Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited
Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.
2014-03-05
We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.
Stephenson, E. J.
2008-02-06
Following an introduction to the physics motivation for the search for an intrinsic electric dipole moment, the possibility of developing a storage ring search using a polarized deuteron beam is reviewed. Such a search involves continuous monitoring of the deuteron beam polarization during the beam store. Polarimeter concepts for this project are developed.
Study of all Reaction Channels in Deuteron-Deuteron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gašparić, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Stephenson, E. J.; Sworst, R.
Few-nucleon systems can be used as fundamental laboratories for studying details of the nuclear force effects. We performed a series of deuteron-deuteron scattering experiments at intermediate energies. The experiments exploited BINA and BBS experimental setups and polarized deuteron beams with kinetic energies of 65 and 90 MeV/nucleon. These experiments aim to measure differential cross sections, vector and tensor analyzing powers of all available reaction channels in deuteron-deuteron scattering. With these data we will provide a systematic database, which will be used to test present theoretical approximations and upcoming ab-initio calculations in four-nucleon system.
Kurennoy, S S; O' Hara, J F; Rybarcyk, L J
2008-01-01
We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.
Holt, R.J.
1992-01-01
Two of the simplest nuclear reactions, electron deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron photodisintegration, will be discussed. In particular, measurements of the tensor analyzing power T{sub 20} in e-d scattering performed with a polarized gas target in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring will be presented. In addition, measurements of deuteron photodisintegration at high energy performed at SLAC will be discussed. The meson-exchange calculations appear to agree well with al available data for electron-deuteron elastic scattering, while the constituent counting rules appear to describe the high-energy deuteron photodisintegration results at {theta}cm = 90{degrees}.
Olgun, Abdullah; Oztürk, Kamile; Bayir, Selda; Akman, Serif; Erbil, M Kemal
2007-04-01
Deuterium has one proton and one neutron in its atomic nucleus, but hydrogen has only proton. The natural abundance of deuterium is 1 per approximately 6600 hydrogen atoms. Therefore deuterated water (both HOD + D(2)O [heavy water]) abundance is 1 per approximately 3300 water molecules. One dissociation product of deuterated and heavy water is deuteron (proton + neutron, D(+), H(2)OD(+)/D(3)O(+)). Because heavy water has a lower ionization constant than water, the D(+)/H(+) ratio is approximately 1/15,000 in biological fluids. O-D bond length is shorter than O-H, and D-O-D angle is lesser than H-O-H. Once a deuteron exchanges with proton on the water-exposed surface of a macromolecule, it can lead to a conformational change and the reverse exchange will be less likely. Deuteron bonds are stronger than proton bonds. Therefore an increase of deuteronated macromolecules can be expected in due course of time. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and measured the D/H ratio in the tails of three Sprague-Dawley rats at different ages (4 weeks, 5 weeks, and >1-year old) by elemental analysis coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) technique. To prevent the effect of daily water consumption, the homogenized tails were lyophilized before analysis. The results, as mean of several measurements, of 4 weeks, 5 weeks, and >1-year-old rats were per thousand-94 +/- 9.56, per thousand-101.71 +/- 6.89, per thousand-83.68 +/- 3.46 delta((2)H) relative to VSMOW, respectively. Although there is a slight increase in >1-year-old rat, the difference among the animals was not significant. We propose that, before reaching to a final conclusion about the accumulation of deuterium with aging, the measurements should be done not in whole tissue samples but in purified macromolecules from a larger set of animals. PMID:17460204
Neutrino pion production off deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myhrer, F.; Pastore, S.
2016-03-01
Experimental investigations of neutrino properties, using neutrino beams generated at accelerators facilities, necessitate a detailed and precise knowledge of neutrinonucleus reaction mechanisms. In the energy region of nuclear quasi-elastic scattering, pion-production reactions constitute an important background process. A theoretical understanding of these processes is then required in order to correctly determine the produced neutrino energy spectrum. In the first stage of our research project, we study neutrino induced pion-production off deuterons. The choice of the deuteron minimizes the complications of the nuclear dynamics associated with larger nuclear systems. We evaluate the pion-production reaction near threshold using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory.
Electromagnetic Structure of the Deuteron
Franz Gross
2002-06-01
Recent high energy measurements of elastic ed scattering support the use of a relativistic theory based on an accurate description of the NN channel, but theory needed for an understanding of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration cross sections and polarized observables is not yet mature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, Roger H.
1986-03-01
The naming of the deuteron involved a protracted debate between 1933 and 1935. The principal protagonists were Harold C. Urey, Gilbert N. Lewis, Ernest O. Lawrence, and Ernest Rutherford, but others on both sides of the Atlantic entered the fray as well. This paper examines the arguments and issues that emerged in the debate, and the process by which agreement was finally achieved on the name for this new particle.
Nonlocality in deuteron stripping reactions.
