture determines the admitted spatial frequencies. Objective speckles are those intrinsically formed by the scattering wavelets. In this paper we propose the use of far-field objective speckles generated from a ground glass to measure surface displacement and strain. The object's surface is coated with a photosensitive material and placed inside the speckle field. Double exposure is made on the photosenstive coating before and after the application of load. Young's fringes are generated by probing the surface coating with a narrow laser beam. Surface strain can then be calculated from these fringes. The method can be applied to doubly-curved surfaces and opaque materials.

  14. Biocompatible MEMS electrode array for determination of three-dimensional strain.

    PubMed

    Evans, Boyd M; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Pritchard, Emily R

    2006-01-01

    Sensor arrays for the measurement of the load condition of polyethylene spacers in the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prosthesis have been developed. Arrays of capacitive sensors are used to determine the three-dimensional strain within the polyethylene prosthesis component. Data from these sensors can be used to give researchers better understanding of component motion, loading, and wear phenomena for a large range of activities. These sensors implemented on a large scale will give clinicians feedback for individual patient biomechanics without the requirement for patient exposure to X-ray radiation. Patients will benefit from smart prosthetic components which allow clinicians monitor biomechanics and loading by applying noninvasive remedies such as orthotics or physical therapy for patients exhibiting poor biomechanics before wear or component failure become issues. In this paper, we present research regarding the design of a biocompatible strain sensor and the fabrication of microelectrode arrays on biocompatible polymer materials. PMID:17946223

  15. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX: a new pathogenicity determinant in Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937.

    PubMed

    Favey, S; Labesse, G; Vouille, V; Boccara, M

    1995-04-01

    Unlike wild-type Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937, which fully macerates inoculated Saintpaulia plants, HmpX- mutants produce necrotic lesions or no symptoms. The hmpX gene was sequenced and the corresponding protein sequence analysed. We show that HmpX belongs to a family of flavohaemoproteins (HMP), previously identified in two yeasts and in Escherichia coli. Comparisons of protein sequences at the secondary structure level by hydrophobic cluster analysis have shown that HmpX possesses two functional regions, a haemoglobin domain in its N-terminal part and a flavin reductase domain in its C-terminal part. In an HmpX- strain, the synthesis of pectate lyases, which are pathogenicity determinants in E. chrysanthemi, was reduced in conditions of low oxygen tension. Using gus fusion in hmpX, it was shown that hmpX transcription was induced in coculture with tobacco cells. A putative function for HmpX is discussed. PMID:7773389

  16. Micromechanical modelling of partially molten and sand reinforced polycrystalline ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelnau, O.; Duval, P.

    2009-12-01

    The viscoplastic behaviour of polycrystalline ice is strongly affected by the very strong anisotropy of ice crystals. Indeed, in the dislocations creep regime relevant for ice sheet flow, dislocation glide on the basal plane of ice single crystals leads to strain-rates ~6 order of magnitude larger than strain-rates that might be obtain if only non-basal glide is activated. At the polycrystal scale, this behaviour is responsible for a strong mechanical interaction between grains in the secondary (stationary) creep regime, and strain-rate is essentially partitioned between soft grains well-oriented for basal glide and hard grains exhibiting an unfavourable orientation for basal slip. As a consequence, the macroscopic flow stress at the polycrystal scale essentially depends on the resistance of the hardest slip systems or on the associated accommodation processes such as climb of basal dislocation on non-basal planes. Creep experiments performed on polycrystalline ices containing a small amount (less than 10% volume fraction) of liquid water show a dramatic increase of strain-rate, by more than one order of magnitude, compared to solid ice when deformed under similar thermo-mechanical conditions. Similarly, a strong hardening is observed when polycrystalline ice is reinforced by sand (which can be considered as a rigid phase here). This behaviour can be explained by micromechanical models, which aims at estimating the mechanical interactions between grains. For example, the presence of water releases stress concentrations at grain boundaries and therefore favours the inactivation of non-basal systems. To estimate such effect and to reach quantitative comparison with experimental data, we make use of the recent Second-Order homogenization mean-field approach of Ponte-Castaneda, based on self-consistent scheme. The advantage of this approach, which has been shown to provide excellent results when applied to many different non-linear composite materials, comes from the

  17. Coupling a Bose condensate to micromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Chandler; Fox, Eli; Flanz, Scott; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2011-05-01

    We describe the construction of a compact apparatus to investigate the interaction of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate and a micromechanical oscillator. The apparatus uses a double magneto-optical trap, Raman sideband cooling, and evaporative cooling to rapidly produce a 87Rb BEC in close proximity to a high Q membrane. The micromotion of the membrane results in small Zeeman shifts at the location of the BEC due to a magnetic domain attached to the oscillator. Detection of this micromotion by the condensate results in a backaction on the membrane. We investigate prospects of using this backaction to generate nonclassical states of the mechanical oscillator. This work was funded by the DARPA ORCHID program.

  18. Generation of Random Numbers by Micromechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Makoto; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Ataka, Manabu; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    We have successfully developed a novel micromechanism of random number generator (RNG) by using the silicon micromachining technique. The MEM(Micro Electro Mechanical)RNG produce a series of random numbers by using the pull-in instability of electrostatic actuation operated with a typical dc 150 volt. The MEM RNG is made by the deep reactive ion etching of a silicon-on-insulator(SOI) wafer, and is very small compared with the conventional RNG hardware based on the randomness of thermal noise or isotope radiation. Quality of randomness has been experimentally confirmed by the self-correlation study of the generated series of numbers. The MEM RNG proposed here would be a true random number generation, which is needed for the highly secured encryption system of today’s information technology.

  19. Micromechanical Modeling Efforts for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA Lewis Research Center's in-house efforts in analytical modeling for advanced composites have yielded several computational predictive tools. These are, in general, based on simplified micromechanics equations. During the last 3 years, our efforts have been directed primarily toward developing prediction tools for high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC's) materials. These materials are being considered for High Speed Research program applications, specifically for combustor liners. In comparison to conventional materials, CMC's offer several advantages: high specific stiffness and strength, and higher toughness and nonbrittle failure in comparison to monolithic ceramics, as well as environmental stability and wear resistance for both roomtemperature and elevated-temperature applications. Under the sponsorship of the High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP), CMC analytical modeling has resulted in the computational tool Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer (CEMCAN).

  20. Seismic and micromechanical studies of rock fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. Paul; Hazzard, James F.; Pettitt, Will S.

    2000-06-01

    “Earthquakes” occur as the result of stress redistribution on major fractures in the earth's crust and are also observed as scaled phenomena along grain boundaries and microcracks. Earthquake seismology has significantly contributed to our knowledge of fault processes, but our fundamental understanding of how micro-fractures progressively weaken rocks and how this contributes to macro-deformation processes is far from understood. Recent advances in particulate mechanics now mean fracture processes can be modelled dynamically to study the micromechanics of fracturing in rock. In addition, advances in recording and analysing very high frequency acoustic emissions (AE) allow for detailed examination of micro-cracking. The paper describes how particle models and AE monitoring techniques can be used in conjunction to test specific hypotheses about natural and induced rock fracture processes at the grain scale. Intermediate scale processes (between laboratory and field studies) are also studied by examining rock fracture in an underground research laboratory.

  1. Micromechanical models for textile structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrey, Ramesh V.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop micromechanical models for predicting the stiffness and strength properties of textile composite materials. Two models are presented to predict the homogeneous elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of a textile composite. The first model is based on rigorous finite element analysis of the textile composite unit-cell. Periodic boundary conditions are enforced between opposite faces of the unit-cell to simulate deformations accurately. The second model implements the selective averaging method (SAM), which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging. For thin textile composites, both models can predict the plate stiffness coefficients and plate thermal coefficients. The finite element procedure is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses, and to estimate the initial failure envelope for textile composites.

  2. Micromechanical modeling of heterogeneous energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Kipp, M.E.; Swol, F. van

    1998-09-01

    In this work, the mesoscale processes of consolidation, deformation and reaction of shocked porous energetic materials are studied using shock physics analysis of impact on a collection of discrete HMX crystals. High resolution three-dimensional CTH simulations indicate that rapid deformation occurs at material contact points causing large amplitude fluctuations of stress states having wavelengths of the order of several particle diameters. Localization of energy produces hot-spots due to shock focusing and plastic work near grain boundaries as material flows to interstitial regions. These numerical experiments demonstrate that hot-spots are strongly influenced by multiple crystal interactions. Chemical reaction processes also produce multiple wave structures associated with particle distribution effects. This study provides new insights into the micromechanical behavior of heterogeneous energetic materials strongly suggesting that initiation and reaction of shocked heterogeneous materials involves states distinctly different than single jump state descriptions.

  3. A strongly coupled Λ-type micromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hajime; Schilling, Ryan; Schütz, Hendrik; Sudhir, Vivishek; Wilson, Dalziel J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2016-04-01

    We study a classical Λ-type three-level system based on three high-Q micromechanical beam resonators embedded in a gradient electric field. By modulating the strength of the field at the difference frequency between adjacent beam modes, we realize strong dynamic two-mode coupling, via the dielectric force. Driving adjacent pairs simultaneously, we observe the formation of a purely mechanical "dark" state and an all-phononic analog of coherent population trapping—signatures of strong three-mode coupling. The Λ-type micromechanical system is a natural extension of previously demonstrated "two-level" micromechanical systems and adds to the toolbox for engineering of all-phononic micromechanical circuits and arrays.

  4. Apparatus for raising or tilting a micromechanical structure

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2008-09-09

    An active hinge apparatus is disclosed which can be used to raise a micromechanical structure (e.g. a plate or micromirror) on a substrate. The active hinge apparatus utilizes one or more of teeth protruding outward from an axle which also supports the micromechanical structure on one end thereof. A rack is used to engage the teeth and rotate the axle to raise the micromechanical structure and tilt the structure at an angle to the substrate. Motion of the rack is provided by an actuator which can be a mechanically-powered actuator, or alternately an electrostatic comb actuator or a thermal actuator. A latch can be optionally provided in the active hinge apparatus to lock the micromechanical structure in an "erected" position.

  5. Micromechanics model for predicting anisotropic electrical conductivity of carbon fiber composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.

  6. Micromechanical evaluation of bone microstructures under load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ralph; Boesch, Tobias; Jarak, Drazen; Stauber, Martin; Nazarian, Ara; Tantillo, Michelle; Boyd, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Many bones within the axial and appendicular skeleton are subjected to repetitive, cyclic loading during the course of ordinary daily activities. If this repetitive loading is of sufficient magnitude or duration, fatigue failure of the bone tissue may result. In clinical orthopedics, trabecular fatigue fractures are observed as compressive stress fractures in the proximal femur, vertebrae, calcaneus and tibia, and are often preceded by buckling and bending of microstructural elements. However, the relative importance of bone density and architecture in the aetiology of these fractures is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate failure mechanisms of 3D trabecular bone using micro-computed tomography (mCT). Because of its nondestructive nature, mCT represents an ideal approach for performing not only static measurements of bone architecture but also dynamic measurements of failure initiation and propagation as well as damage accumulation. For the purpose of the study, a novel micro-compression device was devised to measure loaded trabecular bone specimens directly in a micro-tomographic system. A 3D snapshot of the structure under load was taken for each load step in the mCT providing 34 mm nominal resolution. An integrated mini-button load cell in the compression device combined with the displacement computed directly from the mCT scout view was used to record the load-displacement curve. From the series of 3D images, failure of the trabecular architecture could be observed, and in a rod-like type of architecture it could be described by an initial buckling and bending of structural elements followed by a collapse of the overloaded trabeculae. A computational method was developed to quantify individual trabecular strains during failure. The four main steps of the algorithm were (i) sequential image alignment, (ii) identification of landmarks (trabecular nodes), (iii) determine nodal connectivity, and (iv) to compute the nodal displacements and

  7. Pilot Screening to Determine Antimicrobial Synergies in a Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strain Library.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-07-01

    With the rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, there has been increasing interest in combinations of ≥2 antimicrobial agents with synergistic effects. We established an MDR bacterial strain library to screen for in vitro antimicrobial synergy by using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and high-throughput luciferase-based bacterial cell viability assay. In total, 39 MDR bacterial strains, including 23 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 9 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, were used to screen for potential antimicrobial synergies. Synergies were more frequently identified with combinations of imipenem plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the library. To verify this finding, we tested 34 A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to both imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by the checkerboard method. The imipenem plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination showed synergy in the treatment of 21 (62%) of the clinical isolates. The results indicate that pilot screening for antimicrobial synergy in the MDR bacterial strain library could be valuable in the selection of combination therapeutic regimens to treat MDR bacterial infections. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this screening system can be useful to screen for the combined effects of conventional antimicrobials and new-generation antimicrobials or nonantimicrobials. PMID:26974861

  8. Homozygous diploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine lag phase and dehydration tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Elia, Riccardo; Allen, Patricia L.; Johanson, Kelly; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies genes that determine length of lag phase, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report growth of a yeast deletion series following variations in the lag phase induced by variable storage times after drying-down yeast on filters. Using a homozygous diploid deletion pool, lag times ranging from 0 h to 90 h were associated with increased drop-out of mitochondrial genes and increased survival of nuclear genes. Simple linear regression (R2 analysis) shows that there are over 500 genes for which > 70% of the variation can be explained by lag alone. In the genes with a positive correlation, such that the gene abundance increases with lag and hence the deletion strain is suitable for survival during prolonged storage, there is a strong predominance of nucleonic genes. In the genes with a negative correlation, such that the gene abundance decreases with lag and hence the strain may be critical for getting yeast out of the lag phase, there is a strong predominance of glycoproteins and transmembrane proteins. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with survival advantage on prolonged storage and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for getting out of the lag phase.

  9. Pilot Screening to Determine Antimicrobial Synergies in a Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strain Library

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, there has been increasing interest in combinations of ≥2 antimicrobial agents with synergistic effects. We established an MDR bacterial strain library to screen for in vitro antimicrobial synergy by using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and high-throughput luciferase-based bacterial cell viability assay. In total, 39 MDR bacterial strains, including 23 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 9 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, were used to screen for potential antimicrobial synergies. Synergies were more frequently identified with combinations of imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the library. To verify this finding, we tested 34 A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to both imipenem and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole by the checkerboard method. The imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole combination showed synergy in the treatment of 21 (62%) of the clinical isolates. The results indicate that pilot screening for antimicrobial synergy in the MDR bacterial strain library could be valuable in the selection of combination therapeutic regimens to treat MDR bacterial infections. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this screening system can be useful to screen for the combined effects of conventional antimicrobials and new-generation antimicrobials or nonantimicrobials. PMID:26974861

  10. Determination of bending-induced strain in optical fibers by use of quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A; Thorn, K; Michna, M L; Dragomir, N; Farrell, P; Baxter, G

    2002-01-15

    Quantitative phase microscopy with polarized light has been used to determine the change in refractive index introduced into an optical fiber when the fiber is bent through a constant radius of curvature. By obtaining phase images for two orthogonal directions of the polarization of the incident light, one can infer the induced axial strain profile within the fiber. Radii of curvature from 1 to 8 cm were considered, and in each case excellent agreement, within lambda/100, was obtained between experimental results and theory. PMID:18007720

  11. Determination of bending-induced strain in optical fibers by use of quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A.; Thorn, K.; Michna, M. L.; Dragomir, N.; Farrell, P.; Baxter, G.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy with polarized light has been used to determine the change in refractive index introduced into an optical fiber when the fiber is bent through a constant radius of curvature. By obtaining phase images for two orthogonal directions of the polarization of the incident light, one can infer the induced axial strain profile within the fiber. Radii of curvature from 1 to 8 cm were considered, and in each case excellent agreement, within λ/100, was obtained between experimental results and theory.

  12. Temperature measurement by thermal strain imaging with diagnostic power ultrasound, with potential for thermal index determination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Zhou, Li-Xia; Wells, Peter N T; Halliwell, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the years, there has been a substantial increase in acoustic exposure in diagnostic ultrasound as new imaging modalities with higher intensities and frame rates have been introduced; and more electronic components have been packed into the probe head, so that there is a tendency for it to become hotter. With respect to potential thermal effects, including those which may be hazardous occurring during ultrasound scanning, there is a correspondingly growing need for in vivo techniques to guide the operator as to the actual temperature rise occurring in the examined tissues. Therefore, an in vivo temperature estimator would be of considerable practical value. The commonly-used method of tissue thermal index (TI) measurement with a hydrophone in water could underestimate the actual value of TI (in one report by as much as 2.9 times). To obtain meaningful results, it is necessary to map the temperature elevation in 2-D (or 3-D) space. We present methodology, results and validation of a 2-D spatial and temporal thermal strain ultrasound temperature estimation technique in phantoms, and its apparently novel application in tracking the evolution of heat deposition at diagnostic exposure levels. The same ultrasound probe is used for both transmission and reception. The displacement and thermal strain estimation methods are similar to those used in high-intensity focused ultrasound thermal monitoring. The use of radiofrequency signals permits the application of cross correlation as a similarity measurement for tracking feature displacement. The displacement is used to calculate the thermal strain directly related to the temperature rise. Good agreement was observed between the temperature rise and the ultrasound power and scan duration. Thermal strain up to 1.4% was observed during 4000-s scan. Based on the results obtained for the temperature range studied in this work, the technique demonstrates potential for applicability in phantom (and possibly in vivo tissue

  13. Micromechanics of stress-induced martensitic transformation in mono- and polycrystalline shape memory alloys: Ni-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.; Taya, M.; Mori, T.

    1999-07-01

    Stress-induced martensitic transformation in single crystals and polycrystals are examined on the basis of micromechanics. A simple method to find a stress- and elastic energy-free martensite plate (combined variant), which consists of two variants, is presented. External and internal stresses preferentially produce a combined variant, to which the stresses supply the largest work upon its formation. Using the chemical energy change with temperature, the phase boundary between the parent and martensitic phases is determined in stress-temperature diagrams. The method is extended to a polycrystal, modeled as an aggregate of spherical grains. The grains constitute axisymmetric multiple fiber textures and a uniaxial load is applied to the fiber axis. The occurrence and progress of transformation are followed by examining a stress state in the grains. The stress is the sum of the external stress and internal stress. The difference in the fraction of transformation and, thus, in transformation strains between the grains causes the internal stress, which is calculated with the average field method. After a short transition stage, all the grains start to transform, and the external uniaxial stress to continue the transformation increases linearly thereafter. The external stress at the end of the transition is defined as the macroscopic yield stress due to the transformation in polycrystals. The yield stress tends to saturate, as the number of the textures increases.

  14. Atomic Force Microscopy Reveals Regional Variations in the Micromechanical Properties of the Pericellular and Extracellular Matrices of the Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Wilusz, Rebecca E.; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Regional variations in the composition and architecture of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and pericellular matrix (PCM) of the knee meniscus play important roles in determining the local mechanical environment of meniscus cells. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to spatially map the mechanical properties of matched ECM and perlecan-labeled PCM sites within the outer, middle, and inner porcine medial meniscus, and to evaluate the properties of the proximal surface of each region. The elastic modulus of the PCM was significantly higher in the outer region (151.4±38.2 kPa) than the inner region (27.5±8.8 kPa), and ECM moduli were consistently higher than region-matched PCM sites in both the outer (320.8±92.5 kPa) and inner (66.1±31.4 kPa) regions. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of aligned collagen fibers and lower glycosaminoglycan content in the outer region. Regional variations in the elastic moduli and some viscoelastic properties were observed on the proximal surface of the meniscus, with the inner region exhibiting the highest moduli overall. These results indicate that matrix architecture and composition play an important role in the regional micromechanical properties of the meniscus, suggesting that the local stress-strain environment of meniscal cells may vary significantly among the different regions. PMID:23568545

  15. Optimum growth temperature determination for GaInSb/InAs strained layer superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.L.; Wagner, R.J.; Waterman, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    To determine the optimum growth temperature for GaInSb/InAs strained layer superlattices (SLS) a series of SLS was grown over the temperature range 357-433 {degrees}C. Temperatures were estimated by determining the absorption spectrum of the GaAs substrate, hence its band gap, and thus its temperature. SLS were evaluated by single crystal x-ray diffraction and interband magnetoabsorption (IMA) measurements. X-ray spectra showed as many as eight peaks due to the superlattice. The quality of the superlattices as indicated by the x-ray data had a well defined maximum between 390 and 410 {degrees}C. IMA measurements indicated band gaps from 85 to 154 meV. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Determination of H5N1 vaccine potency using reference antisera from heterologous strains of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Vodeiko, Galina M.; Weir, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Vodeiko and Weir (2011). Determination of H5N1 vaccine potency using reference antisera from heterologous strains of influenza. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), 176–187. Background  Standardization of inactivated influenza vaccines by hemagglutinin (HA) content is performed by the single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) method. Regulatory agencies prepare, calibrate, and distribute SRID reagent standards necessary for testing of seasonal influenza vaccines, and a similar process is used to produce potency reagents for candidate pandemic influenza vaccines that are manufactured for emergency stockpiles. Objectives  Because of the concerns in generating a timely strain‐specific potency antiserum for an emerging pandemic virus, we evaluated the feasibility of using heterologous potency reference antiserum as a replacement for a strain‐specific (homologous) antiserum in the SRID potency assay for stockpiled H5N1 vaccines. Results  The results indicate that a heterologous H5N1 antiserum can be used to determine the accurate potency of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccines. Additionally, when H5N1 vaccine was subjected to an accelerated stability protocol, both homologous and heterologous antisera provided similar measurements of vaccine potency decline. Limitations to the heterologous antiserum approach to potency determination were shown by the inability of antiserum to recent seasonal H1N1 viruses to work in an SRID assay with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 A/California/07/2009 antigen. Conclusions  The data demonstrate the feasibility of using heterologous antiserum for potency determination of at least some candidate vaccines in case of a shortage or delay of homologous antiserum. Further, the results suggest the prudence of stockpiling a broad library of potency reagents including many strains of influenza viruses with pandemic potential to provide an added measure of assurance that reagent production would not be a

  17. Coexistence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and AmpC-Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli strains in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, N K; Gharib, A A

    2015-01-01

    Three kinds of plasmid—mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants (qnr genes, qepA and aac(6')—Ib—cr) have been discovered and shown to be widely distributed among clinical isolates. To characterize the prevalence of PMQR determinants among AmpC—producing E. coli strains in food—producing animals and animal by—products in Egypt, twenty—nine E. coli strains were tested for their susceptibilities to antimicrobials and screened for PMQR determinants and AmpC Beta lactamases using PCR and plasmid profiling. It was found that qnr genes being detected alone or in combination with qepA or aac(6')—Ib—cr genes in 11 (37.9%) strains comprising 9 for qnrA and only one for both qnrB and qnrS. Moreover, qepA and aac(6')—Ib—cr were detected in 41.38% and 3.45% of E. coli strains, respectively. The ampC β—lactamase genes were detected in 75.86 % of all strains and in 100% and 53.3% of the PMQR determinant—positive and negative strains, respectively. In several cases, plasmid profiling of E. coli strains exhibiting the coexistence of both PMQR determinants and ampC genes on a single plasmid as a first report in Egypt that may contribute to rapid spread and increase in bacterial resistance, which is important to public health concern. PMID:26475385

  18. Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binglian

    Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.

  19. Dissociation of immune determinants of outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Westbay, T D; Dascher, C C; Hsia, R C; Bavoil, P M; Zauderer, M

    1994-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen. Research to develop a Chlamydia vaccine has focused on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Determinants of this protein elicit serovar-specific neutralizing antibodies which are thought to play a critical role in protective immunity. MOMP-specific antibody responses are highly variable in the polymorphic population. Genetic factors which might influence the MOMP-specific immune response are consequently of particular interest. The C. psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) is a natural pathogen of the guinea pig that causes both ocular and genital tract infections that closely resemble those caused by C. trachomatis in humans. As such, it provides an excellent model for disease. In this report, we explore the influence of major histocompatibility complex-linked genes on the MOMP-specific antibody response in mice immunized with either whole GPIC elementary bodies or recombinant GPIC MOMP. Our results indicate that the MOMP-specific antibody response is major histocompatibility complex linked such that mice of the H-2d haplotype are high responders while mice of the H-2k haplotype are low responders. We demonstrate that MOMP-specific B cells are present in H-2k strains which are, however, deficient in MOMP-specific helper T cells. Although immunization of low-MOMP-responder strains with whole chlamydial elementary bodies induces high levels of immunoglobulin G antibody specific for Omp2, the cysteine-rich outer membrane protein, MOMP-specific B cells are unable to receive help from Omp2-specific T cells. The failure of intermolecular help from Omp2-specific T cells and related observations raise important issues regarding the processing and presentation of chlamydial antigens and the design of optimal subunit vaccines. Images PMID:7525489

  20. Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Berea sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Beatriz; Zhu, Wenlu; Wong, Teng-Fong

    1996-01-01

    The micromechanics of failure in Berea sandstone were investigated by characterizing quantitatively the evolution of damage under the optical and scanning electron microscopes. Three series of triaxial compression experiments were conducted at the fixed pore pressure of 10 MPa and confining pressures of 20, 50 and 260 MPa, respectively, corresponding to three different failure modes: shear localization with positive dilatancy, shear localization with relatively little dilatancy and distributed cataclastic flow. To distinguish the effect of non-hydrostatic stress from that of hydrostatic pressure, a fourth suite of hydrostatically loaded samples was also studied. Using stereological procedures, we characterized quantitatively the following damage parameters: microcrack density and its anisotropy, pore-size distribution, comminuted volume fraction and mineral damage index. In the brittle regime, shear localization did not develop until the post-failure stage, after the peak stress had been attained. The microcrack density data show that very little intragranular cracking occurred before the peak stress was attained. We infer that dilatancy and acoustic emission activity in the prefailure stage are primarily due to intergranular cracking, probably related to the shear rupture of lithified and cemented grain contacts. Near the peak stress, intragranular cracking initiates from grain contacts and this type of Hertzian fracture first develops in isolated clusters, and their subsequent coalescence results in shear localization in the post-failure stage. The very high density of intragranular microcracking and pronounced stress-induced anisotropy in the post-failure samples are the consequence of shear localization and compactive processes operative inside the shear band. In contrast, Hertzian fracture was a primary cause for shear-enhanced compaction and strain hardening throughout the cataclastic flow regime. Grain crushing and pore collapse seem to be most intense in

  1. Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, Marek

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

  2. Frequency division using a micromechanical resonance cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Qalandar, K. R. Gibson, B.; Sharma, M.; Ma, A.; Turner, K. L.; Strachan, B. S.; Shaw, S. W.

    2014-12-15

    A coupled micromechanical resonator array demonstrates a mechanical realization of multi-stage frequency division. The mechanical structure consists of a set of N sequentially perpendicular microbeams that are connected by relatively weak elastic elements such that the system vibration modes are localized to individual microbeams and have natural frequencies with ratios close to 1:2:⋯:2{sup N}. Conservative (passive) nonlinear inter-modal coupling provides the required energy transfer between modes and is achieved by finite deformation kinematics. When the highest frequency beam is excited, this arrangement promotes a cascade of subharmonic resonances that achieve frequency division of 2{sup j} at microbeam j for j = 1, …, N. Results are shown for a capacitively driven three-stage divider in which an input signal of 824 kHz is passively divided through three modal stages, producing signals at 412 kHz, 206 kHz, and 103 kHz. The system modes are characterized and used to delineate the range of AC input voltages and frequencies over which the cascade occurs. This narrow band frequency divider has simple design rules that are scalable to higher frequencies and can be extended to a larger number of modal stages.

  3. Micromechanical structures and microelectronics for acceleration sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Lemkin, M.

    1997-08-01

    MEMS is an enabling technology that may provide low-cost devices capable of sensing motion in a reliable and accurate manner. This paper describes work in MEMS accelerometer development at Sandia National Laboratories. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronis circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. The design and test results of an integrated MEMS high-g accelerometer will be detailed. Additionally a design for a high-g fuse component (low-G or {approx} 25 G accelerometer) will be discussed in the paper (where 1 G {approx} 9.81 m/s). In particular, a design team at Sandia was assembled to develop a new micromachined silicon accelerometer which would be capable of surviving and measuring high-g shocks. Such a sensor is designed to be cheaper and more reliable than currently available sensors. A promising design for a suspended plate mass sensor was developed and the details of that design along with test data will be documented in the paper. Future development in this area at Sandia will focus on implementing accelerometers capable of measuring 200 kilo-g accelerations. Accelerometer development at Sandia will also focus on multi-axis acceleration measurement with integrated microelectronics.

  4. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  5. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry

    1998-09-15

    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  6. Measuring the micromechanical properties of embryonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nicolas R; Gazguez, Elodie; Dufour, Sylvie; Fleury, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Local mechanical properties play an important role in directing embryogenesis, both at the cell (differentiation, migration) and tissue level (force transmission, organ formation, morphogenesis). Measuring them is a challenge as embryonic tissues are small (μm to mm) and soft (0.1-10kPa). We describe here how glass fiber cantilevers can be fabricated, calibrated and used to apply small forces (0.1-10μN), measure contractile activity and assess the bulk tensile elasticity of embryonic tissue. We outline how pressure (hydrostatic or osmotic) can be applied to embryonic tissue to quantify stiffness anisotropy. These techniques can be assembled at low cost and with a minimal amount of equipment. We then present a protocol to prepare tissue sections for local elasticity and adhesion measurements using the atomic force microscope (AFM). We compare AFM nanoindentation maps of native and formaldehyde fixed embryonic tissue sections and discuss how the local elastic modulus obtained by AFM compares to that obtained with other bulk measurement methods. We illustrate all of the techniques presented on the specific example of the chick embryonic digestive tract, emphasizing technical issues and common pitfalls. The main purpose of this report is to make these micromechanical measurement techniques accessible to a wide community of biologists and biophysicists. PMID:26255132

  7. A method for determination of equine hoof strain patterns using photoelasticity: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dejardin, L M; Arnoczky, S P; Cloud, G L

    1999-05-01

    During impact, equine hooves undergo viscoelastic deformations which may result in potentially harmful strains. Previous hoof strain studies using strain gauges have been inconclusive due to arbitrary gauge placement. Photoelastic stress analysis (PSA) is a full-field technique which visually displays strains over entire loaded surfaces. This in vitro study identifies normal hoof strain patterns using PSA. Custom-made photoelastic plastic sheets were applied to the hoof surface. The hooves were axially loaded (225 kg) under level and varus/valgus conditions. Strain patterns were video-recorded through a polariscope. Strains were concentrated between middle and distal thirds of the hoof wall regardless of the loading conditions. This strain distribution appears to result from the differential expansion of the hoof wall under load. Increasing load resulted in higher strains and asymmetric loading resulted in an ipsilateral increase in strain magnitudes without altering strain locations. This study shows that PSA is a reliable method with which to evaluate hoof strains in vitro and is sensitive enough to reflect subtle load-related strain alterations. PMID:10402137

  8. Virulence Attributes and Host Response Assays for Determining Pathogenic Potential of Pseudomonas Strains Used in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Tayabali, Azam F.; Coleman, Gordon; Nguyen, Kathy C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas species are opportunistically pathogenic to humans, yet closely related species are used in biotechnology applications. In order to screen for the pathogenic potential of strains considered for biotechnology applications, several Pseudomonas strains (P.aeruginosa (Pa), P.fluorescens (Pf), P.putida (Pp), P.stutzeri (Ps)) were compared using functional virulence and toxicity assays. Most Pa strains and Ps grew at temperatures between 28°C and 42°C. However, Pf and Pp strains were the most antibiotic resistant, with ciprofloxacin and colistin being the most effective of those tested. No strain was haemolytic on sheep blood agar. Almost all Pa, but not other test strains, produced a pyocyanin-like chromophore, and caused cytotoxicity towards cultured human HT29 cells. Murine endotracheal exposures indicated that the laboratory reference strain, PAO1, was most persistent in the lungs. Only Pa strains induced pro-inflammatory and inflammatory responses, as measured by elevated cytokines and pulmonary Gr-1 -positive cells. Serum amyloid A was elevated at ≥ 48 h post-exposure by only some Pa strains. No relationship was observed between strains and levels of peripheral leukocytes. The species designation or isolation source may not accurately reflect pathogenic potential, since the clinical strain Pa10752 was relatively nonvirulent, but the industrial strain Pa31480 showed comparable virulence to PAO1. Functional assays involving microbial growth, cytotoxicity and murine immunological responses may be most useful for identifying problematic Pseudomonas strains being considered for biotechnology applications. PMID:26619347

  9. Strain energy release rate determination of stress intensity factors by finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, R. M., Jr.; Pipes, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The stiffness derivative finite element technique is used to determine the Mode I stress intensity factors for three-crack configurations. The geometries examined include the double edge notch, single edge notch, and the center crack. The results indicate that when the specified guidelines of the Stiffness Derivative Method are used, a high degree of accuracy can be achieved with an optimized, relatively coarse finite element mesh composed of standard, four-node, plane strain, quadrilateral elements. The numerically generated solutions, when compared with analytical ones, yield results within 0.001 percent of each other for the double edge crack, 0.858 percent for the single edge crack, and 2.021 percent for the center crack.

  10. Atrial fibrillation per se was a major determinant of global left ventricular longitudinal systolic strain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Hao; Lee, Meng-Kuang; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Chee-Siong; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Su, Ho-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) may cause systolic abnormality via inadequate diastolic filling and tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a very sensitive method for detecting subtle left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate whether AF patients had a more impaired GLS, AF was a major determinant of GLS, and determine the major correlates of GLS in AF patients. The study included 137 patients with persistent AF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 50% and 137 non-AF patients matched according to age, gender, and LVEF. Comprehensive echocardiography with GLS assessment was performed for all cases. Compared with non-AF patients, AF patients had a more impaired GLS, a larger left atrial volume index, higher transmitral E wave velocity (E), and early diastolic mitral velocity (Ea) (all P < 0.001) but comparable E/Ea. After adjustment for baseline and echocardiographic characteristics, the presence of AF remained significantly associated with impaired GLS (β = 0.533, P < 0.001). In addition, multivariate analysis of AF patients indicated that faster heart rates and decreased E, Ea, and LVEF were associated with more impaired GLS. This study demonstrated that AF patients had a more impaired GLS than non-AF patients, although LVEF was comparable between the 2 groups. AF was a major determinant of GLS even after adjustment for relevant clinical and echocardiographic parameters. PMID:27368031

  11. Metal matrix composite micromechanics: In-situ behavior influence on composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts in computational mechanics methods for simulating the nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composites have culminated in the implementation of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer code. In METCAN material nonlinearity is treated at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level where the current material model describes a time-temperature-stress dependency of the constituent properties in a material behavior space. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by virtue of composite micromechanics and macromechanics models. The behavior of metal matrix composites depends on fabrication process variables, in situ fiber and matrix properties, bonding between the fiber and matrix, and/or the properties of an interphase between the fiber and matrix. Specifically, the influence of in situ matrix strength and the interphase degradation on the unidirectional composite stress-strain behavior is examined. These types of studies provide insight into micromechanical behavior that may be helpful in resolving discrepancies between experimentally observed composite behavior and predicted response.

  12. Micromechanical simulation of damage progression in carbon phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, Kerry T.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon/phenolic composites are used extensively as ablative insulating materials in the nozzle region of solid rocket motors. The current solid rocket motor (RSRM) on the space shuttle is fabricated from woven rayon cloth which is carbonized and then impregnated with the phenolic resin. These plies are layed up in the desired configuration and cured to form the finished part. During firing, the surface of the carbon/phenolic insulation is exposed to 5000 F gases from the rocket exhaust. The resin pyrolizes and the material chars to a depth which progresses with time. The rate of charring and erosion are generally predictable, and the insulation depth is designed to allow adequate safety margins over the firing time of the motor. However, anomalies in the properties and response of the carbon/phenolic materials can lead to severe material damage which may decrease safety margins to unacceptable levels. Three macro damage modes which were observed in fired nozzles are: ply lift, 'wedge out', and pocketing erosion. Ply lift occurs in materials with plies oriented nearly parallel to the surface. The damage occurs in a region below the charred material where material temperatures are relatively low - about 500 F. Wedge out occurs at the intersection of nozzle components whose plies are oriented at about 45 deg. The corner of the block of material breaks off along a ply interface. Pocketing erosion occurs in material with plies oriented normal to the surface. Thermal expansion is restrained in two directions resulting in large tensile strains and material failure normal to the surface. When a large section of material is removed as a result of damage, the insulation thickness is reduced which may lead to failure of the nozzle due to excessive heating of critical components. If these damage events cannot be prevented with certainty, the designer must increase the thickness of the insulator thus adding to both weight and cost. One of the difficulties in developing a full

  13. A macro-micromechanics analysis of a notched metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.; Naik, Rajiv A.

    1992-01-01

    Macro- and micromechanics analysis were conducted to determine the matrix and fiber behaviors near the notch in a center-notched metal-matrix composite. In this approach, the macrolevel analysis models the entire notched specimen using a 3D finite element program that uses the vanishing-fiber-diameter model to simulate the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix and the elastic behavior of the fiber. The microlevel behavior is analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model containing one fiber and the surrounding matrix. The viability of this analysis is demonstrated using results for a boron/aluminum monolayer.

  14. Digital model for X-ray diffraction with application to composition and strain determination in strained InAs/GaSb superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Yifei; Kim, Honggyu; Zuo, Jian-Min; Rouviére, Jean-Luc

    2014-07-07

    We propose a digital model for high quality superlattices by including fluctuations in the superlattice periods. The composition and strain profiles are assumed to be coherent and persist throughout the superlattice. Using this model, we have significantly improved the fit with experimental X-ray diffraction data recorded from the nominal InAs/GaSb superlattice. The lattice spacing of individual layers inside the superlattice and the extent of interfacial intermixing are refined by including both (002) and (004) and their satellite peaks in the fitting. For the InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice, results show: (i) the GaSb-on-InAs interface is chemically sharper than the InAs-on-GaSb interface, (ii) the GaSb layers experience compressive strain with In incorporation, (iii) there are interfacial strain associated with InSb-like bonds in GaSb and GaAs-like bonds in InAs, (iv) Sb substitutes a significant amount of In inside InAs layer near the InAs-on-GaSb interface. For support, we show that the composition profiles determined by X-ray diffraction are in good agreement with those obtained from atom probe tomography measurement. Comparison with the kinetic growth model shows a good agreement in terms of the composition profiles of anions, while the kinetic model underestimates the intermixing of cations.