Timofeyuk, N K; Johnson, R C
2013-03-15
We propose a new method for the analysis of deuteron stripping reactions, A(d,p)B, in which the nonlocality of nucleon-nucleus interactions and three-body degrees of freedom are accounted for in a consistent way. The model deals with equivalent local nucleon potentials taken at an energy shifted by ∼40 MeV from the "E(d)/2" value frequently used in the analysis of experimental data, where E(d) is the incident deuteron energy. The "E(d)/2" rule lies at the heart of all three-body analyses of (d, p) reactions performed so far with the aim of obtaining nuclear structure properties such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients that are crucial for our understanding of nuclear shell evolution in neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear periodic table and for predicting the cross sections of stellar reactions. The large predicted shift arises from the large relative kinetic energy of the neutron and proton in the incident deuteron in those components of the n+p+A wave function that dominate the (d, p) reaction amplitude. The large shift reduces the effective d-A potentials and leads to a change in predicted (d, p) cross sections, thus affecting the interpretation of these reactions in terms of nuclear structure. PMID:25166525
Formation of deuterons by coalescence: Consequences for deuteron number fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecková, Zuzana; Steinheimer, Jan; Tomášik, Boris; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-05-01
Two scenarios for cluster production have long been discussed in the literature: (i) direct emission of the clusters from a (grand-canonical) thermal source or (ii) subsequent formation of the clusters by coalescence of single nucleons. While both approaches have been successfully applied in the past it has not yet been clarified which of the two mechanisms dominates the cluster production. We propose to use recently developed event-by-event techniques to study particle multiplicity fluctuations on nuclear clusters and employ this analysis to the deuteron number fluctuations to disentangle the two production mechanisms. We argue that for a grand-canonical cluster formation, the cluster fluctuations will follow Poisson distribution, while for the coalescence scenario, the fluctuations will strongly deviate from the Poisson expectation. We estimate the effect to be 10% for the variance and up to a factor of 5 for the kurtosis of the deuteron number multiplicity distribution. Our prediction can be tested in the beam energy scan program at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as well as experiments at the GSI Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research and the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility.
Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons
Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M; Stephenson, E J
2011-03-01
Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.
Towards High Precision Deuteron Polarimetry
Silva e Silva, M. da
2009-08-04
A finite electric dipole moment (EDM) in any fundamental system would constitute a signal for new physics. The deuteron presents itself as an optimal candidate both experimentally and theoretically. A new storage ring technique is being developed for which a small change in the vertical polarization would be a signal of a non-zero EDM. A novel polarimeter concept is under investigation. Besides being highly efficient, this polarimeter should continuously monitor the beam polarization, guaranteeing optimal sensitivity. Detailed studies on systematic error control, in addition to the measurement of cross sections and analyzing powers, were carried out at KVI-Groningen in The Netherlands. Measurements were conducted at COSY-Juelich in Germany yielding high efficiencies. The (statistics limited) ability to track changes in polarization at the level of a few hundred parts-per-million has been demonstrated. Further studies and developments to meet the final goal of sub-part-per-million sensitivity are in progress.
Three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions: Single-scattering approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deltuva, A.; Fonseca, A. C.
2016-04-01
We present results for the three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions at 130 and 270 MeV deuteron beam energy. The breakup amplitude is calculated using the first term in the Neumann series expansion of the corresponding exact four-nucleon equations. In analogy with nucleon-deuteron breakup where an equivalent approximation is compared with exact calculations, we expect this single-scattering approximation to provide a rough estimation of three-body breakup observables in quasifree configurations. We predict the nucleon-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron three-cluster breakup cross sections to be of a comparable size and thereby question the reliability of the recent experimental data [A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, 2009; A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani et al., EPJ Web Conf. 3, 04012 (2010), 10.1051/epjconf/20100304012], which are smaller by about three orders of magnitude. We also show that an equivalent single-scattering approximation provides a reasonable description of deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at forward-scattering angles.
Neutron and deuteron activation calculations for IFMIF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrest, R. A.; Loughlin, M. J.
2007-08-01
The materials for future fusion devices such as DEMO require testing to high neutron fluence. Such testing is planned to be carried out in IFMIF, an accelerator based facility where the neutrons will have maximum energy of about 55 MeV, but with a broad peak near 14 MeV. In order that activation calculations for IFMIF can be carried out, the nuclear data must contain cross sections covering a similar energy range. A description of the EASY-2005 system is given and it is noted that a new library has been added to EASY to cover another significant source of activation from deuteron-induced reactions. Calculations of the neutron activation of materials in many regions of IFMIF have been carried out. These calculations are reported, and the contribution of neutrons above 20 MeV to the activation is discussed. Preliminary calculations using the deuteron library have been made and the activation from deuterons is discussed.
Measurement of deuteron tensor polarization in elastic electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafsson, Kenneth Kurt
Jefferson Lab Experiment E94018 measured the deuteron tensor moments t20, t21, and t 22 at six kinematical settings at four momentum transfers from 4.1 fm -1 to 6.6 fm-1. The new data on t20, the concurrently measured deuteron structure function A(Q2) data, and world data on the deuteron structure function B( Q2) allowed a separation of the deuteron form factors GC and GQ. The deuteron structure is well described by both non-relativistic and relativistic theoretical models while pQCD predictions are not applicable in this four momentum regime.
The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, S. X.; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.
2016-06-01
BISOL, which was named as Beijing_ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He2+ beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.
Effective radii of deuteron-induced reactions
Hashimoto, Shintaro; Chiba, Satoshi; Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Minomo, Kosho
2011-05-15
The continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) for exclusive reactions and the eikonal reaction theory (ERT) as an extension of CDCC to inclusive reactions are applied to deuteron-induced reactions. The CDCC result reproduces experimental data on the reaction cross section for d+{sup 58}Ni scattering at 200 MeV/nucleon, and ERT provides data on the neutron-stripping cross section for inclusive {sup 7}Li(d,n) reaction at 40 MeV. For deuteron-induced reactions at 200 MeV/nucleon, target-dependence of the reaction, elastic-breakup, nucleon-stripping, nucleon-removal, and complete- and incomplete-fusion cross sections is clearly explained by simple formulas. Accuracy of the Glauber model is also investigated.
COMMISSIONING OF RHIC DEUTERON - GOLD COLLISIONS.
SATOGATA,T.AHRENS,L.BAI,M.BEEBE-WANG,J.
2003-05-12
Deuteron and gold beams have been accelerated to a collision energy of {radical}s = 200 GeV/u in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), providing the first asymmetric-species collisions of this complex. Necessary changes for this mode of operation include new ramping software and asymmetric crossing angle geometries. This paper reviews machine performance, problem encountered and their solutions, and accomplishments during the 16 weeks of ramp-up and operations.
Coherent ω-Meson Photoproduction off Deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chetry, Taya; Hicks, Kenneth; CLAS Collaboration
2016-03-01
Coherent ω photoproduction from the deuteron has been studied using CLAS at Jefferson Lab, Virginia, as a function of the photon energy and the 4-momentum transfer. Tagged photons with beam energies between 0.8 and 3.6 GeV were produced using the bremsstrahlung process incident on a deuterium target, during the run period g10. The final state particles detected are an energetic deuteron and a pair of charged pions. These events were constrained to have neutral pion missing mass, to ensure an exclusive reaction where an ω-meson decays into a π+, a π- and a π0. This study allows to test models of hadronic scattering of ω-mesons from the nucleon, as it is not possible to produce beams of ω-mesons. A preliminary differential cross section of the ω-meson in the coherent process is presented. In addition, this final state is useful to investigate a possible d* dibaryon resonance that has been seen in other reaction channels at CLAS, as well as being seen earlier in partial-wave analysis of pion-deuteron scattering at a mass of about 2145 MeV.
Exclusive nuclear reactions: Can you count on the deuteron
Holt, R.J.
1991-01-01
Three of the simplest nuclear reactions -- (1) electron-deuteron elastic scattering, (2) electro-disintegration of the deuteron near threshold and at high momentum transfer, and (3) photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy -- were believed to have unique signatures for OCD effects in nuclei. The progress in the past few years with regard to these reactions will be traced and the results will be compared with recent theoretical predictions. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Beričič, J.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Huan, Y.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Weber, A.
2016-03-01
A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm-1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm-1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.
Santilli’s hadronic mechanics of formation of deuteron
Dhondge, Sudhakar S.
2015-03-10
In the present communication a brief review of the structure of deuteron proposed by Professor Santilli [1, 2] and its physical properties have been presented. Although Deuteron is a simple molecule, quantum mechanics has been unable to explain its different properties like the spin, magnetic moment, binding energy, stability, charge radius, dipole moment, etc. However, the Hadronic Mechanics developed by Santilli and applied by him [1, 2] to deuteron has succeeded in explaining the above properties to the scientific satisfaction. Santilli proposed Deuteron as a three body system which could take care of all the insufficiencies of quantum mechanics.
Three-body break-up in deuteron-deuteron scattering at 65 MeV/nucleon
Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Stephenson, E. J.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gasparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Stephan, E.
2011-02-15
In an experiment with a 65 MeV/nucleon polarized deuteron beam on a liquid-deuterium target at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, several multibody final states in deuteron-deuteron scattering were identified. For these measurements, a unique and advanced detection system, called the Big Instrument for Nuclear-polarization Analysis, was utilized. We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vector and tensor polarization observables of the deuteron break-up reaction leading to a three-body final state. The polarization observables were determined with high precision in a nearly background-free experiment. The analysis procedure and some results are presented.
Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron-deuteron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichart, Patrick; Moser, Marcus; Greubel, Christoph; Peeper, Katrin; Dollinger, Günther
2016-03-01
Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron-deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering (~100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron-proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel. A deuterium detection limit due to accidental coincidences of 3 at-ppm down to less than 1 at-ppm is demonstrated on deuterated polypropylen sheets as well as thick polycarbonate sheets after various stages of coincidence filtering that is possible with our granular detector.
Deuteron Electromagnetic Form Factors in AdS/QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Gutsche, Thomas; Schmidt, Ivan; Vega, Alfredo
2016-07-01
We extend a soft-wall AdS/QCD approach to a description of deuteron properties. Our framework is based an effective action formulated in terms of AdS fields, which are holographically equivalent to the deuteron and photon fields. This action produces the equation of motion for the deuteron wave function and the Q^2-dependent electromagnetic current, which are then used to calculate the deuteron electromagnetic form factors and structure functions in the Euclidean region. We show that the predicted deuteron quantities are expressed through a universal function, which is defined by a single scale parameter κ and which has the correct 1/Q^{10} power scaling at large Q^2.