  15. Squeezed light from a silicon micromechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Gröblacher, Simon; Hill, Jeff T; Chan, Jasper; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Painter, Oskar

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring a mechanical object's motion, even with the gentle touch of light, fundamentally alters its dynamics. The experimental manifestation of this basic principle of quantum mechanics, its link to the quantum nature of light and the extension of quantum measurement to the macroscopic realm have all received extensive attention over the past half-century. The use of squeezed light, with quantum fluctuations below that of the vacuum field, was proposed nearly three decades ago as a means of reducing the optical read-out noise in precision force measurements. Conversely, it has also been proposed that a continuous measurement of a mirror's position with light may itself give rise to squeezed light. Such squeezed-light generation has recently been demonstrated in a system of ultracold gas-phase atoms whose centre-of-mass motion is analogous to the motion of a mirror. Here we describe the continuous position measurement of a solid-state, optomechanical system fabricated from a silicon microchip and comprising a micromechanical resonator coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Laser light sent into the cavity is used to measure the fluctuations in the position of the mechanical resonator at a measurement rate comparable to its resonance frequency and greater than its thermal decoherence rate. Despite the mechanical resonator's highly excited thermal state (10(4) phonons), we observe, through homodyne detection, squeezing of the reflected light's fluctuation spectrum at a level 4.5 ± 0.2 per cent below that of vacuum noise over a bandwidth of a few megahertz around the mechanical resonance frequency of 28 megahertz. With further device improvements, on-chip squeezing at significant levels should be possible, making such integrated microscale devices well suited for precision metrology applications. PMID:23925241

  16. Micromechanical properties of keratin intermediate filament networks.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; DeGiulio, James V; Lorand, Laszlo; Goldman, Robert D; Ridge, Karen M

    2008-01-22

    Keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) form cytoskeletal KIF networks that are essential for the structural integrity of epithelial cells. However, the mechanical properties of the in situ network have not been defined. Particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) was used to obtain the micromechanical properties of the KIF network in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), independent of other cytoskeletal components, such as microtubules and microfilaments. The storage modulus (G') at 1 Hz of the KIF network decreases from the perinuclear region (335 dyn/cm(2)) to the cell periphery (95 dyn/cm(2)), yielding a mean value of 210 dyn/cm(2). These changes in G' are inversely proportional to the mesh size of the network, which increases approximately 10-fold from the perinuclear region (0.02 microm(2)) to the cell periphery (0.3 microm(2)). Shear stress (15 dyn/cm(2) for 4 h) applied across the surface of AECs induces a more uniform distribution of KIF, with the mesh size of the network ranging from 0.02 microm(2) near the nucleus to only 0.04 microm(2) at the cell periphery. This amounts to a 40% increase in the mean G'. The storage modulus of the KIF network in the perinuclear region accurately predicts the shear-induced deflection of the cell nucleus to be 0.87 +/- 0.03 microm. The high storage modulus of the KIF network, coupled with its solid-like rheological behavior, supports the role of KIF as an intracellular structural scaffold that helps epithelial cells to withstand external mechanical forces. PMID:18199836

  17. Determination of remodeling parameters for a strain-adaptive finite element model of the distal ulna.

    PubMed

    Neuert, Mark A C; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2013-09-01

    Strain energy-based adaptive material models are used to predict bone resorption resulting from stress shielding induced by prosthetic joint implants. Generally, such models are governed by two key parameters: a homeostatic strain-energy state (K) and a threshold deviation from this state required to initiate bone reformation (s). A refinement procedure has been performed to estimate these parameters in the femur and glenoid; this study investigates the specific influences of these parameters on resulting density distributions in the distal ulna. A finite element model of a human ulna was created using micro-computed tomography (µCT) data, initialized to a homogeneous density distribution, and subjected to approximate in vivo loading. Values for K and s were tested, and the resulting steady-state density distribution compared with values derived from µCT images. The sensitivity of these parameters to initial conditions was examined by altering the initial homogeneous density value. The refined model parameters selected were then applied to six additional human ulnae to determine their performance across individuals. Model accuracy using the refined parameters was found to be comparable with that found in previous studies of the glenoid and femur, and gross bone structures, such as the cortical shell and medullary canal, were reproduced. The model was found to be insensitive to initial conditions; however, a fair degree of variation was observed between the six specimens. This work represents an important contribution to the study of changes in load transfer in the distal ulna following the implementation of commercial orthopedic implants. PMID:23804949

  18. The rabies virus glycoprotein determines the distribution of different rabies virus strains in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuzhen; Mohankumar, Puliyur S; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthies J; Fu, Zhen F

    2002-08-01

    The contribution of rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) in viral distribution in the brain was examined by immunohistochemistry following stereotaxic inoculation into the rat hippocampus. Viruses used in this study include the highly neuroinvasive challenge virus standard strains (CVS-N2C and CVS-B2C) and the nonneuroinvasive attenuated SN-10 strain, as well as SN-10-derived recombinant viruses expressing the G gene from CVS-N2C (RN2C) or CVS-B2C (RB2C). The distribution of recombinant viruses in the brain was similar to those of the parental viruses from which the G was derived. For example, while CVS-B2C- and RB2C-infected neurons were seen preferentially in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus, CVS-N2C- and RN2C-infected neurons were preferentially found in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus. SN-10 infected efficiently almost all the brain regions. To further study the role of the RV G in virus spreading, we examined the distribution of RV antigen in brains infected with a recombinant RV in which the SN-10 G was replaced with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G (SN-10-VG) was examined. The spreading of SN-10-VG to the cortex and the thalamus was drastically reduced, but the number of infected neurons in hippocampus and hypothalamus, particularly the paraventricular nucleus, was similar to the SN-10 virus. This pattern of spreading resembles that of VSV. Together, our data demonstrate that it is the G protein that determines the distribution pattern of RV in the brain. PMID:12161819

  19. Determination of critical stress triaxiality along yield locus of isotropic ductile materials under plane strain condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, S. S.; Pathak, K. K.; Hora, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    It is widely accepted that failure due to plastic deformation in metals greatly depends on the stress triaxiality factor (TF). This article investigates the variation of stress triaxiality along the yield locus of ductile materials. Von Mises yield criteria and triaxiality factor have been used to determine the critical limits of stress triaxiality for the materials under plane strain condition. A generalized mathematical model for triaxiality factor has been formulated and a constrained optimization has been carried out using genetic algorithm. Finite element analysis of a two dimensional square plate has been carried out to verify the results obtained by the mathematical model. It is found that the set of values of the first and the second principal stresses on the yield locus, which results in maximum stress triaxiality, can be used to determine the location at which crack initiation may occur. Thus, the results indicate that while designing a certain component, such combination of stresses which leads the stress triaxiality to its critical value, should be avoided.

  20. Sex Determination in Bluegill Sunfish Lepomis macrochirus: Effect of Temperature on Sex Ratio of Four Geographic Strains.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Han-Ping; Yao, Hong; O'Bryant, Paul; Rapp, Dean; Zhu, Kun-Qian

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that temperature effects on sex ratio in fish species are ubiquitous. Temperature effects on sex ratio could be influenced by parent, strain, and population, whether in fish species with temperature-dependent sex determination or genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. In the present study, effects of genotype-temperature interactions on sex determination in bluegill sunfish were further investigated, based on our previous results, using four geographic strains: Hebron, Jones, Hocking, and Missouri. In the Hebron strain, the two higher-temperature treatment groups (24 °C and 32 °C) produced more males than the low-temperature treatment group (17 °C) from 6 days post-hatching (dph) to 90 dph. In contrast, the low-temperature treatment produced more males than the other two higher-temperature treatments in the Jones strain. No significant effects of temperature on sex ratio were detected in the other two strains. Our results from sex ratio variance in different treatment times suggest that the thermosensitive period of sex differentiation occurs prior to 40 dph. Our results further confirmed that genotype-temperature interactions influence sex determination in bluegill. Therefore, to significantly increase the proportion of males, which grow faster and larger than females, a consumer- and environment-friendly approach may be achieved through selection of temperature sensitivity in bluegill. PMID:27365415

  1. Phylogenomics of Xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Allison R.; Potnis, Neha; Timilsina, Sujan; Wilson, Mark; Patané, José; Martins, Joaquim; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Akhunova, Alina; Almeida, Nalvo; Vallad, Gary E.; Barak, Jeri D.; White, Frank F.; Miller, Sally A.; Ritchie, David; Goss, Erica; Bart, Rebecca S.; Setubal, João C.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. The genetic diversity and the type III effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen evolution in an agricultural setting. Genomes of 67 Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), Xanthomonas perforans (Xp), and Xanthomonas gardneri (Xg) strains isolated from diseased pepper and tomato fields in the southeastern and midwestern United States were sequenced in order to determine the genetic diversity in field strains. Type III effector repertoires were computationally predicted for each strain, and multiple methods of constructing phylogenies were employed to understand better the genetic relationship of strains in the collection. A division in the Xp population was detected based on core genome phylogeny, supporting a model whereby the host-range expansion of Xp field strains on pepper is due, in part, to a loss of the effector AvrBsT. Xp-host compatibility was further studied with the observation that a double deletion of AvrBsT and XopQ allows a host range expansion for Nicotiana benthamiana. Extensive sampling of field strains and an improved understanding of effector content will aid in efforts to design disease resistance strategies targeted against highly conserved core effectors. PMID:26089818

  2. Phylogenomics of Xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Allison R; Potnis, Neha; Timilsina, Sujan; Wilson, Mark; Patané, José; Martins, Joaquim; Minsavage, Gerald V; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Akhunova, Alina; Almeida, Nalvo; Vallad, Gary E; Barak, Jeri D; White, Frank F; Miller, Sally A; Ritchie, David; Goss, Erica; Bart, Rebecca S; Setubal, João C; Jones, Jeffrey B; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. The genetic diversity and the type III effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen evolution in an agricultural setting. Genomes of 67 Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), Xanthomonas perforans (Xp), and Xanthomonas gardneri (Xg) strains isolated from diseased pepper and tomato fields in the southeastern and midwestern United States were sequenced in order to determine the genetic diversity in field strains. Type III effector repertoires were computationally predicted for each strain, and multiple methods of constructing phylogenies were employed to understand better the genetic relationship of strains in the collection. A division in the Xp population was detected based on core genome phylogeny, supporting a model whereby the host-range expansion of Xp field strains on pepper is due, in part, to a loss of the effector AvrBsT. Xp-host compatibility was further studied with the observation that a double deletion of AvrBsT and XopQ allows a host range expansion for Nicotiana benthamiana. Extensive sampling of field strains and an improved understanding of effector content will aid in efforts to design disease resistance strategies targeted against highly conserved core effectors. PMID:26089818

  3. Determination of Longwall Mining-Induced Stress Using the Strain Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Hossaini, Mohammad Farouq; Majdi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Extraction of the coal seam causes stress redistribution around the mined panel in longwall mining. The weight of bridging strata and strata that cantilevers over the destressed zone is shifted to adjacent gates, pillars, and abutments surrounding the longwall panel. Thus, knowledge of the mining-induced stress is very important to enable accurate design of gate supports and pillar dimensions. In this paper, an analytical model based on the strain energy balance in longwall coal mining is developed to determine the mining-induced stress over gates and pillars. In the proposed model, the height of the destressed zone above the mined panel, total induced stress, abutment angle, vertical component of induced stress, and coefficient of stress concentration over gates and pillars are determined analytically. As a case study, the proposed model is used to determine the coefficient of stress concentration over the gates and pillars in Tabas coal mine of Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of the proposed model's incorporated parameters on the coefficient of stress concentration, a sensitivity analysis is conducted based on the actual data of Tabas coal mine. Also, the proposed model is validated against the in-situ measurement as well as numerical and analytical models with the same boundary conditions. The validation results show that the proposed model is in agreement with the in-situ measurement and numerical model, but has differences compared with the available analytical models. Considering the obtained results, it can be concluded that the proposed analytical model can be used to calculate the mining-induced stress, aiming to reach the optimum design of gate supports and pillar dimensions.

  4. Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Prakash, Arun

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.

  5. Realistic micromechanical modeling and simulation of two-phase heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeranganathan, Arun

    This dissertation research focuses on micromechanical modeling and simulations of two-phase heterogeneous materials exhibiting anisotropic and non-uniform microstructures with long-range spatial correlations. Completed work involves development of methodologies for realistic micromechanical analyses of materials using a combination of stereological techniques, two- and three-dimensional digital image processing, and finite element based modeling tools. The methodologies are developed via its applications to two technologically important material systems, namely, discontinuously reinforced aluminum composites containing silicon carbide particles as reinforcement, and boron modified titanium alloys containing in situ formed titanium boride whiskers. Microstructural attributes such as the shape, size, volume fraction, and spatial distribution of the reinforcement phase in these materials were incorporated in the models without any simplifying assumptions. Instrumented indentation was used to determine the constitutive properties of individual microstructural phases. Micromechanical analyses were performed using realistic 2D and 3D models and the results were compared with experimental data. Results indicated that 2D models fail to capture the deformation behavior of these materials and 3D analyses are required for realistic simulations. The effect of clustering of silicon carbide particles and associated porosity on the mechanical response of discontinuously reinforced aluminum composites was investigated using 3D models. Parametric studies were carried out using computer simulated microstructures incorporating realistic microstructural attributes. The intrinsic merit of this research is the development and integration of the required enabling techniques and methodologies for representation, modeling, and simulations of complex geometry of microstructures in two- and three-dimensional space facilitating better understanding of the effects of microstructural geometry

  6. Design and Implementation of a Micromechanical Silicon Resonant Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Libin; Yang, Hui; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Liye; Liang, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion coefficients of silicon and glass, the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer based on the Silicon on Glass (SOG) technique is deeply affected by the temperature during the fabrication, packaging and use processes. The thermal stress caused by temperature changes directly affects the frequency output of the accelerometer. Based on the working principle of the micromechanical resonant accelerometer, a special accelerometer structure that reduces the temperature influence on the accelerometer is designed. The accelerometer can greatly reduce the thermal stress caused by high temperatures in the process of fabrication and packaging. Currently, the closed-loop drive circuit is devised based on a phase-locked loop. The unloaded resonant frequencies of the prototype of the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer are approximately 31.4 kHz and 31.5 kHz. The scale factor is 66.24003 Hz/g. The scale factor stability is 14.886 ppm, the scale factor repeatability is 23 ppm, the bias stability is 23 μg, the bias repeatability is 170 μg, and the bias temperature coefficient is 0.0734 Hz/°C. PMID:24256978

  7. Sensitive determination of nonlinear properties of berea sandstone at low strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric; TenCate, James A.

    2000-07-01

    Resonant response functions of a sandstone bar, measured at strain magnitudes between 10-8 and 10-6 at several temperatures, are used to extract Young's modulus and loss tangent as functions of frequency and driving force. Expressing the distorted shape of nonlinear resonances in terms of shifts in the resonant frequency and Q enables correlation analysis of these functions against components of the strain response function. Resonance shifts are found to be strongly correlated with somewhat complicated functions of strain, but only weakly with frequency or phase of the response. Decomposing the data along contours of constant strain magnitude yields the quantitative scaling of resonance shifts with strain, which shows a superposition of both conventional and necessarily hysteretic nonlinear sources. No statistically significant temperature dependence is found in the coefficients of the fits.

  8. Experimental determination of strain partitioning among individual grains in the bulk of an aluminium multicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Haldrup, K.

    2008-07-15

    A recently developed marker-based technique for mapping of the displacement gradient tensor and the strain throughout the bulk of optically opaque specimens is presented and applied to an aluminium alloy multicrystal. Through investigations at 4%, 10% and 14% axial strains, the internal strain field is observed to be non-homogenous with the observed patterns present throughout the range of strains investigated. The morphology of the strain field is visualized with a resolution better than 50{mu}m and variations are tentatively associated with the grain structure as recorded by EBSD. Future applications of the technique in combination with other 3-dimensional approaches are discussed with respect to comparison with Finite Element modelling approaches.

  9. Identification of microstructural characteristics in lightweight aggregate concretes by micromechanical modelling including the interfacial transition zone (ITZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Y.; Ortola, S.; Beaucour, A.L.; Dumontet, H.

    2010-11-15

    An approach which combines both experimental techniques and micromechanical modelling is developed in order to characterise the elastic behaviour of lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC). More than three hundred LWAC specimens with various lightweight aggregate types (5) of several volume ratios and three different mortar matrices (normal, HP, VHP) are tested. The modelling is based on iterative homogenisation process and includes the ITZ specificities experimentally observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In agreement with experimental measurements, the effects of mix design parameters as well as of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on concrete mechanical performances are quantitatively analysed. Confrontations with experimental results allow identifying the elastic moduli of LWA which are difficult to determine experimentally. Whereas the traditional empirical formulas are not sufficiently precise, predictions of LWAC elastic behaviours computed with the micromechanical models appear in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  10. An Efficient Implementation of the GMC Micromechanics Model for Multi-Phased Materials with Complex Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient implementation of the generalized method of cells micromechanics model is presented that allows analysis of periodic unidirectional composites characterized by repeating unit cells containing thousands of subcells. The original formulation, given in terms of Hill's strain concentration matrices that relate average subcell strains to the macroscopic strains, is reformulated in terms of the interfacial subcell tractions as the basic unknowns. This is accomplished by expressing the displacement continuity equations in terms of the stresses and then imposing the traction continuity conditions directly. The result is a mixed formulation wherein the unknown interfacial subcell traction components are related to the macroscopic strain components. Because the stress field throughout the repeating unit cell is piece-wise uniform, the imposition of traction continuity conditions directly in the displacement continuity equations, expressed in terms of stresses, substantially reduces the number of unknown subcell traction (and stress) components, and thus the size of the system of equations that must be solved. Further reduction in the size of the system of continuity equations is obtained by separating the normal and shear traction equations in those instances where the individual subcells are, at most, orthotropic. The reformulated version facilitates detailed analysis of the impact of the fiber cross-section geometry and arrangement on the response of multi-phased unidirectional composites with and without evolving damage. Comparison of execution times obtained with the original and reformulated versions of the generalized method of cells demonstrates the new version's efficiency.

  11. Development of numerical methods to problems of micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jose Ramon

    In this dissertation we utilize the finite element method to investigate three micromechanical problems. In Chapter 2, we study the compliance contribution tensor H of multiple branched cracks. The cracks grow from a deltoid pore at their center into a triple crack. For plain strain conditions, two-dimensional models of the branched crack are modeled and solved in ABAQUS. The displacement field over the surface of the branched crack and the deltoid is curve fitted to carry out the integral surface of the compliance contribution tensor H. The predicted values are in good agreement with analytical solution. In Chapter 3 a three-dimensional finite element program using an unaligned mesh with an eight-node isoparametric element is developed to study the compliance contribution tensor H of cavities with superellipsoid shapes. A mesh clustering algorithm to increase the number of elements inside and near the superellipsoid surface to obtain a mesh independent solution is used. The numerical results are compared with the analytical solution of a sphere; the error of the numerical approximation varied from 8 to 11%. It is found that the number of elements inside the superellipsoid are insufficient. An algorithm to mesh independently the volumes inside and outside the cube is proposed to increase the accuracy in the calculation of H. As n1 and n2 increase, the numerical solutions show that, H1111 → 0 and H2211 → 0. Although, for these concave shapes no analytical solution exists a bound of 0 for the terms H 1111 and H2211 is suggested. Finally, in Chapter 4 a numerical verification of the cross-property connection between the effective fluid permeability and the effective electrical conductivity is study. A molecular dynamics algorithm is used to generate a set of different microstructural patterns. The volumetric average over a cubic volume is used to obtain the effective electrical conductivity and the effective fluid permeability. The tortuosity of the porous phase

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain NG_869 with Penicillin, Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin Resistance Determinants Isolated from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Yong, Delicia Ann; Cheong, Yuet Meng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-06-01

    Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the increasing reports of multidrug-resistant gonococcal isolates are a global public health care concern. Herein, we report the genome sequence of N. gonorrhoeae strain NG_869 isolated from Malaysia which may provide insights into the drug resistance determinants in gonococcal bacteria. PMID:27570316

  13. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  14. Direct determination of strain with diffraction-limit accuracy by moiré deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Kafri, O; Keren, E; Kreske, K M

    1989-02-15

    In-plane strain is traditionally mapped by fixing a grating onto a test object and monitoring its displacements under stress by either a moiré method or interferometry. The strain (or displacement derivative) is obtained by an additional mathematical or moiré shearing technique. We suggest an application of moiré deflectometry that will yield the strain directly. The setup is much simpler than existing methods and has the additional advantages of tunable sensitivity and immunity to mechanical shock and vibration. PMID:19749866

  15. Smart materials: strain sensing and stress determination by means of nanotube sensing systems, composites, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Nagarajaiah, Satish (Inventor); Dharap, Prasad (Inventor); Zhiling, Li (Inventor); Kim, Jong Dae (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward devices comprising carbon nanotubes that are capable of detecting displacement, impact, stress, and/or strain in materials, methods of making such devices, methods for sensing/detecting/monitoring displacement, impact, stress, and/or strain via carbon nanotubes, and various applications for such methods and devices. The devices and methods of the present invention all rely on mechanically-induced electronic perturbations within the carbon nanotubes to detect and quantify such stress/strain. Such detection and quantification can rely on techniques which include, but are not limited to, electrical conductivity/conductance and/or resistivity/resistance detection/measurements, thermal conductivity detection/measurements, electroluminescence detection/measurements, photoluminescence detection/measurements, and combinations thereof. All such techniques rely on an understanding of how such properties change in response to mechanical stress and/or strain.

  16. Structure determination of the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains RW-9595M and R.

    PubMed Central

    Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Bégin, André; Roy, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) were isolated and purified from Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains RW-9595M, which has been shown to possess cytokine-stimulating activity, and R grown under various fermentation conditions (carbon source, incubation temperature and duration). Identical (1)H NMR spectra were obtained in all cases. Molecular masses were determined by gel permeation chromatography. The primary structure was elucidated using chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Organic acid, monosaccharide and absolute configuration analyses gave the following composition: pyruvate, 1; D-glucose, 2; D-galactose, 1; and l-rhamnose, 4. Methylation analysis indicated the presence of three residues of 3-linked rhamnose, and one residue each of 2,3-linked rhamnose, 2-linked glucose, 3-linked glucose and 4,6-linked galactose. The EPS was submitted to periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction. Monosaccharide analysis of the resulting polysaccharide gave the new composition: rhamnose, 4; and glucose, 1. Methylation analysis confirmed the loss of the 2-linked glucose and 4,6-linked galactose residues. On the basis of one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR data, the structure of the native EPS was consistent with the following heptasaccharide repeating unit: [3Rha alpha-3Glc beta-3[Gal4,6(R)Py alpha-2]Rha alpha-3Rha alpha-3Rha alpha-2Glc alpha-](n) where Rha corresponds to rhamnose (6-deoxymannose) and Py corresponds to pyruvate acetal. Complete (1)H and (13)C assignments are reported for the native and the corresponding pyruvate-hydrolysed polysaccharide. Electrospray MS and MS/MS data are given for the oligosaccharide produced by Smith degradation. PMID:11903041

  17. Experimental method of determining the stress-strain state of bodies on the basis of the absorption of light

    SciTech Connect

    Myl`nikov, A.V.; Rudyak, Yu.A.

    1995-11-01

    Various analytical and experimental methods have been devised for determining stresses and strains in solids [1,2,4,5,6,7]. Among the experimental methods are optical methods based on the refraction and interference of light, polarization (photoelasticity), moire fringes, holographic effects, and other phenomena. All of these methods are based on changes in the index of refraction of electromagnetic waves as a result if the manifestation of optical anisotropy in loaded specimens made of special materials. They also rely on precise measurements of strains of loaded objects obtained by holographic techniques.

  18. Determination of lattice parameters, strain state and composition in semipolar III-nitrides using high resolution X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentrup, Martin; Hatui, Nirupam; Wernicke, Tim; Stellmach, Joachim; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Kneissl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In group-III-nitride heterostructures with semipolar or nonpolar crystal orientation, anisotropic lattice and thermal mismatch with the buffer or substrate lead to a complex distortion of the unit cells, e.g., by shearing of the lattice. This makes an accurate determination of lattice parameters, composition, and strain state under assumption of the hexagonal symmetry impossible. In this work, we present a procedure to accurately determine the lattice constants, strain state, and composition of semipolar heterostructures using high resolution X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the unit cell distortion shows that four independent lattice parameters are sufficient to describe this distortion. Assuming only small deviations from an ideal hexagonal structure, a linear expression for the interplanar distances dhkl is derived. It is used to determine the lattice parameters from high resolution X-ray diffraction 2ϑ-ω-scans of multiple on- and off-axis reflections via a weighted least-square fit. The strain and composition of ternary alloys are then evaluated by transforming the elastic parameters (using Hooke's law) from the natural crystal-fixed coordinate system to a layer-based system, given by the in-plane directions and the growth direction. We illustrate our procedure taking an example of (112¯2) AlκGa1-κN epilayers with Al-contents over the entire composition range. We separately identify the in-plane and out-of-plane strains and discuss origins for the observed anisotropy.

  19. Host Determinants of Prion Strain Diversity Independent of Prion Protein Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Jenna; Hughson, Andrew; Caughey, Byron

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phenotypic diversity in prion diseases can be specified by prion strains in which biological traits are propagated through an epigenetic mechanism mediated by distinct PrPSc conformations. We investigated the role of host-dependent factors on phenotypic diversity of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in different host species that express the same prion protein gene (Prnp). Two CWD strains that have distinct biological, biochemical, and pathological features were identified in transgenic mice that express the Syrian golden hamster (SGH) Prnp. The CKY strain of CWD had a shorter incubation period than the WST strain of CWD, but after transmission to SGH, the incubation period of CKY CWD was ∼150 days longer than WST CWD. Limited proteinase K digestion revealed strain-specific PrPSc polypeptide patterns that were maintained in both hosts, but the solubility and conformational stability of PrPSc differed for the CWD strains in a host-dependent manner. WST CWD produced PrPSc amyloid plaques in the brain of the SGH that were partially insoluble and stable at a high concentration of protein denaturant. However, in transgenic mice, PrPSc from WST CWD did not assemble into plaques, was highly soluble, and had low conformational stability. Similar studies using the HY and DY strains of transmissible mink encephalopathy resulted in minor differences in prion biological and PrPSc properties between transgenic mice and SGH. These findings indicate that host-specific pathways that are independent of Prnp can alter the PrPSc conformation of certain prion strains, leading to changes in the biophysical properties of PrPSc, neuropathology, and clinical prion disease. IMPORTANCE Prions are misfolded pathogenic proteins that cause neurodegeneration in humans and animals. Transmissible prion diseases exhibit a spectrum of disease phenotypes and the basis of this diversity is encoded in the structure of the pathogenic prion protein and propagated by an epigenetic mechanism. In

  20. The nano-epsilon dot method for strain rate viscoelastic characterisation of soft biomaterials by spherical nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Gruca, G; Rijnveld, N; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-10-01

    Nano-indentation is widely used for probing the micromechanical properties of materials. Based on the indentation of surfaces using probes with a well-defined geometry, the elastic and viscoelastic constants of materials can be determined by relating indenter geometry and measured load and displacement to parameters which represent stress and deformation. Here we describe a method to derive the viscoelastic properties of soft hydrated materials at the micro-scale using constant strain rates and stress-free initial conditions. Using a new self-consistent definition of indentation stress and strain and corresponding unique depth-independent expression for indentation strain rate, the epsilon dot method, which is suitable for bulk compression testing, is transformed to nano-indentation. We demonstrate how two materials can be tested with a displacement controlled commercial nano-indentor using the nano-espilon dot method (nano-ε̇M) to give values of instantaneous and equilibrium elastic moduli and time constants with high precision. As samples are tested in stress-free initial conditions, the nano-ε̇M could be useful for characterising the micro-mechanical behaviour of soft materials such as hydrogels and biological tissues at cell length scales. PMID:26143307

  1. Quaternary Structure of Pathological Prion Protein as a Determining Factor of Strain-Specific Prion Replication Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Jaumain, Emilie; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. They are essentially composed of PrPSc, an aggregated, misfolded conformer of the ubiquitously expressed host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Stable variations in PrPSc conformation are assumed to encode the phenotypically tangible prion strains diversity. However the direct contribution of PrPSc quaternary structure to the strain biological information remains mostly unknown. Applying a sedimentation velocity fractionation technique to a panel of ovine prion strains, classified as fast and slow according to their incubation time in ovine PrP transgenic mice, has previously led to the observation that the relationship between prion infectivity and PrPSc quaternary structure was not univocal. For the fast strains specifically, infectivity sedimented slowly and segregated from the bulk of proteinase-K resistant PrPSc. To carefully separate the respective contributions of size and density to this hydrodynamic behavior, we performed sedimentation at the equilibrium and varied the solubilization conditions. The density profile of prion infectivity and proteinase-K resistant PrPSc tended to overlap whatever the strain, fast or slow, leaving only size as the main responsible factor for the specific velocity properties of the fast strain most infectious component. We further show that this velocity-isolable population of discrete assemblies perfectly resists limited proteolysis and that its templating activity, as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification outcompetes by several orders of magnitude that of the bulk of larger size PrPSc aggregates. Together, the tight correlation between small size, conversion efficiency and duration of disease establishes PrPSc quaternary structure as a determining factor of prion replication dynamics. For certain strains, a subset of PrP assemblies appears to be the best template for prion replication. This has

  2. Strain accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of strain accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic strain in the presence of a shear strain promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic strain is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.

  3. Micromechanical properties of intercalated compounds of graphite oxide with dodecahydro- closо-dodecaboric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, A. A.; Saldin, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The micromechanical properties (Young's modulus, deformation, and adhesion) of the intercalated compound of graphite oxide with dodecahydro- closo-dodecaboric acid were studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and compared with the same characteristics of the starting graphite oxide. The significant difference in the micromechanical properties of the materials under study is dictated by differences in the topography and properties of their film surface, which, in turn, can be determined by their chemical composition. The introduction of dodecahydro- closo-dodecaboric acid in the interplanar space of graphite oxide affects the structuring of the latter. A considerable increase in the adhesion of the intercalated compound relative to that of oxide graphite is explained by high adhesive properties of the introduced acid, the Young's modulus of graphite oxide being higher than that of the intercalated compound. This was attributed to the high hydrophilicity of dodecahydro- closo-dodecaboric acid and the difficulty of water removal from the interplanar space; water plasticizes the material, which becomes softer than graphite oxide. The difference in the structure of the coating of the intercalated compounds and the starting graphite oxide was found to be also reflected by their Raman spectra, namely, by the increased intensity of the D line with the preserved position of the G line, which points to the impurity nature of the intercalate and the unchanged hexagonal lattice of graphite.

  4. Applicability of a Micromechanics Model Based on Actual Microstructure for Failure Prediction of DP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, various micromechanics models based on actual microstructures of DP steels are examined in order to determine the reasonable range of martensite volume fraction where the methodology described in this study can be applied. For this purpose, various micromechanics-based finite element models are first created based on the actual microstructures of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions. These models are, then, used to investigate the influence of ductility of the constituent ferrite and martensite phases and also the influence of voids in the ferrite phase on the overall ductility of DP steels. The computational results indicate that there is a range of martensite volume fraction where the phase inhomogeneity between the ferrite and martensite phases has dominant effect on the overall ductility of DP steels, defeating the influence of the ductility of each phase and the voids in the ferrite phase, and that this phase inhomogeneity dominant region includes the range of marteniste volume fraction between 15% and 40%. Therefore, the methodology, adopted in this study, may be applied to DP steels within the phase inhomogeneity dominant region in tailoring the DP steel design for its intended purpose and desired properties.

  5. Determination of Three-Dimensional Ventricular Strain Distributions in Gene-Targeted Mice Using Tagged MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Joyce S.; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice; Ross, Robert S.; Frank, Lawrence R.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    A model-based method for calculating three-dimensional (3D) cardiac wall strain distributions in the mouse has been developed and tested in a genetically engineered mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Data from MR tagging and harmonic phase (HARP) tracking were used to measure material point displacements, and 3D Lagrangian strains were calculated throughout the entire left ventricle (LV) with a deformable parametric model. A mouse model where cardiomyocytes are specifically made deficient in vinculin (VclKO) were compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. 3D strain analysis revealed differences in LV wall mechanics between WT and VclKO mice at 8 weeks of age when systolic function had just begun to decline. Most notably, end-systolic radial strain and torsional shear were reduced in VclKO hearts which contributed to regional mechanical dysfunction. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI tagging methods to detect alterations in 3D myocardial strain distributions in genetically engineered mouse models of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20981782

  6. Determination and analysis of torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relation of low carbon alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Gongfeng; Yu, Xiutao; Deng, Tianhua; Zhang, Yiliang

    2008-11-01

    Typical pressure vessel materials' torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationships under large deformation condition are researched in this paper. Because the length and the diameter of the specimen may change under uniaxial tension, it's impossible to make effective measurement and analysis for the mechanical properties of the specimen, especially after the necking. The form and cross-section size of cylindrical specimen do not change in torsion test, so that the large strain's constitutive relationship is more accurate than that obtained from an axial tension test. So that cylindrical specimen's torsion test is attempted to obtain the shear stress-shear strain curves of typical pressure vessel materials 16MnR and Q235. Consider that the stress is non-homogeneous in the cross-section of cylindrical specimen, thin wall tube specimen is also used in the torsion test, and the maximum differences between cylindrical specimen's results and thin-wall tube's are 10% and 13% respectively. Tension true stress-true strain curves, torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain curves are also compared in this paper and the results showed that description of the torsion constitutive relationship is more complete than that of tension. At last, constitutive equations are fitted and the mathematical representations are obtained.

  7. A chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Galopin, Sébastien; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-06-01

    The mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of Bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. By cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, cat(Bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid CAT protein was identified in B. clausii SIN. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 CAT proteins from other Gram-positive bacterial strains. The cat(Bcl) gene was also detected by PCR in the three other B. clausii strains resistant to chloramphenicol, whereas it was absent in the three control strains susceptible to chloramphenicol. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI followed by hybridization with a cat-specific probe as well as unsuccessful repeated attempts of in vitro transfer of chloramphenicol resistance to various recipient cells indicated that cat(Bcl) was chromosomally located in all four resistant B. clausii strains. PMID:19459958

  8. Micromechanical Model of a Surrogate for Collagenous Soft Tissues: Development, Validation and Analysis of Mesoscale Size Effects

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Shawn P.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Aligned, collagenous tissues such as tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of water and type I collagen, organized hierarchically into nanoscale fibrils, microscale fibers and mesoscale fascicles. Force transfer across scales is complex and poorly understood. Since innervation, the vasculature, damage mechanisms and mechanotransduction occur at the microscale and mesoscale, understanding multiscale interactions is of high importance. This study used a physical model in combination with a computational model to isolate and examine the mechanisms of force transfer between scales. A collagen-based surrogate served as the physical model. The surrogate consisted of extruded collagen fibers embedded within a collagen gel matrix. A micromechanical finite element model of the surrogate was validated using tensile test data that was recorded using a custom tensile testing device mounted on a confocal microscope. Results demonstrated that the experimentally measured macroscale strain was not representative of the microscale strain, which was highly inhomogeneous. The micromechanical model, in combination with a macroscopic continuum model, revealed that the microscale inhomogeneity resulted from size effects in the presence of a constrained boundary. A sensitivity study indicated that significant scale effects would be present over a range of physiologically relevant inter-fiber spacing values and matrix material properties. The results indicate that the traditional continuum assumption is not valid for describing the macroscale behavior of the surrogate, and that boundary-induced size effects are present. PMID:23400805

  9. Strain determination in bone sections with simultaneous 3D digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Araceli Sánchez; De la Torre Ibarra, Manuel H.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza; Anaya, Tonatiuh-Saucedo

    2014-06-01

    A 3D digital holographic interferometer was used to measure the surface strain components in two different bovine's bone sections. The applied force on the sample was induced by a precisely controlled lateral micro compression. The simultaneous acquisition capability of the system helps to record a fast sequence of images, each one containing three independent holograms that result in three orthogonal displacement components u, v and w from which the surface strain components ɛx, ɛy and γxy over the bone's field of view were calculated. This research study was carried out in two different bone sections: the cortical bone and the medullary cavity/yellow marrow section. The resulting strain concentrators are of great importance to better understand the mechanical response of complex biological structures such as this bovine femoral bone.

  10. Nonlinear Visco-Elastic Response of Composites via Micro-Mechanical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Sridharan, Srinivasan

    2005-01-01

    Micro-mechanical models for a study of nonlinear visco-elastic response of composite laminae are developed and their performance compared. A single integral constitutive law proposed by Schapery and subsequently generalized to multi-axial states of stress is utilized in the study for the matrix material. This is used in conjunction with a computationally facile scheme in which hereditary strains are computed using a recursive relation suggested by Henriksen. Composite response is studied using two competing micro-models, viz. a simplified Square Cell Model (SSCM) and a Finite Element based self-consistent Cylindrical Model (FECM). The algorithm is developed assuming that the material response computations are carried out in a module attached to a general purpose finite element program used for composite structural analysis. It is shown that the SSCM as used in investigations of material nonlinearity can involve significant errors in the prediction of transverse Young's modulus and shear modulus. The errors in the elastic strains thus predicted are of the same order of magnitude as the creep strains accruing due to visco-elasticity. The FECM on the other hand does appear to perform better both in the prediction of elastic constants and the study of creep response.

  11. Microstructural and micromechanical characterization of IN718 theta shaped specimens built with electron beam melting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cakmak, Ercan; Kirka, Michael M.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Cooper, Ryan C.; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Wu, Wei; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-02-23

    Theta-shaped specimens were additively manufactured out of Inconel 718 powders using an electron beam melting technique, as a model complex load bearing structure. We employed two different build strategies; producing two sets of specimens. Microstructural and micro-mechanical characterizations were performed using electron back-scatter, synchrotron x-ray and in-situ neutron diffraction techniques. In particular, the cross-members of the specimens were the focus of the synchrotron x-ray and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements. The build strategies employed resulted in the formation of distinct microstructures and crystallographic textures, signifying the importance of build-parameter manipulation for microstructural optimization. Large strain anisotropy of the different lattice planesmore » was observed during in-situ loading. Texture was concluded to have a distinct effect upon both the axial and transverse strain responses of the cross-members. In particular, the (200), (220) and (420) transverse lattice strains all showed unexpected overlapping trends in both builds. This was related to the strong {200} textures along the build/loading direction, providing agreement between the experimental and calculated results.« less

  12. Markerless Escherichia coli rrn Deletion Strains for Genetic Determination of Ribosomal Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Quan, Selwyn; Skovgaard, Ole; McLaughlin, Robert E; Buurman, Ed T; Squires, Catherine L

    2015-12-01

    Single-copy rrn strains facilitate genetic ribosomal studies in Escherichia coli. Consecutive markerless deletion of rrn operons resulted in slower growth upon inactivation of the fourth copy, which was reversed by supplying transfer RNA genes encoded in rrn operons in trans. Removal of the sixth, penultimate rrn copy led to a reduced growth rate due to limited rrn gene dosage. Whole-genome sequencing of variants of single-copy rrn strains revealed duplications of large stretches of genomic DNA. The combination of selective pressure, resulting from the decreased growth rate, and the six identical remaining scar sequences, facilitating homologous recombination events, presumably leads to elevated genomic instability. PMID:26438293

  13. Micromechanical characterization of nonlinear behavior of advanced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the presence of curing stresses and oriented crystalline structures in the matrix of polymer matrix fiber composites, the in situ nonlinear properties of the matrix are expected to be rather different from those of the bulk resin. A plane stress micromechanical model was developed to retrieve the in situ elastic-plastic properties of Narmco 5260 and Amoco 8320 matrices from measured elastic-plastic properties of IM7/5260 and IM7/8320 advance composites. In the micromechanical model, the fiber was assumed to be orthotropically elastic and the matrix to be orthotropic in elastic and plastic properties. The results indicate that both in situ elastic and plastic properties of the matrices are orthotropic.

  14. Unified micromechanics of damping for unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated micromechanics methodology for the prediction of damping capacity in fiber-reinforced polymer matrix unidirectional composites has been developed. Explicit micromechanics equations based on hysteretic damping are presented relating the on-axis damping capacities to the fiber and matrix properties and volume fraction. The damping capacities of unidirectional composites subjected to off-axis loading are synthesized from thermal effect on the damping performance of unidirectional composites due to temperature and moisture variations is also modeled. The damping contributions from interfacial friction between broken fibers and matrix are incorporated. Finally, the temperature rise in continuously vibrating composite plies is estimated. Application examples illustrate the significance of various parameters on the damping performance of unidirectional and off-axis fiber reinforced composites.

  15. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  16. Design of a fully compliant bistable micromechanism for switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Tsay, Jinni; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2001-11-01

    This paper proposes a design of a bistable micromechanism for the application of switching devices. The topology of a fully compliant four-bar mechanism is adopted herein. The central mass of the mechanism is employed as a carriage to carry switching components, such as mirror, electrical contact, etc. The equations that predict the existence of bistable states, the extreme positions of the motion range and the maximum stress states of members were derived. MUMPs provided by Cronos Integrated Microsystems fabricated the proposed micromechanisms for the purpose of verifying the theoretical predictions. Finally, an experimental rig was established. The bistable mechanisms were switched either by the probe or actuators to push the central mass. The experimental results demonstrated that the motions observed approximately met the predicted values.