Deuteron Electromagnetic Form Factors in AdS/QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Gutsche, Thomas; Schmidt, Ivan; Vega, Alfredo
2016-03-01
We extend a soft-wall AdS/QCD approach to a description of deuteron properties. Our framework is based an effective action formulated in terms of AdS fields, which are holographically equivalent to the deuteron and photon fields. This action produces the equation of motion for the deuteron wave function and the Q^2 -dependent electromagnetic current, which are then used to calculate the deuteron electromagnetic form factors and structure functions in the Euclidean region. We show that the predicted deuteron quantities are expressed through a universal function, which is defined by a single scale parameter κ and which has the correct 1/Q^{10} power scaling at large Q^2.
Deuteron-induced fusion in various environments
Hale, G.M.; Talley, T.L.
1994-04-01
The theory of deuteron-induced fusion will be discussed, first in free space, then in muonic molecules where the Coulomb repulsion is highly screened. It will be shown how a consistent description of the d + t reactions can be obtained in these environments using R-matrix theory. We compare fusion rates obtained from the time-dependent scattering theory with those implied by the partial widths of the resonance associated with muon-catalyzed d-t fusion. Finally, some speculative comments are made about how the d + d reactions might proceed in other media, such as metallic lattices. The unusual properties of states associated with ``shadow`` poles might account for some of the strange results seen in cold fusion experiments. We emphasize that the same methods can, and should, be used to describe this situation as well as the other two well-established phenomena.
Deuterons and flow: At intermediate AGS energies
Kahana, D.E.; Pang, Y. |; Kahana, S.H.
1996-06-01
A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics and Monte Carlo cascading is applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS and BEVALAC energies. The model was found to be in excellent agreement with particle spectra where data previously existed, for Si beams, and was able to successfully predict the spectra where data was initially absent, for Au beams. For Si + Au collisions baryon densities of three or four times the normal nuclear matter density ({rho}{sub 0}) are seen in the theory, while for Au + Au collisions, matter at densities up to 10 {rho}{sub 0} is anticipated. The possibility that unusual states of matter may be created in the Au beams and potential signatures for its observation, in particular deuterons and collective flow, are considered.
Intermediate energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.
1973-01-01
A fully symmetrized multiple scattering series is considered for the description of proton-deuteron elastic scattering. An off-shell continuation of the experimentally known twobody amplitudes that retains the exchange symmeteries required for the calculation is presented. The one boson exchange terms of the two body amplitudes are evaluated exactly in this off-shell prescription. The first two terms of the multiple scattering series are calculated explicitly whereas multiple scattering effects are obtained as minimum variance estimates from the 146-MeV data of Postma and Wilson. The multiple scattering corrections indeed consist of low order partial waves as suggested by Sloan based on model studies with separable interactions. The Hamada-Johnston wave function is shown consistent with the data for internucleon distances greater than about 0.84 fm.
Novel Physics with Tensor Polarized Deuteron Targets
Slifer, Karl J.; Long, Elena A.
2013-09-01
Development of solid spin-1 polarized targets will open the study of tensor structure functions to precise measurement, and holds the promise to enable a new generation of polarized scattering experiments. In this talk we will discuss a measurement of the leading twist tensor structure function b1, along with prospects for future experiments with a solid tensor polarized target. The recently approved JLab experiment E12-13-011 will measure the lead- ing twist tensor structure function b1, which provides a unique tool to study partonic effects, while also being sensitive to coherent nuclear properties in the simplest nuclear system. At low x, shadowing effects are expected to dominate b1, while at larger values, b1 provides a clean probe of exotic QCD effects, such as hidden color due to 6-quark configuration. Since the deuteron wave function is relatively well known, any non-standard effects are expected to be readily observable. All available models predict a small or vanishing value of b1 at moderate x. However, the first pioneer measurement of b1 at HERMES revealed a crossover to an anomalously large negative value in the region 0.2 < x < 0.5, albeit with relatively large experimental uncertainty. E12-13-011 will perform an inclusive measurement of the deuteron tensor asymmetry in the region 0.16 < x < 0.49, for 0.8 < Q2 < 5.0 GeV2. The UVa solid polarized ND3 target will be used, along with the Hall C spectrometers, and an unpolarized 115 nA beam. This measurement will provide access to the tensor quark polarization, and allow a test of the Close-Kumano sum rule, which vanishes in the absence of tensor polarization in the quark sea. Until now, tensor structure has been largely unexplored, so the study of these quantities holds the potential of initiating a new field of spin physics at Jefferson Lab.
Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter
2015-08-01
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M
High Energy Two-Body Deuteron Photodisintegration
Terburg, Bart
1999-07-31
The differential cross section for twobody deuteron photodisintegration was measured at photon energies between 0.8 and 4.0 GeV and centerofmass angles theta_cm =37deg, 53deg, 70deg, and 90deg as part of CEBAF experiment E89012. Constituent counting rules predict a scaling of this cross section at asymptotic energies. In previous experiments this scaling has surprisingly been observed at energies between 1.4 and 2.8 GeV at 90deg. The results from this experiment are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements at lower energies. The data at 70deg and 90deg show a constituent counting rule behavior up to 4.0 GeV photon energy. The 37deg and 53deg data do not agree with the constituent counting rule prediction. The new data are compared with a variety of theoretical models inspired by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and traditional hadronic nuclear physics.
Application of deuteron-deuteron (D-D) fusion neutrons to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology.
Renne, Paul R; Knight, Kim B; Nomade, Sébastien; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak-Pui
2005-01-01
Neutron irradiation of samples for 40Ar/39Ar dating in a 235U fission reactor requires error-producing corrections for the argon isotopes created from Ca, K, and, to a lesser extent, Cl. The fission spectrum includes neutrons with energies above 2-3 MeV, which are not optimal for the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction. These higher-energy neutrons are responsible for the largest recoil displacements, which may introduce age artifacts in the case of fine-grained samples. Both interference corrections and recoil displacements would be significantly reduced by irradiation with 2.45 MeV neutrons, which are produced by the deuteron-deuteron (D-D) fusion reaction 2H(d,n)3He. A new generation of D-D reactors should yield sufficiently high neutron fluxes (>10(12) n cm(-2)s(-1)) to be useful for 40Ar/39Ar dating. Modeling indicates that irradiation with D-D neutrons would result in scientific benefits of improved accuracy and broader applicability to fine-grained materials. In addition, radiological safety would be improved, while both maintenance and operational costs would be reduced. Thus, development of high-flux D-D fusion reactors is a worthy goal for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. PMID:15498681
Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility projecta)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.
2012-02-01
The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D+ ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D+ beam that passed through the ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16π mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.
Quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering in the weak binding approximation
Ethier, Jacob J.; Doshi, Nidhi P.; Malace, Simona P.; Melnitchouk, Wally
2014-06-01
We perform a global analysis of all available electron-deuteron quasielastic scattering data using Q^2-dependent smearing functions that describe inclusive inelastic e-d scattering within the weak binding approximation. We study the dependence of the cross sections on the deuteron wave function and the off-shell extrapolation of the elastic electron-nucleon cross section, which show particular sensitivity at x >> 1. The excellent overall agreement with data over a large range of Q^2 and x suggest a limited need for effects beyond the impulse approximation, with the exception of the very high-x or very low-Q^2 regions, where short-distance effects in the deuteron become more relevant.
Using Tensor Momentum Dependent Deuteron Potential to Extract the Asymptotic D/S Ratio
Emad El-Deen, A. Sultan; Mustafa, Mustafa M.; Zahran, Elbadry S.
2010-09-30
A new value for the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta} = 0.02640{+-}0.00024 is extracted from an empirical linear {eta}-Q relation found for a class of deuteron momentum dependent potentials with tensor momentum dependent part. These potentials fit a recently published phase shift analysis and the binding energy of the deuteron.
A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.
HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.
2002-06-02
There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.
The Deuteron Beam Polarimetry at Nuclotron-NICA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladygin, V. P.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Janek, M.; Reznikov, S. G.
2016-02-01
The current deuteron beam polarimetry at Nuclotron is provided by the Internal Target polarimeter based on the use of the asymmetry in dp- elastic scattering at large angles in the c.m.s. at 270 MeV. The calibration of the existing deuteron beam polarimeter at Internal Target in the wide energy range will allow to obtain the accuracy of the vector and tensor beam polarization values of about 3-5%. Further upgrade of low energy and extracted beam polarimeters is discussed.
Deuteron as a Skyrmion with a generalized mass term
Bonenfant, Eric; Marleau, Luc
2009-12-01
We calculate the energies of the B=1 and B=2 Skyrmions with a generalized mass term proposed in [V. B. Kopeliovich, B. Piette, and W. J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rev. D 73, 014006 (2006).], allowing for (iso-)rotational deformations within the axially-symmetric ansatz. We show that this modification of the chiral symmetry breaking term is not sufficient to accommodate for the experimental value of the binding energy of the deuteron. Also, a computation of the different vibrational modes and energies reveals how the deuteron rigidity is affected as a function of the mass parameter D.
The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS
M. Osipenko; G. Ricco; S. Simula; M. Battaglieri; M. Ripani
2005-07-01
The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.
Exclusive ρ0 muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moinester, M. A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A. N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N. V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2012-12-01
The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry AUTsin(ϕ-ϕS) in hard exclusive production of ρ0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions Eq, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q2, xBj and pT2 dependence of AUTsin(ϕ-ϕS) is presented in a wide kinematic range: 1 (
JLAB Measurements of the Deuteron Electric and Magnetic Form Factors
Gerassimos G. Petratos
2000-12-12
Large-momentum transfer JLab measurements of the deuteron electric and magnetic form factors are reported. The data are compared to theoretical models based on the relativistic impulse approximation with the inclusion of meson-exchange currents, and to predictions of quark-dimensional scaling and perturbative QCD.
Time reversal invariance violation in neutron-deuteron scattering
Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas
2011-06-15
Time reversal invariance-violating (TRIV) effects in low-energy elastic neutron-deuteron scattering are calculated using meson exchange and EFT-type TRIV potentials in a distorted-wave Born approximation with realistic hadronic strong interaction wave functions, obtained by solving the three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space. The relation between TRIV and parity-violating observables is discussed.