  17. Computational methods for coupling microstructural and micromechanical materials response simulations

    SciTech Connect

    HOLM,ELIZABETH A.; BATTAILE,CORBETT C.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT; RINTOUL,MARK DANIEL; VEDULA,VENKATA R.; GLASS,S. JILL; KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; NEILSEN,MICHAEL K.; WELLMAN,GERALD W.; SULSKY,DEBORAH; SHEN,YU-LIN; SCHREYER,H. BUCK

    2000-04-01

    Computational materials simulations have traditionally focused on individual phenomena: grain growth, crack propagation, plastic flow, etc. However, real materials behavior results from a complex interplay between phenomena. In this project, the authors explored methods for coupling mesoscale simulations of microstructural evolution and micromechanical response. In one case, massively parallel (MP) simulations for grain evolution and microcracking in alumina stronglink materials were dynamically coupled. In the other, codes for domain coarsening and plastic deformation in CuSi braze alloys were iteratively linked. this program provided the first comparison of two promising ways to integrate mesoscale computer codes. Coupled microstructural/micromechanical codes were applied to experimentally observed microstructures for the first time. In addition to the coupled codes, this project developed a suite of new computational capabilities (PARGRAIN, GLAD, OOF, MPM, polycrystal plasticity, front tracking). The problem of plasticity length scale in continuum calculations was recognized and a solution strategy was developed. The simulations were experimentally validated on stockpile materials.

  18. Strongly coupled modes in a weakly driven micromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venstra, Warner J.; van Leeuwen, Ronald; van der Zant, Herre S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a strong coupling between the flexural vibration modes of a clamped-clamped micromechanical resonator vibrating at low amplitudes. This coupling enables the direct measurement of the frequency response via amplitude- and phase modulation schemes using the fundamental mode as a mechanical detector. In the linear regime, a frequency shift of 0.8 Hz is observed for a mode with a line width of 5.8 Hz in vacuum. The measured response is well-described by the analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam including tension. Calculations predict an upper limit for the room-temperature Q-factor of 4.5×105 for our top-down fabricated micromechanical beam resonators.

  19. Thermally induced micromechanical stresses in ceramic/ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhuang; Bradt, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The internal micromechanical stresses which develop in ceramic-ceramic composites as a consequence of temperature changes and thermoelastic property differences between the reinforcing and matrix phases are addressed by the Eshelby method. Results for two whisker reinforced ceramic matrix composites and for quartz particles in porcelain are discussed. It is concluded that the stresses which develop in the second phase reinforcing inclusions are quite substantial (GPa-levels) and may be highly anisotropic in character. These stresses are additive to the macroscopic thermal stresses from temperature gradients which are encountered during heating and cooling, and also to externally apphed mechanical stresses (loads). These micromechanical stresses are expected to be highly significant for thermal cycling fatigue and other failure processes.

  20. A musculoskeletal model of the equine forelimb for determining surface stresses and strains in the humerus-part II. Experimental testing and model validation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Sarah; Stover, Susan M; Hull, M L; Galuppo, Larry D

    2008-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to experimentally determine surface bone strain magnitudes and directions at the donor site for bone grafts, the site predisposed to stress fracture, the medial and cranial aspects of the transverse cross section corresponding to the stress fracture site, and the middle of the diaphysis of the humerus of a simplified in vitro laboratory preparation. The second objective was to determine whether computing strains solely in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the humerus in the mathematical model was inherently limited by comparing the strains measured along the longitudinal axis of the bone to the principal strain magnitudes and directions. The final objective was to determine whether the mathematical model formulated in Part I [Pollock et al., 2008, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, p. 041006] is valid for determining the bone surface strains at the various locations on the humerus where experimentally measured longitudinal strains are comparable to principal strains. Triple rosette strain gauges were applied at four locations circumferentially on each of two cross sections of interest using a simplified in vitro laboratory preparation. The muscles included the biceps brachii muscle in addition to loaded shoulder muscles that were predicted active by the mathematical model. Strains from the middle grid of each rosette, aligned along the longitudinal axis of the humerus, were compared with calculated principal strain magnitudes and directions. The results indicated that calculating strains solely in the direction of the longitudinal axis is appropriate at six of eight locations. At the cranial and medial aspects of the middle of the diaphysis, the average minimum principal strain was not comparable to the average experimental longitudinal strain. Further analysis at the remaining six locations indicated that the mathematical model formulated in Part I predicts strains within +/-2 standard deviations of experimental strains at

  1. Genetic Relationships among Reptilian and Mammalian Campylobacter fetus Strains Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, Kate E.; Blaser, Martin J.; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Pruckler, Janet; Fitzgerald, Collette; van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Lawson, Andrew J.; Owen, Robert J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2010-01-01

    Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared ∼90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two groups. The reptile group represents a possible separate genomospecies capable of infecting humans. PMID:20053851

  2. A micromechanical procedure for viscoelastic characterization of the axons and ECM of the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Javid, Samad; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the optimal viscoelastic material parameters of axon and extracellular matrix (ECM) in porcine brain white matter were identified using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization procedure. The procedure was combined with micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) of brain tissue and experimental stress relaxation tests on brainstem specimens to find the optimal material coefficients of axon and ECM. The stress relaxation tests were performed in tension on 10 brainstem specimens at 3% strain level. The axonal volume fraction in brainstem was measured from the Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the brain tissue. A square periodic volume element was selected to represent the microscale homogenized brainstem tissue. Periodic boundary conditions were applied on the square volume element to mimics the repetitive nature of the volume element. Linear viscoelastic material properties were assumed for the brain tissue constituents under small deformation. The constitutive behavior was expressed in terms of Prony series. The GA procedure searched for the optimal material parameters by fitting the time-dependent tissue stresses of brain tissue FEA to the stresses of relaxation tests under the same loading conditions. The optimization procedure converged after 60 iterations. The initial elastic modulus of axon was found to be 12.86kPa, three times larger than that of ECM. The long-term elastic modulus of axon was 3.7kPa, while for ECM this value was 1.03kPa. The concordance correlation coefficient between FEA estimated elastic modulus of brainstem tissue using the optimal material properties and the experimental elastic modulus of brainstem specimens was 0.952, showing a strong agreement. The optimal material properties of brain tissue constituents can find applications in micromechanical analysis of brain tissue to gain insight into diffuse axonal injures (DAIs). PMID:24361933

  3. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation in particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianku.

    1989-01-01

    Consequences of the interaction of cracks with SiC particles are examined with emphasis on micromechanisms influencing fatigue crack propagation in high strength aluminum alloy matrix composites. Fatigue crack propagation is found to show three distinct regimes; each accompanied by growth mechanisms reflecting different roles of SiC particles. At near-threshold levels, SiC particles impeded fatigue crack growth by deflecting the crack to promote roughness-induced crack closure and by acting as crack traps along the crack front. A two-dimensional crack trapping analysis based on the interaction of a finite crack with a SiC particle indicates that a limiting criterion for fatigue crack growth in SiC{sub p}/Al composites can be established, which requires that the maximum plastic-zone size exceed the effective mean particle size or that the tensile stress in the matrix beyond the particle on the crack front exceed the yield strength of the material. Implications of crack closure and crack trapping to near-threshold crack growth, including load-ration and particle-size dependence of fatigue thresholds, are discussed in terms of contributions from each mechanism. At higher stress intensities, limited fracture of SiC particles ahead of the crack tip leads to the development of uncracked ligaments along the crack length, resulting in a reduced crack-tip stress intensity from ligament bridging. Micromechanical models are developed for such bridges induced by both overlapping cracks and co-planar ligaments, based on the notion of a limiting crack opening displacement or limiting strain in the ligament. The predicted reduction in crack tip stress intensity is shown to be consistent with experimental observations.

  4. Unjamming Dynamics: The Micromechanics of a Seismic Fault Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Lippiello, Eugenio; Godano, Cataldo; Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2010-06-11

    The unjamming transition of granular systems is investigated in a seismic fault model via three dimensional molecular dynamics simulations. A two-time force-force correlation function, and a susceptibility related to the system response to pressure changes, allow us to characterize the stick-slip dynamics, consisting in large slips and microslips leading to creep motion. The correlation function unveils the micromechanical changes occurring both during microslips and slips. The susceptibility encodes the magnitude of the incoming microslip.

  5. Micromechanics and Piezo Enhancements of HyperSizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip; Collier, Craig S.

    2006-01-01

    The commercial HyperSizer aerospace-composite-material-structure-sizing software has been enhanced by incorporating capabilities for representing coupled thermal, piezoelectric, and piezomagnetic effects on the levels of plies, laminates, and stiffened panels. This enhancement is based on a formulation similar to that of the pre-existing HyperSizer capability for representing thermal effects. As a result of this enhancement, the electric and/or magnetic response of a material or structure to a mechanical or thermal load, or its mechanical response to an applied electric or magnetic field can be predicted. In another major enhancement, a capability for representing micromechanical effects has been added by establishment of a linkage between HyperSizer and Glenn Research Center s Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) computer program, which was described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. The linkage enables Hyper- Sizer to localize to the fiber and matrix level rather than only to the ply level, making it possible to predict local failures and to predict properties of plies from those of the component fiber and matrix materials. Advanced graphical user interfaces and database structures have been developed to support the new HyperSizer micromechanics capabilities.

  6. A micromechanical study of residual stresses in functionally graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, M.; Gu, P.; Maewal, A.; Asaro, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    A physically based computational micromechanics model is developed to study random and discrete microstructures in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The influences of discrete microstructure on residual stress distributions at grain size level are examined with respect to material gradient and FGM volume percentage (within a ceramic-FGM-metal three-layer structure). Both thermoelastic and thermoplastic deformation are considered, and the plastic behavior of metal grains is modeled at the single crystal level using crystal plasticity theory. The results are compared with those obtained using a continuous model which does not consider the microstructural randomness and discreteness. In an averaged sense both the micromechanics model and the continuous model give practically the same macroscopic stresses; whereas the discrete micromechanics model predicts fairly high residual stress concentrations at the grain size level (i.e., higher than 700 MPa in 5--6 vol% FGM grains) with only a 300 C temperature drop in a Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} FGM system. Statistical analysis shows that the residual stress concentrations are insensitive to material gradient and FGM volume percentage. The need to consider microstructural details in FGM microstructures is evident. The results obtained provide some insights for improving the reliability of FGMs against fracture and delamination.

  7. Identification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Brucella Strains Isolated from Patients in Van, Turkey by Conventional and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Parlak, Mehmet; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Bayram, Yasemin; Çıkman, Aytekin; Aypak, Cenk; Kılıç, Selçuk; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still constitutes a major public health problem. In this study, we aimed to identify biovars of Brucella strains isolated from clinical specimens taken from brucellosis patients from the Eastern Anatolia region as well determine the susceptibility of these isolates to tigecycline and azithromycin, drugs that may serve as alternatives to the conventional drugs used in the therapy. Materials and methods: Seventy-five Brucella spp. isolates were included in the study. All strains were identified by both conventional and molecular methods. Brucella Multiplex PCR kit (FC-Biotech, Code: 0301, Turkey) and B. melitensis biovar typing PCR kit (FC-Biotech, Code: 0302, Turkey) were used for molecular typing. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of all strains were determined by E-tests. Results: By conventional biotyping, 73 strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 and two strains as B. abortus biovar 3. Molecular typing results were compatible with conventional methods. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of doxycycline were 0.047 and 0.094; tigecycline 0.094 and 0.125; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 0.064 and 0.19; ciprofloxacin 0.19 for both; streptomycin 0.75 and 1; rifampin 1 and 2 and azithromycin 4 and 8. According to the MIC values, doxycycline was found to be the most effective antibiotic, followed by tigecycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Currently recommended antibiotics for the treatment of brucellosis such as doxycycline, rifampin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin were found to be still effective. While our results showed that tigecycline can be used an alternative agent in the treatment of brucellosis, azithromycin has not been confirmed as an appropriate agent for the treatment. PMID:23983603

  8. A Determination Procedure for Element Elimination Criterion in Finite Element Analysis of High-Strain-Rate Impact/Penetration Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyunho; Lee, Hun-Joo; Yoo, Yo-Han; Lee, Woong

    A determination procedure for element elimination criterion in finite element simulation of high-strain-rate impact and penetration phenomena, occurring between tungsten heavy alloy long-rod penetrators and steel targets, has been presented with some demonstrations for the validity of the established criterion. The element elimination criterion for the two types of materials have been determined by comparing the simulated depth of penetration (DOP) and deformed shape of the penetrator with previously available experimental results. Although the criterion affects the simulated DOP significantly at the studied impact velocity of 1500m/s, once established, they are shown to be valid in predicting the DOP in the impact velocity range between 1100 and 1750m/s. The events of partial penetration with severe material deformation such as critical ricochet angle and ricochet phenomenology have also been successfully predicted using the established criterion in the similar impact velocity range. Thus it is suggested that the determination procedure for the suitable element erosion criterion is prerequisite in simulating high-strain-rate impact/penetration phenomena and the criterion established by the procedure is useful in fairly broad range of the velocity and for other similar high-strain-rate events.

  9. Micromechanics analysis of space simulated thermal deformations and stresses in continuous fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Space simulated thermally induced deformations and stresses in continuous fiber reinforced composites were investigated with a micromechanics analysis. The investigation focused on two primary areas. First, available explicit expressions for predicting the effective coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) for a composite were compared with each other, and with a finite element (FE) analysis, developed specifically for this study. Analytical comparisons were made for a wide range of fiber/matrix systems, and predicted values were compared with experimental data. The second area of investigation focused on the determination of thermally induced stress fields in the individual constituents. Stresses predicted from the FE analysis were compared to those predicted from a closed-form solution to the composite cylinder (CC) model, for two carbon fiber/epoxy composites. A global-local formulation, combining laminated plate theory and FE analysis, was used to determine the stresses in multidirectional laminates. Thermally induced damage initiation predictions were also made.

  10. Rheology of arc dacite lavas: experimental determination at low strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avard, Geoffroy; Whittington, Alan G.

    2012-07-01

    Andesitic-dacitic volcanoes exhibit a large variety of eruption styles, including explosive eruptions, endogenous and exogenous dome growth, and kilometer-long lava flows. The rheology of these lavas can be investigated through field observations of flow and dome morphology, but this approach integrates the properties of lava over a wide range of temperatures. Another approach is through laboratory experiments; however, previous studies have used higher shear stresses and strain rates than are appropriate to lava flows. We measured the apparent viscosity of several lavas from Santiaguito and Bezymianny volcanoes by uniaxial compression, between 1,109 and 1,315 K, at low shear stress (0.085 to 0.42 MPa), low strain rate (between 1.1 × 10-8 and 1.9 × 10-5 s-1), and up to 43.7 % total deformation. The results show a strong variability of the apparent viscosity between different samples, which can be ascribed to differences in initial porosity and crystallinity. Deformation occurs primarily by compaction, with some cracking and/or vesicle coalescence. Our experiments yield apparent viscosities more than 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted by models based on experiments at higher strain rates. At lava flow conditions, no evidence of a yield strength is observed, and the apparent viscosity is best approached by a strain rate- and temperature-dependent power law equation. The best fit for Santiaguito lava, for temperatures between 1,164 and 1,226 K and strain rates lower than 1.8 × 10-4 s-1, is log {η_{{app}}} = - 0.738 + 9.24 × {10^3}{/}T(K) - 0.654 \\cdot log dot{\\varepsilon } where η app is apparent viscosity and dot{\\varepsilon } is strain rate. This equation also reproduced 45 data for a sample from Bezymianny with a root mean square deviation of 0.19 log unit Pa s. Applying the rheological model to lava flow conditions at Santiaguito yields calculated apparent viscosities that are in reasonable agreement with field observations and suggests that

  11. Finite element modeling to determine thermal residual strain distribution of bonded composite repairs for structural health monitoring design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Wayne; Jones, Rhys; Davis, Claire; Galea, Stephen C.

    2002-11-01

    The economic implication of fleet upgrades, particularly in Australia with military aircraft such as the F-111 and F/A-18, has led to an increasing reliance on composite repair technology to address fatigue and corrosion-affected aircraft components. The increasing use of such repairs has led to a research effort to develop various in-situ health monitoring systems that may be incorporated with a repair. This paper reports on the development of a theoretical methodology that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to model the strain profiles which optical sensors, on or within the patch, will be exposed to under various operational scenarios, including load and disbond. Numerical techniques are then used to predict the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) reflections which occur with these strain profiles. The quality of these reflection are a key consideration when designing FBG based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This information can be used to optimise the location of both surface mounted, and embedded sensors, and determine feasibility of SHM system design. Research was conducted into the thermal residual strain (TRS) within the patch. A finite element study revealed the presence of significant thermal residual strain gradients along the surface of the tapered region of the patch. As Bragg gratings are particularly sensitive to strain gradients, (producing a result similar to a chirped grating) the strain gradient on the composite at potential sensor locations both under load, and in the event of disbond was considered. A sufficiently high gradient leads to an altered Bragg reflection. These spurious reflections need to be considered, and theoretically obtained reflections can provide information to allow for load scenarios where the Bragg shift is not a smooth, well defined peak. It can also be shown that embedded fibres offer a higher average thermal residual strain reading, while being subject to a much lower strain gradient. This particularly favors the

  12. Rate- and strain-dependent brittle deformation of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantut, N.; Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.

    2014-03-01

    We develop a unifying framework to quantify rate-dependent deformation in the brittle field and establish links between the microscale time-dependent crack growth processes and the macroscopically observed rate dependency. Triaxial deformation experiments have been performed under both constant strain rate and constant stress (creep) conditions on three types of sandstone. The measured relative evolution of P wave speeds as a function of inelastic axial strain is similar for both types of test, despite differences in strain rate of up to 3 orders of magnitude. This similarity indicates that there exists a direct, time-independent link between the microstructural state (as reflected by the variations in P wave speed) and the inelastic axial strain. Comparison of applied stresses between constant strain rate and creep experiments as a function of inelastic strain indicates that creep deformation requires less mechanical work to bring the sample to failure. This energy deficit corresponds to a stress deficit, which can be related to a deficit in energy release rate of the microcracks. We establish empirically that the creep strain rate is given by ɛ˙∝exp(ΔQ/σ∗), where ΔQ is the stress deficit (negative) and σ∗ is an activation stress. This empirical exponential relation between creep strain rate and stress deficit is analogous to rate-and-state friction law. We develop a micromechanical approach based on fracture mechanics to determine the evolution of an effective stress intensity factor at crack tips during creep deformation and estimate the activation volume of the stress corrosion reaction responsible for brittle creep.

  13. Transcriptional analysis and regulation of the sfa determinant coding for S fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Morschhäuser, J; Uhlin, B E; Hacker, J

    1993-04-01

    The sfa determinant codes for S fimbrial adhesins which constitute adherence factors of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. We have recently shown that the sfa determinant is transcribed from three promoters, pA, pB, and pC. In comparison with the promoters pB and pC, promoter pA, which is located in front of the structural gene sfaA, showed very weak activity. Here we have determined the exact positions of the mRNA start points by primer extension studies. We have also shown that mRNAs of 500, 700 and 1400 bases can be detected using oligonucleotide probes specific for the genes sfaB, sfaC and sfaA. SfaB and SfaC are positive regulators influencing fimbriation and the production of the S-specific adhesin which is encoded by the gene sfaS located in the distal half of the determinant. In addition, it is demonstrated that SfaB and SfaC interfere with the regulatory effect of the histone-like protein H-NS, encoded by a locus termed drdX or osmZ. In a drdX+ strain the regulators are necessary for transcription of the sfa determinant. In contrast, sfa expression is activator-independent in a drdX- strain. In this latter genetic background, a substantial fraction of the sfa transcripts is initiated from promoter pA. On the basis of these data we discuss a model for the regulation of this adhesin-specific determinant. PMID:8097559

  14. Virulence determinants, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular profiles of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Longsheng; Wang, Xiangru; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology, serotype, antibiotic sensitivity, and clonal structure of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains in China. Forty-eight strains were collected from seven provinces during the period from 2012 to 2013. Pulse-field electrophoresis identified 32 different patterns which were classified into clonal groups A–D. Most pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed in clonal complex A and B, suggesting high diversity of genetic characterization in these two predominant clonal complexes. Antibiotic sensitivity test shows that all the stains were susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefotaxime, and resistant to kanamycin, cefazolin, sulfadiazine, and amikacin. Erythromycin and ampicillin are recommended as first-line antibiotics for treatment of E. rhusiopathiae in China. The high variation in PFGE pattern among the main clonal groups shows that the E. rhusiopathiae in China may originate from different lineages and sources instead of from expansion of a single clonal lineage across different regions. PMID:26975059

  15. Mouse tooth development time sequence determination for the ICR/Jcl strain.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Marcia; Lobos, Nelson; Torres-Quintana, María Angélica

    2004-09-01

    To establish the normal dental development pattern of the ICR/Jcl strain of mouse, we analyzed a significant number of observations of the different developmental stages of the first mandibular molar, accurately recording the chronology of their daily embryonic development. Proliferation of the dental sheet began at day 12.5 in utero (E-12.5), the bud stage appeared at days E-13.5 and E-14.5, the cap stage was observed at days E-14.5, E-15.5 and E-16.5 and the early bell stage at day E-17.5. The presence of predentin was observed at day E-18.5 and dentin was observed 1 and 2 days after birth (D-1 and D-2). The late bell stage with presence of enamel was detected more than 3 days after birth. Embryonic and dental development in the ICR/Jcl strain of mouse is faster than in other well-known strains. The establishment of this developmental pattern will be useful for future investigations of transgenic mice. PMID:15508745

  16. Influence of disease-suppressive strains of Streptomyces on the native Streptomyces community in soil as determined by the analysis of cellular fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J H; Kinkel, L L; Jones, R K

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles was used to distinguish among introduced pathogen- suppressive strains and indigenous strains of Streptomyces spp. isolated from soil of field plots established to test the efficacy of Streptomyces strains PonSSII and PonR in the biological control of potato scab. Reference libraries of fatty acid profiles were developed for a collection of known pathogenic strains and the introduced suppressive strains. Population densities of pathogen-related, suppressive, and saprophytic Streptomyces strains were determined from the relationship of field isolates to mean library profiles using cluster analysis and the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. Community diversity was similarly determined. Streptomyces strains PonSSII and PonR were distinguished from each other and from the pathogen group (which clustered together) based on fatty acid profiles. The introduced, suppressive strains successfully colonized the soil and represented 2-19% of the isolates sampled over 2 years. The introduction of the suppressive strains inhibited the population of strains related to the pathogen library at each sample date; the pathogen population was substantially lower in soil from treatments where the suppressive strains were introduced compared with the nonamended control. At harvest, the pathogen-related population was suppressed 85-93 and 36-44% in 1991 and 1992, respectively, in treatments with the suppressive strains compared with the nonamended control. Diversity of the community was not affected by the introduced strains, and diversity and equitability indices were similar among treatments at any sample time. The inhibition of the pathogen-related population was correlated with a reduction of scab symptoms observed in the field plots into which the suppressive strains were introduced. Implications of a fundamental shift in the pathogen-related population in response to the introduction of the suppressive strains for long

  17. Flow Curve Determination at Large Plastic Strain Levels to Accurately Constitutive Equations of AHSS in Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, X.; Sriram, S.; Kergen, R.

    2011-05-01

    ArcelorMittal continuously develops new steel grades (AHSS) with high performance for the automotive industry to improve the weight reduction and the passive safety. The wide market introduction of AHSS raises a new challenge for manufacturers in terms of material models in the prediction of forming—especially formability and springback. The relatively low uniform elongation, the high UTS and the low forming limit curve of these AHSS may cause difficulties in forming simulations. One of these difficulties is the consequence of the relatively low uniform elongation on the parameters identification of isotropic hardening model. Different experimental tests allow to reach large plastic strain levels (hydraulic bulge test, stack compression test, shear test…). After a description on how to determine the flow curve in these experimental tests, a comparison of the different flow curves is made for different steel grades. The ArcelorMittal identification protocol for hardening models is only based on stress-strain curves determined in uniaxial tension. Experimental tests where large plastic strain levels are reached are used to validate our identification protocol and to recommend some hardening models. Finally, the influence of isotropic hardening models and yield loci in forming prediction for AHSS steels will be presented.

  18. Determination of gradient elastic tensors: stress and strain dependencies of electric field gradients in cubic and hexagonal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüsewitz, C.; Vetter, U.; Hofsäss, H.

    2015-02-01

    We present ab-initio calculations of the independent components of gradient elastic tensors, so-called gradient elastic constants, which relate electric field gradient tensors to stress or strain tensors. The constants of cubic and hexagonal metals, MAX phases, and zinc oxide were determined within the framework of density functional theory by using the augmented plane waves plus local orbitals method implemented in the WIEN2k code. Comparison with experimental gradient elastic constants and electric field gradients' stress dependencies suggest an accuracy of about 30% of the calculated constants, independent of the probe that detects the field gradient being self- or foreign-atom. Changes in the electric field gradient take place by strain-induced asymmetric occupations of the p and d states in the valence region for all investigated materials. Volume and structural dependencies of the electric field gradient can directly be determined from this fundamental approach and are, for hexagonal closed packed metals, consistent with vanishing electric field gradients around ideal close packing and volume dependencies larger than one. The concept of these calculations is applicable in any hyperfine interaction method and, thus, can be used to gain information about intrinsic strains in systems where the experimental gradient elastic constants are inaccessible.

  19. Determination of the shear buckling load of a large polymer composite I-section using strain and displacement sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Y; Lee, Jeong Wan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method and procedure of sensing and determining critical shear buckling load and corresponding deformations of a comparably large composite I-section using strain rosettes and displacement sensors. The tested specimen was a pultruded composite beam made of vinyl ester resin, E-glass and carbon fibers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the I-section. In order to sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on the web and flange surfaces. An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was utilized for the test. The loading scheme resulted a high shear and almost zero moment condition at the center of the web panel. The web shear buckling load was determined after analyzing the obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. Finite element analysis was also performed to verify the experimental results and to support the discussed experimental approach. PMID:23443364

  20. Transient yield in reversible colloidal gels: a micro-mechanical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2015-11-01

    We study the nonlinear rheology of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup, and post-cessation relaxation, and its connection to energy storage and viscous dissipation. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in the stress during startup, but the underlying microstructural origins of this behavior remain unclear. To understand this behavior, a fixed strain rate is imposed on a reversible colloidal gel, where thermal fluctuations enable quiescent gel aging. It has been suggested flow occurs only after clusters first break free from the network and then disintegrate, leading to two stress peaks that vary with age, flow strength, volume fraction, bond strength, and pre-strain history. However, our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution during startup challenge this view. We present a new model of stress development, relaxation, and microstructural evolution in reversible colloidal gels in which the ongoing age-coarsening process plays a central role.

  1. Transient yield in reversible colloidal gels: a micro-mechanical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Russel, William; Zia, Roseanna

    2015-03-01

    We study the nonlinear response rheology of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup, and post-cessation relaxation. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in the stress response during startup, but the underlying microstructural origin of this behavior remains unclear. The gels studied here comprise Brownian particles interacting via hard-sphere repulsion and short-range attraction of strength of O(kT) that leads to formation of a bi-continuous network. The relatively weak bonds allow the network to restructure over time; our recent work defines the structural evolution and dynamics of such coarsening, and its impact on linear-response rheology. Here we investigate the role of particle attractions and evolving structure on the nonlinear response of the gel. Upon startup of an imposed strain rate, the transition from rest to steady flow is characterized by one or more ``overshoots'' in the shear stress. Experimental studies, in which the overshoots depend on gel age, strain rate, volume fraction, and attraction strength, suggest that the underlying microstructural origin is a two-step process of cage breaking and bond breaking. However, our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution during startup challenge this view. We present a new model of stress development, relaxation, and memory in reversible colloidal gels in which the ongoing age-coarsening process plays a qualitatively new role.

  2. Micro-mechanical model for the tension-stabilized enzymatic degradation of collagen tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thao; Ruberti, Jeffery

    We present a study of how the collagen fiber structure influences the enzymatic degradation of collagen tissues. Experiments of collagen fibrils and tissues show that mechanical tension can slow and halt enzymatic degradation. Tissue-level experiments also show that degradation rate is minimum at a stretch level coincident with the onset of strain-stiffening in the stress response. To understand these phenomena, we developed a micro-mechanical model of a fibrous collagen tissue undergoing enzymatic degradation. Collagen fibers are described as sinusoidal elastica beams, and the tissue is described as a distribution of fibers. We assumed that the degradation reaction is inhibited by the axial strain energy of the crimped collagen fibers. The degradation rate law was calibrated to experiments on isolated single fibrils from bovine sclera. The fiber crimp and properties were fit to uniaxial tension tests of tissue strips. The fibril-level kinetic and tissue-level structural parameters were used to predict tissue-level degradation-induced creep rate under a constant applied force. We showed that we could accurately predict the degradation-induce creep rate of the pericardium and cornea once we accounted for differences in the fiber crimp structure and properties.

  3. Micromechanical Modeling the Plastic Deformation of Particle-Reinforced Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Shi, Xueping; Qiu, Kun

    2015-08-01

    A micromechanics model was employed to investigate the mechanical performance of particle-reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites. The roles of shear banding in the tensile deformation are accounted for in characterizing the strength and ductility of ductile particle-filled BMGs. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, shear band was considered to be a micro-crack in the present model. The strain-based Weibull probability distribution function and percolation theory were applied to describe the equivalent micro-crack evolution, which results in the progressive failure of BMG composites. Based on the developed model, the influences of shear bands on the plastic deformation were discussed for various microstructures. The predictions were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from the literatures, which confirms that the developed analytical model is able to successfully describe the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, strain hardening, and stress softening elongation of composites. The present results will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the tensile ductility of BMG composites.

  4. Self-Determination as a Moderator of Demands and Control: Implications for Employee Strain and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stacey L.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Amiot, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Does job control act as a stress-buffer when employees' type and level of work self-determination is taken into account? It was anticipated that job control would only be stress-buffering for employees high in self-determined and low in non-self-determined work motivation. In contrast, job control would be stress-exacerbating for employees who…

  5. Conduction band offset determination between strained CdSe and ZnSe layers using DLTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio

    2013-12-04

    The conduction band offset between strained CdSe layers embedded in unintentionally n-type doped ZnSe is measured and reported. Two samples, consisting of thirty Ultra Thin Quantum Wells (UTQWs) of CdSe embedded in ZnSe, grown by Atomic Layer Epitaxy, are used for this study. The thicknesses of the UTQWs are one and three monolayers (MLs) in each sample, respectively. As expected, the sample with one ML UTQWs does not show any energy level in the UTQWs due to the small thickness of the UTQWs, while the thickness of the sample with 3 ML UTQWs is large enough to form an energy level inside the UTQWs. This energy level appears as a majority trap with an activation energy of 223.58 ± 9.54 meV. This corresponds to UTQWs with barrier heights (the conduction band offset) between 742 meV and 784 meV. These values suggest that the band gap misfit between strained CdSe and ZnSe is around 70.5 to 74 % in the conduction band.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays

    PubMed Central

    Matějková, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy; Petrosino, Joseph F; Sodergren, Erica; Norton, Jason E; Singh, Jaz; Richmond, Todd A; Molla, Michael N; Albert, Thomas J; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Background Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. Results The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only three arrays (Comparative Genome Sequencing, CGS). Gaps in the resulting sequence were filled with targeted dideoxy-terminators (DDT) sequencing and the sequence was confirmed by whole genome fingerprinting (WGF). When compared to the Nichols strain, 327 single nucleotide substitutions (224 transitions, 103 transversions), 14 deletions, and 18 insertions were found. On the proteome level, the highest frequency of amino acid-altering substitution polymorphisms was in novel genes, while the lowest was in housekeeping genes, as expected by their evolutionary conservation. Evidence was also found for hypervariable regions and multiple regions showing intrastrain heterogeneity in the T. pallidum chromosome. Conclusion The observed genetic changes do not have influence on the ability of Treponema pallidum to cause syphilitic infection, since both SS14 and Nichols are virulent in rabbit. However, this is the first assessment of the degree of variation between the two syphilis pathogens and paves the way for phylogenetic studies of this fascinating organism. PMID:18482458

  7. Micromechanical Prediction of the Effective Coefficients of Thermo-Piezoelectric Multiphase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The micromechanical generalized method of cells model is employed for the prediction of the effective elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric, pyroelectric and thermal-expansion constants of multiphase composites with embedded piezoelectric materials. The predicted effective constants are compared with other micromechanical methods available in the literature and good agreements are obtained.

  8. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  9. Exopolysaccharide Production and Ropy Phenotype Are Determined by Two Gene Clusters in Putative Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Milica; Miljkovic, Marija; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Golic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, a putative probiotic strain isolated from a soft, white, artisanal cheese, produces a high-molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-CG11, responsible for the ropy phenotype and immunomodulatory activity of the strain. In this study, a 26.4-kb region originating from the pCG1 plasmid, previously shown to be responsible for the production of EPS-CG11 and a ropy phenotype, was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. In this region 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs), encoding enzymes for the production of EPS-CG11, were organized in specific loci involved in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit, polymerization, export, regulation, and chain length determination. Interestingly, downstream of the eps gene cluster, a putative transposase gene was identified, followed by an additional rfb gene cluster containing the rfbACBD genes, the ones most probably responsible for dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthesis. The functional analysis showed that the production of the high-molecular-weight fraction of EPS-CG11 was absent in two knockout mutants, one in the eps and the other in the rfb gene cluster, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Therefore, both eps and rfb genes clusters are prerequisites for the production of high-molecular-weight EPS-CG11 and for the ropy phenotype of strain L. paraplantarum BGCG11. PMID:25527533

  10. Molecular Determinants of the Regioselectivity of Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain OX1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Notomista, Eugenio; Cafaro, Valeria; Bozza, Giuseppe; Di Donato, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) are a heterogeneous family of di-iron monooxygenases which share the very interesting ability to hydroxylate aliphatic and/or aromatic hydrocarbons. Each BMM possesses defined substrate specificity and regioselectivity which match the metabolic requirements of the strain from which it has been isolated. Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1, a strain able to metabolize o-, m-, and p-cresols, produces the BMM toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO), which converts toluene to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresol isomers. In order to investigate the molecular determinants of ToMO regioselectivity, we prepared and characterized 15 single-mutant and 3 double-mutant forms of the ToMO active site pocket. Using the Monte Carlo approach, we prepared models of ToMO-substrate and ToMO-reaction intermediate complexes which allowed us to provide a molecular explanation for the regioselectivities of wild-type and mutant ToMO enzymes. Furthermore, using binding energy values calculated by energy analyses of the complexes and a simple mathematical model of the hydroxylation reaction, we were able to predict quantitatively the regioselectivities of the majority of the variant proteins with good accuracy. The results show not only that the fine-tuning of ToMO regioselectivity can be achieved through a careful alteration of the shape of the active site but also that the effects of the mutations on regioselectivity can be quantitatively predicted a priori. PMID:19074607

  11. Molecular determinants of the regioselectivity of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1.

    PubMed

    Notomista, Eugenio; Cafaro, Valeria; Bozza, Giuseppe; Di Donato, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) are a heterogeneous family of di-iron monooxygenases which share the very interesting ability to hydroxylate aliphatic and/or aromatic hydrocarbons. Each BMM possesses defined substrate specificity and regioselectivity which match the metabolic requirements of the strain from which it has been isolated. Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1, a strain able to metabolize o-, m-, and p-cresols, produces the BMM toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO), which converts toluene to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresol isomers. In order to investigate the molecular determinants of ToMO regioselectivity, we prepared and characterized 15 single-mutant and 3 double-mutant forms of the ToMO active site pocket. Using the Monte Carlo approach, we prepared models of ToMO-substrate and ToMO-reaction intermediate complexes which allowed us to provide a molecular explanation for the regioselectivities of wild-type and mutant ToMO enzymes. Furthermore, using binding energy values calculated by energy analyses of the complexes and a simple mathematical model of the hydroxylation reaction, we were able to predict quantitatively the regioselectivities of the majority of the variant proteins with good accuracy. The results show not only that the fine-tuning of ToMO regioselectivity can be achieved through a careful alteration of the shape of the active site but also that the effects of the mutations on regioselectivity can be quantitatively predicted a priori. PMID:19074607

  12. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  13. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Dialysis Patients Assessed by Novel Speckle Tracking Strain Rate Analysis: Prevalence and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Mihály K.; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Gaasbeek, André; Bax, Jeroen J.; Groeneveld, Marc; Gabreels, Bas A.; Delgado, Victoria; Rabelink, Ton J.; Schalij, Martin J.; Jukema, J. Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diastolic dysfunction is common among dialysis patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Novel echocardiographic speckle tracking strain analysis permits accurate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function, independent of loading conditions and taking all myocardial segments into account. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients using this novel technique, and to identify its determinants among clinical and echocardiographic variables. Methods. Patients currently enrolled in the ICD2 study protocol were included for this analysis. Next to conventional echo measurements diastolic function was also assessed by global diastolic strain rate during isovolumic relaxation (SRIVR). Results. A total of 77 patients were included (age 67 ± 8 years, 74% male). When defined as E/SRIVR ≥236, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher compared to more conventional measurements (48% versus 39%). Left ventricular mass (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04, P = 0.014) and pulse wave velocity (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.68, P = 0.01) were independent determinants of diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion. Diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent among dialysis patients and might be underestimated using conventional measurements. Left ventricular mass and pulse wave velocity were the only determinants of diastolic dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22649726

  14. Rapid Determination of Colistin Resistance in Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii by Use of the Micromax Assay

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Maria; Santiso, Rebeca; Otero, Fátima; Bou, Germán; Lepe, José Antonio; McConnell, Michael J.; Cisneros, José Miguel; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic which has been used as a therapeutic option for carbapenem- and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, like Acinetobacter baumannii. This pathogen produces life-threatening infections, mainly in patients admitted to intensive care units. Rapid detection of resistance to colistin may improve patient outcomes and prevent the spread of resistance. For this purpose, Micromax technology was evaluated in four isogenic A. baumannii strains with known mechanisms of resistance to colistin and in 66 isolates (50 susceptible and 16 resistant). Two parameters were determined, DNA fragmentation and cell wall damage. To assess DNA fragmentation, cells trapped in a microgel were incubated with a lysing solution to remove the cell wall, and the released nucleoids were visualized under fluorescence microscopy. Fragmented DNA was observed as spots that diffuse from the nucleoid. To assess cell wall integrity, cells were incubated with a lysis solution which removes only weakened cell walls, resulting in nucleoid release exclusively in affected cells. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated between colistin concentrations and the percentages of bacteria with DNA fragmentation and cell wall damage, antibiotic effects that were delayed and less frequent in resistant strains. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that both DNA fragmentation and cell wall damage were excellent parameters for identifying resistant strains. Obtaining ≤11% of bacteria with cell wall damage after incubation with 0.5 μg/ml colistin identified resistant strains of A. baumannii with 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Results were obtained in 3 h 30 min. This is a simple, rapid, and accurate assay for detecting colistin resistance in A. baumannii, with strong potential value in critical clinical situations. PMID:23985913

  15. Micromechanical Switches on GaAs for Microwave Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, John N.; Goldsmith, Chuck; Denniston, David; Lin, Tsen-Hwang

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices, in particular, of low-frequency multi-element electrical switches using SiO2 cantilevers. The switches discussed are related to micromechanical membrane structures used to perform switching of optical signals on silicon substrates. These switches use a thin metal membrane which is actuated by an electrostatic potential, causing the switch to make or break contact. The advantages include: superior isolation, high power handling capabilities, high radiation hardening, very low power operations, and the ability to integrate onto GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips.

  16. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  17. A Micromechanical Contribution to Cochlear Tuning and Tonotopic Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holton, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.

    1983-11-01

    The response properties of hair cells and nerve fibers in the alligator lizard cochlea are frequency selective and tonotopically organized with longitudinal position in the organ. The lengths of the hair-cell hair bundles also vary monotonically with longitudinal position. In this study, quantitative measurements were made of the motion of individual hair bundles in an excised preparation of the cochlea stimulated at auditory frequencies. The angular displacement of hair bundles is frequency selective and tonotopically organized, demonstrating the existence of a micromechanical tuning mechanism.

  18. Micromechanics of slip bands on a free surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. R.; Lin, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis for the formation and propagation of slip bands on the free surface of a polycrystal under monotonic loading is presented. For the growth of slip bands, the analysis satisfies the conditions of both equilibrium and displacement continuity, as well as the relation between slip and the resolved shear stress throughout the polycrystal. Numerical calculations show how the microstress field causes the concentration of plastic deformation in discrete sliding bands and give results which are in good qualitative agreement with known slip band observations on aluminum single crystals.

  19. Squeezing of Quantum Noise of Motion in a Micromechanical Resonator.

    PubMed

    Pirkkalainen, J-M; Damskägg, E; Brandt, M; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A

    2015-12-11

    A pair of conjugate observables, such as the quadrature amplitudes of harmonic motion, have fundamental fluctuations that are bound by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. However, in a squeezed quantum state, fluctuations of a quantity can be reduced below the standard quantum limit, at the cost of increased fluctuations of the conjugate variable. Here we prepare a nearly macroscopic moving body, realized as a micromechanical resonator, in a squeezed quantum state. We obtain squeezing of one quadrature amplitude 1.1±0.4  dB below the standard quantum limit, thus achieving a long-standing goal of obtaining motional squeezing in a macroscopic object. PMID:26705631

  20. Configuration space representation for micro-mechanism function

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, E.; Allen, J.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the configuration space representation of mechanical function and shows how it supports the design of micro-mechanisms. The domain characteristics of curved geometry, joint play, and custom joints render traditional design tools inappropriate, but configuration spaces can model these characteristics. They represent the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of kinematic function in a concise geometric format that helps designers visualize system function under a range of operating conditions, find and correct design flaws, study joint play, and optimize performance. The approach is demonstrated on a surface micromachined counter meshing gear discrimination device developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  1. Interfacial Micromechanics in Fibrous Composites: Design, Evaluation, and Models

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  2. Simplified composite micromechanics equations for hygral, thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set can be used to predict unidirectional composite (ply) geometric, mechanical, thermal and hygral properties using constituent material (fiber/matrix) properties. This unified set also includes approximate equations for predicting (1) moisture absorption; (2) glass transition temperature of wet resins; and (3) hygrothermal degradation effects. Several numerical examples are worked-out to illustrate ease of use and versatility of these equations. These numerical examples also demonstrate the interrelationship of the various factors (geometric to environmental) and help provide insight into composite behavior at the micromechanistic level.

  3. Simplified composite micromechanics equations of hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set can be used to predict unidirectional composite (ply) geometric, mechanical, thermal and hygral properties using constituent material (fiber/matrix) properties. This unified set also includes approximate equations for predicting (1) moisture absorption; (2) glass transition temperature of wet resins; and (3) hygrothermal degradation effects. Several numerical examples are worked-out to illustrate ease of use and versatility of these equations. These numerical examples also demonstrate the interrelationship of the various factors (geometric to environmental) and help provide insight into composite behavior at the micromechanistic level.

  4. Negative strain rate sensitivity in bulk metallic glass and its similarities with the dynamic strain aging effect during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalla Torre, Florian H.; Dubach, Alban; Siegrist, Marco E.; Loeffler, Joerg F.

    2006-08-28

    Detailed investigations were carried out on the deformation behavior of Zr-based monolithic bulk metallic glass and bulk metallic glass matrix composites. The latter, due to splitting and multiplication of shear bands, exhibits larger compressive strains than the former, without significant loss of strength. Serrated flow in conjunction with a negative strain rate sensitivity was observed in both materials. This observation, together with an increase in stress drops with increasing strain and their decrease with increasing strain rate, indicates phenomenologically close similarities with the dynamic strain aging deformation mechanism known for crystalline solids. The micromechanical mechanism of a shear event is discussed in light of these results.

  5. A micromechanics-based nonlocal constitutive equation incorporating three-point statistics for random linear elastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drugan, W. J.; Willis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    A variational formulation employing the minimum potential and complementary energy principles is used to derive a micromechanics-based nonlocal constitutive equation for random linear elastic composite materials, relating ensemble averages of stress and strain in the most general situation when mean fields vary spatially. All information contained in the energy principles is retained; we employ stress polarization trial fields utilizing one-point statistics so that the resulting nonlocal constitutive equation incorporates up through three-point statistics. The variational structure is developed first for arbitrary heterogeneous linear elastic materials, then for randomly inhomogeneous materials, then for general n-phase composite materials, and finally for two-phase composite materials, in which case explicit variational upper and lower bounds on the nonlocal effective modulus tensor operator are derived. For statistically uniform infinite-body composites, these bounds are determined even more explicitly in Fourier transform space. We evaluate these in detail in an example case: longitudinal shear of an aligned fiber or void composite. We determine the full permissible ranges of the terms involving two- and three-point statistics in these bounds, and thereby exhibit explicit results that encompass arbitrary isotropic in-plane phase distributions; we also develop a nonlocal "Milton parameter", the variation of whose eigenvalues throughout the interval [0, 1] describes the full permissible range of the three-point term. Example plots of the new bounds show them to provide substantial improvement over the (two-point) Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the nonlocal operator tensor, for all permissible values of the two- and three-point parameters. We next discuss further applications of the general nonlocal operator bounds: to any three-dimensional scalar transport problem e.g. conductivity, for which explicit results are given encompassing the full permissible ranges of the

  6. The Relationship Between Crack-Tip Strain and Subcritical Cracking Thresholds for Steels in High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibur, Kevin A.; Somerday, Brian P.; Marchi, Chris San; Foulk, James W.; Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Sofronis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. Thresholds for crack extension under rising displacement, K THi, for crack extension under constant displacement, K_{{THi}}^{*} , and for crack arrest under constant displacement K THa, were identified. These values were not found to be equivalent, i.e. K THi < K THa < K_{{THi}}^{*} . The hydrogen assisted fracture mechanism was determined to be strain controlled for all of the alloys in this study, and the micromechanics of strain controlled fracture are used to explain the observed disparities between the different threshold measurements. K THa and K THi differ because the strain singularity of a stationary crack is stronger than that of a propagating crack; K THa must be larger than K THi to achieve equivalent crack tip strain at the same distance from the crack tip. Hydrogen interacts with deformation mechanisms, enhancing strain localization and consequently altering both the nucleation and growth stages of strain controlled fracture mechanisms. The timing of load application and hydrogen exposure, i.e., sequential for constant displacement tests and concurrent for rising displacement tests, leads to differences in the strain history relative to the environmental exposure history and promotes the disparity between K_{{THi}}^{*} and K THi. K THi is the only conservative measurement of fracture threshold among the methods presented here.

  7. Micromechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction, morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element models of a cement-bone interface specimen were created from micro-computed tomography data of a physical specimen that was sectioned from an in vitro cemented total hip arthroplasty. In five models the friction coefficient was varied (μ= 0.0; 0.3; 0.7; 1.0 and 3.0), while in one model an ideally bonded interface was assumed. In two models cement interface gaps and an optimal cement penetration were simulated. Finally, the effect of bone cement stiffness variations was simulated (2.0 and 2.5 GPa, relative to the default 3.0 GPa). All models were loaded for a cycle of fully reversible tension-compression. From the simulated stress-displacement curves the interface deformation, stiffness and hysteresis were calculated. The results indicate that in the current model the mechanical properties of the cement-bone interface were caused by frictional phenomena at the shape-closed interlock rather than by adhesive properties of the cement. Our findings furthermore show that in our model maximizing cement penetration improved the micromechanical response of the cement-bone interface stiffness, while interface gaps had a detrimental effect. Relative to the frictional and morphological variations, variations in the cement stiffness had only a modest effect on the micromechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface. The current study provides information that may help to better understand the load transfer mechanisms taking place at the cement-bone interface. PMID:18848699

  8. Determination of high temperature strains using a PC based vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneill, Stephen R.; Sutton, Michael A.; Russell, Samuel S.

    1992-01-01

    With the widespread availability of video digitizers and cheap personal computers, the use of computer vision as an experimental tool is becoming common place. These systems are being used to make a wide variety of measurements that range from simple surface characterization to velocity profiles. The Sub-Pixel Digital Image Correlation technique has been developed to measure full field displacement and gradients of the surface of an object subjected to a driving force. The technique has shown its utility by measuring the deformation and movement of objects that range from simple translation to fluid velocity profiles to crack tip deformation of solid rocket fuel. This technique has recently been improved and used to measure the surface displacement field of an object at high temperature. The development of a PC based Sub-Pixel Digital Image Correlation system has yielded an accurate and easy to use system for measuring surface displacements and gradients. Experiments have been performed to show the system is viable for measuring thermal strain.

  9. Composite tube and plate manufacturing repeatability as determined by precision measurements of thermal strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Lenn A.; Tucker, James R.; Bluth, A. Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Composite materials often carry the reputation of demonstrating high variability in critical material properties. The JWST telescope metering structure is fabricated of several thousand separate composite piece parts. The stringent dimensional stability requirements on the metering structure require the critical thermal strain response of every composite piece be verified either at the billet or piece part level. JWST is a unique composite space structure in that it has required the manufacturing of several hundred composite billets that cover many lots of prepreg and many years of fabrication. The flight billet thermal expansion acceptance criteria limits the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a tolerance ranging between +/-0.014 ppm/K to +/-0.04 ppm/K around a prescribed nominal when measured from 293 K down to 40 K. The different tolerance values represent different material forms including flat plates and different tube cross-section dimensions. A precision measurement facility was developed that could measure at the required accuracy and at a pace that supported the composite part fabrication rate. The test method and facility is discussed and the results of a statistical process analysis of the flight composite billets are surveyed.

  10. Determination of the infectious titer and virulence of an original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus PC22A strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinsheng; Lin, Chun-Ming; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Zhongyan; Esseili, Malak A; Jung, Kwonil; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-01-01

    The infectious dose of a virus pool of original US PEDV strain PC22A was determined in 4-day-old, cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) piglets. The median pig diarrhea dose (PDD50) of the virus pool was determined as 7.35 log10 PDD50/mL, similar to the cell culture infectious titer, 7.75 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. 100 PDD50 caused watery diarrhea in all conventional suckling piglets (n = 12) derived from a PEDV-naive sow, whereas 1000 and 10 000 PDD50 did not cause diarrhea in piglets derived from two PEDV-field exposed-recovered sows. This information is important for future PEDV challenge studies and validation of PEDV vaccines. PMID:26408019

  11. The relationship between constraint and ductile fracture initiation as defined by micromechanical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Panontin, T.L.; Sheppard, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study is to provide a proven methodology to allow the transfer of ductile fracture initiation properties measured in standard laboratory specimens to large, complex, flawed structures. A significant part of this work involved specifically addressing the effects of constrain on transferability under large scale yielding conditions. The approach taken was to quantify constrain effects through micromechanical fracture models coupled with finite element generated crack tip stress-strain fields to identify the local condition corresponding to fracture initiation. Detailed finite element models predicted the influence of specimen geometry, loading mode, and material flow properties on the crack tip fields. The ability of two local, ductile fracture models (the Rice and Tracey void growth model (VGM) and the stress-modified, critical strain (SMCS) criterion of Mackenzie et al. and Hancock and Cowling) to predict fracture initiation were investigated. Predictions were made using experimentally verified, two- and three-dimensional, finite strain, large deformation, finite element analyses. Two, high toughness pressure vessel steels were investigated: A516 Gr70, a ferritic, carbon-manganese mild steel demonstrating high hardening behavior, and HY-80, a martensitic, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel possessing medium hardening ability. Experimental verification of the ductile fracture initiation predictions was performed in a variety of crack geometries possessing a range of a/w ratios from 0.15 to 0.70 and experiencing a range of load conditions from three point bending to nearly pure tension. The predicted constrain dependence of global ductile fracture parameters in the two materials is shown.

  12. Micromechanical Modeling of Impact Damage Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenqing

    2016-05-01

    Composite laminates are susceptible to the transverse impact loads resulting in significant damage such as matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delamination. In this paper, a micromechanical model is developed to predict the impact damage of composite laminates based on microstructure and various failure models of laminates. The fiber and matrix are represented by the isotropic and elastic-plastic solid, and their impact failure behaviors are modeled based on shear damage model. The delaminaton failure is modeling by the interface element controlled by cohesive damage model. Impact damage mechanisms of laminate are analyzed by using the micromechanical model proposed. In addition, the effects of impact energy and laminated type on impact damage behavior of laminates are investigated. Due to the damage of the surrounding matrix near the impact point caused by the fiber deformation, the surface damage area of laminate is larger than the area of ​​impact projectile. The shape of the damage area is roughly rectangle or elliptical with the major axis extending parallel to the fiber direction in the surface layer of laminate. The alternating laminated type with two fiber directions is more propitious to improve the impact resistance of laminates.

  13. Probabilistic Micromechanics and Macromechanics for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Shah, Ashwin R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are known to display a considerable amount of scatter due to variations in fiber/matrix properties, interphase properties, interphase bonding, amount of matrix voids, and many geometry- or fabrication-related parameters, such as ply thickness and ply orientation. This paper summarizes preliminary studies in which formal probabilistic descriptions of the material-behavior- and fabrication-related parameters were incorporated into micromechanics and macromechanics for CMC'S. In this process two existing methodologies, namely CMC micromechanics and macromechanics analysis and a fast probability integration (FPI) technique are synergistically coupled to obtain the probabilistic composite behavior or response. Preliminary results in the form of cumulative probability distributions and information on the probability sensitivities of the response to primitive variables for a unidirectional silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) CMC are presented. The cumulative distribution functions are computed for composite moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, and longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. The variations in the constituent properties that directly affect these composite properties are accounted for via assumed probabilistic distributions. Collectively, the results show that the present technique provides valuable information about the composite properties and sensitivity factors, which is useful to design or test engineers. Furthermore, the present methodology is computationally more efficient than a standard Monte-Carlo simulation technique; and the agreement between the two solutions is excellent, as shown via select examples.

  14. Virtual mass effect in dynamic micromechanical mass sensing in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiker, P.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2016-06-01

    Weighing individual micro- or nanoscale particles in solution using dynamic micromechanical sensors is quite challenging: viscous losses dramatically degrade the sensor's performance by both broadening the resonance peak and increasing the effective total mass of the resonator by the dragged liquid. While the virtual mass of the resonator was discussed frequently, little attention has been paid to the virtual mass of particles attached to the resonator's surface and its impact on the accuracy of mass sensing. By means of the in situ detection of a polystyrene microbead in water using a bridge-based microresonator, we demonstrate that the virtual mass of the bead significantly affects the observed frequency shift. In fact, 55 % of the frequency shift was caused by the virtual mass of the adsorbed bead, predicted by Stoke's theory. Based on the observed shift in the resonator's quality factor during particle adsorption, we confirm this significant effect of the virtual mass. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the mass of a single adsorbed particle is strongly diminished if dynamic micromechanical sensors are operated in a liquid environment.

  15. Rapid CMT determination through the joint inversion of GPS and strain data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Bilham, R. G.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    The success of recent efforts to rapidly determine centroid moment tensors of large earthquakes (M>6.5) using geodetic data (Melgar et. al. 2011, Crowell et. al. 2012) has opened up a new area of outreach with the potential to enhance early warning systems and emergency response planning. It would be beneficial to expand these efforts to volcanic activity, but because earthquakes associated with eruptions tend to be smaller, the rapid assessment of centroid moment tensors is limited by noise in the data. Joint inversion of GPS, strainmeter and tiltmeter data potentially provides an enhanced method to determine centroid moments to lower magnitudes. Geodetic instrumentation tends to surround a volcano and hence the inversions care potentially well constrained. We present an algorithm to determine the moment tensors and centroid location of M≈5 earthquakes based on the joint inversions of GPS and borehole strainmeter data. We show that the inversions can be undertaken in near real time. We explore the relative weighting of the data based on instrument characteristics, SNR, event magnitude and distance to achieve optimal inversions and compare the results with seismically determined moment tensors and earthquake location. By simultaneously analyzing data from multiple monitoring systems we will improve our understanding of earthquake characteristics in volcanic settings. Using many different instruments and tools is beneficial in tectonic regions where typically not all types of monitoring systems are available either spatially or temporally due to difficult access, instrument failure or network outages.

  16. The structure and micromechanics of elastic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Green, Ellen M.; Mansfield, Jessica C.; Bell, James S.; Winlove, C. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elastin is a major component of tissues such as lung and blood vessels, and endows them with the long-range elasticity necessary for their physiological functions. Recent research has revealed the complexity of these elastin structures and drawn attention to the existence of extensive networks of fine elastin fibres in tissues such as articular cartilage and the intervertebral disc. Nonlinear microscopy, allowing the visualization of these structures in living tissues, is informing analysis of their mechanical properties. Elastic fibres are complex in composition and structure containing, in addition to elastin, an array of microfibrillar proteins, principally fibrillin. Raman microspectrometry and X-ray scattering have provided new insights into the mechanisms of elasticity of the individual component proteins at the molecular and fibrillar levels, but more remains to be done in understanding their mechanical interactions in composite matrices. Elastic tissue is one of the most stable components of the extracellular matrix, but impaired mechanical function is associated with ageing and diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. Efforts to understand these associations through studying the effects of processes such as calcium and lipid binding and glycation on the mechanical properties of elastin preparations in vitro have produced a confusing picture, and further efforts are required to determine the molecular basis of such effects. PMID:24748954

  17. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), also known as brine shrimp, are typical inhabitants of extreme environments. These hypersaline environments vary considerably in their physicochemical composition, and even their climatic conditions and elevation. Several thalassohaline (marine) environments along the Colombian Caribbean coast were surveyed in order to contribute to the knowledge of brine shrimp biotopes in South America by determining some vital biological and physicochemical parameters for Artemia survival. Additionally, cyst quality tests, biometrical and essential fatty acids analysis were performed to evaluate the economic viability of some of these strains for the aquaculture industry. Results In addition to the three locations (Galerazamba, Manaure, and Pozos Colorados) reported in the literature three decades ago in the Colombian Caribbean, six new locations were registered (Salina Cero, Kangaru, Tayrona, Bahía Hondita, Warrego and Pusheo). All habitats sampled showed that chloride was the prevailing anion, as expected, because of their thalassohaline origin. There were significant differences in cyst diameter grouping strains in the following manner according to this parameter: 1) San Francisco Bay (SFB-Control, USA), 2) Galerazamba and Tayrona, 3) Kangarú, 4) Manaure, and 5) Salina Cero and Pozos Colorados. Chorion thickness values were smaller in Tayrona, followed by Salina Cero, Galerazamba, Manaure, SFB, Kangarú and Pozos Colorados. There were significant differences in naupliar size, grouping strains as follows (smallest to largest): 1) Galerazamba, 2) Manaure, 3) SFB, Kangarú, and Salina Cero, 4) Pozos Colorados, and 5) Tayrona. Overall, cyst quality analysis conducted on samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, and Salina Cero revealed that all sites exhibited a relatively high number of cysts.g-1. Essential fatty acids (EFA) analysis performed on nauplii from cyst samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona revealed that cysts

  18. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus in order to determine the spread of drug resistant strains inside and outside hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Pobiega, Monika; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important etiological factors of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus is frequently isolated nowadays. Antibiotics used on the hospital ward exert a selective pressure on the strains and favor resistant strains. Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent strains can spread not only within the hospital but also between hospitals. Numerous studies show a predominance of one clone on a specific territory. The spread of such dangerous clones to neighboring countries and the entire continent is possible. Typing methods are very useful in infection control and prevention. Modern methods which are based on sequencing are necessary in rationalizing of infection control programs. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus includes methods that allow to determine the spread of drug-resistant pathogens. 'Gold standard' is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which relies on separating the DNA fragments after restriction cutting. MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) is based on a comparison of"housekeeping" gene sequences controlling the basic cell functions. With the MLST method, it is possible to demonstrate a broad, international spread of the specific clones. However, for epidemiological investigations, MLST seems to be too time-consuming and expensive to be used as a basic typing tool. The complementary method is spa typing, based on the sequencing of short repetitive sequences of the polymorphic X region from the gene encoding protein A. This method can be used for studying molecular evolution of S. aureus, as well as for testing for hospital outbreaks. It is faster and cheaper than MLST. It is also necessary to subtype the elements responsible for methycillin resistance (SCCmec), which allows to distinguish MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) clones with a common ancestor, but different epidemiological origin. All of those methods have their specific advantages and disadvantages and

  19. Diversity and specificity of Frankia strains in nodules of sympatric Myrica gale, Alnus incana, and Shepherdia canadensis determined by rrs gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Huguet, V; Batzli, J M; Zimpfer, J F; Normand, P; Dawson, J O; Fernandez, M P

    2001-05-01

    The identity of Frankia strains from nodules of Myrica gale, Alnus incana subsp. rugosa, and Shepherdia canadensis was determined for a natural stand on a lake shore sand dune in Wisconsin, where the three actinorhizal plant species were growing in close proximity, and from two additional stands with M. gale as the sole actinorhizal component. Unisolated strains were compared by their 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction patterns using a direct PCR amplification protocol on nodules. Phylogenetic relationships among nodular Frankia strains were analyzed by comparing complete 16S rDNA sequences of study and reference strains. Where the three actinorhizal species occurred together, each host species was nodulated by a different phylogenetic group of Frankia strains. M. gale strains from all three sites belonged to an Alnus-Casuarina group, closely related to Frankia alni representative strains, and were low in diversity for a host genus considered promiscuous with respect to Frankia microsymbiont genotype. Frankia strains from A. incana nodules were also within the Alnus-Casuarina cluster, distinct from Frankia strains of M. gale nodules at the mixed actinorhizal site but not from Frankia strains from two M. gale nodules at a second site in Wisconsin. Frankia strains from nodules of S. canadensis belonged to a divergent subset of a cluster of Elaeagnaceae-infective strains and exhibited a high degree of diversity. The three closely related local Frankia populations in Myrica nodules could be distinguished from one another using our approach. In addition to geographic separation and host selectivity for Frankia microsymbionts, edaphic factors such as soil moisture and organic matter content, which varied among locales, may account for differences in Frankia populations found in Myrica nodules. PMID:11319089

  20. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, H. L.; Zheng, L. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, N.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, G. Y.; Ren, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-06-01

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress-strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic-elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic-plastic, and plastic-plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric information (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.

  1. Micromechanical analysis on tensile modulus of structured magneto-rheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. W.; Li, R.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X. J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposed a micromechanical model to investigate the tensile modulus of structured magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) to understand its anisotropic properties. A three parameter representative volume element (RVE) model was presented to describe the microscopic structure, where particles could be organized in layer-like or chain-like structure. And the tensile modulus is defined as a ratio of stress to strain in the stretched direction. We then applied effective medium theory to derive a theoretical model for the modulus of MRE in the absence of magnetic field, considering the influence of particles configuration and volume fraction. In addition, the effect of magnetic field on magneto-induced stress inside MRE is evaluated to further establish a multi-scale model which explains the magneto-rheological effect of structured MRE. The proposed model was then compared with finite element analysis and ‘free energy’ model. It demonstrated that the proposed model match better with the finite element solutions than that of ‘free energy’ method. The advantage of the proposed model is that it couples the magnetic field and displacement field, and considers the influence of both particles spatial energy and the relative position on magneto-rheological effect. The stiffer or softer of MREs induced by an applied magnetic field under tensile stress is predicted that is conformed to previous studies.

  2. Digital image correlation and infrared measurements to determine the influence of a uniaxial pre-strain on fatigue properties of a dual phase steel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, R.; Doudard, C.; Calloch, S.; Weber, B.

    2010-06-01

    The high cycle fatigue (HCF) is a major element for a great design of automotive parts. A wide part of the steel sheets for the automotive industry are stamped, sometimes deeply. During this operation, the steel is plastically strained in different directions, so that a good prediction of the fatigue behavior requires the determination of the fatigue properties of the pre-strained material. Nowadays, the evolution of HCF properties is often neglected, because of prohibitive time dedicated to traditional fatigue campaigns. To reduce the characterization time, self-heating measurements are used. This approach permits to identify the influence of homogeneous pre-strain on fatigue properties. The aim of this paper is to develop an original experimental test to identify this influence for a wide range of pre-strain with only one specimen. The study of a particular case of specimen with a constant gradient of pre-strain is presented. Digital image correlation is a way to determine the heterogeneity of the plastic pre-strain on the specimen and infrared measurements with a ”1D” approach allows the determination of the influence of a plastic pre-strain on the fatigue properties of the studied steel.

  3. Methods for detecting formation mechanisms and determining a final strain value for different scales of folded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Fedor L.

    2012-03-01

    Linear folding, developing in fold and thrust belts, is treated as a hierarchic system, at each level of which objects are described by special kinematic models. Geometric parameters of natural folded structures are determined by a combination of various mechanisms incorporated in the model, and a value of finite strain. Several case studies demonstrate how such data enables one to solve structural and geodynamic problems for natural objects of different size. Shortening value of two morphological types of folds is determined based on the geometry of competent layers. Application of the method to analyze the folds of the Vorontsov nappe (Greater Caucasus) determines its gravitational origin. Structural cross-sections though several tectonic zones are subdivided into relatively small domains, the geometry of which, particularly in thin-bedded flysch deposits, making it possible to identify the mechanisms of formation of both local and large structures, and also to reconstruct the pre-folded state of each domain and of the entire cross-sections. By aggregation of tectonic domains into large modules and determination of the value of shortening, we have constructed for the first time a 3D model of the present-day structure of the northwestern Caucasus, which is balanced for the whole sedimentary cover. The geometry of large structures makes it possible to validate geodynamic models.

  4. Structural geology meets micromechanics: A self-consistent model for the multiscale deformation and fabric development in Earth's ductile lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2014-11-01

    Earth's lithosphere is made of rheologically heterogeneous elements of a wide range of characteristic lengths. A micromechanics-based self-consistent MultiOrder Power-Law Approach is presented to account for lithospheric deformations and the accompanying multiscale fabric development. The approach is principally based on the extended Eshelby theory for the motion of a power-law viscous ellipsoid in a power-law viscous matrix and the idea of embedding inhomogeneities within inhomogeneities. The extended theory provides a general means for investigating deformation partitioning in heterogeneous rocks. The “inhomogeneities within inhomogeneities” method allows multi-hierarchical levels of flow field partitioning and hence multiscale deformations to be investigated. Partitioned flow fields are used to investigate fabric development. Being based fully on micromechanics, the approach generates model predictions of both kinematic quantities (strain, strain rates, and vorticity) and stress histories. The former can be directly compared with field and laboratory structural observations while the latter can help to understand the physics of natural deformations. The self-consistent and multiscale approach is applied to a natural example of the Cascade Lake shear zone in the east Sierra Nevada of California. The modeling shows that the fabrics are most consistent with a steeply-dipping transpression zone with a convergence angle of 20° and a strike-slip displacement about 26 km. Further, the strength evolution of the model zone confirms that a transpression zone is a weakening system with respect to the simple shearing component and a hardening one for the pure-shearing component. This is consistent with slip partitioning in obliquely convergent plate boundaries: boundary-normal convergence tends to spread over a broad area whereas boundary-parallel shear tends to localize in major strike-slip zones.

  5. Simplified composite micromechanics equations for strength, fracture toughness and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set includes composite micromechanics equations for predicting: (1) ply in-plane uniaxial strengths; (2) through-the-thickness strength (interlaminar and flexural); (3) in-plane fracture toughness; (4) in-plane impact resistance; and (5) through-the-thickness (interlaminar and flexural) impact resistance. Equations are also included for predicting the hygrothermal effects on strength, fracture toughness and impact resistance. Several numerical examples are worked out to illustrate the ease of use of the various composite micromechanics equations.

  6. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  7. A method to determine the duration of the eclipse phase for in vitro infection with a highly pathogenic SHIV strain

    PubMed Central

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Shinji; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.; Morita, Satoru; Mori, Hiromi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Miura, Tomoyuki; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The time elapsed between successful cell infection and the start of virus production is called the eclipse phase. Its duration is specific to each virus strain and, along with an effective virus production rate, plays a key role in infection kinetics. How the eclipse phase varies amongst cells infected with the same virus strain and therefore how best to mathematically represent its duration is not clear. Most mathematical models either neglect this phase or assume it is exponentially distributed, such that at least some if not all cells can produce virus immediately upon infection. Biologically, this is unrealistic (one must allow for the translation, transcription, export, etc. to take place), but could be appropriate if the duration of the eclipse phase is negligible on the time-scale of the infection. If it is not, however, ignoring this delay affects the accuracy of the mathematical model, its parameter estimates, and predictions. Here, we introduce a new approach, consisting in a carefully designed experiment and simple analytical expressions, to determine the duration and distribution of the eclipse phase in vitro. We find that the eclipse phase of SHIV-KS661 lasts on average one day and is consistent with an Erlang distribution. PMID:25996439

  8. Micromechanical Behavior of Solid-Solution-Strengthened Mg-1wt.%Al Alloy Investigated by In-Situ Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sooyeol; Woo, Wanchuck; Gharghouri, Michael; Yoon, Cheol; An, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In-situ neutron-diffraction experiments were employed to investigate the micromechanical behavior of solid-solution-strengthened Mg-1wt.%Al alloy. Two starting textures were used: 1) as-extruded then solutionized texture, T1, in which the basal poles of most grains are tilted around 70~85 from the extrusion axis, and 2) a reoriented texture, T2, in which the basal poles of most grains are tilted around 10~20 from the extrusion axis. Lattice strains and diffraction peak intensity variations were measured in situ during loading-unloading cycles in uniaxial tension. Twinning activities and stress states for various grain orientations were revealed. The results show that the soft grain orientations, favorably oriented for either extension twinning or basal slip, exhibit the stress relaxation, resulting in the compressive residual strain after unloading. On the other hand, the hard grain orientations, unfavorably oriented for both extension twinning and basal slip, carry more applied load, leading to much higher lattice strains during loading followed by tensile residual strains upon unloading.

  9. Intershell Interaction in a Double Wall Carbon Nanotube with Determined Chiral Indices under a Torsional Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Letian; Cui, Taoran; Washburn, Sean; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-03-01

    We have used a double wall carbon nanotube to build a torsional pendulum. The nanotube worked as a torsional bearing for a metal block. An external electric field was used to rotate the metal block to cause a fully elastic torsional deformation on the nanotube. Nano-beam electron diffraction patterns were taken before and while the nanotube was twisted. By analysis of the shift of the diffraction patterns, we were able to determine the nanotube chiral indices and measure the inner-shell torisonal responses to the torsional stress applied on the outer-shell. The inter-shell interactions and nanotube shear modulus were also calculated and discussed in connection to the theoretical estimations.

  10. Influence of copper resistance determinants on gold transformation by Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Nicole; Mohr, Juliane; Grosse, Cornelia; Herzberg, Martin; Hause, Gerd; Reith, Frank; Nies, Dietrich H

    2013-05-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans is associated with gold grains and may be involved in their formation. Gold(III) complexes influence the transcriptome of C. metallidurans (F. Reith et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17757-17762, 2009), leading to the upregulation of genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and metal ions. In a systematic study, the involvement of these systems in gold transformation was investigated. Treatment of C. metallidurans cells with Au(I) complexes, which occur in this organism's natural environment, led to the upregulation of genes similar to those observed for treatment with Au(III) complexes. The two indigenous plasmids of C. metallidurans, which harbor several transition metal resistance determinants, were not involved in resistance to Au(I/III) complexes nor in their transformation to metallic nanoparticles. Upregulation of a cupA-lacZ fusion by the MerR-type regulator CupR with increasing Au(III) concentrations indicated the presence of gold ions in the cytoplasm. A hypothesis stating that the Gig system detoxifies gold complexes by the uptake and reduction of Au(III) to Au(I) or Au(0) reminiscent to detoxification of Hg(II) was disproven. ZupT and other secondary uptake systems for transition metal cations influenced Au(III) resistance but not the upregulation of the cupA-lacZ fusion. The two copper-exporting P-type ATPases CupA and CopF were also not essential for gold resistance. The copABCD determinant on chromosome 2, which encodes periplasmic proteins involved in copper resistance, was required for full gold resistance in C. metallidurans. In conclusion, biomineralization of gold particles via the reduction of mobile Au(I/III) complexes in C. metallidurans appears to primarily occur in the periplasmic space via copper-handling systems. PMID:23475973

  11. Influence of Copper Resistance Determinants on Gold Transformation by Cupriavidus metallidurans Strain CH34

    PubMed Central

    Wiesemann, Nicole; Mohr, Juliane; Grosse, Cornelia; Herzberg, Martin; Hause, Gerd; Reith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans is associated with gold grains and may be involved in their formation. Gold(III) complexes influence the transcriptome of C. metallidurans (F. Reith et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17757–17762, 2009), leading to the upregulation of genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and metal ions. In a systematic study, the involvement of these systems in gold transformation was investigated. Treatment of C. metallidurans cells with Au(I) complexes, which occur in this organism's natural environment, led to the upregulation of genes similar to those observed for treatment with Au(III) complexes. The two indigenous plasmids of C. metallidurans, which harbor several transition metal resistance determinants, were not involved in resistance to Au(I/III) complexes nor in their transformation to metallic nanoparticles. Upregulation of a cupA-lacZ fusion by the MerR-type regulator CupR with increasing Au(III) concentrations indicated the presence of gold ions in the cytoplasm. A hypothesis stating that the Gig system detoxifies gold complexes by the uptake and reduction of Au(III) to Au(I) or Au(0) reminiscent to detoxification of Hg(II) was disproven. ZupT and other secondary uptake systems for transition metal cations influenced Au(III) resistance but not the upregulation of the cupA-lacZ fusion. The two copper-exporting P-type ATPases CupA and CopF were also not essential for gold resistance. The copABCD determinant on chromosome 2, which encodes periplasmic proteins involved in copper resistance, was required for full gold resistance in C. metallidurans. In conclusion, biomineralization of gold particles via the reduction of mobile Au(I/III) complexes in C. metallidurans appears to primarily occur in the periplasmic space via copper-handling systems. PMID:23475973

  12. [Investigation of pathogenic phenotypes and virulence determinants of food-borne Salmonella enterica strains in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Deniz; Şen, Ece

    2015-10-01

    Salmonellosis, caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars with the consumption of contaminated food, is one of the leading food-borne disease that makes microbial food safety an important public health issue. This study was performed in order to determine the antibiotic resistance, serotyping, plasmid profiles and pathogenicity potentials of food-borne Salmonella isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model system in Edirne province, located at Thrace region of Turkey. In this study, 32 Salmonella isolates, of which 26 belonged to Infantis, four to Enteritidis, one to Telaviv and one to Kentucky serovars, isolated from chicken carcasses were used. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A new C.elegans nematode animal model system was used to determine the pathogenicity potential of the isolates. The antibiotic resistance profiles revealed that one (3.1%) isolate was resistant to gentamicin, two (6.2%) to ciprofloxacin, three (9.4%) to ampicillin, 18 (56.3%) to kanamycin, 19 (60.8%) to neomycin, 25 (78.1%) to tetracycline, 25 (78.1%) to trimethoprim, 26 (81.25%) to nalidixic acid, 27 (84.4%) to streptomycin and 32 (100%) to sulfonamide. All of the 32 strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ampicillin/sulbactam. High levels of resistance to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfonamide, kanamycin and neomycin was determined. According to the plasmid analysis, six isolates (18.75%) harboured 1-3 plasmids with sizes between 1.2 and 42.4 kb. In C.elegans nematode animal model system, the time (in days) required to kill 50% (TD50) of nematodes was calculated for each experimental group. TD50 values of the nematode group fed with S.Typhimurium ATCC 14028 that was used as the positive control and another group fed with E.coli OP50 as the negative control were 4.2 ± 0.5 days and 8.0 ± 0.02 days, respectively. TD50 of the groups fed with Salmonella isolates ranged

  13. In-Situ Micromechanical Testing in Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupinacci, Amanda Sofia

    In order to design engineering applications that can withstand extreme environments, we must first understand the underlying deformation mechanisms that can hinder material performance. It is not enough to characterize the mechanical properties alone, we must also characterize the microstructural changes as well so that we can understand the origin of material degradation. This dissertation focuses on two different extreme environments. The first environment is the cryogenic environment, where we focus on the deformation behavior of solder below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The second environment is the irradiated environment, where we focus on the effects that ion beam irradiation has on both the mechanical properties and microstructure of 304 stainless steel. Both classes of materials and testing environments utilize novel in situ micromechanical testing techniques inside a scanning electron microscope which enhances our ability to link the observed deformation behavior with its associated mechanical response. Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the DBTT is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at -142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity while at -142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (100) orientation and a non-symmetric (45¯1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations. This approach was also extended to a more complex solder alloy that is commonly used in industry, Sn96. In the case of the solder alloy more complex geometries

  14. Formation of Sr adatom chains on SrTiO3 (1 1 0) surface determined by strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan; Li, Fengmiao; Wang, Weihua; Yang, Hao; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr adatoms on the SrTiO3 (1 1 0)-(4  ×  1) reconstructed surface with Ti2O3 vacancies distributed in a superstructure is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. With the adsorption amount increasing, all the Sr adatoms between adjacent Ti2O3 vacancies are closely packed along the quasi-1D stripes on the surface with a uniform separation from each other. The formation of such adatom chains is determined by the surface strain relief—the local lattice relaxations in response to Sr adatoms and Ti2O3 vacancies are incompatible, leading to the strong repulsive interaction between them. Consequently the distribution of Sr chains follows the long-range order of the growth template with their length tunable in a certain range by evaporation amount.

  15. Formation of Sr adatom chains on SrTiO3 (1 1 0) surface determined by strain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Li, Fengmiao; Wang, Weihua; Yang, Hao; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-09-14

    The adsorption behavior of Sr adatoms on the SrTiO3 (1 1 0)-(4  ×  1) reconstructed surface with Ti2O3 vacancies distributed in a superstructure is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. With the adsorption amount increasing, all the Sr adatoms between adjacent Ti2O3 vacancies are closely packed along the quasi-1D stripes on the surface with a uniform separation from each other. The formation of such adatom chains is determined by the surface strain relief-the local lattice relaxations in response to Sr adatoms and Ti2O3 vacancies are incompatible, leading to the strong repulsive interaction between them. Consequently the distribution of Sr chains follows the long-range order of the growth template with their length tunable in a certain range by evaporation amount. PMID:27390937

  16. Micromechanics based simulation of ductile fracture in structural steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellavajjala, Ravi Kiran

    The broader aim of this research is to develop fundamental understanding of ductile fracture process in structural steels, propose robust computational models to quantify the associated damage, and provide numerical tools to simplify the implementation of these computational models into general finite element framework. Mechanical testing on different geometries of test specimens made of ASTM A992 steels is conducted to experimentally characterize the ductile fracture at different stress states under monotonic and ultra-low cycle fatigue (ULCF) loading. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the fractured surfaces is conducted to decipher the underlying microscopic damage mechanisms that cause fracture in ASTM A992 steels. Detailed micromechanical analyses for monotonic and cyclic loading are conducted to understand the influence of stress triaxiality and Lode parameter on the void growth phase of ductile fracture. Based on monotonic analyses, an uncoupled micromechanical void growth model is proposed to predict ductile fracture. This model is then incorporated in to finite element program as a weakly coupled model to simulate the loss of load carrying capacity in the post microvoid coalescence regime for high triaxialities. Based on the cyclic analyses, an uncoupled micromechanics based cyclic void growth model is developed to predict the ULCF life of ASTM A992 steels subjected to high stress triaxialities. Furthermore, a computational fracture locus for ASTM A992 steels is developed and incorporated in to finite element program as an uncoupled ductile fracture model. This model can be used to predict the ductile fracture initiation under monotonic loading in a wide range of triaxiality and Lode parameters. Finally, a coupled microvoid elongation and dilation based continuum damage model is proposed, implemented, calibrated and validated. This model is capable of simulating the local softening caused by the various phases of ductile fracture process under

  17. EDITORIAL: 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoksson, Professor Peter

    2006-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005), which was held in Göteborg, Sweden, at the Chalmers Conference Centre on the premises of Chalmers University of Technology, 4-6 September 2005. Göteborg is the second largest city in Sweden and is situated on the beautiful south-west coast. With its relaxed and friendly atmosphere Göteborg proudly lives up to its reputation of having the charm of a small town with all the opportunities of a big city. The MME workshop is a well recognized and established European event for creating microsensors and microactuators in the field of micromachining, microengineering and technology. The very first workshop was held at Twente University, The Netherlands, in 1989. Scientists and people from industry who are interested in the field gather annually for this event. The goals are stimulation and improvement of know-how in the field, as well as establishing cooperation and friendship between delegates. Thus MME is arranged so that people can meet in a friendly and informal atmosphere. That is why the accent is on mutual discussions around poster presentations rather than on formal oral presentations. The contributions, which came from 21 countries, were presented in four sessions and five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 24 high-quality papers from MME 2005 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. Each paper passed a rigorous peer review process. May I take this opportunity to thank those authors who contributed their research to this special issue, which I hope gives an excellent overview of topics discussed at the workshop. I would also like to express my gratitude to Professor Robert Puers for advising on the selection of papers and to Dr Anke Sanz-Velasco for helping to coordinate the special issue with the Institute of Physics Publishing office at the start. I hope you

  18. An Expanding Plug Test Method for Determining Hoop Stress-Strain Curves of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Spellman, Donald J; Merkle, John Graham; Sham, Sam; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2009-01-01

    A method, referred to as the expanding plug test method, for determining the roomtemperature hoop stress-strain curves of irradiated nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile strength and ductility in the hoop direction of clad material irradiated to high neutron fluences. The test utilizes an incompressible plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. An auxiliary compression test of the plug alone is also performed. Using these two sets of data, a procedure was developed to determine the hoop stress in the clad specimen. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test method to determine stressstrain curves in the hoop direction of irradiated clad specimens represents a significant advancement in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. This paper will present an overview of the expanding plug testing technique and will discuss tests performed on irradiated clad specimens to date.