Spin Structure Moments of the Proton and Deuteron
Slifer, Karl; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Aghalaryan, Aram; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Asaturyan, Razmik; Bloch, Frederic; Boeglin, Werner; Bosted, Peter; Carasco, Cedric; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chen, Jian-Ping; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Coman, Luminita; Crabb, Donald; Danagoulian, Samuel; Day, Donal; Dunne, James; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Frlez, Emil; Gaskell, David; Gan, Liping; Gomez, Javier; Hu, Bitao; Jourdan, Juerg; Jones, Mark; Keith, Christopher; Keppel, Cynthia; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Klein, Andreas; Kramer, Laird; Liang, Yongguang; Lichtenstadt, Jechiel; Lindgren, Richard; Mack, David; McKee, Paul; McNulty, Dustin; Meekins, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Normand, Kristoff; Norum, Blaine; Pocanic, Dinko; Prok, Yelena; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Rohe, Daniela; Savvinov, Nikolai; Sawatzky, Bradley; Seely, Mikell; Sick, Ingo; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tang, Liguang; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Testa, Giuseppe; Vulcan, William; Wang, Kebin; Warren, G.; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Yun, Junho; Zeier, Markus; Guo Zhu, Hong
2009-01-01
Moments of the spin structure functions g1 and g2 of the proton and deuteron have been measured in the resonance region at intermediate four momentum transfer. We perform a Nachtmann moment analysis of this data, along with isovector and isoscalar combinations, in order to rigorously account for target mass effects. This analysis provides the first definitive evidence for dynamic higher twists.
Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ -isobars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granados, Carlos; Sargsian, Misak
2011-04-01
Photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ-isobars at large center of mass angles is studied within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the reaction proceeds in three main steps: the photon knocks the quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons emerging at large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn --> ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ++Δ- is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ+Δ0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ-isobars are the result of the disintegration of initial ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ++Δ- and Δ+Δ0 channels are expected to be similar. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant under contract DE-FG02-01ER41172, and by the FIU DEA program.
Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.
2011-05-01
We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ++Δ- is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ+Δ0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ++Δ- and Δ+Δ0 channels to be similar.
Babenko, V. A. Petrov, N. M.
2011-03-15
The correlation between the deuteron quadrupole moment Q, the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta}, and the deuteron asymptotic normalization constant AS is studied. For local nucleon-nucleon potentials, it was found that the quantities Q/{eta} and A{sub S}{sup 2} are related by a linear equation. Owing to this, the deuteron quadrupole moment Q can be determined from known values of AS and {eta} with an absolute precision of about 0.0003 fm{sup 2}. The inclusion of the correction for meson-exchange currents and the use of the experimental neutron-proton phase shifts from the GWU partial-wave analysis made it possible to estimate the deuteron quadrupole moment at Q = 0.2852 fm{sup 2}, which is in good agreement with experimental data.
Investigation of the intermediate-energy deuteron breakup reaction
Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E.; Mustafa, M.G.; Udagawa, T.; Tamura, T.
1989-01-01
The Udagawa-Tamura formalism is employed to calculate the proton singles both in the bound and unbound regions. Both the Elastic-Breakup (EB) and the Breakup-Fusion (BF) processes are considered to calculate the doubly-differential cross section for light and intermediate mass nuclei. The calculated spectra for 25 and 56 MeV deuterons reproduce the experimental spectra very well except for the spectra at large angle and at low energies, of the outgoing particle. Contributions due to precompound and evaporation processes are estimated to supplement the spectral results based on the Elastic-Breakup and Breakup-Fusion mechanisms. An extension of the model calculations to higher deuteron energies is being made to test the (EB + BF) model limitations. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Measuring the Rate of Muon Capture on the Deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibanez, Luis
2014-03-01
The goal of the MuSun experiment is to measure the rate of nuclear muon capture on the deuteron with a precision of 1.5%. This rate will be used to fix the low-energy constant that describes the two-nucleon weak axial current in effective field theory models. It will therefore calibrate evaluations of proton-proton fusion and neutrino-deuteron scattering. The experiment uses many of the techniques and much of the apparatus that were developed for the successful MuCap measurement of the rate of muon capture on the proton. However, to optimize the molecular kinetics, the deuterium gas is cooled to 30 K in a cryogenic time projection chamber (TPC). Progress in the analysis of the data taken during the production run of 2011 will be presented, as well as a description of the hardware upgrades and performance during the 2013 run, in preparation for another high-statistics run in 2014.
Nucleon-deuteron scattering using the adiabatic projection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rupak, Gautam
2016-06-01
In this paper we discuss the adiabatic projection method, a general framework for scattering and reaction calculations on the lattice. We also introduce several new techniques developed to study nucleus-nucleus scattering and reactions on the lattice. We present technical details of the method for large-scale problems. To estimate the systematic errors of the calculations we consider simple two-particle scattering on the lattice. Then we benchmark the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by applying these to calculate fermion-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory with and without a long-range Coulomb potential. The fermion-dimer calculations correspond to neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron scattering in the spin-quartet channel at leading order in the pionless effective field theory.