  19. Micromechanics-Based Continuum Constitutive Modeling of Isotropic Non-Cohesive Particulate Materials, Informed and Validated by the Discrete Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Jonathan A.

    We apply homogenization methods from the field of micromechanics to obtain the macroscale effective elastic moduli and the macroscale effective material friction angle for a statistically isotropic non-cohesive particulate material, such as gravel, sand, or powder, in terms of the microscale properties of the particulate material, such as the inter-particle normal and tangential contact stiffnesses (which can be derived from the mechanical properties of the material constituting the individual particles in the particulate material), the inter-particle static friction coefficient, and the geometric properties of the local particle packing structure. In this way, we obtain macroscale information that can be used in elastoplastic continuum constitutive models for general statistically isotropic non-cohesive particulate materials, based on micromechanics. All of our theoretical results are informed and validated by numerical simulations of quasi-static true triaxial and simple shear tests on multiple randomly packed material specimens of roughly 3,000-30,000 spherical particles, performed using the discrete element method (DEM). Using the discrete element method, and performing simulations with particle rotation either allowed or prohibited, we are able to isolate the effect of particle rotation in a particulate material in both the elastic and plastic ranges. Our theoretical analyses improve previous theoretical analyses in the literature, which are typically based on the principle of minimum potential energy, and are thus unable to capture the effects of mechanisms or zero-energy strains due to particle rotation in a particulate material. In contrast, our direct micromechanics derivations are based on force and moment equilibrium for individual particles, and are thus able to capture the effects of mechanisms or zero-energy strains due to particle rotation in a particulate material. We prove, both analytically and by our discrete element simulations, that mechanisms

  20. Determining Recoverable and Irrecoverable Contributions to Accumulated Strain in a NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy During Thermomechanical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, J. A.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Bigelow, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S., II

    2011-01-01

    When Ni(29.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30 shape memory alloy is thermally cycled under stress, significant strain can accumulate due to elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and plasticity. The strain due to remnant martensite can be recovered by further thermal cycling under 0 MPa until the original transformation-induced volume change and martensite coefficient of thermal expansion are obtained. Using this technique, it was determined that the 8.15% total accumulated strain after cycling under 200 MPa consisted of 0.38%, 3.97% and 3.87% for elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and creep/plasticity, respectively.

  1. Micromechanical processes of frictional aging and the affect of shear stress on fault healing: insights from material characterization and ultrasonic velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    During the seismic cycle, faults repeatedly fail and regain strength. The gradual strength recovery is often referred to as frictional healing, and existing works suggest that healing can play an important role in determining the mode of fault slip ranging from dynamic rupture to slow earthquakes. Laboratory studies can play an important role in identifying the processes of frictional healing and their evolution with shear strain during the seismic cycle. These studies also provide data for laboratory-derived friction constitutive laws, which can improve dynamic earthquake models. Previous work shows that frictional healing varies with shear stress on a fault during the interseismic period. Unfortunately, the micromechanical processes that cause shear stress dependent frictional healing are not well understood and cannot be incorporated into current earthquake models. In fault gouge, frictional healing involves compaction and particle rearrangement within sheared granular layers. Therefore, to address these issues, we investigate the role grain size reduction plays in frictional re-strengthening processes at different levels of shear stress. Sample material was preserved from biaxial deformation experiments on granular Westerly granite. The normal stress was held constant at 25 MPa and we performed several 100 second slide-hold-slide tests in each experiment. We conducted a series of 5 experiments each with a different value of normalized shear stress (ranging from 0 to 1), defined as the ratio of the pre-hold shear stress to the shear stress during the hold. The particle size distribution for each sample was analyzed. In addition, acoustic measurements were recorded throughout our experiments to investigate variations in ultrasonic velocity and signal amplitude that reflect changes in the elastic moduli of the layer. Acoustic monitoring provides information about healing mechanisms and can provide a link between laboratory studies and tectonic fault zones.

  2. Micromechanics thermal stress analysis of composites for space structure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents results from a finite element micromechanics analysis of thermally induced stresses in composites at cryogenic temperatures typical of spacecraft operating environments. The influence of microstructural geometry, constituent and interphase properties, and laminate orientation were investigated. Stress field results indicated that significant matrix stresses occur in composites exposed to typical spacecraft thermal excursions; these stresses varied with laminate orientation and circumferential position around the fiber. The major difference in the predicted response of unidirectional and multidirectional laminates was the presence of tensile radial stresses, at the fiber/matrix interface, in multidirectional laminates with off-axis ply angles greater than 15 deg. The predicted damage initiation temperatures and modes were in good agreement with experimental data for both low (207 GPa) and high (517 GPa) modulus carbon fiber/epoxy composites.

  3. Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.

    1992-12-01

    This special issues on Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior represents an outgrowth of presentations given at a symposium of the same title held at the 1991 ASME Applied Mechanics and Biomechanics Summer Conference at the Ohio State University. The symposium was organized to promote communication between researchers in three materials groups: rock, cementitious materials, ceramics and related composites. The enthusiastic response of both speakers and attendants at the ASME symposium convinced the organizer that it would be useful to put together a coherent volume which can reach a larger audience. It was decided that the papers individually and as a volume ought to provide a broader view, so that as much as possible, the work contained in each paper would be accessible to readers working in any of the three materials groups. Applied Mechanics Reviews presents an appropriate platform for achieving these objectives.

  4. Micromechanics of compaction in an analogue reservoir sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    DIGIOVANNI,ANTHONY A.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; HOLCOMB,DAVID J.; OLSSON,WILLIAM A.

    2000-02-28

    Energy production, deformation, and fluid transport in reservoirs are linked closely. Recent field, laboratory, and theoretical studies suggest that, under certain stress conditions, compaction of porous rocks may be accommodated by narrow zones of localized compressive deformation oriented perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress. Triaxial compression experiments were performed on Castlegate, an analogue reservoir sandstone, that included acoustic emission detection and location. Initially, acoustic emissions were focused in horizontal bands that initiated at the sample ends (perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress), but with continued loading progressed axially towards the center. This paper describes microscopy studies that were performed to elucidate the micromechanics of compaction during the experiments. The microscopy revealed that compaction of this weakly-cemented sandstone proceeded in two phases: an initial stage of porosity decrease accomplished by breakage of grain contacts and grain rotation, and a second stage of further reduction accommodated by intense grain breakage and rotation.

  5. A Label-Free Detection of Biomolecules Using Micromechanical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisam, Omidi; A. Malakoutian, M.; Mohammadmehdi, Choolaei; Oroojalian, F.; Haghiralsadat, F.; Yazdian, F.

    2013-06-01

    A Microcantilevers resonator is used to detect a protein biomarker called prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is associated with prostate cancer. Different concentrations of PSA in a buffer solution are detected as a function of deflection of the beams. For this purpose, we use a surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon micromechanical cantilever beam. Cantilevers have mass sensitivities of the order of 10-17 g/Hz, which result from their small mass. This matter allows them to detect an immobilized antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 70 fg. With these devices, concentrations as low as 150 fg/mL, or 4.5 fM, could be detected from the realistic samples.

  6. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array.

  7. EDITORIAL: 15th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puers, Bob

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is entirely devoted to the fifteenth European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME), which was held in Leuven, at the Faculty Club, 5-7 September 2004. In this issue you will find a selection of papers presented at this workshop. The MME Workshop is organized every year to gather mostly European scientists and people from industry to discuss topics related to micromachining and microengineering in an informal manner. The first workshop was held at Twente University, the Netherlands, in 1989. The success of that event inaugurated a series of workshops traveling all over Europe. Looking back on the fifteen years of micromachining it is evident that the field has become more mature. More application driven research is now replacing the basic pure technology driven research we once got so excited about. Yet, half of the contributions still cover problems related to fabrication, production and reliability. Traditionally, the workshop aims to bring together young scientists in the field, with emphasis on discussions and communications in a friendly and informal atmosphere. The goal is to stimulate and to improve knowledge in the field, as well as to promote friendships between researchers. This edition of the workshop was no different. More than 70 papers were contributed, and it was decided to widen the scope with contributions also covering non-silicon technologies. This trend had already been informally introduced some years ago. After the third edition, it was decided to open up a selection of the contributed papers to a broader public by publishing them in a special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, and this has continued to the present day. Since the purpose of the workshop clearly is to stimulate younger scientists to enter the field, even immature research is presented there. The selection in this issue, however, aims to bring to you the more advanced level research work. Even

  8. Position control system for use with micromechanical actuators

    DOEpatents

    Guckel, Henry; Stiers, Eric W.

    2000-01-01

    A positioning system adapted for use with micromechanical actuators provides feedback control of the position of the movable element of the actuator utilizing a low Q sensing coil. The effective inductance of the sensing coil changes with position of the movable element to change the frequency of oscillation of a variable oscillator. The output of the variable oscillator is compared in a phase detector to a reference oscillator signal. The phase detector provides a pulsed output having a pulse duty cycle related to the phase or frequency difference between the oscillator signals. The output of the phase detector is provided to a drive coil which applies a magnetic force to the movable element which balances the force of a spring. The movable element can be displaced to a new position by changing the frequency of the reference oscillator.

  9. Optical sensors with MEMS, slit masks, and micromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesenberg, Rainer; Wuttig, Andreas

    2001-10-01

    Concepts to increase the performance of optical sensors by combination with optical MEMS are discussed. Architectures of subsystems are reviewed, which modulate or switch the amplitude of the light by scanning, multiplexing and selecting interesting signal components (multi-object-mode). Arrangements with MEMS for optical sensors and instruments can decrease the pixel size and increase their number by creating virtual pixels. A number of signal components can be detected with a smaller number of detectors (detector pixels) by scanning. If the scanning is substituted by multiplexing the best efficiency is achieved. The measurement time can be reduced by selecting interesting objects or signal components to be detected. Architectures which combine single sensors, linear sensor arrays or two dimensional detector arrays with MEMS, slit masks, and micro-mechanical devices are discussed. Such devices are micro-mirrors, micro-shutters, the slit positioning system, the fibre positioning system, and other optical switches.

  10. Micromechanical adhesion force measurements between tetrahydrofuran hydrate particles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Craig J; Dieker, Laura E; Miller, Kelly T; Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy

    2007-02-15

    Adhesion forces between tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate particles in n-decane were measured using an improved micromechanical technique. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 261-275 K. The observed forces and trends were explained by a capillary bridge between the particles. The adhesion force of hydrates was directly proportional to the contact force and contact time. A scoping study examined the effects of temperature, anti-agglomerants, and interfacial energy on the particle adhesion forces. The adhesion force of hydrates was found to be directly proportional to interfacial energy of the surrounding liquid, and to increase with temperature. Both sorbitan monolaurate (Span20) and poly-N-vinyl caprolactam (PVCap) decreased the adhesion force between the hydrate particles. PMID:17126359

  11. Experimental Characterization and Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Carbon/Copper Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pauly, Christopher C.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    The results of an extensive experimental characterization and a preliminary analytical modeling effort for the elastoplastic mechanical behavior of 8-harness satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites are presented. Previous experimental and modeling investigations of woven composites are discussed, as is the evolution of, and motivation for, the continuing research on C/Cu composites. Experimental results of monotonic and cyclic tension, compression, and Iosipescu shear tests, and combined tension-compression tests, are presented. With regard to the test results, emphasis is placed on the effect of strain gauge size and placement, the effect of alloying the copper matrix to improve fiber-matrix bonding, yield surface characterization, and failure mechanisms. The analytical methodology used in this investigation consists of an extension of the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) micromechanics model, developed by Aboudi (1994), to include inhomogeneity and plasticity effects on the subcell level. The extension of the model allows prediction of the elastoplastic mechanical response of woven composites, as represented by a true repeating unit cell for the woven composite. The model is used to examine the effects of refining the representative geometry of the composite, altering the composite overall fiber volume fraction, changing the size and placement of the strain gauge with respect to the composite's reinforcement weave, and including porosity within the infiltrated fiber yarns on the in-plane elastoplastic tensile, compressive, and shear response of 8-harness satin C/Cu. The model predictions are also compared with the appropriate monotonic experimental results.

  12. Prion protein detection in serum using micromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Madhukar; Waggoner, Philip S; Montagna, Richard A; Craighead, Harold G

    2009-12-15

    Prion proteins that have transformed from their normal cellular counterparts (PrP(c)) into infectious form (PrP(res)) are responsible for causing progressive neurodegenerative diseases in numerous species, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Due to a possible link between BSE and CJD it is highly desirable to develop non-invasive and ante mortem tests for the detection of prion proteins in bovine samples. Such ante mortem tests of all cows prior to slaughter will help to prevent the introduction of PrP(res) into the human food supply. Furthermore, detection of PrP(res) in donated blood will also help to prevent the transmission of CJD among humans through blood transfusion. In this study, we have continued development of a micromechanical resonator array that is capable of detecting PrP(c) in bovine blood serum. The sensitivity of the resonators for the detection of PrP(c) is further enhanced by the use of secondary mass labels. A pair of antibodies is used in a sandwich immunoassay format to immobilize PrP(c) on the surface of resonators and attach nanoparticles as secondary mass labels to PrP(c). Secondary mass labeling is optimized in terms of incubation time to maximize the frequency shifts that correspond to the presence of PrP(c) on the surface of resonators. Our results show that a minimum of 200 pg mL(-1) of PrP(c) in blood serum can be detected using micromechanical resonator arrays. PMID:19836525

  13. Characterization and modeling of electrostatically actuated polysilicon micromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Edward Keat Leem

    Sensors, actuators, transducers, microsystems and MEMS (MicroElertroMechanical Systems) are some of the terms describing technologies that interface information processing systems with the physical world. Electrostatically actuated micromechanical devices are important building blocks in many of these technologies. Arrays of these devices are used in video projection displays, fluid pumping systems, optical communications systems, tunable lasers and microwave circuits. Well-calibrated simulation tools are essential for propelling ideas from the drawing board into production. This work characterizes a fabrication process---the widely-used polysilicon MUMPs process---to facilitate the design of electrostatically actuated micromechanical devices. The operating principles of a representative device---a capacitive microwave switch---are characterized using a wide range of electrical and optical measurements of test structures along with detailed electromechanical simulations. Consistency in the extraction of material properties from measurements of both pull-in voltage and buckling amplitude is demonstrated. Gold is identified as an area-dependent source of nonuniformity in polysilicon thicknesses and stress. Effects of stress gradients, substrate curvature, and film coverage are examined quantitatively. Using well-characterized beams as in-situ surface probes, capacitance-voltage and surface profile measurements reveal that compressible surface residue modifies the effective electrical gap when the movable electrode contacts an underlying silicon nitride layer. A compressible contact surface model used in simulations improves the fit to measurements. In addition, the electric field across the nitride causes charge to build up in the nitride, increasing the measured capacitance over time. The rate of charging corresponds to charge injection through direct tunneling. A novel actuator that can travel stably beyond one-third of the initial gap (a trademark limitation of

  14. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: A revised scope for Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering A revised scope for Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is well known for publishing excellent work in highly competitive timescales. The journal's coverage has consistently evolved to reflect the current state of the field, and from May 2010 it will revisit its scope once again. The aims of the journal remain unchanged, however: to be the first choice of authors and readers in MEMS and micro-scale research. The new scope continues to focus on highlighting the link between fabrication technologies and their capacity to create novel devices. This link will be considered paramount in the journal, and both prospective authors and readers should let it serve as an inspiration to them. The burgeoning fields of NEMS and nano-scale engineering are more explicitly supported in the new scope. Research which ten years ago would have been considered science fiction has, through the tireless efforts of the community, become reality. The Editorial Board feel it is important to reflect the growing significance of this work in the scope. The new scope, drafted by Editor-in-Chief Professor Mark Allen, and approved by the Editorial Board, is as follows: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering covers all aspects of microelectromechanical structures, devices, and systems, as well as micromechanics and micromechatronics. The journal focuses on original work in fabrication and integration technologies, on the micro- and nano-scale. The journal aims to highlight the link between new fabrication technologies and their capacity to create novel devices. Original work in microengineering and nanoengineering is also reported. Such work is defined as applications of these fabrication and integration technologies to structures in which key attributes of the devices or systems depend on specific micro- or nano-scale features. Such applications span the physical, chemical, electrical and biological realms. New fabrication and integration techniques for both silicon and non-silicon materials are

  15. [Antigenic determination of human anti-rabies vaccine against viral street strains common in the wild animal population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Seroka, D

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the antigen properties of a vaccine strain with street strains isolated from various animal hosts throughout the country. Investigation was carried out using monoclonal antibodies against NC protein. Also, two tests were carried out: the modified NIH test for potency and the neutralization test using the sera of people vaccinated against rabies (PM vaccine strain). The investigated street strains were used in both tests as the challenge viruses. A suspension of these strains diluted five times made it possible to avoid extreme values of animal survival (0% or 100%) what, consequently, made calculation of the LD50 value easier. A different rabies virus serotype (EBLI virus) in the population of insectivore bats Eptesicus serotinus and antigen variants within the first serotype, having common epitopes with strains of the vaccine virus SAD B19 and the polar rabies virus, were found to be present throughout the country. The concentrated and purified vaccine containing the PM virus did not protect mice against infection with strains of viruses isolated from bats (protection index 10 and lower). For the remaining strains, depending on the animal source of their isolation, the protection index ranged from 10 to 1000 and higher. The properties neutralizing a dose of 5 i.u./ml of serum from the subject inoculated with the vaccine containing the PM strain were similar for all the investigated strains; 0,5 i.u./ml did not neutralize the strain isolated from a racoon dog. PMID:7541494

  16. Distributions of energy storage rate and microstructural evolution in the area of plastic strain localization during uniaxial tension of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.

    2015-08-01

    The presented work is devoted to an experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSC) were performed. On the basis of microstructural studies it is believed that a 0 value of energy storage rate corresponds to the state in which only two dominant components of the texture appear, creating conditions for crystallographic shear banding.

  17. Superelement methods applications to micromechanics of high temperature metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptation of the superelement finite-element method for micromechanics of continuous fiber high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC) is described. The method is used to predict the thermomechanical behavior of P100-graphite/copper composites using MSC/NASTRAN and it is also used to validate those predicted by using an in-house computer program designed to perform micromechanics for HT-MMC. Typical results presented in the paper include unidirectional composite thermal properties, mechanical properties, and microstresses.

  18. Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation using electron photoemission in a micromechanical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene C.; Egert, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    A micromechanical sensor and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation involve producing photoelectrons from a metal surface in contact with a semiconductor. The photoelectrons are extracted into the semiconductor, which causes photo-induced bending. The resulting bending is measured, and a signal corresponding to the measured bending is generated and processed. A plurality of individual micromechanical sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional matrix for imaging applications.

  19. Micromechanisms of brittle fracture: Acoustic emissions and electron channeling analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this work are to: (i) Evaluate the initial stages of cleavage nucleation in single and polycrystalline samples; (ii) Determine the controlling event(s) which lead(s) to unstable cleavage (is it an unstable cluster'' of microcracks or a crack-tip opening displacement criterion for an array of ligaments surrounding these microcracks ); (iii) Determine how the process zone, which depends upon microstructure and processing history, affects the controlling event(s); (iv) Use selected area channeling patterns (SACP's) to assist in an independent measure of the cleavage fracture stress of grains cleaved at or just outside the elastic-plastic boundary; also, use it to evaluate static and dynamic strain distributions; and (v) Evaluate the effects of dislocation shielding and overload using combined methods of computational mechanics with discretized dislocation arrays and direct observations of dislocations using channeling, etch pit and birefringence methods. Accomplishments are discussed. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Dynamically forced cantilever system: A piezo-polymer characterization tool with possible application for micromechanical HF resonator devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schwoediauer, Reinhard

    2005-04-01

    A cantilever system, driven to a dynamically forced oscillation by a small piezoelectric specimen is presented as a simple and accurate tool to determine the converse dynamic piezocoefficient up to several kHz. The piezoelectric sample is mounted on top of a reflective cantilever where it is free to oscillate without any mechanical constraint. A Nomarsky-interferometer detects the induced cantilever displacement. The presented technique is especially suited for a precise characterization of small and soft piezoelectric polymer-samples with rough surfaces. The capability of the dynamically forced cantilever principle is demonstrated with a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal and with a porous ferroelectretic polypropylene foam. Results from measurements between 400 Hz and 5 kHz were found to be in excellent agreement with published values. Additionally, the dynamically forced cantilever principle may possibly improve the sensitivity of some micromechanical cantilever-sensors and it could also be interesting for the design of enhanced micromechanical high frequency mixer filters. Some ideas about are briefly presented.

  1. A Micromechanics Finite Element Model for Studying the Mechanical Behavior of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2006-01-01

    A micromechanics model has been constructed to study the mechanical behavior of spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) for the external tank. The model was constructed using finite elements representing the fundamental repeating unit of the SOFI microstructure. The details of the micromechanics model were based on cell observations and measured average cell dimensions discerned from photomicrographs. The unit cell model is an elongated Kelvin model (fourteen-sided polyhedron with 8 hexagonal and six quadrilateral faces), which will pack to a 100% density. The cell faces and cell edges are modeled using three-dimensional 20-node brick elements. Only one-eighth of the cell is modeled due to symmetry. By exercising the model and correlating the results with the macro-mechanical foam behavior obtained through material characterization testing, the intrinsic stiffness and Poisson s Ratio of the polymeric cell walls and edges are determined as a function of temperature. The model is then exercised to study the unique and complex temperature-dependent mechanical behavior as well as the fracture initiation and propagation at the microscopic unit cell level.

  2. Micromechanical analysis of constitutive properties of active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kenny; Dai, Qingli

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies showed that the active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites may achieve significant and simultaneous improvements in sensing/actuating, stiffness, fracture toughness and vibration damping. These characteristics can be very important in the application of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. The PSF is fabricated by coating the piezoceramic onto the silicon carbide core fiber with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process to overcome the fragile nature of the monolithic piezoelectric materials. The PSF composite laminates are made of longitudinally poled PSFs that are unidirectionally deployed in the polymer binding matrix. The PSF laminate transducer has electrical inputs/outputs that are delivered through a separate etched interdigital electrode layer. This study analyzed the electromechanical properties with the generalized dilute scheme for active PSF composite laminate by considering multiinclusions. The well-known Mori-Tanaka approach was used to evaluate the concentration tensor in the multi-inclusion micromechanics model. To accurately predict the transverse properties, the extended role of mixtures were applied by considering the inclusions' geometry and shape. The micromechanical finite element modeling was also conducted with representative volume element (RVE) to compare with the micromechanics analysis on the electromechanical properties. The micromechanics analysis and finite element micromechanical modeling were conducted with varied fiber geometry dimensions and volume fractions. These comparison studies indicate the combined micromechanics models with the generalized dilute scheme can effectively predict the electro-elastic properties of multi-inclusion PSF composites.

  3. Genetic analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants in multidrug-resistant Shigella strains isolated from Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Toro, C S; Farfán, M; Contreras, I; Flores, O; Navarro, N; Mora, G C; Prado, V

    2005-02-01

    A total of 162 clinical isolates of Shigella collected from children in a semi-rural community of Chile were examined for the presence of genetic determinants of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Ampicillin resistance was most frequently associated with the presence of bla(OXA) in S. flexneri and with bla(TEM) in S. sonnei. The bla(OXA) gene but not bla(TEM) was located in class 1 integrons. The dhfrIa gene encoding for resistance to trimethoprim was associated to class 2 integrons and detected exclusively in S. flexneri, whereas dhfrIIIc was found in all S. sonnei strains and in 10% of the S. flexneri isolates. Cat, coding for choramphenicol resistance, and bla(OXA) genes were located in the chromosome in all cases, whereas tetA gene, coding for tetracycline resistance, and bla(TEM), dhfrIa and dhfrIIIc genes were found either in the chromosome or in conjugative plasmids. Our results show a heterogenous distribution of antibiotic-resistance determinants between S. flexneri and S. sonnei. PMID:15724714

  4. Genetic analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants in multidrug-resistant Shigella strains isolated from Chilean children.

    PubMed Central

    Toro, C. S.; Farfán, M.; Contreras, I.; Flores, O.; Navarro, N.; Mora, G. C.; Prado, V.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 162 clinical isolates of Shigella collected from children in a semi-rural community of Chile were examined for the presence of genetic determinants of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Ampicillin resistance was most frequently associated with the presence of bla(OXA) in S. flexneri and with bla(TEM) in S. sonnei. The bla(OXA) gene but not bla(TEM) was located in class 1 integrons. The dhfrIa gene encoding for resistance to trimethoprim was associated to class 2 integrons and detected exclusively in S. flexneri, whereas dhfrIIIc was found in all S. sonnei strains and in 10% of the S. flexneri isolates. Cat, coding for choramphenicol resistance, and bla(OXA) genes were located in the chromosome in all cases, whereas tetA gene, coding for tetracycline resistance, and bla(TEM), dhfrIa and dhfrIIIc genes were found either in the chromosome or in conjugative plasmids. Our results show a heterogenous distribution of antibiotic-resistance determinants between S. flexneri and S. sonnei. PMID:15724714

  5. In vitro culture system to determine MICs and MBCs of antimicrobial agents against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain).

    PubMed Central

    Norris, S J; Edmondson, D G

    1988-01-01

    A new procedure for determining the susceptibility of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum to antimicrobial agents was developed, utilizing a tissue culture system which promotes the in vitro multiplication of this organism. In the absence of antibiotics, T. pallidum (Nichols virulent strain) multiplied an average of 10-fold when incubated for 7 days in the presence of Sf1Ep cottontail rabbit epithelial cell cultures. Varied concentrations of penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and spectinomycin were added to triplicate cultures to determine their effects on treponemal multiplication, motility, and virulence. The MIC of each antibiotic was defined as the lowest concentration which prevented treponemal multiplication, whereas the MBC was defined as the lowest concentration which abrogated the ability of the cultured treponemes to multiply and cause lesions in rabbits. The in vitro culture technique provided highly reproducible MICs and (in parentheses) MBCs of each of the antibiotics tested: aqueous penicillin G, 0.0005 (0.0025) microgram/ml; tetracycline, 0.2 (0.5) microgram/ml; erythromycin, 0.005 (0.005) microgram/ml; and spectinomycin, 0.5 (0.5) microgram/ml. The significance of these results in light of the in vivo activities and the previous in vitro evaluations of these antibiotics is discussed. The T. pallidum in vitro cultivation system shows promise as a method for studying the interaction between T. pallidum and antimicrobial agents and for screening new antibiotics for syphilis therapy. PMID:2964810

  6. Genome Sequence of Avian Escherichia coli Strain IHIT25637, an Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Strain of ST131 Encoding Colistin Resistance Determinant MCR-1

    PubMed Central

    Göttig, Stephan; Bülte, Maria; Fiedler, Sophie; Tietgen, Manuela; Leidner, Ursula; Heydel, Carsten; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Semmler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sequence type 131 (ST131) is one of the predominant Escherichia coli lineages among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that causes a variety of diseases in humans and animals and frequently shows multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first genome sequence of an ST131-ExPEC strain from poultry carrying the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1. PMID:27587807

  7. Genome Sequence of Avian Escherichia coli Strain IHIT25637, an Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Strain of ST131 Encoding Colistin Resistance Determinant MCR-1.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Christa; Göttig, Stephan; Bülte, Maria; Fiedler, Sophie; Tietgen, Manuela; Leidner, Ursula; Heydel, Carsten; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Semmler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sequence type 131 (ST131) is one of the predominant Escherichia coli lineages among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that causes a variety of diseases in humans and animals and frequently shows multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first genome sequence of an ST131-ExPEC strain from poultry carrying the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1. PMID:27587807

  8. Strain fields and damage around notches in ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, T.J.; Perry, K.E.; Epstein, J.S.; Cady, C.; Evans, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Strain development in several notched ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been monitored over a broad range of load. This was achieved by using phase-shifting moire interferometry, which provides a map of the surface strains. A sequence of fringe patterns was used to chart the evolution of strain redistribution as a function of load. The ensuing strains were related to the micromechanical damage mechanisms. Stress concentrations were estimated from the strain by using stress/strain curves. Implications for the notch sensitivity of CMCs are discussed.

  9. Micromechanical modeling of the viscoplastic behavior of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelnau, O.; Blackman, D. K.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Ponte CastañEda, P.

    2008-09-01

    Efforts to couple mantle flow models with rheological theories of mineral deformation typically ignore the effect of texture development on flow evolution. The fact that there are only three easy slip systems for dislocation glide in olivine crystals leads to strong mechanical interactions between the grains as the deformation proceeds, and subsequent development of large viscoplastic anisotropy in polycrystals exhibiting pronounced Lattice Preferred Orientations. Using full-field simulations for creep in dry polycrystalline olivine at high temperature and low pressure, it is shown that very large stress and strain rate intragranular heterogeneities can build up with deformation, which increase dramatically with the strength of the hard slip system (included for the purpose of enabling general deformations). Compared with earlier nonlinear extensions of the Self-Consistent mean-field theory to simulate polycrystal deformation, the "Second-Order" method is the only one capable of accurately describing the effect of intraphase stress heterogeneities on the macroscopic flow stress, as well as on the local stress- and strain rate fluctuations in the material. In particular, this approach correctly predicts that olivine polycrystals can deform with only four independent slip systems. The resistance of the fourth system (or accommodation mechanism), which is likely provided by dislocation climb or grain boundary processes as has been observed experimentally, may essentially determine the flow stress of olivine polycrystals. We further show that the "tangent" model, which had been used extensively in prior geophysical studies of the mantle, departs significantly from the full-field reference solutions.

  10. Micromechanical analysis of filamentary metal matrix composites under longitudinal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdoutos, Emmanuel E.; Karalekas, Dimitrios; Daniel, Isaac M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-material composite cylinder model (CCM) was considered for the study of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures of a fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/aluminum (SiC/Al) composite. An elastoplastic analysis of the model was performed in which the fiber was assumed to be linear elastic and the matrix elastoplastic with work-hardening. The analysis was based on the deformation theory of plasticity in conjunction with the von-Mises yield criterion. Experimental stress-strain curves of an SiC/Al composite were obtained at 24 and 288 C (75 and 550 F). The complete three-dimensional stress distribution in the composite using the CCM was determined. It was found that, in addition to longitudinal stresses, transverse stresses in both the fiber and the matrix were developed as a result of the different Poisson's ratios of the two materials. The transverse stresses, although much smaller than the longitudinal stresses, contributed to the plastic deformation of the matrix. The experimental stress-strain curves were favorably compared with the theoretical predictions.

  11. [Characterization and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles of a single clone Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Alper; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Acar, Sümeyra; Durmaz, Rıza

    2014-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii which is a significant cause of nosocomial infections, increases the rate of morbidity and mortality in health care settings especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of A.baumannii strains isolated from blood cultures of inpatients from different ICUs, wards and hospital environment and evaluate their clonal relationships and epidemiologic features. A total of 54 A.baumannii strains (47 from the blood cultures and 7 from the hospital environment), identified between 01 January 2012-28 December 2012 at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, were included in the study. Identification of A.baumannii isolates and their antimicrobial [sulbactam-ampicillin (SAM), piperacillin (PIP), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), ceftazidime (CFZ), cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF), cefepime (CEF), imipenem (IMP), meropenem (MER), amikacin (AMK), gentamicin (GEN), netilmicin (NT), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVF), tetracycline (TET), tigecycline (TG), colistin (COL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)] susceptibility testing were performed by Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, France) system. The clonal relationship between the A.baumannii isolates was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In our study colistin, tigecycline and netilmicin were found to be the most effective agents against A.baumannii isolates. All of the clinical isolates (n= 47) were found susceptible to COL, however all were resistant to SAM, PIP, TZP, CEF, IPM, CFZ, MER and CIP. While 1.85%, 14.8%, 14.8%, 16.6%, 59.2% and 22.2% of the isolates were susceptible to SCF, AMK, NT, GEN, TG and SXT, respectively; 1.85%, 1.85%, 9.2%, 16.6%, 38.8% and 27.7% of the isolates were intermediate to SCF, TET, AMK, NT, LVF and TG, respectively. Similarly, all of the environmental A.baumannii isolates (n= 7) were resistant to SAM, PIP, TZP, CFZ, CEF, IPM, MER and CIP, and all

  12. Prediction of fracture healing under axial loading, shear loading and bending is possible using distortional and dilatational strains as determining mechanical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Malte; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Niemeyer, Frank; Simon, Ulrich; Wehner, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Numerical models of secondary fracture healing are based on mechanoregulatory algorithms that use distortional strain alone or in combination with either dilatational strain or fluid velocity as determining stimuli for tissue differentiation and development. Comparison of these algorithms has previously suggested that healing processes under torsional rotational loading can only be properly simulated by considering fluid velocity and deviatoric strain as the regulatory stimuli. We hypothesize that sufficient calibration on uncertain input parameters will enhance our existing model, which uses distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, to properly simulate fracture healing under various loading conditions including also torsional rotation. Therefore, we minimized the difference between numerically simulated and experimentally measured courses of interfragmentary movements of two axial compressive cases and two shear load cases (torsional and translational) by varying several input parameter values within their predefined bounds. The calibrated model was then qualitatively evaluated on the ability to predict physiological changes of spatial and temporal tissue distributions, based on respective in vivo data. Finally, we corroborated the model on five additional axial compressive and one asymmetrical bending load case. We conclude that our model, using distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, is able to simulate fracture-healing processes not only under axial compression and torsional rotation but also under translational shear and asymmetrical bending loading conditions. PMID:23825112

  13. Prediction of fracture healing under axial loading, shear loading and bending is possible using distortional and dilatational strains as determining mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Malte; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Niemeyer, Frank; Simon, Ulrich; Wehner, Tim

    2013-09-01

    Numerical models of secondary fracture healing are based on mechanoregulatory algorithms that use distortional strain alone or in combination with either dilatational strain or fluid velocity as determining stimuli for tissue differentiation and development. Comparison of these algorithms has previously suggested that healing processes under torsional rotational loading can only be properly simulated by considering fluid velocity and deviatoric strain as the regulatory stimuli. We hypothesize that sufficient calibration on uncertain input parameters will enhance our existing model, which uses distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, to properly simulate fracture healing under various loading conditions including also torsional rotation. Therefore, we minimized the difference between numerically simulated and experimentally measured courses of interfragmentary movements of two axial compressive cases and two shear load cases (torsional and translational) by varying several input parameter values within their predefined bounds. The calibrated model was then qualitatively evaluated on the ability to predict physiological changes of spatial and temporal tissue distributions, based on respective in vivo data. Finally, we corroborated the model on five additional axial compressive and one asymmetrical bending load case. We conclude that our model, using distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, is able to simulate fracture-healing processes not only under axial compression and torsional rotation but also under translational shear and asymmetrical bending loading conditions. PMID:23825112

  14. Flow Curve Determination at Large Plastic Strain Levels: Limitations of the Membrane Theory in the Analysis of the Hydraulic Bulge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, X.; Iancu, A.; Ferron, G.

    2011-05-01

    Nowadays, an accurate determination of the true stress-strain curve is a key-element for all finite element (FE) forming predictions. Since the introduction of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) for the automotive market, the standard uniaxial tension test suffers the drawback of relatively low uniform elongations. The extrapolation of the uniaxial stress-strain curve up to large strains is not without consequence in forming predictions—especially formability and springback. One of the means to solve this problem is to use experimental tests where large plastic strain levels can be reached. The hydraulic bulge test is one of these tests. The effective plastic strain levels reached in the bulge test are of about 0.7. From an experimental standpoint, the biaxial flow stress is estimated using measurement of fluid pressure, and calculation of thickness and curvature at the pole, via appropriate measurements and assumptions. The biaxial stress at the pole is determined using the membrane equilibrium equation. The analysis proposed in this paper consists of performing "virtual experiments" where the results obtained by means of FE calculations are used as input data for determining the biaxial stress-strain law in agreement with the experimental procedure. In this way, a critical discussion of the experimental procedure can be made, by comparing the "experimental" stress-strain curve (Membrane theory curve) with the "reference" one introduced in the simulations. In particular, the influences of the "(die diameter)/thickness" ratio and of the plastic anisotropy are studied, and limitations of the hydraulic bulge test analysis are discussed.

  15. Direct Determination of the Effect of Strain on Domain Morphology in Ferroelectric Superlattices with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kathan-Galipeau, Kendra; Wu, Pingping; Li, Yulan; Chen, Long-Qing; Soukiassian, A.; Zhu, Ye; Muller, David A.; Xi, X. X.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Bonnell, D. A.

    2012-09-04

    A variant of piezo force microscopy was used to characterize the effect of strain on polarization in [(BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m]p superlattices. The measurements were compared to theoretical predictions based on phase-field calculations. When polarization is constrained to be perpendicular to the substrate, the measured polarization and domain morphology agree quantitatively with the predictions. This case allows the presence of an internal electric field in the thin film to be identified. The measured trend in piezoelectric response with strain state was in qualitative agreement with predictions and the differences were consistent with the presence of internal electrical fields. Clear differences in domain morphology with strain were observed and in some cases the lateral anisotropic strain appeared to influence the domain morphology. The differences in magnitude and morphology were attributed to the internal electric fields and anisotropic strains.

  16. The Glycoprotein Precursor Gene of Junin Virus Determines the Virulence of the Romero Strain and the Attenuation of the Candid #1 Strain in a Representative Animal Model of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Seregin, Alexey V.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Miller, Milagros; Aronson, Judith; Smith, Jennifer K.; Walker, Aida G.; Smith, Jeanon N.; Huang, Cheng; Manning, John T.; de la Torre, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The New World arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV) is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a potentially deadly disease endemic to central regions of Argentina. The live-attenuated Candid #1 (Can) strain of JUNV is currently used to vaccinate the human population at risk. However, the mechanism of attenuation of this strain is still largely unknown. Therefore, the identification and functional characterization of viral genetic determinants dictating JUNV virulence or attenuation would significantly improve the understanding of the mechanisms underlying AHF and facilitate the development of novel, more effective, and safer vaccines. Here, we utilized a reverse genetics approach to generate recombinant JUNV (rJUNV) strains encoding different gene combinations of the pathogenic Romero (Rom) and attenuated Can strains of JUNV. All strains of rJUNV exhibited in vitro growth kinetics similar to those of their parental counterparts. Analysis of virulence of the rJUNV in a guinea pig model of lethal infection that closely reproduces the features of AHF identified the envelope glycoproteins (GPs) as the major determinants of pathogenesis and attenuation of JUNV. Accordingly, rJUNV strains expressing the full-length GPs of Rom and Can exhibited virulent and attenuated phenotypes, respectively, in guinea pigs. Mutation F427I in the transmembrane region of JUNV envelope glycoprotein GP2 has been shown to attenuate the neurovirulence of JUNV in suckling mice. We document that in the guinea pig model of AHF, mutation F427I in GP2 is also highly attenuating but insufficient to prevent virus dissemination and development of mild clinical and pathological symptoms, indicating that complete attenuation of JUNV requires additional mutations present in Can glycoprotein precursor (GPC). IMPORTANCE Development of antiviral strategies against viral hemorrhagic fevers, including AHF, is one of the top priorities within the Implementation Plan of the U.S. Department

  17. Advances in Micromechanics Modeling of Composites Structures for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Albert

    Although high performance, light-weight composites are increasingly being used in applications ranging from aircraft, rotorcraft, weapon systems and ground vehicles, the assurance of structural reliability remains a critical issue. In composites, damage is absorbed through various fracture processes, including fiber failure, matrix cracking and delamination. An important element in achieving reliable composite systems is a strong capability of assessing and inspecting physical damage of critical structural components. Installation of a robust Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system would be very valuable in detecting the onset of composite failure. A number of major issues still require serious attention in connection with the research and development aspects of sensor-integrated reliable SHM systems for composite structures. In particular, the sensitivity of currently available sensor systems does not allow detection of micro level damage; this limits the capability of data driven SHM systems. As a fundamental layer in SHM, modeling can provide in-depth information on material and structural behavior for sensing and detection, as well as data for learning algorithms. This dissertation focuses on the development of a multiscale analysis framework, which is used to detect various forms of damage in complex composite structures. A generalized method of cells based micromechanics analysis, as implemented in NASA's MAC/GMC code, is used for the micro-level analysis. First, a baseline study of MAC/GMC is performed to determine the governing failure theories that best capture the damage progression. The deficiencies associated with various layups and loading conditions are addressed. In most micromechanics analysis, a representative unit cell (RUC) with a common fiber packing arrangement is used. The effect of variation in this arrangement within the RUC has been studied and results indicate this variation influences the macro-scale effective material properties and

  18. An integrated micromechanical large particle in flow sorter (MILPIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Skommer, Joanna; Friedrich, Timo; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    At present, the major hurdle to widespread deployment of zebrafish embryo and larvae in large-scale drug development projects is lack of enabling high-throughput analytical platforms. In order to spearhead drug discovery with the use of zebrafish as a model, platforms need to integrate automated pre-test sorting of organisms (to ensure quality control and standardization) and their in-test positioning (suitable for high-content imaging) with modules for flexible drug delivery. The major obstacle hampering sorting of millimetre sized particles such as zebrafish embryos on chip-based devices is their substantial diameter (above one millimetre), mass (above one milligram), which both lead to rapid gravitational-induced sedimentation and high inertial forces. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present an innovative design of a micromechanical large particle in-flow sorter (MILPIS) capable of analysing, sorting and dispensing living zebrafish embryos for drug discovery applications. The system consisted of a microfluidic network, revolving micromechanical receptacle actuated by robotic servomotor and opto-electronic sensing module. The prototypes were fabricated in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. Elements of MILPIS were also fabricated in an optically transparent VisiJet resin using 3D stereolithography (SLA) processes (ProJet 7000HD, 3D Systems). The device operation was based on a rapidly revolving miniaturized mechanical receptacle. The latter function was to hold and position individual fish embryos for (i) interrogation, (ii) sorting decision-making and (iii) physical sorting..The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers embedded in the system

  19. Association of virulence plasmid and antibiotic resistance determinants with chromosomal multilocus genotypes in Mexican Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacterial genomes are mosaic structures composed of genes present in every strain of the same species (core genome), and genes present in some but not all strains of a species (accessory genome). The aim of this study was to compare the genetic diversity of core and accessory genes of a Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Typhimurium) population isolated from food-animal and human sources in four regions of Mexico. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to address the core genetic variation, and genes involved in pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance were selected to evaluate the accessory genome. Results We found a low genetic diversity for both housekeeping and accessory genes. Sequence type 19 (ST19) was supported as the founder genotype of STs 213, 302 and 429. We found a temporal pattern in which the derived ST213 is replacing the founder ST19 in the four geographic regions analyzed and a geographic trend in the number of resistance determinants. The distribution of the accessory genes was not random among chromosomal genotypes. We detected strong associations among the different accessory genes and the multilocus chromosomal genotypes (STs). First, the Salmonella virulence plasmid (pSTV) was found mostly in ST19 isolates. Second, the plasmid-borne betalactamase cmy-2 was found only in ST213 isolates. Third, the most abundant integron, IP-1 (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2), was found only in ST213 isolates. Fourth, the Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) was found mainly in a subgroup of ST19 isolates carrying pSTV. The mapping of accessory genes and multilocus genotypes on the dendrogram derived from macrorestiction fingerprints allowed the establishment of genetic subgroups within the population. Conclusion Despite the low levels of genetic diversity of core and accessory genes, the non-random distribution of the accessory genes across chromosomal

  20. Micromechanisms of creep in clay-rich gouge from the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. E.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    We report the strength and constitutive behavior of gouge sampled from the Central Deforming Zone (CDZ) of the San Andreas Fault. Layers of flaked CDZ gouge were sheared in the triaxial saw cut configuration using the stress relaxation technique to measure the gouge strength over 4 orders of magnitude in shear strain rate and at rates as low as 5 × 10-10s-1 and within an order of magnitude of in situ rates. Deformation conditions correspond to the in situ effective normal stress (100 MPa) and temperature (65 to 120°C) at the sampling depth of 2.7 km. Gouge was sheared dry and with brine pore fluid at 25 MPa pore pressure. Dry gouge is stronger and more rate strengthening than brine-saturated gouge. Brine-saturated CDZ gouge strengthens with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature, and the dependencies of strength on strain rate and temperature increase at rates below ˜5 × 10-9s-1. At strain rates greater than ˜5 × 10-9s-1, the rate dependence is consistent with previous studies on the CDZ gouge conducted at even higher rates. The increase in rate dependence below ˜5 × 10-9s-1 indicates a change in the rate-controlling deformation mechanism. The magnitude of the friction rate dependence parameter, a, and the temperature sensitivity of a are consistent with crystal plasticity of the phyllosilicates. We hypothesize a micromechanical model for the CDZ gouge whereby a transition from fracture and delamination-accommodated frictional flow to crystal plasticity-accommodated frictional flow occurs with decreasing strain rate.

  1. Determination of adhesin gene sequences in, and biofilm formation by, O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from different sources.

    PubMed

    Biscola, Franciele Tafarello; Abe, Cecilia Mari; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio

    2011-04-01

    Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with the expression of different adhesins (type 1 fimbria, curli, Ag43, Cah, and EhaA). In this study, biofilm formation and the presence of adhesin-related gene sequences were determined by PCR in 18 O157 strains and 33 non-O157 strains isolated from different sources (human, animal, food, and water). The expression of different adhesins was also assessed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Congo red agar plates, and mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA) assay. Biofilm formation occurred in 5/18 (28%) O157 STEC strains and 17/33 (51%) non-O157 STEC strains from different serotypes and sources, when the assays were performed at 28°C for 48 h. Among the non-O157 biofilm-producing isolates, 12/17 (71%) expressed type 1 fimbriae and 11/17 (65%) expressed curli and produced cellulose, while 8/17 (47%) were considered to be Ag43(+) by RT-PCR. Among O157 strains, a close correlation was observed between biofilm formation and expression of curli and cellulose. In non-O157 strains, it seems that, in addition to the presence of curli, the ability to form biofilm is associated with the presence of other factors such as type 1 fimbriae and autotransporter proteins, which may contribute to the persistence of these organisms in the environment. PMID:21317257

  2. Micromechanisms of brittle fracture: STM, TEM and electron channeling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The original thrust of this grant was to apply newly developed techniques in scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of brittle fracture. This grant spun-off several new directions in that some of the findings on bulk structural materials could be utilized on thin films or intermetallic single crystals. Modeling and material evaluation efforts in this grant are represented in a figure. Out of this grant evolved the field the author has designated as Contact Fracture Mechanics. By appropriate modeling of stress and strain distribution fields around normal indentations or scratch tracks, various measures of thin film fracture or decohesion and brittle fracture of low ductility intermetallics is possible. These measures of fracture resistance in small volumes are still evolving and as such no standard technique or analysis has been uniformly accepted. For brittle ceramics and ceramic films, there are a number of acceptable analyses such as those published by Lawn, Evans and Hutchinson. For more dissipative systems involving metallic or polymeric films and/or substrates, there is still much to be accomplished as can be surmised from some of the findings in the present grant. In Section 2 the author reviews the funding history and accomplishments associated mostly with bulk brittle fracture. This is followed by Section 3 which covers more recent work on using novel techniques to evaluate fracture in low ductility single crystals or thin films using micromechanical probes. Basically Section 3 outlines how the recent work fits in with the goals of defining contact fracture mechanics and gives an overview of how the several examples in Section 4 (the Appendices) fit into this framework.

  3. Comparative Laboratory and Numerical Simulations of Shearing Granular Fault Gouge: Micromechanical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. K.; Marone, C. J.; Guo, Y.; Anthony, J. L.; Knuth, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory studies of granular shear zones have provided significant insight into fault zone processes and the mechanics of earthquakes. The micromechanisms of granular deformation are more difficult to ascertain, but have been hypothesized based on known variations in boundary conditions, particle properties and geometries, and mechanical behavior. Numerical simulations using particle dynamics methods (PDM) can offer unique views into deforming granular shear zones, revealing the precise details of granular microstructures, particle interactions, and packings, which can be correlated with macroscopic mechanical behavior. Here, we describe a collaborative program of comparative laboratory and numerical experiments of granular shear using idealized materials, i.e., glass beads, glass rods or pasta, and angular sand. Both sets of experiments are carried out under similar initial and boundary conditions in a non-fracturing stress regime. Phenomenologically, the results of the two sets of experiments are very similar. Peak friction values vary as a function of particle dimensionality (1-D vs. 2-D vs. 3-D), particle angularity, particle size and size distributions, boundary roughness, and shear zone thickness. Fluctuations in shear strength during an experiment, i.e., stick-slip events, can be correlated with distinct changes in the nature, geometries, and durability of grain bridges that support the shear zone walls. Inclined grain bridges are observed to form, and to support increasing loads, during gradual increases in assemblage strength. Collapse of an individual grain bridge leads to distinct localization of strain, generating a rapidly propagating shear surface that cuts across multiple grain bridges, accounting for the sudden drop in strength. The distribution of particle sizes within an assemblage, along with boundary roughness and its periodicity, influence the rate of formation and dissipation of grain bridges, thereby controlling friction variations during

  4. Data-driven stochastic models for spatial uncertainties in micromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwan, Aravind; Aluru, N. R.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate uncertainty quantification in engineering systems requires the use of proper data-driven stochastic models that bear a good fidelity with respect to experimentally observed variations. This paper looks at a variety of modeling techniques to represent spatially varying uncertainties in a form that can be incorporated into numerical simulations. In the context of microelectromechanical systems, we consider spatial uncertainties at the device level in the form of surface roughness and at the wafer level in the form of non-uniformities that arise as a result of various microfabrication steps. We discuss methods to obtain roughness characterization data ranging from the use of a simple profilometer probe to imaging-based techniques for the extraction of digitized data from images. We model spatial uncertainties as second-order stochastic process and use Bayesian inference to estimate the model parameters from the input data. We apply the data-driven stochastic models generated from this process to micromechanical actuators and sensors in which these spatial uncertainties are likely to cause significant variation. These include an electrostatically-actuated torsion-spring micromirror, an electromechanical comb-drive actuator and a pressure sensor with a piezoresistive strain gauge. We show that the performance of these devices is sensitive to the presence of spatial uncertainties and a proper modeling of these uncertainties helps us make reliable predictions about the variation in device performance. Where data is available, we even show that the predicted variation can be validated against experimental observations, highlighting the significance of proper stochastic modeling in the analysis of such devices.

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements and micromechanical modelling of temperature-dependent variations in TATB lattice parameters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yeager, John D.; Luscher, Darby J.; Vogel, Sven C.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald W.

    2016-06-01

    Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) is a highly anisotropic molecular crystal used in several plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) formulations. TATB-based explosives exhibit irreversible volume expansion (“ratchet growth”) when thermally cycled. A theoretical understanding of the relationship between anisotropy of the crystal, crystal orientation distribution (texture) of polycrystalline aggregates, and the intergranular interactions leading to this irreversible growth is necessary to accurately develop physics-based predictive models for TATB-based PBXs under various thermal environments. In this work, TATB lattice parameters were measured using neutron diffraction during thermal cycling of loose powder and a pressed pellet. The measured lattice parameters help clarify conflicting reports in the literaturemore » as these new results are more consistent with one set of previous results than another. The lattice parameters of pressed TATB were also measured as a function of temperature, showing some differences from the powder. This data is used along with anisotropic single-crystal stiffness moduli reported in the literature to model the nominal stresses associated with intergranular constraints during thermal expansion. The texture of both specimens were characterized and the pressed pellet exhibits preferential orientation of (001) poles along the pressing direction, whereas no preferred orientation was found for the loose powder. Lastly, thermal strains for single-crystal TATB computed from lattice parameter data for the powder is input to a self-consistent micromechanical model, which predicts the lattice parameters of the constrained TATB crystals within the pellet. The agreement of these model results with the diffraction data obtained from the pellet is discussed along with future directions of research.« less

  6. Job strain and determinants in staff working in institutions for people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: a test of the Job Demand-Control-Support model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered questionnaire. The outcome variable (high-strain job) was evaluated. The explanatory variables were: worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environment evaluated according to Karasek's Job Demand-Control-Support model. The results show that many staff characteristics were correlated with job strain, such as staff's working hours, age, gender, job title, educational level, religion, in-job training, working years in disability institutions and Effort-Reward Imbalance factors. Organization factors, such as geographical, institutional ownership and accreditation performance and size were also correlated with staff's job strain. In multiple a logistic regression model of the job strain, we found that the factors of financial reward (high compare to low, OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.928-0.975), extrinsic effort (high compare to low, OR=1.072, 95% CI=1.072-1.158), perceived job stress (sometimes stressful compare to no stress, OR=2.305, 95% CI=1.161-4.575; very stressful compare to no stress, OR=3.931, 95% CI=1.738-8.893) of the staff were significantly correlated to the high job strain of the staff. An important focus of future research should be extending the findings to consider the factors to affect the high job strain to improve the well-being for staff working for people with intellectual disability. PMID:18434088

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains as Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Henri, Clémentine; Félix, Benjamin; Guillier, Laurent; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Michelon, Damien; Mariet, Jean-François; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Hendriksen, René S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium that may cause the foodborne illness listeriosis. Only a small amount of data about the population genetic structure of strains isolated from food is available. This study aimed to provide an accurate view of the L. monocytogenes food strain population in France. From 1999 to 2014, 1,894 L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from food at the French National Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes and classified according to the five risk food matrices defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). A total of 396 strains were selected on the basis of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clusters, serotypes, and strain origins and typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the MLST results were supplemented with MLST data available from Institut Pasteur, representing human and additional food strains from France. The distribution of sequence types (STs) was compared between food and clinical strains on a panel of 675 strains. High congruence between PFGE and MLST was found. Out of 73 PFGE clusters, the two most prevalent corresponded to ST9 and ST121. Using original statistical analysis, we demonstrated that (i) there was not a clear association between ST9 and ST121 and the food matrices, (ii) serotype IIc, ST8, and ST4 were associated with meat products, and (iii) ST13 was associated with dairy products. Of the two major STs, ST121 was the ST that included the fewest clinical strains, which might indicate lower virulence. This observation may be directly relevant for refining risk analysis models for the better management of food safety. IMPORTANCE This study showed a very useful backward compatibility between PFGE and MLST for surveillance. The results enabled better understanding of the population structure of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from food and management of the health risks associated with L. monocytogenes food strains. Moreover, this work provided an accurate view

  8. Evaluation of several micromechanics models for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Birt, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic experimental evaluation of whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites was conducted to assess the variation in tensile properties with reinforcement type, volume fraction, and specimen thickness. Each material was evaluated in three thicknesses, 1.8, 3.18, and 6.35 mm, to determine the size, distribution, and orientation of the reinforcements. This information was used to evaluate several micromechanical models that predict composite moduli. The longitudinal and transverse moduli were predicted for reinforced aluminum. The Paul model, the Cox model and the Halpin-Tsai model were evaluated. The Paul model gave a good upper bound prediction for the particulate reinforced composites but under predicted whisker reinforced composite moduli. The Cox model gave good moduli predictions for the whisker reinforcement, but was too low for the particulate. The Halpin-Tsai model gave good results for both whisker and particulate reinforced composites. An approach using a trigonometric projection of whisker length to predict the fiber contribution to the modulus in the longitudinal and transverse directions was compared to the more conventional lamination theory approach.

  9. Parallel optical reading of micromechanical sensor arrays for biology and environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Jean P.; Boccara, Albert C.; Potier, Marie-Claude; Guirardel, Matthieu; Bergaud, Christian

    2001-10-01

    We describe a new approach for the parallel reading of the dynamical response of micromechanical oscillators in array using an interferential imaging method coupled to a multichannel lock-in detection. The mechanical responses and the resonance frequencies of each oscillator are deduced from the images of their oscillation amplitude and phase versus the excitation frequency. The goal is the detection of femtogram mass changes through the measurement of induced resonance frequency changes between loaded oscillators and reference oscillators. A measurement of the phase change for a frequency close to the resonance frequency f is a sensitive and reliable method to determine the frequency shift (Delta) f. In this study bare and gold-covered SiO2 cantilevers have been used as oscillators and a phase measurement sensitivity of 10-3 rd has been achieved. Such a value is equivalent to a sensor mass change sensitivity better than 100 femtograms. The fields of application extend from DNA microchips to environmental sensors.

  10. Micromechanical-biochemical studies of mitotic chromosome elasticity and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael Guy

    The structure of mitotic chromosomes was studied by combining micromechanical force measurements with microfluidic biochemical exposures. Our method is to use glass micropipettes attached to either end of a single chromosome to do mechanical experiments in the extracellular buffer. A third pipette can be used to locally 'spray' reactants so as to carry out dynamical mechanical-chemical experiments. The following elastic properties of mitotic chromosomes are found: Young's modulus, Y = 300 Pa; Poisson ratio, sigma = 0.1; Bending rigidity, B = 1 x 10 -22 J·m; Internal viscosity, eta' = 100 kg/m·sec; Volume fraction, ϕ = 0.7; Extensions of less than 3 times the relaxed length are linear and reversible; Extensions beyond 30 fold exhibit a force plateau at 15 nN and convert the chromosome to a disperse ghost-like state with little change in chromatin structure; Mitotic chromosomes are relatively isotropic; dsDNA cuts of at least every 3 kb cause the a mitotic chromosomes to fall apart; dsDNA cuts less frequently than every 50 kb do not affect mitotic chromosome structure. These results lead to the conclusion that mitotic chromosomes are a network crosslinked every 50 kb between which chromatin is fold by chromatin folding proteins, which are likely to be condensins.

  11. Micromechanical study of protein-DNA interactions and chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, John

    I will discuss micromechanics experiments that our group has used to analyze protein-DNA interactions and chromosome organization. In single-DNA experiments we have found that a feature of protein-DNA complexes is that their dissociation rates can depend strikingly on bulk solution concentrations of other proteins and DNA segments; I will describe experiments which demonstrate this effect, which can involve tens-fold changes in off-rates with submicromolar changes in solution concentrations. Second, I will discuss experiments aimed at analyzing large-scale human chromosome structure; we isolate metaphase chromosomes, which in their native form behave as remarkably elastic networks of chromatin. Exposure to DNA-cutting restriction enzymes completely eliminates this elasticity, indicating that there is not a mechanically contiguous protein ''scaffold'' from which the chromosome gains its stability. I will show results of siRNA experiments indicating that depletion of condensin proteins leads to destabilization of chromosome mechanics, indicating condensin's role as the major chromatin ''cross-linker'' in metaphase chromosomes. Finally I will discuss similar experiments on human G1 nuclei, where we use genetic and chemical modifications to separate the contributions of the nuclear lamina and chromatin to the mechanical stiffness of the nucleus as a whole. Supported by the NSF (DMR-1206868, MCB-1022117) and the NIH (GM105847, CA193419).

  12. Micromechanical Characterization of Polysilicon Films through On-Chip Tests.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Ramin; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    When the dimensions of polycrystalline structures become comparable to the average grain size, some reliability issues can be reported for the moving parts of inertial microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Not only the overall behavior of the device turns out to be affected by a large scattering, but also the sensitivity to imperfections gets enhanced. In this work, through on-chip tests, we experimentally investigate the behavior of thin polysilicon samples using standard electrostatic actuation/sensing. The discrepancy between the target and actual responses of each sample has then been exploited to identify: (i) the overall stiffness of the film and, according to standard continuum elasticity, a morphology-based value of its Young's modulus; (ii) the relevant over-etch induced by the fabrication process. To properly account for the aforementioned stochastic features at the micro-scale, the identification procedure has been based on particle filtering. A simple analytical reduced-order model of the moving structure has been also developed to account for the nonlinearities in the electrical field, up to pull-in. Results are reported for a set of ten film samples of constant slenderness, and the effects of different actuation mechanisms on the identified micromechanical features are thoroughly discussed. PMID:27483268

  13. Micromechanical model of crack growth in fiber reinforced brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.; Xu, Kang

    1990-01-01

    A model based on the micromechanical mechanism of crack growth resistance in fiber reinforced ceramics is presented. The formulation of the model is based on a small scale geometry of a macrocrack with a bridging zone, the process zone, which governs the resistance mechanism. The effect of high toughness of the fibers in retardation of the crack advance, and the significance of the fiber pullout mechanism on the crack growth resistance, are reflected in this model. The model allows one to address issues such as influence of fiber spacing, fiber flexibility, and fiber matrix friction. Two approaches were used. One represents the fracture initiation and concentrated on the development of the first microcracks between fibers. An exact closed form solution was obtained for this case. The second case deals with the development of an array of microcracks between fibers forming the bridging zone. An implicit exact solution is formed for this case. In both cases, a discrete fiber distribution is incorporated into the solution.

  14. Micromechanical analysis of damping performance of piezoelectric structural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qingli; Ng, Kenny

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies showed that the active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites may achieve significant and simultaneous improvements in sensing/actuating, stiffness, fracture toughness and vibration damping. These characteristics can be of particular importance in various civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. This study firstly conducted the micromechanical finite element analysis to predict the elastic properties and piezoelectrical coupling parameters of a special type of an active PSF composite laminate. The PSF composite laminates are made of longitudinally poled PSFs that are unidirectionally deployed in the polymer binding matrix. The passive damping performance of these active composites was studied under the cyclic force loadings with different frequencies. It was found that the passive electric-mechanical coupling behavior can absorb limited dynamic energy and delay the structure responses with minimum viscoelastic damping. The actuating function of piezoelectric materials was then applied to reduce the dynamic mechanical deformation. The step voltage inputs were imposed to the interdigital electrodes of PSF laminate transducer along the poled direction. The cyclic pressure loading was applied transversely to the composite laminate. The electromechnical interaction with the 1-3 coupling parameter generated the transverse expansion, which can reduce the cyclic deformation evenly by shifting the response waves. This study shows the promise in using this type of active composites as actuators to improve stability of the structure dynamic.

  15. Micromechanical model of crack growth in fiber reinforced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.; Xu, Kang

    1990-01-01

    A model based on the micromechanical mechanism of crack growth resistance in fiber reinforced ceramics is presented. The formulation of the model is based on a small scale geometry of a macrocrack with a bridging zone, the process zone, which governs the resistance mechanism. The effect of high toughness of the fibers in retardation of the crack advance, and the significance of the fiber pullout mechanism on the crack growth resistance, are reflected in this model. The model allows one to address issues such as influence of fiber spacing, fiber flexibility, and fiber matrix friction. Two approaches were used. One represents the fracture initiation and concentrated on the development of the first microcracks between fibers. An exact closed form solution was obtained for this case. The second case deals with the development of an array of microcracks between fibers forming the bridging zone. An implicit exact solution is formed for this case. In both cases, a discrete fiber distribution is incorporated into the solution.

  16. Robust design and model validation of nonlinear compliant micromechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Larry L.; Baker, Michael Sean; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2005-02-01

    Although the use of compliance or elastic flexibility in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) helps eliminate friction, wear, and backlash, compliant MEMS are known to be sensitive to variations in material properties and feature geometry, resulting in large uncertainties in performance. This paper proposes an approach for design stage uncertainty analysis, model validation, and robust optimization of nonlinear MEMS to account for critical process uncertainties including residual stress, layer thicknesses, edge bias, and material stiffness. A fully compliant bistable micromechanism (FCBM) is used as an example, demonstrating that the approach can be used to handle complex devices involving nonlinear finite element models. The general shape of the force-displacement curve is validated by comparing the uncertainty predictions to measurements obtained from in situ force gauges. A robust design is presented, where simulations show that the estimated force variation at the point of interest may be reduced from {+-}47 {micro}N to {+-}3 {micro}N. The reduced sensitivity to process variations is experimentally validated by measuring the second stable position at multiple locations on a wafer.

  17. Active microrheology of a model of the nuclear micromechanical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Henry; Kilfoil, Maria

    2014-03-01

    In order to successfully complete the final stages of chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells require the motor enzyme topoisomerase II, which can resolve topological constraints between entangled strands of duplex DNA. We created an in vitro model of a close approximation of the nuclear micromechanical environment in terms of DNA mass and entanglement density, and investigated the influence of this motor enzyme on the DNA mechanics. Topoisomerase II is a non-processive ATPase which we found significantly increases the motions of embedded microspheres in the DNA network. Because of this activity, we study the mechanical properties of our model system by active microrheology by optical trapping. We test the limits of fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT) under this type of activity by comparing the active microrheology to passive measurements, where thermal motion alone drives the beads. We can relate any departure from FDT to the timescale of topoisomerase II activity in the DNA network. These experiments provide insight into the physical necessity of this motor enzyme in the cell.

  18. Comparative molecular analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31 and N40D10/E9 and determination of their pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    model should form the basis of determining infectivity and pathogenicity of different strains rather than simple phylogenetic group analyses. This study further emphasizes a need to investigate multiple invasive strains of B. burgdorferi to fully appreciate the pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to Lyme disease manifestations. PMID:22846633

  19. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-01-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  20. Micromechanical Failure Analyses for Finite Element Polymer Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMBERS,ROBERT S.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LO,CHI S.; ADOLF,DOUGLAS B.; GUESS,TOMMY R.

    2000-11-01

    Polymer stresses around sharp corners and in constrained geometries of encapsulated components can generate cracks leading to system failures. Often, analysts use maximum stresses as a qualitative indicator for evaluating the strength of encapsulated component designs. Although this approach has been useful for making relative comparisons screening prospective design changes, it has not been tied quantitatively to failure. Accurate failure models are needed for analyses to predict whether encapsulated components meet life cycle requirements. With Sandia's recently developed nonlinear viscoelastic polymer models, it has been possible to examine more accurately the local stress-strain distributions in zones of likely failure initiation looking for physically based failure mechanisms and continuum metrics that correlate with the cohesive failure event. This study has identified significant differences between rubbery and glassy failure mechanisms that suggest reasonable alternatives for cohesive failure criteria and metrics. Rubbery failure seems best characterized by the mechanisms of finite extensibility and appears to correlate with maximum strain predictions. Glassy failure, however, seems driven by cavitation and correlates with the maximum hydrostatic tension. Using these metrics, two three-point bending geometries were tested and analyzed under variable loading rates, different temperatures and comparable mesh resolution (i.e., accuracy) to make quantitative failure predictions. The resulting predictions and observations agreed well suggesting the need for additional research. In a separate, additional study, the asymptotically singular stress state found at the tip of a rigid, square inclusion embedded within a thin, linear elastic disk was determined for uniform cooling. The singular stress field is characterized by a single stress intensity factor K{sub a} and the applicable K{sub a} calibration relationship has been determined for both fully bonded and

  1. Micromechanics effects in creep of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.; Allison, J. E.

    1995-12-01

    The creep of metal-matrix composites is analyzed by finite element techniques. An axisymmetric unit-cell model with spherical reinforcing particles is used. Parameters appropriate to TiC particles in a precipitation-hardened (2219) Al matrix are chosen. The effects of matrix plasticity and residual stresses on the creep of the composite are calculated. We confirm (1) that the steady-state rate is independent of the particle elastic moduli and the matrix elastic and plastic properties, (2) that the ratio of composite to matrix steady-state rates depends only on the volume fraction and geometry of the reinforcing phase, and (3) that this ratio can be determined from a calculation of the stress-strain relation for the geometrically identical composite (same phase volume and geometry) with rigid particles in the appropriate power-law hardening matrix. The values of steady-state creep are compared to experimental ones (Krajewski et al.). Continuum mechanics predictions give a larger reduction of the composite creep relative to the unreinforced material than measured, suggesting that the effective creep rate of the matrix is larger than in unreinforced precipitation-hardened Al due to changes in microstructure, dislocation density, or creep mechanism. Changes in matrix creep properties are also suggested by the comparison of calculated and measured creep strain rates in the primary creep regime, where significantly different time dependencies are found. It is found that creep calculations performed for a timeindependent matrix creep law can be transformed to obtain the creep for a time-dependent creep law.

  2. Micromechanical simulation of the failure of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Chad M.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2000-03-01

    The strength of unidirectionally reinforced fiber composites is simulated using the three dimensional shear lag model of Landis, C. M., McGlockton, M. A. and McMeeking, R. M. (1999) (An improved shear lag model for broken fibers in composites. J. Comp. Mat. 33, 667-680) and Weibull fiber statistics. The governing differential equations for the fiber displacements and stresses are solved exactly for any configuration of breaks using an influence superposition technique. The model predicts the tensile strength of well bonded, elastic fiber/matrix systems with fibers arranged in a square array. Length and strength scalings are used which are relevant for elastic, local load sharing composites. Several hundred Monte Carlo simulations were executed to determine the statistical strength distributions of the composite for three values of the fiber Weibull modulus, m=5, 10 and 20. Stress-strain behavior and the evolution of fiber damage are studied. Bundle sizes of 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30 and 35×35 fibers of various lengths are investigated to determine the dependence of strength on the composite size. The validity of weakest link statistics for composite strength is examined as well.

  3. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  4. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  5. Extent of Systemic Spread Determines CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance for Laboratory Strains, Smallpox Vaccines, and Zoonotic Isolates of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Inge E A; Hollett, Natasha A; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G; Tscharke, David C

    2015-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show across a range of vaccinia virus strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic vaccinia virus that occurred in Brazil. PMID:26195812

  6. Attenuation of Chikungunya Virus Vaccine Strain 181/Clone 25 Is Determined by Two Amino Acid Substitutions in the E2 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Forrester, Naomi L.; Plante, Kenneth; Rossi, Shannan L.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Adams, A. Paige; Seymour, Robert L.; Weger, James; Borland, Erin M.; Sherman, Michael B.; Powers, Ann M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the mosquito-borne alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of massive outbreaks of arthralgic febrile illness that recently affected millions of people in Africa and Asia. The only CHIKV vaccine that has been tested in humans, strain 181/clone 25, is a live-attenuated derivative of Southeast Asian human isolate strain AF15561. The vaccine was immunogenic in phase I and II clinical trials; however, it induced transient arthralgia in 8% of the vaccinees. There are five amino acid differences between the vaccine and its parent, as well as five synonymous mutations, none of which involves cis-acting genome regions known to be responsible for replication or packaging. To identify the determinants of attenuation, we therefore tested the five nonsynonymous mutations by cloning them individually or in different combinations into infectious clones derived from two wild-type (WT) CHIKV strains, La Reunion and AF15561. Levels of virulence were compared with those of the WT strains and the vaccine strain in two different murine models: infant CD1 and adult A129 mice. An attenuated phenotype indistinguishable from that of the 181/clone 25 vaccine strain was obtained by the simultaneous expression of two E2 glycoprotein substitutions, with intermediate levels of attenuation obtained with the single E2 mutations. The other three amino acid mutations, in nsP1, 6K, and E1, did not have a detectable effect on CHIKV virulence. These results indicate that the attenuation of strain 181/clone 25 is mediated by two point mutations, explaining the phenotypic instability observed in human vaccinees and also in our studies. PMID:22457519

  7. Micro-mechanical study of stress path and initial conditions in granular materials using DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorostkar, Omid; Mirghasemi, Ali Asghar

    2016-03-01

    The macroscale response of granular materials under different loading conditions stems from the alteration of micromechanical properties during loading. Previous studies have used either physical experiments or discrete element method simulations to explore the effect of initial conditions and stress path on granular materials. However, microscale studies are not sufficient, especially for various loading paths. We study micromechanics of granular materials using the stress-force-fabric (SFF) relationship for a better understanding of the behavior of granular materials. Triaxial compression and extension tests are conducted on samples containing 1000 spherical particles, with periodic boundaries, and the effect of initial porosity is studied. In the next step, using the SFF relationship, we study the effect of anisotropic consolidation ratio. In addition to providing an appropriate explanation for shear strength out of evolution of anisotropy coefficients, our results show that anisotropic consolidation does not affect the micromechanical properties of granular materials in a way to change mobilized friction angle of sample at failure point.

  8. A unique set of micromechanics equations for high-temperature metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    A unique set of micromechanic equations is presented for high-temperature metal matrix composites. The set includes expressions to predict mechanical properties, thermal properties and constituent microstresses for the unidirectional fiber reinforced ply. The equations are derived based on a mechanics of materials formulation assuming a square array unit cell model of a single fiber, surrounding matrix and an interphase to account for the chemical reaction which commonly occurs between fiber and matrix. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to perform a preliminary validation of the equations. Excellent agreement between properties predicted using the micromechanics equations and properties simulated by the finite element analyses are demonstrated. Implementation of the micromechanics equations as part of an integrated computational capability for nonlinear structural analysis of high temperature multilayered fiber composites is illustrated.

  9. A unique set of micromechanics equations for high temperature metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A unique set of micromechanic equations is presented for high temperature metal matrix composites. The set includes expressions to predict mechanical properties, thermal properties and constituent microstresses for the unidirectional fiber reinforced ply. The equations are derived based on a mechanics of materials formulation assuming a square array unit cell model of a single fiber, surrounding matrix and an interphase to account for the chemical reaction which commonly occurs between fiber and matrix. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to perform a preliminary validation of the equations. Excellent agreement between properties predicted using the micromechanics equations and properties simulated by the finite element analyses are demonstrated. Implementation of the micromechanics equations as part of an integrated computational capability for nonlinear structural analysis of high temperature multilayered fiber composites is illustrated.

  10. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  11. Salicylic acid determines differential senescence produced by two Turnip mosaic virus strains involving reactive oxygen species and early transcriptomic changes.

    PubMed

    Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Mansilla, Carmen; Debat, Humberto Julio; Zavallo, Diego; Sánchez, Flora; Ponz, Fernando; Asurmendi, Sebastián

    2013-12-01

    Losses produced by virus diseases depend mostly on symptom severity. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most damaging and widespread potyvirus infecting members of the family Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. We used JPN1 and UK1 TuMV strains to characterize viral infections regarding symptom development, senescence progression, antioxidant response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and transcriptional profiling. Both isolates, despite accumulating similar viral titers, induced different symptomatology and strong differences in oxidative status. Early differences in several senescence-associated genes linked to the ORE1 and ORS1 regulatory networks as well as persistent divergence in key ROS production and scavenging systems of the plant were detected. However, at a later stage, both strains induced nutrient competition, indicating that senescence rates are influenced by different mechanisms upon viral infections. Analyses of ORE1 and ORS1 levels in infected Brassica juncea plants showed a similar pattern, suggesting a conserved differential response to both strains in Brassicaceae spp. Transcriptional analysis of the ORE1 and ORS1 regulons showed similarities between salicylic acid (SA) response and the early induction triggered by UK1, the most severe strain. By means of SA-defective NahG transgenic plants, we found that differential senescence progression and ROS accumulation between strains rely on an intact SA pathway. PMID:23945002

  12. A macro-micromechanics analysis of a notched metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Naik, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A macro-micromechanics analysis was formulated to determine the matrix and fiber behavior near the notch tip in a center-notched metal matrix composite. Results are presented for a boron/aluminum monolayer. The macro-level analysis models the entire notched specimen using a three dimensional finite element program which uses the vanishing-fiber-diameter model to model the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix and the elastic behavior of the fiber. The micro-behavior is analyzed using a Discrete Fiber-Matrix (DFM) model containing one fabric and the surrounding matrix. The dimensions of the DFM model were determined by the ply thickness and the fiber volume fraction and corresponded to the size of the notch-tip element in the macro-level analysis. The boundary conditions applied to the DFM model were determined from the macro-level analysis. Stress components within the DFM model were calculated and stress distributions are presented along selected planes and surfaces within the DFM model, including the fiber-matrix interface. Yielding in the matrix was examined at the notch tip in both the macro- and micro-level analyses. The DFM model predicted higher stresses (24 percent) in the fiber compared to the global analysis. In the notch-tip element, the interface stresses indicated that a multi-axial criterion may be required to predict interfacial failure. The DFM analysis predicted yielding to initiate in the notch-tip element at a stress level 28 percent lower than predicted by the global analysis.

  13. Flanking sequence determination and event specific detection of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Piqiao; Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Luan, Fengxia; Cao, Jijuan; Hou, Hesheng

    2013-03-01

    Exogenous fragment sequence and flanking sequence between exogenous fragment and recombinant chromosome of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b were successfully acquired through PCR amplification with cross-matched primers from exogenous genes. Newly acquired exogenous fragment covered the full-length sequence of transformed genes such as transformed plasmid and corresponding functional genes including marker uidA, promoter ubiquitin, lacZ, 1Dx5, and part of sequence of the wheat genome. A specific PCR detection method for transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain was established on the basis of primers designed according to flanking sequence. The designed primers revealed specific amplification of 132 bp product of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain. This method is characteristics of high specificity, high reproducibility, rapid identification, and excellent accuracy for the identification of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain. PMID:23319185

  14. Micromechanical modeling of dynamic fracture in heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jun

    Fracture is the principal mode of failure for a variety of materials under dynamic conditions. The mathematical complexity precludes analytical solution to be obtained. The difficulty is especially pronounced when material inhomogeneities and anisotropy need to be considered. Recently, alumina/titanium diboride (Al2O3/TiB 2) composites with a wide range of micro and nano phase sizes and phase morphologies have been developed in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Tech. In order to understand failure mechanisms in this material system and the influence of phase morphologies and phase size on fracture resistance, a numerical framework is needed to explicitly account for arbitrary microstructures and fracture patterns. Micromechanical modeling and simulation provide an important approach for analyzing the effects of material inhomogeneity and anisotropy over a range of microscopic length scales. A framework is proposed in this research for explicit modeling and simulation of microscopic damage/fracture/failure processes. The model and approach account for the real arbitrary microstructural morphologies. A cohesive finite element method (CFEM) based on cohesive surface theory is used. A fully dynamic kinetic framework and finite deformation kinematic formulation are used. Mesh independence of solution is studied and verified. Idealized microstructures containing circular and elliptical particles and real microstructures with arbitrary morphologies are used to investigate the effects of phase morphologies, phase size and phase anisotropy on fracture of this ceramic composite system. Numerical results show that rnicrostructural variations give rise to a range of fracture resistance. Higher fracture resistance is obtained from microstructures with fine evenly distributed microstructural reinforcement entities. The failure mode is found to be significantly influenced by the interfacial bonding strength between the phases. Two distinct failure modes

  15. Micromechanical design of hierarchical composites using global load sharing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    Hierarchical composites, embodied by natural materials ranging from bone to bamboo, may offer combinations of material properties inaccessible to conventional composites. Using global load sharing (GLS) theory, a well-established micromechanics model for composites, we develop accurate numerical and analytical predictions for the strength and toughness of hierarchical composites with arbitrary fiber geometries, fiber strengths, interface properties, and number of hierarchical levels, N. The model demonstrates that two key material properties at each hierarchical level-a characteristic strength and a characteristic fiber length-control the scalings of composite properties. One crucial finding is that short- and long-fiber composites behave radically differently. Long-fiber composites are significantly stronger than short-fiber composites, by a factor of 2N or more; they are also significantly tougher because their fiber breaks are bridged by smaller-scale fibers that dissipate additional energy. Indeed, an "infinite" fiber length appears to be optimal in hierarchical composites. However, at the highest level of the composite, long fibers localize on planes of pre-existing damage, and thus short fibers must be employed instead to achieve notch sensitivity and damage tolerance. We conclude by providing simple guidelines for microstructural design of hierarchical composites, including the selection of N, the fiber lengths, the ratio of length scales at successive hierarchical levels, the fiber volume fractions, and the desired properties of the smallest-scale reinforcement. Our model enables superior hierarchical composites to be designed in a rational way, without resorting either to numerical simulation or trial-and-error-based experimentation.