Coherent pi{sup 0} Photoproduction on the Deuteron
David Meekins
2004-11-01
The differential scattering cross section for the process gamma d {yields} d pi{sup 0} was measured, as part of experiment E89-012 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The experiment was performed in Hall C during the Spring of 1996 as the commissioning experiment for the Hall C cryogenic target. The High Momentum Spectrometer was used to detect the recoil deuteron and no effort was made to detect the pi{sup 0} or its decay photons. The differential cross section was measured at a number of incident photon energies between 0.8 GeV and 4.0 GeV for the center-of-mass angles of 90 degrees and 136 degrees. The data were found to disagree with both the constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude predictions. These are the first data at large deuteron center-of-mass angles for photon energies larger than 1.6 GeV.
Precise measurement of deuteron tensor analyzing powers with BLAST.
Zhang, C; Kohl, M; Akdogan, T; Alarcon, R; Bertozzi, W; Booth, E; Botto, T; Calarco, J R; Clasie, B; Crawford, C; DeGrush, A; Dow, K; Farkhondeh, M; Fatemi, R; Filoti, O; Franklin, W; Gao, H; Geis, E; Gilad, S; Hasell, D; Karpius, P; Kolster, H; Lee, T; Maschinot, A; Matthews, J; McIlhany, K; Meitanis, N; Milner, R; Rapaport, J; Redwine, R; Seely, J; Shinozaki, A; Sindile, A; Širca, S; Six, E; Smith, T; Tonguc, B; Tschalär, C; Tsentalovich, E; Turchinetz, W; Xiao, Y; Xu, W; Zhou, Z-L; Ziskin, V; Zwart, T
2011-12-16
We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T(20) and T(21) at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50 fm(-1) with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors G(C) and G(Q) were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of G(C) was confirmed at Q=4.19±0.05 fm(-1). The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T(20) and the first node of G(C). PMID:22243068
Spin structure functions: Proton / deuteron measurements in the resonance region
Mark Jones; RSS Collaboration
2006-02-01
The RSS experiment ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab and measured the proton and deuteron beam-target asymmetries for parallel and perpendicular target fields over a W range from pion threshold to 1.9 GeV at Q{sup 2} {approx} 1.3 GeV{sup 2}. Preliminary results for the proton spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} are presented.
Hard breakup of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars
Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.
2011-05-15
We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to {Delta}{sup ++}{Delta}{sup -} is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the {Delta}{sup +}{Delta}{sup 0} channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard {Delta} isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting {Delta}{Delta} components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both {Delta}{sup ++}{Delta}{sup -} and {Delta}{sup +}{Delta}{sup 0} channels to be similar.
Recent results on deuteron-proton scattering from RIKEN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekiguchi, Kimiko
2016-03-01
Nucleon-deuteron (Nd) scattering, for which a rigorous formulation in terms of Faddeev equations exists and exact solutions of these equations for any dynamical input can be obtained, offers a good opportunity to study the dynamical aspects of 3NFs, such as momentum and spin dependences. Since the first indication of 3NF effects in Nd elastic scattering around 100 MeV/nucleon, precise measurements of proton-deuteron / neutron-deuteron scattering have been extensively performed at 60-300 MeV/nucleon. Direct comparison between the data and the Faddeev calculations based on realistic nucleon-nucleon forces plus 2π-exchange three nucleon forces draws the following conclusions. (1) The 3NF is definitely needed in Nd elastic scattering. (2) The spin dependent parts of the 3NFs may be deficient. (3) The shorter-range components of the 3NFs are probably required for the cross section as well as the spin observables at backward angles with increasing an incident energy.
Polarization observables in hard rescattering mechanism of deuteron photodisintegration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsian, Misak M.
2004-05-01
Polarization properties of high energy photodisintegration of the deuteron are studied within the framework of the hard rescattering mechanism (HRM). In HRM, a quark of one nucleon knocked-out by the incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with high relative momentum. Summation of all relevant quark rescattering amplitudes allows us to express the scattering amplitude of the reaction through the convolution of a hard photon-quark interaction vertex, the large angle p-n scattering amplitude and the low momentum deuteron wave function. Within HRM, it is demonstrated that the polarization observables in hard photodisintegration of the deuteron can be expressed through the five helicity amplitudes of NN scattering at high momentum transfer. At 90° CM scattering HRM predicts the dominance of the isovector channel of hard pn rescattering, and it explains the observed smallness of induced, Py and transfered, Cx polarizations without invoking the argument of helicity conservation. Namely, HRM predicts that Py and Cx are proportional to the φ5 helicity amplitude which vanishes at θcm=90° due to symmetry reasons. HRM predicts also a nonzero value for Cz in the helicity-conserving regime and a positive Σ asymmetry which is related to the dominance of the isovector channel in the hard reinteraction. We extend our calculations to the region where large polarization effects are observed in pp scattering as well as give predictions for angular dependences.
Optical model potential for deuteron elastic scattering with 1 p -shell nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Pang, D. Y.; Lou, J. L.
2016-07-01
A set of global optical potential parameters, DA1p, for deuterons with the 1 p -shell nuclei is obtained by simultaneously fitting 67 sets of experimental data of deuteron elastic scattering from 6Li, 9Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14N, 16O, and 18O with incident energies between 5.25 and 170 MeV. DA1p improves the description of the deuteron elastic scattering from the 1 p -shell nuclei with respect to the existing systematic deuteron potentials and can give satisfactory reproduction of the experimental data with radiative nuclei such as 9Li, 10Be, 14C, and 14O.