  16. Micromechanical combined stress analysis: MICSTRAN, a user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials are currently being used in aerospace and other applications. The ability to tailor the composite properties by the appropriate selection of its constituents, the fiber and matrix, is a major advantage of composite materials. The Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) code provides the materials engineer with a user-friendly personal computer (PC) based tool to calculate overall composite properties given the constituent fiber and matrix properties. To assess the ability of the composite to carry structural loads, the materials engineer also needs to calculate the internal stresses in the composite material. MICSTRAN is a simple tool to calculate such internal stresses with a composite ply under combined thermomechanical loading. It assumes that the fibers have a circular cross-section and are arranged either in a repeating square or diamond array pattern within a ply. It uses a classical elasticity solution technique that has been demonstrated to calculate accurate stress results. Input to the program consists of transversely isotropic fiber properties and isotropic matrix properties such as moduli, Poisson's ratios, coefficients of thermal expansion, and volume fraction. Output consists of overall thermoelastic constants and stresses. Stresses can be computed under the combined action of thermal, transverse, longitudinal, transverse shear, and longitudinal shear loadings. Stress output can be requested along the fiber-matrix interface, the model boundaries, circular arcs, or at user-specified points located anywhere in the model. The MICSTRAN program is Windows compatible and takes advantage of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which facilitates multitasking and extends memory access far beyond the limits imposed by the DOS operating system.

  17. Development of a high pressure micromechanical force apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Koh, Carolyn A.; Sum, Amadeu K.

    2014-09-01

    The formation of gas hydrates and subsequent plugging of pipelines are risks that need to be well understood during the production and transportation of oil and gas in subsea flowlines. These flowlines are typically operating at low temperature and high pressure conditions, which are well within the hydrate formation stability region. One of the key processes for hydrate plugs to develop is the agglomeration of hydrates. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding on this problem, we have developed a high-pressure micromechanical force (MMF) apparatus to directly measure cohesive forces between gas hydrate particles. The MMF system is housed in a stainless steel vessel that can withstand pressures of up to 10 MPa, thereby facilitating studies on a broad spectrum of hydrate formers and conditions. The MMF apparatus comprises of two cantilever fibers: one is stationary and another is manipulated via a nano-manipulator. Water droplets (˜500 μm in diameter) are placed at the end of the each cantilever fiber so that they can be converted to hydrate. In order to demonstrate the stability of this apparatus, CH4/C2H6 (74.7 mol. %/25.3 mol. %) mixed hydrates were prepared at 2 MPa and -5 °C and annealed at 0 °C for 15 h. Subsequently, the hydrate particle cohesive force was measured at 2 °C. Compared with the cohesive force of cyclopentane hydrates in cyclopentane liquid (˜4.3 mN/m), the average cohesive force of gas hydrates was about 10 times higher, ˜43 mN/m. Studies using this new high pressure MMF apparatus will be central to better understand the agglomeration of hydrates in multiphase flowlines.

  18. Serum Neutralization Assay for the Determination of Antibody Levels Against Non-Polio Enterovirus Strains in Central and Western Greece.

    PubMed

    Fikatas, Antonis; Dimitriou, Tilemachos G; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Tsachouridou, Ourania; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2016-09-01

    Mutations and recombination events have been identified in enteroviruses. Point mutations accumulate with a frequency of 6.3 × 10(-4) per base pair per replication cycle affecting the fitness, the circulation, and the infectivity of enteroviral strains. In the present report, the serological status of the Central and Western Greek population (Larissa and Ioannina, respectively) in the 1-10-year, 11-20-year, 21-30-year, and 31-40-year age groups against six non-polio enterovirus strains, their respective echovirus prototypes, and Sabin 1, 2, and 3 vaccine strains was evaluated, through serum-neutralization assay. In the Western Greek population, antibody levels were detected only for clinical isolates of E30 serotype in all age groups, and for environmental isolate LR61G3 (E6 serotype) only in the 31-40 age group, whereas an immunity level was observed in the Central Greek population, against all strains, except for EIS6B (E3 serotype). Amino acid substitutions were encountered across the structural region of the capsid, between the prototypes and the respective isolates. These substitutions may alter the antigenicity of each strain and may explain the variations observed in the neutralization titers of the different strains. As a consequence, these substitutions severely affect antibody binding and increase the ability of the virus to escape the immune response. It is tempting to assume that changes in the antigenic properties observed in circulating echoviruses represent a selection of viral variants that are less prone to be neutralized by human antibodies. These facts argue for the need of immunological studies to the population to avoid epidemics due to the circulation of highly evolved derivatives. PMID:27410516

  19. A far infrared/terahertz micromechanical sensor based on surface plasmons resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastanin, J.; Renotte, Y.; Fleury-Frenette, K.; Defise, J. M.; Habraken, S.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a new concept related to the bolometric micromechanical sensors for detecting far IR and THz radiation. We believe that this concept permits a low cost and ease of fabrication of large bi-dimensional array of sensors with an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The micromechanical sensor comprises a thermo-sensitive bi-material (multi-material) micro-cantilever beam with a selective absorber dedicated to far IR and THz radiation energy, and optical readout system based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting the bending of the micro-cantilever element. To increase the radiation detector sensitivity, the SPR phenomenon is used for cantilever deflection monitoring.

  20. The formation of micafish: A modeling investigation based on micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin; Jiang, Dazhi; Zhu, Guang; Xiang, Biwei

    2014-11-01

    Micafish porphyroclasts are common and excellent shear-sense indicators in mylonites. Although their geometries are well characterized by recent studies, they are still poorly understood. Here we simulate the behavior in mylonites of micafish by regarding them as anisotropic power-law ellipsoidal inhomogeneities embedded in a power-law viscous material subjected to general plane-straining non-coaxial flows. We apply the Eshelby's solutions extended for general non-Newtonian power-law materials. The anisotropy of mica is defined by two different shear viscosities: a weak shear viscosity associated with slip on cleavage and a strong shear viscosity without activating the cleavage slip. Our modeling reproduces naturally observed geometries of micafish. Natural micafish geometries require that the weak shear viscosity of mica must be lower and the strong shear viscosity must be greater than the matrix viscosity. We demonstrate that regardless of the initial condition of micafish, the shape long axis and the cleavage trace observed on the vorticity-normal section will most commonly end up at a small antithetic angle relative to the shear plane or parallel to it. Our modeling results are consistent with the mica rheological properties determined by rock deformation experiments.

  1. Strain rate hardening: a hidden but critical mechanism for biological composites?

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Breton, Stephanie; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Natural materials such as nacre, bone, collagen and spider silk boast unusual combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness. Behind this performance is a staggered microstructure, which consists of stiff and elongated inclusions embedded in a softer and more deformable matrix. The micromechanics of deformation and failure associated with this microstructure are now well understood at the "unit cell" level, the smallest representative volume for this type of material. However, these mechanisms only translate to high performance if they propagate throughout large volumes, an important condition which is often overlooked. Here we present, for the first time, a model which captures the conditions for either spreading of deformations or localization, which determines whether a staggered composite is brittle or deformable at the macroscale. The macroscopic failure strain for the material was calculated as function of the viscoplastic properties of the interfaces and the severity of the defect. As expected, larger strains at failure can be achieved when smaller defects are present within the material, or with more strain hardening at the interface. The model also shows that strain rate hardening is a powerful source of large deformations for the material as well, a result we confirmed and validated with tensile experiments on glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nacre-like staggered composites. An important implication is that natural materials, largely made of rate-dependent materials, could rely on strain rate hardening to tolerate initial defects and damage to maintain their functionality. Strain rate hardening could also be harnessed and optimized in bio-inspired composites in order to maximize their overall performance. PMID:25174668

  2. Genomics-Based Exploration of Virulence Determinants and Host-Specific Adaptations of Pseudomonas syringae Strains Isolated from Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae species complex has recently been named the number one plant pathogen, due to its economic and environmental impacts, as well as for its role in scientific research. The bacterium has been repeatedly reported to cause outbreaks on bean, cucumber, stone fruit, kiwi and olive tree, as well as on other crop and non-crop plants. It also serves as a model organism for research on the Type III secretion system (T3SS) and plant-pathogen interactions. While most of the current work on this pathogen is either carried out on one of three model strains found on dicot plants with completely sequenced genomes or on isolates obtained from recent outbreaks, not much is known about strains isolated from grasses (Poaceae). Here, we use comparative genomics in order to identify putative virulence-associated genes and other Poaceae-specific adaptations in several newly available genome sequences of strains isolated from grass species. All strains possess only a small number of known Type III effectors, therefore pointing to the importance of non-Type III secreted virulence factors. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:25437611

  3. Polyols, not sugars, determine the structural diversity of anti-streptococcal liamocins produced by Aureobasidium pullulans strain NRRL 50380

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liamocins are polyol-lipids produced by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and have selective antibacterial activity against Streptococcus species. Liamocins produced by A. pullulans strain NRRL 50380 on sucrose medium have a D-mannitol head-group ester linked to 3,5-dihydroxydecanoate acyl chains,...

  4. Expression of factor H binding protein in meningococcal strains can vary at least 15-fold and is genetically determined.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Spinsanti, Marco; De Angelis, Gabriella; Tomei, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Scarselli, Maria; Rigat, Fabio; Messuti, Nicola; Biolchi, Alessia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Anderloni, Giulia; Brunelli, Brunella; Cartocci, Elena; Buricchi, Francesca; Tani, Chiara; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Del Tordello, Elena; Colaprico, Annalisa; Savino, Silvana; Giuliani, Marzia M; Delany, Isabel; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Costantino, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Masignani, Vega

    2016-03-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis important for the survival of the bacterium in human blood and a component of two recently licensed vaccines against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). Based on 866 different amino acid sequences this protein is divided into three variants or two families. Quantification of the protein is done by immunoassays such as ELISA or FACS that are susceptible to the sequence variation and expression level of the protein. Here, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used for the absolute quantification of fHbp in a large panel of strains representative of the population diversity of MenB. The analysis revealed that the level of fHbp expression can vary at least 15-fold and that variant 1 strains express significantly more protein than variant 2 or variant 3 strains. The susceptibility to complement-mediated killing correlated with the amount of protein expressed by the different meningococcal strains and this could be predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region. Finally, the absolute quantification allowed the calculation of the number of fHbp molecules per cell and to propose a mechanistic model of the engagement of C1q, the recognition component of the complement cascade. PMID:26888286

  5. Expression of factor H binding protein in meningococcal strains can vary at least 15-fold and is genetically determined

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Spinsanti, Marco; De Angelis, Gabriella; Tomei, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Scarselli, Maria; Rigat, Fabio; Messuti, Nicola; Biolchi, Alessia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Anderloni, Giulia; Brunelli, Brunella; Cartocci, Elena; Buricchi, Francesca; Tani, Chiara; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Del Tordello, Elena; Colaprico, Annalisa; Savino, Silvana; Giuliani, Marzia M.; Delany, Isabel; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Costantino, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Masignani, Vega

    2016-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis important for the survival of the bacterium in human blood and a component of two recently licensed vaccines against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). Based on 866 different amino acid sequences this protein is divided into three variants or two families. Quantification of the protein is done by immunoassays such as ELISA or FACS that are susceptible to the sequence variation and expression level of the protein. Here, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used for the absolute quantification of fHbp in a large panel of strains representative of the population diversity of MenB. The analysis revealed that the level of fHbp expression can vary at least 15-fold and that variant 1 strains express significantly more protein than variant 2 or variant 3 strains. The susceptibility to complement-mediated killing correlated with the amount of protein expressed by the different meningococcal strains and this could be predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region. Finally, the absolute quantification allowed the calculation of the number of fHbp molecules per cell and to propose a mechanistic model of the engagement of C1q, the recognition component of the complement cascade. PMID:26888286

  6. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro. PMID:26549415

  7. Identification of putative plant pathogenic determinants from a draft genome sequence of an opportunistic klebsiella pneumoniae strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been known historically as a causal agent of bacterial pneumonia. More recently, K. pneumoniaerepresentatives have been shown to have a broad ecological distribution and are recognized nitrogen-fixers. Previously, we demonstrated the capacity of K. pneumoniae strain Kp 5-1R...

  8. Structure determination of the clean (001) surface of strained Si on Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Takeda, Sakura Nishino; Takahashi, Toshio

    2015-02-09

    The surface structure of the strained Si(001) (thickness of 20 nm) on Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) was studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). LEED intensity-energy spectra of the 2 × 1 reconstructed clean surfaces showed a systematic change that indicates the lattice contraction along the [001] direction remains even at the surfaces. The atomic structures were quantitatively determined, and they were compared with the unstrained pristine Si. The differences in the atomic position almost follow the difference in the bulk lattice constant determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. The results indicate that the strain produced at the Si/Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} interface remains unchanged up to the surface layer.

  9. Genetic diversity of Datisca cannabina-compatible Frankia strains as determined by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, M S; Hameed, S; Akkermans, A D

    1994-01-01

    The presence of Frankia strains in soil samples collected from northern areas of Pakistan was detected by inoculating Coriaria nepalensis and Datisca cannabina plants. The abundance of compatible Frankia strains in some areas was indicated by profuse nodulation of the host plants, whereas soil samples from other localities failed to result in nodulation. An oligonucleotide probe (COR/DAT) directed against the 16S rRNA gene of the endophytes of Coriaria and Datisca spp. that did not cross-react with the RNA gene of Frankia strains isolated from other hosts was developed. Genetic diversity among Frankia strains nodulating D. cannabina was determined by sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene amplified from nodules induced by soil samples from different localities by PCR. Four types of Frankia sequences and one non-Frankia sequence were detected by hybridization with a Frankia genus probe and the COR/DAT probe as well as by sequence analysis of the cloned PCR products. Images PMID:7521157

  10. Application of a PVDF-based stress gauge in determining dynamic stress-strain curves of concrete under impact testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yi; Yi, Weijian

    2011-06-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric material has been successfully applied in many engineering fields and scientific research. However, it has rarely been used for direct measurement of concrete stresses under impact loading. In this paper, a new PVDF-based stress gauge was developed to measure concrete stresses under impact loading. Calibrated on a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) with a simple measurement circuit of resistance strain gauges, the PVDF gauge was then used to establish dynamic stress-strain curves of concrete cylinders from a series of axial impact testing on a drop-hammer test facility. Test results show that the stress curves measured by the PVDF-based stress gauges are more stable and cleaner than that of the stress curves calculated with the impact force measured from a load cell.

  11. Experimental validation of a numerically determined multi-axial strain transfer from CFRP-laminates to embedded Bragg sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyckx, G.; Voet, E.; Lammens, N.; De Waele, W.; Degrieck, J.

    2011-05-01

    Embedded optical fibre sensors are considered in numerous applications for structural health monitoring purposes. Since the optical fibre and the host material in which it is embedded, have different material properties, strain in both materials will not be equal when external load is applied. In this paper, an experimental evaluation of the response of uni-axial fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in small cross-ply composite laminates subjected to out-of-plane transverse loading is discussed.

  12. Genomic Survey of Pathogenicity Determinants and VNTR Markers in the Cassava Bacterial Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis Strain CIO151

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L.; Rodríguez-R, Luis M.; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L.; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C.; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D.; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F.; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B.; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P.; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G.; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis

  13. Genotypic Diversity and Population Structure of Vibrio vulnificus Strains Isolated in Taiwan and Korea as Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Jae-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Vibrio vulnificus isolates from Korea and Taiwan were investigated using PCR-based assays targeting putative virulence-related genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting identified 52 unique genotypes in 84 environmental and clinical V. vulnificus isolates. The majority (> 50%) of strains had pathogenic genotypes for all loci tested; moreover, many environmental strains had pathogenic genotypes. Although significant (p < 0.05) inter-relationships among the genotypes were observed, the association between genotype and strain source (environmental or clinical) was not significant, indicating that genotypic characteristics alone are not sufficient to predict the isolation source or the virulence of a given V. vulnificus strain and vice versa. MLST revealed 23–35 allelic types per locus analyzed, resulting in a total of 44 unique sequence types (STs). Two major monophyletic groups (lineages A and B) corresponding to the two known lineages of V. vulnificus were observed; lineage A had six STs that were exclusively environmental, whereas lineage B had STs from both environmental and clinical sources. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes predominated in MLST lineages B and A, respectively. In addition, V. vulnificus was shown to be in linkage disequilibrium (p < 0.05), although two different recombination tests (PHI and Sawyer’s tests) detected significant evidence of recombination. Tajima’s D test also indicated that V. vulnificus might be comprised of recently sub-divided lineages. These results suggested that the two lineages revealed by MLST correspond to two distinct ecotypes of V. vulnificus. PMID:26599487

  14. Genomic survey of pathogenicity determinants and VNTR markers in the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis strain CIO151.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L; Rodríguez-R, Luis M; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo; Koebnik, Ralf; Bernal, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis

  15. Micromechanical characterization of the interphase zone in adhesive joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Ardebili, Vahid

    The interphase in an epoxy-aluminum adhesive system has been characterized using acoustic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ion etching, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and nano-indentation, with particular attention to micromechanical characterization. A systematic search method was proposed for locating an acoustic coupling fluid which had a sufficiently low velocity of sound and attenuation factor for the acoustic microscopy of polymers. A new acoustic microscope system was developed, which operated at a frequency of 250 MHz, and utilized an ultrasonic probe designed specifically for the characteristics of the new couplant. This acoustic microscope system is the first one being able to induce Rayleigh waves on the surface of plastics. A new angular spectrum formulation was introduced for a type-II acoustic microscope probe. No prior assumption, regarding the field on the aperture plane of the transducer, is needed in this new formulation. The angular spectrum model was extended to the case of a type-I probe in the presence of deviations of the lens shape from the ideal sphere as long as it remains axisymmetric. A multiple curve fitting procedure was used to infer the interphase property profiles by simultaneously fitting a large number of calculated V (z) curves to the experimental ones. The interphase was between 2 and 6 mum thick, and corresponded to a region of greater resistance to ion etching and a marked absence of the silica particles used in the epoxy adhesive. The acoustic microscope V(z) scans showed that the interphase had, on average, 20% larger values of tensile and shear moduli than the bulk, and smaller values of the shear attenuation factor and density than the bulk adhesive. Nano-indentation tests, traversing various sections of the interphase from the aluminum to the bulk adhesive, showed that the interphase region had, on average, a reduced elastic modulus (E/(1 - nu2)) that was 13% greater than that of the bulk adhesive. The

  16. Study of multiple cracks in airplane fuselage by micromechanics and complex variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denda, Mitsunori; Dong, Y. F.

    1994-01-01

    Innovative numerical techniques for two dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic multiple crack problems are presented using micromechanics concepts and complex variables. The simplicity and the accuracy of the proposed method will enable us to carry out the multiple-site fatigue crack propagation analyses for airplane fuselage by incorporating such features as the curvilinear crack path, plastic deformation, coalescence of cracks, etc.

  17. Towards the development of micromechanics equations for ceramic matrix composites via fiber substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A generic unit cell model which includes a unique fiber substructuring concept is proposed for the development of micromechanics equations for continuous fiber reinforcement ceramic composites. The unit cell consists of three constituents: fiber, matrix, and an interphase. In the present approach, the unit cell is further subdivided into several slices and the equations of micromechanics are derived for each slice. These are subsequently integrated to obtain ply level properties. A stand alone computer code containing the micromechanics model as a module is currently being developed specifically for the analysis of ceramic matrix composites. Towards this development, equivalent ply property results for a SiC/Ti-15-3 composite with 0.5 fiber volume ratio are presented and compared with those obtained from customary micromechanics models to illustrate the concept. Also, comparisons with limited experimental data for the ceramic matrix composite, SiC/RBSN (Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride) with a 0.3 fiber volume ratio are given to validate the concepts.

  18. Micromechanical Prediction of the Effective Behavior of Fully Coupled Electro-Magneto-Thermo-Elastic Multiphase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The micromechanical generalized method of cells model is employed for the prediction of the effective moduli of electro-magneto-thermo-elastic composites. These include the effective elastic, piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, dielectric, magnetic permeability, electromagnetic coupling moduli, as well as the effective thermal expansion coefficients and the associated pyroelectric and pyromagnetic constants. Results are given for fibrous and periodically bilaminated composites.

  19. Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk Using Cross-Section Strain Energy Determined by QCT-Based Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Hossein; Luo, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of hip fracture risk is very important to prevent hip fracture and to monitor the effect of a treatment. A subject-specific QCT-based finite element model was constructed to assess hip fracture risk at the critical locations of femur during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. The aim of this study was to improve the prediction of hip fracture risk by introducing a novel failure criterion to more accurately describe bone failure mechanism. Hip fracture risk index was defined using cross-section strain energy, which is able to integrate information of stresses, strains, and material properties affecting bone failure. It was found that the femoral neck and the intertrochanteric region have higher fracture risk than other parts of the femur, probably owing to the larger content of cancellous bone in these regions. The study results also suggested that women are more prone to hip fracture than men. The findings in this study have a good agreement with those clinical observations reported in the literature. The proposed hip fracture risk index based on strain energy has the potential of more accurate assessment of hip fracture risk. However, experimental validation should be conducted before its clinical applications. PMID:26601105

  20. Experimental and analytical program to determine strains in 737 LAP splice joints subjected to normal fuselage pressurization loads

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.P.; Jeong, D.Y.

    1996-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) has initiated several research projects to assess the structural integrity of the aging commercial aircraft fleet. One area of research involves the understanding of a phenomenon known as ``Widespread Fatigue Damage`` or WFD, which refers to a type of multiple element cracking that degrades the damage tolerance capability of an aircraft structure. Research on WFD has been performed both experimentally and analytically including finite element modeling of fuselage lap splice joints by the Volpe Center. Fuselage pressurization tests have also been conducted at the FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to obtain strain gage data from select locations on the FAA/AANC 737 Transport Aircraft Test Bed. One-hundred strain channels were used to monitor five different lap splice bays including the fuselage skin and substructure elements. These test results have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models and to support general aircraft analysis efforts. This paper documents the strain fields measured during the AANC tests and successfully correlates the results with analytical predictions.

  1. The effect of hydration on the micromechanics of regenerated cellulose fibres from ionic liquid solutions of varying draw ratios.

    PubMed

    Bulota, M; Michud, A; Hummel, M; Hughes, M; Sixta, H

    2016-10-20

    Regenerated cellulose fibres - Ioncell-F, have been prepared with different draw ratios from cellulose solution in 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene-1-ium acetate ([DBNH]OAc) ionic liquid. Properties of the fibres were investigated in dry and wet conditions. The stiffness of fibres decreased on average 5 times upon the hydration while the tensile strength remained at around 70% of the initial value. The effect of hydration on the deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties was addressed using Raman spectroscopy. Bands located at 1095cm(-1) and 1414cm(-1) corresponding to the glucosidic linkage C-O-C and side groups C-O-H were followed upon straining. Raman band shifts were observed indicating molecular deformations. Moreover, the hydration of fibres altered the shifting rates implying changes in the molecular micromechanics. It is suggested that hydration affects inter-chain hydrogen bonds thus resulting in the slippage of the chains and lower stiffness of fibres. Some discrepancies from the series aggregate model have been observed which is indicative of changes in the deformation mechanisms upon hydration of the fibres. PMID:27474661

  2. Passive micromechanical tags. An investigation into writing information at nanometer resolution on micrometer size objects

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.; Bastasz, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have completed a 3-year study of the technology related to the development of micron-sized passive micromechanical tags. The project was motivated by the discovery in 1990 by the present authors that low energy, high charge state ions (e.g., Xe{sup +44}) can produce nanometer-size damage sites on solid surfaces, and the realization that a pattern of these sites represents information. It was envisioned that extremely small, chemically inert, mechanical tags carrying a large label could be fabricated for a variety of applications, including tracking of controlled substances, document verification, process control, research, and engineering. Potential applications exist in the data storage, chemical, food, security, and other industries. The goals of this project were fully accomplished, and they are fully documented here. The work was both experimental and developmental. Most of the experimental effort was a search for appropriate tag materials. Several good materials were found, and the upper limits of information density were determined (ca. 10{sup 12} bit/cm{sup 2}). Most of the developmental work involved inventing systems and strategies for using these tags, and compiling available technologies for implementing them. The technology provided herein is application-specific: first, the application must be specified, then the tag can be developed for it. The project was not intended to develop a single tag for a single application or for all possible applications. Rather, it was meant to provide the enabling technology for fabricating tags for a range of applications. The results of this project provide sufficient information to proceed directly with such development.

  3. Consequences of Location-Dependent Organ of Corti Micro-Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanju; Gracewski, Sheryl M.; Nam, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The cochlea performs frequency analysis and amplification of sounds. The graded stiffness of the basilar membrane along the cochlear length underlies the frequency-location relationship of the mammalian cochlea. The somatic motility of outer hair cell is central for cochlear amplification. Despite two to three orders of magnitude change in the basilar membrane stiffness, the force capacity of the outer hair cell’s somatic motility, is nearly invariant over the cochlear length. It is puzzling how actuators with a constant force capacity can operate under such a wide stiffness range. We hypothesize that the organ of Corti sets the mechanical conditions so that the outer hair cell’s somatic motility effectively interacts with the media of traveling waves—the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane. To test this hypothesis, a computational model of the gerbil cochlea was developed that incorporates organ of Corti structural mechanics, cochlear fluid dynamics, and hair cell electro-physiology. The model simulations showed that the micro-mechanical responses of the organ of Corti are different along the cochlear length. For example, the top surface of the organ of Corti vibrated more than the bottom surface at the basal (high frequency) location, but the amplitude ratio was reversed at the apical (low frequency) location. Unlike the basilar membrane stiffness varying by a factor of 1700 along the cochlear length, the stiffness of the organ of Corti complex felt by the outer hair cell remained between 1.5 and 0.4 times the outer hair cell stiffness. The Y-shaped structure in the organ of Corti formed by outer hair cell, Deiters cell and its phalange was the primary determinant of the elastic reactance imposed on the outer hair cells. The stiffness and geometry of the Deiters cell and its phalange affected cochlear amplification differently depending on the location. PMID:26317521

  4. Micromechanical measurements of the effect of surfactants on cyclopentane hydrate shell properties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Erika P; Koh, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the effect of surfactants on clathrate hydrate growth and morphology, especially particle shell strength and cohesion force, is critical to advancing new strategies to mitigate hydrate plug formation. In this study, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid and polysorbate 80 surfactants were included during the growth of cyclopentane hydrates at several concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration. A novel micromechanical method was applied to determine the force required to puncture the hydrate shell using a glass cantilever (with and without surfactants), with annealing times ranging from immediately after the hydrate nucleated to 90 minutes after formation. It was shown that the puncture force was decreased by the addition of both surfactants up to a maximum of 79%. Over the entire range of annealing times (0-90 minutes), the thickness of the hydrate shell was also measured. However, there was no clear change in shell thickness with the addition of surfactants. The growth rate of the hydrate shell was found to vary less than 15% with the addition of surfactants. The cohesive force between two hydrate particles was measured for each surfactant and found to be reduced by 28% to 78%. Interfacial tension measurements were also performed. Based on these results, microscopic changes to the hydrate shell morphology (due to the presence of surfactants) were proposed to cause the decrease in the force required to break the hydrate shell, since no macroscopic morphology changes were observed. Understanding the hydrate shell strength can be critical to reducing the capillary bridge interaction between hydrate particles or controlling the release of unconverted water from the interior of the hydrate particle, which can cause rapid hydrate conversion. PMID:26618773

  5. A combined molecular dynamics/micromechanics/finite element approach for multiscale constitutive modeling of nanocomposites with interface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B. J.; Shin, H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a multiscale framework based on molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, micromechanics, and finite element method (FEM). A micromechanical model, which considers influences of the interface properties, nanoparticle (NP) size, and microcracks, is developed. Then, we perform MD simulations to characterize the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite system (silica/nylon 6) with varying volume fraction and size of NPs. By comparing the MD with micromechanics results, intrinsic physical properties at interfacial region are derived. Finally, we implement the developed model in the FEM code with the derived interfacial parameters, and predict the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite at the macroscopic scale.

  6. A point mutation in AgrC determines cytotoxic or colonizing properties associated with phenotypic variants of ST22 MRSA strains.

    PubMed

    Mairpady Shambat, Srikanth; Siemens, Nikolai; Monk, Ian R; Mohan, Disha B; Mukundan, Santhosh; Krishnan, Karthickeyan Chella; Prabhakara, Sushma; Snäll, Johanna; Kearns, Angela; Vandenesch, Francois; Svensson, Mattias; Kotb, Malak; Gopal, Balasubramanian; Arakere, Gayathri; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections. One of the highly successful and rapidly disseminating clones is MRSA ST22 commonly associated with skin tropism. Here we show that a naturally occurring single amino acid substitution (tyrosine to cysteine) at position 223 of AgrC determines starkly different ST22 S. aureus virulence phenotypes, e.g. cytotoxic or colonizing, as evident in both in vitro and in vivo skin infections. Y223C amino acid substitution destabilizes AgrC-AgrA interaction leading to a colonizing phenotype characterized by upregulation of bacterial surface proteins. The colonizing phenotype strains cause less severe skin tissue damage, show decreased susceptibility towards the antimicrobial LL-37 and induce autophagy. In contrast, cytotoxic strains with tyrosine at position 223 of AgrC cause infections characterized by inflammasome activation and severe skin tissue pathology. Taken together, the study demonstrates how a single amino acid substitution in the histidine kinase receptor AgrC of ST22 strains determines virulence properties and infection outcome. PMID:27511873

  7. A point mutation in AgrC determines cytotoxic or colonizing properties associated with phenotypic variants of ST22 MRSA strains

    PubMed Central

    Mairpady Shambat, Srikanth; Siemens, Nikolai; Monk, Ian R.; Mohan, Disha B.; Mukundan, Santhosh; Krishnan, Karthickeyan Chella; Prabhakara, Sushma; Snäll, Johanna; Kearns, Angela; Vandenesch, Francois; Svensson, Mattias; Kotb, Malak; Gopal, Balasubramanian; Arakere, Gayathri; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections. One of the highly successful and rapidly disseminating clones is MRSA ST22 commonly associated with skin tropism. Here we show that a naturally occurring single amino acid substitution (tyrosine to cysteine) at position 223 of AgrC determines starkly different ST22 S. aureus virulence phenotypes, e.g. cytotoxic or colonizing, as evident in both in vitro and in vivo skin infections. Y223C amino acid substitution destabilizes AgrC-AgrA interaction leading to a colonizing phenotype characterized by upregulation of bacterial surface proteins. The colonizing phenotype strains cause less severe skin tissue damage, show decreased susceptibility towards the antimicrobial LL-37 and induce autophagy. In contrast, cytotoxic strains with tyrosine at position 223 of AgrC cause infections characterized by inflammasome activation and severe skin tissue pathology. Taken together, the study demonstrates how a single amino acid substitution in the histidine kinase receptor AgrC of ST22 strains determines virulence properties and infection outcome. PMID:27511873

  8. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Anhui Province of China, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yi, X-K; Chen, Y; Zhang, A-F; Zhang, J-Y; Gao, Z-H; Qi, Y-J; Xu, Y-L

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. It has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. Streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in Anhui Province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in China. However, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptomycin of field isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae from China have been available. During 2012-2013, a total of 102 single-colony P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were isolated: 36, 12, 13, 26, and 15 strains from Yuexi, Jinzhai, Huoshan, Qianshan, and Taihu counties, respectively. All strains were confirmed by production of a 280-bp fragment using the specific primers PsaF1/R2 upon polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by an assay for confirmation of pathogenicity to fulfill Koch's postulates. In this study, the streptomycin sensitivity of the 102 isolated strains was determined. The half-maximal effective concentration values for inhibition of growth by streptomycin were 0.03-0.42 μg/mL (average 0.12 ± 0.06 μg/mL). The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal, representing range-of-variation factors of 14.0. No resistant subpopulation was identified among the strains used in the study. Thus, these sensitivity data could be used as a baseline for monitoring the shift in sensitivity of P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations to streptomycin in Anhui Province. Continuous resistance monitoring should be carried out, as streptomycin is an at-risk bactericide agent. PMID:26345745

  9. In Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Increasing Tension Strains of Superelastic Nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Alan R.; Clausen, Bjørn; Stebner, Aaron P.

    2015-09-01

    A micromechanical study of the effect of varying amounts of tensile strains on the microstructures and subsequent mechanical behaviors of superelastic Nitinol rods is presented. It is found that strains up to ~8-9 % develop microstructures that assist both forward and reverse transformation relative to un-strained material. This superelastic phenomenon is explained to be analogous to two-way shape memory effect in Nitinol actuation materials. These results provide understanding as to why such "pre-strains" may lead to improvements in subsequent superelastic fatigue life. Beyond 9 %, a drastic change is observed, as large amounts of martensite (75 % and more) are retained in unloaded samples. Thus, a competition between transformation, plasticity, and reorientation is found to give rise to microstructures that inhibit complete transformation. Furthermore, even though similar inelastic strain magnitudes are observed in loading and unloading plateaus, micromechanical mechanisms differ substantially from samples with less pre-strain. For example, in highly pre-strained samples at least half of the plateau strains are due to martensite reorientation, whereas, in low and moderately pre-strained samples nearly the entirety of the plateau strain is due to transformation. We also find that latent heat of plastic flow is larger than latent heat of transformation.

  10. Driving- stress waveform and the determination of rock internal friction by the stress-strain curve method.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu

    1980-01-01

    Harmonic distortion in the stress-time function applied to rock specimens affects the measurement of rock internal friction in the seismic wave periods by the stress-strain hysteresis loop method. If neglected, the harmonic distortion can cause measurements of rock internal friction to be in error by 3O% in the linear range. The stress-time function therefore must be recorded and Fourier analysed for correct interpretation of the experimental data. Such a procedure would also yield a value for internal friction at the higher harmonic frequencies.-Author

  11. Determination of Correlation Among Heart Rate Variability, Left Atrium Global Strain, and Nighttime Blood Pressure Among Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Değirmenci, Hüsnü; Bakırcı, Eftal Murat; Salcan, İsmail; Demirelli, Selami; Duman, Hakan; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Küçüksu, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine the correlation among nighttime blood pressure, heart rate variability, and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain among patients with subjective tinnitus. Material/Methods Eighty patients with tinnitus were assigned to Group 1 and 80 healthy individuals were assigned to Group 2. Clinical blood pressure measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and Holter electrocardiography monitoring were performed. All of the cases included in the study were examined with conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Mean nighttime systolic blood pressure (130.3±5.4) and mean nighttime diastolic blood pressure (82.8±3.9) in Group 1 were higher than in Group 2 (125.1±5.4 and 80.7±4.7, respectively) (p<0.05). Mean heart rate in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate variability parameters and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values (p>0.05). Conclusions Nighttime systolic blood pressure and nighttime diastolic blood pressure were higher among the patients with tinnitus. In light of these results, we can conclude that both clinical blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are important for patients with tinnitus. PMID:25249354

  12. Preliminary results of three-dimensional stress orientation determined by anelastic strain recovery (ASR) measurements of core samples retrieved from IODP Expedition 343

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tanikawa, W.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) penetrated to ~850 meter below seafloor (mbsf) in a water depth of 6890 m and passed through the plate boundary fault of the overriding North American Plate and the subducting Pacific plate witch. The fault locates at ~820 mbsf and is preliminarily considered to be the source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw 9.0 earthquake. Area of JFAST drilling site (C0019) was in the largest coseismic slip zone where the fault slipped more than 50 m during the earthquake. Hole C0019E dedicated to coring retrieved a total of 21 cores having a total of 51 m long cores from both the hanging wall and the footwall of the plate boundary fault. To determine three-dimensional stress state after the huge earthquake, we collected four whole round core samples and measured anelastic strain recovery (ASR) also called 'relaxation' of the core samples onboard D/V Chikyu. The principle idea behind the ASR method is that stress-induced elastic strain is released first instantaneously (i.e., as time-independent elastic strain), followed by a more gradual or time-dependent recovery of anelastic strain. The ASR method takes advantage of the time-dependent strain and has been successfully applied in IODP expeditions (e.g. Byrne et al., 2009; Yamamoto et al., 2013). The four core samples used for ASR measurements were taken from C0019E-1R1 (~177 mbsf), C0019E-5R1 (~697 mbsf)), C0019E-13R1 (~802 mbsf) and C0019E-19R2 (~828 mbsf). The three core samples at shallower depths were in the hanging wall of the fault; and the deepest one was in the footwall. We started ASR measurements approximate three hours after the core was 'on deck', that is approximate six hours from the in situ stress was released, and keep the measurements for about two weeks. The anelastic strains measured in nine directions including six independent directions were extensional; all of the curves varied smoothly and similarly with

  13. PhyloFlu, a DNA Microarray for Determining the Phylogenetic Origin of Influenza A Virus Gene Segments and the Genomic Fingerprint of Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Luis F.; Soto-Del Río, María de los D.; Sánchez, Iván; Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa M.; López-Martínez, Irma; Wong-Chew, Rosa M.; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Isa, P.; López, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that most influenza A virus gene segments can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. In this regard, the hemagglutinin (HA) subtype of the circulating strains has been closely surveyed, but the reassortment of internal gene segments is usually not monitored as a potential source of an increased pathogenicity. In this work, an oligonucleotide DNA microarray (PhyloFlu) designed to determine the phylogenetic origins of the eight segments of the influenza virus genome was constructed and validated. Clades were defined for each segment and also for the 16 HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Viral genetic material was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the conserved 5′ and 3′ ends of the influenza A virus genes, followed by PCR amplification with random primers and Cy3 labeling. The microarray unambiguously determined the clades for all eight influenza virus genes in 74% (28/38) of the samples. The microarray was validated with reference strains from different animal origins, as well as from human, swine, and avian viruses from field or clinical samples. In most cases, the phylogenetic clade of each segment defined its animal host of origin. The genomic fingerprint deduced by the combined information of the individual clades allowed for the determination of the time and place that strains with the same genomic pattern were previously reported. PhyloFlu is useful for characterizing and surveying the genetic diversity and variation of animal viruses circulating in different environmental niches and for obtaining a more detailed surveillance and follow up of reassortant events that can potentially modify virus pathogenicity. PMID:24353006

  14. Targeting of PBP1 by β-lactams Determines recA/SOS Response Activation in Heterogeneous MRSA Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Konrad B.; Riosa, Sarah; Singh, Christopher R.; Rosato, Roberto R.; Rosato, Adriana E.

    2013-01-01

    The SOS response, a conserved regulatory network in bacteria that is induced in response to DNA damage, has been shown to be associated with the emergence of resistance to antibiotics. Previously, we demonstrated that heterogeneous (HeR) MRSA strains, when exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin, were able to express a homogeneous high level of resistance (HoR). Moreover, we showed that oxacillin appeared to be the triggering factor of a β-lactam-mediated SOS response through lexA/recA regulators, responsible for an increased mutation rate and selection of a HoR derivative. In this work, we demonstrated, by selectively exposing to β-lactam and non-β-lactam cell wall inhibitors, that PBP1 plays a critical role in SOS-mediated recA activation and HeR-HoR selection. Functional analysis of PBP1 using an inducible PBP1-specific antisense construct showed that PBP1 depletion abolished both β-lactam-induced recA expression/activation and increased mutation rates during HeR/HoR selection. Furthermore, based on the observation that HeR/HoR selection is accompanied by compensatory increases in the expression of PBP1,-2, -2a, and -4, our study provides evidence that a combination of agents simultaneously targeting PBP1 and either PBP2 or PBP2a showed both in-vitro and in-vivo efficacy, thereby representing a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly resistant HoR-MRSA strains. The information gathered from these studies contributes to our understanding of β-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection and provides new insights, based on β-lactam synergistic combinations, that mitigate drug resistance for the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:23637786

  15. An Overview of Micromechanics-Based Techniques for the Analysis of Microstructural Randomness in Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Fernando J.; Brady, Lori L. Graham; Acton, Katherine; Arwade, Sanjay R.

    2008-02-15

    A review of current research efforts to develop micromechanics-based techniques for the study of microstructural randomness of functionally graded materials is presented, along with a framework developed by the authors of this paper that includes stochastic simulation of statistically inhomogeneous samples and a windowing technique coupled with a micromechanical homogenization technique. The methodology is illustrated through the analysis of one sample coupled with finite element modeling.

  16. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology. PMID:26826356

  17. Controlled carbon nanotube synthesis for quantification of polymer-nanotube composite micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bult, Justin Bernard

    Conventional experimental approaches to the understanding of nanotube-polymer micro-mechanics have struggled to produce reproducible data due to the inherent difficulty in physically manipulating the nanotube in-situ. To avoid the problems scale represents in nanotube-polymer composites a novel approach of using Polarized Raman spectroscopy was developed. The Raman spectroscopic technique has the advantage of using non-invasive analysis to compute the composite micro mechanical properties of interfacial shear stress and critical length. Composites with nanotubes of defined length were needed in order to use the Raman technique. To satisfy this requirement a new thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) tool capable of reproducibly growing aligned length uniformity with large mass yield was designed and built. The course of developing these furnace capabilities led to the investigation of nanotube growth mechanics. It is shown herein that a stable passivation barrier is required for nanotube growth. Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling of metal substrate growth conclusively shows the presence of a stable catalyst layer on the outer surface of stable oxides of greater than 100 nm. By analyzing the diffusion profile represented in the XPS data it is shown that a critical thickness for the passivation oxide can be calculated as a function of time and temperature. For the growth parameters used in this study the critical thickness was found to be between 10 nm and 30 nm depending on the diffusivity value used for iron in chromia. This value agrees well with experimental observation. Uniformly grown carbon nanotubes with lengths of 4, 14, 17, 22, 43, 74, and 116 mum were incorporated into a polycarbonate matrix polymer via solvent-antisolvent processing. The nanotube composites of varied length were tested in tensile strain while Raman spectra were taken concurrently to deduce the load transfer to the nanotube due to composite strain. It is found

  18. MICROMECHANICS IN CONTINOUS GRAPHITE FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES DURING CREEP

    SciTech Connect

    C. ZHOU; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Micro Raman spectroscopy and classic composite shear-lag models were used to analyze the evolution with time of fiber and matrix strain/stress around fiber breaks in planar model graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites. Impressive agreements were found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The local matrix creep leads to an increase in the load transfer length around the break under a constant load. This increases the chance of fiber breakage in the neighboring intact fibers.

  19. INTERLAYER MICROMECHANICS OF THE AORTIC HEART VALVE LEAFLET

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Rachel M.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25% that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture. PMID:24292631

  20. Putative thioredoxin Trx1 from Thermosipho africanus strain TCF52B: expression, purification and structural determination using S-SAD.

    PubMed

    Sahtout, Naheda; Kuttiyatveetil, Jijin R A; Fodje, Michel; Sanders, David A R

    2016-06-01

    Thioredoxin is a small ubiquitous protein that plays a role in many biological processes. A putative thioredoxin, Trx1, from Thermosipho africanus strain TCF52B, which has low sequence identity to its closest homologues, was successfully cloned, overexpressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the microbatch-under-oil technique at 289 K in a variety of conditions; crystals grown in 0.2 M MgCl2, 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.5, 25%(w/v) PEG 3350, which grew as irregular trapezoids to maximum dimensions of 1.2 × 1.5 × 0.80 mm, were used for sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion analysis. The anomalous sulfur signal could be detected to 2.83 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on the 08B1-1 beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.6, b = 41.5, c = 56.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. PMID:27303896

  1. New method of determination of spot welding-adhesive joint fatigue life using full field strain evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, T.; Kneć, M.

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted since more than two hundred years ago. Despite this long period, as fatigue phenomena are very complex, assessment of fatigue response of standard materials or composites still requires a long time. Quite precise way to estimate fatigue parameters is to test at least 30 standardized specimens for the analysed material and further statistical post processing is required. In case of structural elements analysis like hybrid joints (Figure 1), the situation is much more complex as more factors influence the fatigue load capacity due to much more complicated structure of the joint in comparison to standard materials specimen, i.e. occurrence of: welded hot spots or rivets, adhesive layers, local notches creating the stress concentrations, etc. In order to shorten testing time some rapid methods are known: Locati's method [1] - step by step load increments up to failure, Prot's method [2] - constant increase of the load amplitude up to failure; Lehr's method [2] - seeking for the point during regular fatigue loading when an increase of temperature or strains become non-linear. The present article proposes new method of the fatigue response assessment - combination of the Locati's and Lehr's method.

  2. Micromechanical modeling of the multiphysical behavior of smart materials using the variational asymptotic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tian; Yu, Wenbin

    2009-12-01

    A multiphysics micromechanics model is developed to predict the effective properties as well as the local fields of periodic smart materials responsive to fully coupled electric, magnetic, thermal and mechanical fields. This work is based on the framework of the variational asymptotic method for unit cell homogenization (VAMUCH), a recently developed micromechanics modeling scheme. To treat the general microstructure of smart materials, we implemented this model using the finite element technique. Several examples of smart materials are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed model for prediction of multiphysical behavior. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the 2008 ASME Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Ellicott City, MD, USA.

  3. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  4. Micromechanical and Electrical Properties of Monolithic Aluminum Nitride at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Micromechanical spectroscopy of aluminum nitride reveals it to possess extremely low background internal friction at less than 1 x 10 (exp -4) logarithmic decrement (log dec.) from 20 to 1200 C. Two mechanical loss peaks were observed, the first at 350 C approximating a single Debye peak with a peak height of 60 x 10 (exp -4) log dec. The second peak was seen at 950 C with a peak height of 20 x 10 (exp -4) log dec. and extended from 200 to over 1200 C. These micromechanical observations manifested themselves in the electrical behavior of these materials. Electrical conduction processes were predominately intrinsic. Both mechanical and electrical relaxations appear to be thermally activated processes, with activation energies of 0.78 and 1.32 eV respectively.

  5. Micromechanical and Electrical Properties of Monolithic Aluminum Nitride at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2000-01-01

    Micromechanical spectroscopy of aluminum nitride reveals it to possess extremely low background internal friction at less than 1x10(exp-4) logarithmic decrement (log dec) from 20 to 1200 T. Two mechanical loss peaks were observed, the first at 350 C approximating a single Debye peak with a peak height of 60x10(exp-4) log dec. The second peak was seen at 950 'C with a peak height of 20x 10' log dec and extended from 200 to over 1200 C. These micromechanical observations manifested themselves in the electrical behavior of these materials. Electrical conduction processes were predominately intrinsic. Both mechanical and electrical relaxations appear to be thermally activated processes, with activation energies of 0.78 and 1.32 eV respectively.

  6. Experimental investigation of micromechanical behavior of advanced materials by moiré interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Qin, Yuwen; Dai, Fulong

    1996-09-01

    Several typical instances show that moiré interferometry is an effective experimental method for micromechanics study of advanced materials. By using moiré interferometry, stress-induced martensitic transformation plastic zone in ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics (Ce-TZP) is studied. The experimental results show that the stress-induced transformation at room temperature is not uniform within the transformation zone and the phenomenon of microscopic plastic flow localization for transformation is revealed. Meanwhile, the experimental investigation of the pseudoelasticity behavior of Cu-Zn-Al polycrystalline shape memory alloy and bending behavior of carbon-fiber aluminium laminates (CALL) are reported. The experiments reveal some important features of the deformation processes of the materials. Finally, the measuring ability of moiré interferometry for micromechanics study is discussed.

  7. Unified micromechanics of damping for unidirectional and off-axis fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated micromechanics methodology for the prediction of damping capacity in fiber-reinforced polymer matrix unidirectional composites has been developed. Explicit micromechanics equations based on hysteretic damping are presented relating the on-axis damping capacities to the fiber and matrix properties and fiber volume ratio. The damping capacities of unidirectional composites subjected to off-axis loading are synthesized from on-axis damping values. Predicted values correlate satisfactorily with experimental measurements. The hygro-thermal effect on the damping performance of unidirectional composites caused by temperature and moisture variations is also modeled. The damping contributions from interfacial friction between broken fibers and matrix are incorporated. Finally, the temperature rise in continuously vibrating composite plies is estimated. Application examples illustrate the significance of various parameters on the damping performance of unidirectional and off-axis fiber reinforced composites.

  8. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin

    2011-09-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  9. An Energy Approach to a Micromechanics Model Accounting for Nonlinear Interface Debonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.; Huang, Y.; Geubelle, P. H.; Liu, C.; Breitenfeld, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a micromechanics model to study the effect of nonlinear interface debonding on the constitutive behavior of composite materials. While implementing this micromechanics model into a large simulation code on solid rockets, we are challenged by problems such as tension/shear coupling and the nonuniform distribution of displacement jump at the particle/matrix interfaces. We therefore propose an energy approach to solve these problems. This energy approach calculates the potential energy of the representative volume element, including the contribution from the interface debonding. By minimizing the potential energy with respect to the variation of the interface displacement jump, the traction balanced interface debonding can be found and the macroscopic constitutive relations established. This energy approach has the ability to treat different load conditions in a unified way, and the interface cohesive law can be in any arbitrary forms. In this paper, the energy approach is verified to give the same constitutive behaviors as reported before.

  10. Elucidation of the transcription network governing mammalian sex determination by exploiting strain-specific susceptibility to sex reversal

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Steven C.; Aylor, David L.; Syed, Haider Ali; Magwene, Paul M.; Threadgill, David W.; Capel, Blanche

    2009-01-01

    Despite the identification of some key genes that regulate sex determination, most cases of disorders of sexual development remain unexplained. Evidence suggests that the sexual fate decision in the developing gonad depends on a complex network of interacting factors that converge on a critical threshold. To elucidate the transcriptional network underlying sex determination, we took the first expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach in a developing organ. We identified reproducible differences in the transcriptome of the embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) XY gonad between C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), indicating that the reported sensitivity of B6 to sex reversal is consistent with a higher expression of a female-like transcriptome in B6. Gene expression is highly variable in F2 XY gonads from B6 and 129S1 intercrosses, yet strong correlations emerged. We estimated the F2 coexpression network and predicted roles for genes of unknown function based on their connectivity and position within the network. A genetic analysis of the F2 population detected autosomal regions that control the expression of many sex-related genes, including Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) and Sox9 (Sry-box containing gene 9), the key regulators of male sex determination. Our results reveal the complex transcription architecture underlying sex determination, and provide a mechanism by which individuals may be sensitized for sex reversal. PMID:19884258

  11. Micromechanical modeling of laminated composites with interfaces and woven composites using the boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1993-01-01

    The boundary element method is utilized to analyze the effects of fiber/matrix interfaces on the micromechanical behavior of laminated composites as well as the elastic behavior of woven composites. Effective composite properties are computed for laminated SiC/RBSN and SiC/Ti-15-3 composites, as well as a woven SiC/SiC composite. The properties calculated using the computerized tool BEST-CMS match the experimental results well.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide solvent extraction from surface-micromachined micromechanical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.W.; Smith, J.H.; Miller, S.L.; Russick, E.M.; Adkins, C.L.J.

    1996-10-01

    Results are presented supporting the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) drying to enhance the yield of surface-micromachined micromechanical devices following the final release etch. The equipment and extraction process of the SCCO{sub 2} system are described, and results of successfully released cantilevered beams and microengines are presented. A new system capable of drying 6 inch wafers is also described.

  13. Micromechanics of metal matrix composites using the Generalized Method of Cells model (GMC) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1992-01-01

    A user's guide for the program gmc.f is presented. The program is based on the generalized method of cells model (GMC) which is capable via a micromechanical analysis, of predicting the overall, inelastic behavior of unidirectional, multi-phase composites from the knowledge of the properties of the viscoplastic constituents. In particular, the program is sufficiently general to predict the response of unidirectional composites having variable fiber shapes and arrays.

  14. Stress-and-Strain Analysis Of Hot Metal/Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    Macroscopic mechanical properties derived from micromechanics. Stress-and-strain equations developed to express microscopic and macroscopic mechanical properties of metals reinforced by unidirectional fibers, over range of temperatures. New equations reduce computational load by providing approximate, closed-form expressions for microscopic and pseudohomogeneous anisotropic properties of single ply reinforced by unidirectional fibers. Typical application is calculation of residual stress in newly manufactured article.

  15. Determinants of General Health, Work-Related Strain, and Burnout in Public Versus Private Emergency Medical Technicians in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Tunaligil, Verda; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan; Erdogan, Mehmet Sarper

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of working for public versus private ambulance services in Turkey and elaborated on predictors of mental, physical, and emotional well-being in emergency medical technicians (EMT-Bs). In this observational cross-sectional study, an 81-question self-report survey was used to gather data about employee demographics, socioeconomic status, educational background, working conditions, and occupational health and workplace safety (OHS), followed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Work-Related Strain Inventory (WRSI), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with three subscales: Emotional Exhaustion (MBI-EE), Depersonalization (MBI-DP), and Diminished Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA). In 2011, 1,038 EMT-Bs worked for publicly operated and 483 EMT-Bs worked for privately owned ambulance services in Istanbul, Turkey, of which 606 (58.4%) and 236 (48.9%) participated in the study (overall participation rate = 55.4%), respectively. On all scales, differences between total mean scores in both sectors were statistically insignificant (p > .05). In the public sector, work locations, false accusations, occupational injuries and diseases, work-related permanent disabilities, and organizational support were found to significantly influence self-reported perceptions of well-being (p < .05). In the private sector, commute time to and from work (p < .05), false accusations (p < .05), vocational training and education (p < .05), informed career choices (p < .05), and work-related permanent disabilities (p < .05) were found to significantly influence self-reported perceptions of well-being. EMT-Bs were asked about aspects of their working lives that need improvement; priority expectations in the public and private sectors were higher earnings (17.5%; 16.7%) and better social opportunities (17.4%; 16.8%). Working conditions, vocational training, and OHS emerged as topics that merit priority attention. PMID:27034407

  16. Application of finite element substructuring to composite micromechanics. M.S. Thesis - Akron Univ., May 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Finite element substructuring is used to predict unidirectional fiber composite hygral (moisture), thermal, and mechanical properties. COSMIC NASTRAN and MSC/NASTRAN are used to perform the finite element analysis. The results obtained from the finite element model are compared with those obtained from the simplified composite micromechanics equations. A unidirectional composite structure made of boron/HM-epoxy, S-glass/IMHS-epoxy and AS/IMHS-epoxy are studied. The finite element analysis is performed using three dimensional isoparametric brick elements and two distinct models. The first model consists of a single cell (one fiber surrounded by matrix) to form a square. The second model uses the single cell and substructuring to form a nine cell square array. To compare computer time and results with the nine cell superelement model, another nine cell model is constructed using conventional mesh generation techniques. An independent computer program consisting of the simplified micromechanics equation is developed to predict the hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties for this comparison. The results indicate that advanced techniques can be used advantageously for fiber composite micromechanics.

  17. Micromechanical analysis and finite element modeling of electromechanical properties of active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qingli; Ng, Kenny

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the combined micromechanics analysis and finite element modeling of the electromechanical properties of piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites. The active piezoelectric materials are widely used due to their high stiffness, voltage-dependent actuation capability, and broadband electro-mechanical interactions. However, the fragile nature of piezoceramics limits their sensing and actuating applications. In this study, the active PSF composites were made by deploying the longitudinally poled PSFs into a polymer matrix. The PSF itself consists a silicon carbide (SiC) or carbon core fiber as reinforcement to the fragile piezoceramic shell. To predict the electromechanical properties of PSF composites, the micromechanics analysis was firstly conducted with the dilute approximation model and the Mori-Tanaka approach. The extended Rule of Mixtures was also applied to accurately predict the transverse properties by considering the effects of microstructure including inclusion sizes and geometries. The piezoelectric finite element (FE) modeling was developed with the ABAQUS software to predict the detailed mechanical and electrical field distribution within a representative volume element (RVE) of PSF composites. The simulated energy or deformation under imposed specific boundary conditions was used to calculate each individual property with constitutive laws. The comparison between micromechanical analysis and finite element modeling indicates the combination of the dilute approximation model, the Mori-Tanaka approach and the extended Rule of Mixtures can favorably predict the electromechanical properties of three-phase PSF composites.

  18. Micromechanics for Fiber Volume Percent With a Photocure Vinyl Ester Composite

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.; Lemons, Jack E.; McCracken, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Micromechanics for fiber volume percent (Vf) from 0.0Vf to 54.0 Vf were conducted using (3 mm long × 9 µm diameter) high-purity quartz fibers in a visible-light vinyl ester particulate-filled photocure resin. MTS fully articulated four-point bend fixtures were used with a 40 mm test span and 50 × 2 × 2 mm3 sample dimensions. Specimens were tested following the combined modified ASTM standards for advanced ceramics ASTM-C-1161–94 and polymers ASTM-D-6272–00 for modulus, flexural strength, and yield strength. Experimental data provided reliable statistical support for the dominant fiber contribution expressed through the rule-of-mixtures theory as a valid representation of micromechanical physics. The rule-of-mixtures micromechanics described by Vf could explain 92, 85, and 78% of the variability related to modulus, flexural strength, and yield strength respectively. Statistically significant improvements with fiber addition began at 10.3Vf for modulus, 5.4Vf for flexural strength, and 10.3Vf for yield strength, p < 0.05. In addition, correlation matrix analysis was performed for all mechanical test data. An increase in Vf correlated significantly with increases in modulus, flexural strength, and yield strength as measured by the four-point bending test, p < 10−10. All mechanical properties in turn correlated highly significantly with one another, p < 10−9. PMID:25382895

  19. A micromechanical constitutive model for the dynamic response of brittle materials "Dynamic response of marble"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberman, Keith

    2001-07-01

    A micromechanically based constitutive model for the dynamic inelastic behavior of brittle materials, specifically "Dionysus-Pentelicon marble" with distributed microcracking is presented. Dionysus-Pentelicon marble was used in the construction of the Parthenon, in Athens, Greece. The constitutive model is a key component in the ability to simulate this historic explosion and the preceding bombardment form cannon fire that occurred at the Parthenon in 1678. Experiments were performed by Rosakis (1999) that characterized the static and dynamic response of this unique material. A micromechanical constitutive model that was previously successfully used to model the dynamic response of granular brittle materials is presented. The constitutive model was fitted to the experimental data for marble and reproduced the experimentally observed basic uniaxial dynamic behavior quite well. This micromechanical constitutive model was then implemented into the three dimensional nonlinear lagrangain finite element code Dyna3d(1998). Implementing this methodology into the three dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element code allowed the model to be exercised on several preliminary impact experiments. During future simulations, the model is to be used in conjunction with other numerical techniques to simulate projectile impact and blast loading on the Dionysus-Pentelicon marble and on the structure of the Parthenon.

  20. Evaluation of effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity of fibrous materials through computational micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Isa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the effective thermal properties of composite material via micromechanical modeling of the composite material as a heterogeneous material. These properties mainly include the thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity of composites. For this purpose, a definition is presented for effective thermal diffusivity for heterogeneous materials based on heat diffusion rate into the material in a transient heat transfer. A micromechanical model based on the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is presented for modeling the heat conduction in the fibrous composite materials. An appropriate heat transfer problem for the RVE is defined so that by the analogy of the numerical results the effective properties of the RVE can be estimated. A numerical method is employed to analyze the steady-state and transient heat flux and temperature in the RVE. To validate the model, the predictions of present model are compared with results of analytical method, FEM and some available experimental data in the open literature. The effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are then obtained for fibrous composites via the present micromechanical model. The SiC/Ti, SiC/Ti6%Al4%V and Glass/Epoxy composites with various fiber volume fractions are considered in this study.

  1. Micromechanics-Based Structural Analysis (FEAMAC) and Multiscale Visualization within Abaqus/CAE Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Hussain, Aquila; Katiyar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    A unified framework is presented that enables coupled multiscale analysis of composite structures and associated graphical pre- and postprocessing within the Abaqus/CAE environment. The recently developed, free, Finite Element Analysis--Micromechanics Analysis Code (FEAMAC) software couples NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) with Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit to perform micromechanics based FEA such that the nonlinear composite material response at each integration point is modeled at each increment by MAC/GMC. The Graphical User Interfaces (FEAMAC-Pre and FEAMAC-Post), developed through collaboration between SIMULIA Erie and the NASA Glenn Research Center, enable users to employ a new FEAMAC module within Abaqus/CAE that provides access to the composite microscale. FEA IAC-Pre is used to define and store constituent material properties, set-up and store composite repeating unit cells, and assign composite materials as sections with all data being stored within the CAE database. Likewise FEAMAC-Post enables multiscale field quantity visualization (contour plots, X-Y plots), with point and click access to the microscale i.e., fiber and matrix fields).

  2. Finite element based micro-mechanics modeling of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Textile composites have the advantage over laminated composites of a significantly greater damage tolerance and resistance to delamination. Currently, a disadvantage of textile composites is the inability to examine the details of the internal response of these materials under load. Traditional approaches to the study fo textile based composite materials neglect many of the geometric details that affect the performance of the material. The present three dimensional analysis, based on the representative volume element (RVE) of a plain weave, allows prediction of the internal details of displacement, strain, stress, and failure quantities. Through this analysis, the effect of geometric and material parameters on the aforementioned quantities are studied.

  3. A method for the on-site determination of prestressing forces using long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Jaber, H.; Glisic, B.

    2014-07-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous or periodic measurement of structural parameters and their analysis with the aim of deducing information about the performance and health condition of a structure. The significant increase in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges motivated this research on an SHM method for the on-site determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along prestressed concrete beam structures. The estimation of the distribution of forces is important as it can give information regarding the overall performance and structural integrity of the bridge. An inadequate transfer of the designed prestressing forces to the concrete cross-section can lead to a reduced capacity of the bridge and consequently malfunction or failure at lower loads than predicted by design. This paper researches a universal method for the determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along concrete beam structures at the time of transfer of the prestressing force (e.g., at the time of prestressing or post-tensioning). The method is based on the use of long-gauge fiber optic sensors, and the sensor network is similar (practically identical) to the one used for damage identification. The method encompasses the determination of prestressing forces at both healthy and cracked cross-sections, and for the latter it can yield information about the condition of the cracks. The method is validated on-site by comparison to design forces through the application to two structures: (1) a deck-stiffened arch and (2) a curved continuous girder. The uncertainty in the determination of prestressing forces was calculated and the comparison with the design forces has shown very good agreement in most of the structures’ cross-sections, but also helped identify some unusual behaviors. The method and its validation are presented in this paper.

  4. Stress-strain determination in rubber-cord and rubber-metal structures by the frozen inset method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, B. N.; Tartakover, E. I.

    1996-06-01

    The new experimental method for determination of stresses inside of real rubber, rubber-cord and rubber-metal structures using frozen insets and photoelasticity is considered. This method is based on analogy between the elasticity and viscoelasticity problems for polymers during polymerization. The photoelastic materials of cold polymerization for insets making are developed and testing technology is reported. The results of stress analysis in automobile tires under interior pressure and radial loads are presented.

  5. Cyclic Plastic Deformation, Fatigue, and the Associated Micro-Mechanisms in Magnesium: From Single Crystal to Polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin

    Magnesium and its alloys have received substantial interests as the government initiatives on energy saving and environment protection demand an increasing use of lightweight materials in structural parts, especially in transportation industries. A good understanding of fatigue behavior in magnesium is critical to ensure the reliability and durability of the magnesium components. Unlike the body centered cubic and face centered cubic metals, fundamental knowledge concerning the cyclic deformation and fatigue in hexagonal close packed magnesium is limited. The current research aims at a better understanding of the micro-mechanisms associated with the cyclic deformation and fatigue of magnesium. Magnesium single crystal was chosen to study the fundamental twinning/detwinning process while extruded polycrystalline pure magnesium was studied for the fatigue damage mechanisms. Cyclic deformation and the corresponding morphology evolution of {1 0 1¯ 2} twinning-detwinning-retwinning are, for the first time, characterized in magnesium single crystal under fully reserved strain-controlled tension-compression utilizing in situ optical microscopy. As loading cycles are increased, the activity of twinning-detwinning-retwinning gradually decreases. Microscopy after fatigue shows that the matrix region having experienced repeated twinning-detwinning cannot be completely detwinned to its original crystal orientation. Fragmented secondary tension twins are found to result from twin-twin interactions. Various twin-twin interaction structures exist in fatigued magnesium single crystal: quilted-looking twin structure, "apparent crossing" twin structure, and double tension twin structure. According to the crystallography of magnesium, twin-twin interactions are classified into Type I for two twin variants sharing the same zone axis and Type II for two twins with different zone axes. For Type I twin-twin interactions, one twin does not transmit across the twin boundary and into the

  6. Micromechanical modeling of open cell structures with application in finite element analysis of vertebral body mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overaker, David Wolfgang

    1997-12-01

    A nonlinear micromechanical model for two-dimensional irregular hexagonal foams has been developed that allows for anisotropy in morphology and/or material. Based upon the orientation, cross-section, length, and material properties of each strut, the resulting micro-level beam behavior within the unit cell determines its structural properties. Nonlinearity is introduced as coupled elasto-plastic beam behavior, where the elasto-plastic behavior of each beam is considered. The analytical formulation for the stiffness matrix of the general elasto-plastic unit cell is found by considering compatibility and equilibrium of the unit cell. The structural properties of the elasto-plastic unit cell are embedded in a continuum finite element model as material properties, thus capturing the microstructure of the foam in an accurate and efficient model. Structural nonlinearity is therefore directly linked to localized plasticity and its evolution at the micro-level. Elastic analyses investigated the degree of anisotropy in structural properties that was induced by various morphological changes. Plastic analyses showed how structural nonlinearity could be explained by localized microstructural behavior. The formulation for the three-dimensional regular hexagonal foam was then developed as an extension of the two-dimensional formulation. Sensitivity of the constitutive properties to the microstructure and its orientation was studied. The model was then validated for application as an idealized model of the porous trabecular bone material of the human vertebra. The mechanical behavior of the model was shown to capture the basic characteristics of actual bone, where changes in behavior associated with age-related changes in bone architecture (increasing porosity with age) were also considered. Nonlinearity in the load-displacement behavior of trabecular bone specimens was directly linked to localized microstructural nonlinearity and its evolution. Validation was followed by

  7. Design and Analysis of High Quality Factor Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamond Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motieian Najar, Mohammad Hadi

    Diamond is an excellent material for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) due to its superlative material properties compared to commonly used materials such as silicon. In its single crystalline form, diamond offers properties such as very high Young's modulus, low thermal coefficient of expansion, and very high thermal conductivity as well as being chemically inert. Specifically, diamond's high thermal conductivity offers the potential for very low thermoelastic damping (TED) in micromechanical resonators. Polycrystalline (Poly-C) diamond films deposited by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) have been explored in this research. HFCVD Poly-C diamond films are easy and inexpensive to deposit at wafer-scale, and retain many material properties that single crystalline diamond possesses. The first part of the study focuses on fabrication and testing of high quality factor micro-resonators such as double-ended tuning forks (DETF) and micro-cantilevers fabricated from microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond films with grain sizes ranging from 20 nm (nanocrystalline films) to 2.5 microm (microcrystalline films). The aim of this first study was to determine whether the quality factor of HFCVD diamond resonators could reach the limits imposed by intrinsic dissipation mechanisms such as thermoelastic damping (TED). Previous studies showed large differences between measured Q-factors and the TED limit, in part because these studies assumed thermal conductivity similar to that of single crystalline diamond. Here the thermal conductivity of NCD and MCD films was measured using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), and the resulting Q-factor measurements were shown to agree well with the theoretical TED limit. The second part of this research focuses on identifying the causes of dissipation in diamond resonators and suggesting approaches to improve the mechanical Q-factor. It is shown that, besides variations in deposition conditions such as decreasing the CH4

  8. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  9. Analytic and computational micromechanics of clustering and interphase effects in carbon nanotube composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Gary D.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2006-01-01

    Effective elastic properties for carbon nanotube reinforced composites are obtained through a variety of micromechanics techniques. Using the in-plane elastic properties of graphene, the effective properties of carbon nanotubes are calculated utilizing a composite cylinders micromechanics technique as a first step in a two-step process. These effective properties are then used in the self-consistent and Mori-Tanaka methods to obtain effective elastic properties of composites consisting of aligned single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a polymer matrix. Effective composite properties from these averaging methods are compared to a direct composite cylinders approach extended from the work of Hashin and Rosen (1964) and Christensen and Lo (1979). Comparisons with finite element simulations are also performed. The effects of an interphase layer between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix as result of functionalization is also investigated using a multi-layer composite cylinders approach. Finally, the modeling of the clustering of nanotubes into bundles due to interatomic forces is accomplished herein using a tessellation method in conjunction with a multi-phase Mori-Tanaka technique. In addition to aligned nanotube composites, modeling of the effective elastic properties of randomly dispersed nanotubes into a matrix is performed using the Mori-Tanaka method, and comparisons with experimental data are made. Computational micromechanical analysis of high-stiffness hollow fiber nanocomposites is performed using the finite element method. The high-stiffness hollow fibers are modeled either directly as isotropic hollow tubes or equivalent transversely isotropic effective solid cylinders with properties computed using a micromechanics based composite cylinders method. Using a representative volume element for clustered high-stiffness hollow fibers embedded in a compliant matrix with the appropriate periodic boundary conditions, the effective elastic properties

  10. Genetic Characterization of Plasmid-Associated Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes Strain from the 1998-1999 Outbreak ▿

    PubMed Central

    Elhanafi, Driss; Dutta, Vikrant; Kathariou, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. PMID:20971860

  11. Determination of the concentration of maltose- and starch-like compounds in drinking water by growth measurements with a well-defined strain of a Flavobacterium species.

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, D; Hijnen, W A

    1985-01-01

    The growth kinetics of Flavobacterium sp. strain S12 specialized in the utilization of glycerol, and a number of oligo- and polysaccharides were determined in batch-culture experiments at 15 degrees C in pasteurized tap water supplied with very low amounts of substrates. Kss for the growth on maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, and maltohexaose were 0.03 microM or less and below those for glucose (1.5 microM) and maltose (0.16 microM). Kss for starch, amylose, and amylopectin were 8.4, 25.6, and 11.0 micrograms of C per liter, respectively. A yield of 2.3 X 10(7) CFU/micrograms of C on the oligo- and polysaccharides was calculated from the linear relationships observed between maximum colony counts in pasteurized tap water and the concentrations (usually below 25 micrograms of C per liter) of supplied compounds. The maximum colony counts of strain S12 grown in various types of raw water and tap water revealed that raw water contained only a few micrograms of maltose- and starch-like compounds per liter; in tap water the concentrations were all below 1 microgram of C and usually below 0.1 microgram of C per liter. The application of starch-based coagulant aids gave increased concentrations of maltose- and starch-like compounds in the water during treatment, but these concentrations were greatly reduced by coagulation and sedimentation, rapid sand filtration, and slow sand filtration. PMID:4004210

  12. Sequence analysis and minimal replicon determination of a new haloarchaeal plasmid pHF2 isolated from Haloferax sp. strain Q22.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoxing; Wang, Chuangming; Xiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic plasmid, pHF2 (2520 bp), was isolated from Haloferax sp. strain Q22 (CGMCC 1.15317), a haloarchaeal strain living in a subterranean halite deposit. Sequence analysis revealed that it is the smallest plasmid in the genus Haloferax so far, and three syntropic open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3) were identified on the same strand. ORF1 encodes a putative replication initiation protein (Rep). Three typical motifs (I, II, and III) were presented in the Rep proteins of rolling-circle replicating (RCR) plasmids. The amino acid sequence of the Rep protein is very similar to that of another haloarchaeal plasmid pNB101 in Natronobacterium sp. AS-7091 (coverage 97%, identity 56%). The minimal replicon (~1000 bp) of pHF2 was determined through the construction of a series of truncated plasmids. Interestingly, we also found that the incomplete rep gene still can drive plasmid replication. This plasmid has provided another valuable extra-chromosomal genetic resource, and deepened our knowledge in DNA replication. PMID:26601892

  13. VHF-band biconvex AlN-on-silicon micromechanical resonators with enhanced quality factor and suppressed spurious modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Cheng; E-Y Lee, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports experimental results demonstrating the use of biconvex-edge designs to enhance the quality factor (Q) in aluminum nitride (AlN)-on-silicon micromechanical resonators. The proposed biconvex design serves to confine the acoustic energy to the center of the resonators, thus reducing out-of-plane bending on the supporting tethers that contribute to acoustic energy leakage, thereby enhancing Q. We here demonstrate that the biconvex design concept can be scaled and applied across a range of operating frequencies from 70 to 141 MHz with the notable effect of boosting Q relative to conventional flat-edge designs. Our measurements of several resonators have shown that the biconvex designs result in an increase in Q by 4–10 times compared to conventional flat-edge designs. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of using different lengths of supporting tethers on Q for both biconvex and flat-edge designs. From the measurement results of devices under test, we have found that the variation in Q as a function of tether length was insignificant compared to the increase in Q going from a flat-edge to biconvex design. As such, the level of enhancement for Q using the biconvex design is much more significant compared to varying the geometry of the support structures. Interestingly, the biconvex shape causes a modal split that gives rise to an additional anti-symmetric mode not found in the flat-edge design. We show experimentally that this spurious anti-symmetric mode can be suppressed by over 54 dB by applying a novel center-loaded electrode design that matches the strain field pattern of the desired symmetric mode. Close agreements between the 3D coupled-domain finite element simulations and the measured results of fabricated devices have been obtained for the resonant frequencies and motional capacitances.

  14. Determining the mechanical constitutive properties of metals as a function of strain rate and temperature: A combined experimental and modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    I. M. Robertson; A. Beaudoin; J. Lambros

    2004-01-05

    OAK-135 Development and validation of constitutive models for polycrystalline materials subjected to high strain rate loading over a range of temperatures are needed to predict the response of engineering materials to in-service type conditions (foreign object damage, high-strain rate forging, high-speed sheet forming, deformation behavior during forming, response to extreme conditions, etc.). To account accurately for the complex effects that can occur during extreme and variable loading conditions, requires significant and detailed computational and modeling efforts. These efforts must be closely coupled with precise and targeted experimental measurements that not only verify the predictions of the models, but also provide input about the fundamental processes responsible for the macroscopic response. Achieving this coupling between modeling and experimentation is the guiding principle of this program. Specifically, this program seeks to bridge the length scale between discrete dislocation interactions with grain boundaries and continuum models for polycrystalline plasticity. Achieving this goal requires incorporating these complex dislocation-interface interactions into the well-defined behavior of single crystals. Despite the widespread study of metal plasticity, this aspect is not well understood for simple loading conditions, let alone extreme ones. Our experimental approach includes determining the high-strain rate response as a function of strain and temperature with post-mortem characterization of the microstructure, quasi-static testing of pre-deformed material, and direct observation of the dislocation behavior during reloading by using the in situ transmission electron microscope deformation technique. These experiments will provide the basis for development and validation of physically-based constitutive models, which will include dislocation-grain boundary interactions for polycrystalline systems. One aspect of the program will involve the dire ct

  15. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Nanoscale strain distributions in embedded SiGe semiconductor devices revealed by precession electron diffraction and dual lens dark field electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Y.; Cooper, D.; Bernier, N.; Rouviere, J.; Murray, C. E.; Bruley, J.

    2015-01-26

    The detailed strain distributions produced by embedded SiGe stressor structures are measured at high spatial resolution with high precision, with dual lens dark field electron holography and precession electron diffraction. Shear strain and lattice rotation within the crystalline lattice are observed at the boundaries between the SiGe and Si regions. The experimental results are compared to micromechanical modeling simulations to understand the mechanisms of elastic relaxation on all the modes of deformation at a sub-micron length scale.

  17. A micromechanical model for the deformation behavior of titanium polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, V.; Balokhonov, R.; Shakhidjanov, V.; Zinovieva, O.

    2015-10-01

    A microstructure-based constitutive model for a polycrystalline titanium alloy is constructed on the basis of anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity theory, with allowance made for the prismatic and basal slip systems. A three-dimensional polycrystalline structure consisting of 1600 grains is designed by a step-by-step packing method and introduced explicitly into finite-element calculations. Numerical modeling of uniaxial tension is performed using Abaqus/Explicit. Grains unfavorably oriented to the loading axis are shown to remain elastic, while slip occurs in the neighboring grains. As this takes place, rotational modes of deformation are activated in addition to shear strain (translational) modes, and surface grains with a low ability to yield demonstrate a tendency towards extrusion.

  18. Experimental and computational micromechanics at the tibial cement-trabeculae interface.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Priyanka; Miller, Mark A; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A; Janssen, Dennis

    2016-06-14

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component in cemented total knee arthroplasty remains a major concern. We hypothesize that micromotion between the cement and trabeculae leads to increased circulation of interstitial fluid which in turn causes fluid-induced resorption of the trabeculae. Another mechanism for implant loosening is trabecular strain shielding. Using a newly developed experimental setup and digital image correlation (DIC) methods we were able to measure micromotion and strains in lab-prepared cement-trabeculae interface specimens (n=4). Finite element (FE) models of these specimens were developed to determine whether differences in micromotion and strain in morphologically varying specimens could be simulated accurately. Results showed that the measured micromotion and strains correlated well with FE model predictions (r(2)=0.59-0.85; r(2)=0.66-0.90). Global specimen strains measured axially matched well with the FE model strains (r(2)=0.87). FE model cement strains showed an increasing trend with distance from the cement border. The influence of loss of trabecular connectivity at the specimen edges was studied using our FE model results. Micromotion values at the outer edge of the specimens were higher than the specimen interior when considering a very thin outer edge (0.1mm). When the outer edge thickness was increased to about one trabecular length (0.8mm), there was a drop in the median and peak values. Using the experimental and modelling approach outlined in this study, we can further study the mechanisms that lead to loss of interlock between cement and trabeculae at the tibial interface. PMID:27079621

  19. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  20. Application of reference point indentation for micro-mechanical surface characterization of calcium silicate based dental materials.

    PubMed

    Antonijević, Djordje; Milovanović, Petar; Riedel, Christoph; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn; Djurić, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate micromechanical properties of Biodentine and two experimental calcium silicate cements (CSCs) using Reference Point Indentation (RPI). Biomechanical characteristics of the cement type and the effects of a radiopacifier, liquid components, acid etching treatment and bioactivation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated by measuring the microhardness, average unloading slope (Avg US) and indentation distance increase (IDI). Biodentine had a greater microhardness than the experimental CSCs, while the Avg US and IDI values were not significantly different among investigated materials. There was a statistically significant difference in microhardness and IDI values between pure CSCs and radiopacified cements (p < 0.05). Micromechanical properties were not affected by different liquid components used. Acid-etching treatment reduced Biodentine's microhardness while cements' immersion in SBF resulted in greater microhardness and higher IDI values compared to the control group. Clearly, the physiological environment and the cements' composition affect their surface micromechanical properties. The addition of calcium chloride and CSCs' immersion in SBF are beneficial for CSCs' micromechanical performance, while the addition of radiopacifiers and acid etching treatment weaken the CSCs' surface. Application of RPI aids with the characterization of micromechanical properties of synthetic materials' surfaces. PMID:26888441