Miley, George H.
2012-10-24
Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn at the National Ignition
Hadronic deuteron polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eskin, A. V.; Faustov, R. N.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, F. A.
2016-06-01
Hadronic deuteron polarizability correction to the Lamb shift of muonic deuterium is calculated on the basis of unitary isobar model and modern experimental data on the structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering and their parametrizations in the resonance and nonresonance regions.
Measurement of the spin structure of the deuteron at COMPASS
Hannappel, Juergen
2005-10-06
A new measurement of the longitudinal spin asymmetry A{sub 1}{sup d} and the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup d} of the deuteron is presented in the Q2 range from 1GeV2 to 100GeV2 and the x range from 0.004 to 0.7. The data were taken in 2002 and 2003 with the COMPASS experiment at CERN, scattering 160 GeV2 polarised muons off a large polarised 6LiD target. While significantly improving statistical accuracy in the low x region the data agree nicely with previous experiments.
Parity violation in low-energy neutron-deuteron scattering
Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas
2011-01-15
Parity-violating effects for low-energy elastic neutron deuteron scattering are calculated for Desplanques, Donoghue, and Holstein (DDH) and effective field theory types of weak potentials in a distorted-wave Born approximation, using realistic hadronic strong interaction wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space. The resulting relation between physical observables and low-energy constants can be used to fix low-energy constants from experiments. Potential model dependencies of parity-violating effects are discussed.
Deuteron irradiation creep of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, R.
1998-03-01
Irradiation creep tests were conducted on Textron SCS-6 silicon carbide (SiC) fibers during irradiation with 14 MeV deuterons at 450 and 600°C. The fibers are produced by a CVD procedure; their microstructure may therefore be representative for the matrix of a SiC composite. There is a significant radiation induced increase in creep deformation. Both quantities, irradiation creep strain and creep rate, are higher at 450°C than at 600°C for doses <0.07 dpa.
Is There an Interest to Use Deuteron Beams to Produce Non-Conventional Radionuclides?
Alliot, Cyrille; Audouin, Nadia; Barbet, Jacques; Bonraisin, Anne-Cecile; Bossé, Valérie; Bourdeau, Cécile; Bourgeois, Mickael; Duchemin, Charlotte; Guertin, Arnaud; Haddad, Ferid; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Kerdjoudj, Rabah; Laizé, Johan; Métivier, Vincent; Michel, Nathalie; Mokili, Marcel; Pageau, Mickael; Vidal, Aurélien
2015-01-01
With the recent interest on the theranostic approach, there has been a renewed interest for alternative radionuclides in nuclear medicine. They can be produced using common production routes, i.e., using protons accelerated by biomedical cyclotrons or neutrons produced in research reactors. However, in some cases, it can be more valuable to use deuterons as projectiles. In the case of Cu-64, smaller quantities of the expensive target material, Ni-64, are used with deuterons as compared with protons for the same produced activity. For the Sc-44m/Sc-44g generator, deuterons afford a higher Sc-44m production yield than with protons. Finally, in the case of Re-186g, deuterons lead to a production yield five times higher than protons. These three examples show that it is of interest to consider not only protons or neutrons but also deuterons to produce alternative radionuclides. PMID:26029696
MuSun: muon capture on the deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xiao
2015-05-01
The goal of the MuSun experiment at PSI is to measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron with a precision of 1.5%. This rate will be used to fix the low-energy constant that describes the two-nucleon weak axial current in Chiral perturbation theory. It will therefore calibrate evaluations of solar proton-proton fusion and neutrino-deuteron scattering(SNO experiment). MuSun forms part of the systematic program to achieve a new level of precision in confronting the theories of weak interactions, QCD and few body physics. MuSun inherits some of the well developed techniques and apparatus from a successful measurement of the rate for muon capture on the proton, the MuCap experiment, also performed at PSI. As in MuCap, MuSun uses a TPC as an active target. To optimize the molecular kinetics, its ultra-pure deuterium gas is kept at 31K. The status of the hardware and details of the data analysis for a high statistics run taken in 2013 will be presented.
Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong
2015-11-01
We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV /u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.
Measurement of inelastic cross sections in relativistic deuteron-on-lead reactions
Zamani, M.; Stoulos, S.; Fragopoulou, M.; Krivopustov, M.
2010-10-15
The inelastic cross section of deuterons hitting a lead target has been determined by the beam attenuation technique. A spallation neutron source based on a lead target was irradiated with 1.6- and 2.5-GeV deuterons. Solid-state nuclear track detectors as well as the activation method were used to obtain the neutron and proton distribution along the surface of the source. The attenuation coefficient was estimated by fitting the experimental data and taking into account the buildup effect and the beam attenuation. Using the attenuation coefficient, the interaction length and then the inelastic cross section of deuterons on lead reaction were determined.
Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.
Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong
2015-11-20
We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. PMID:26636849
Polarized Structure Functions: Proton/Deuteron Measurements in Hall C
Oscar A. Rondon
2005-02-01
The study of the nucleon polarized structure functions has matured beyond the inclusive measurements of the past to the investigation of all eight quark distribution functions in the nucleon. Jefferson Lab's Hall C program of polarized structure functions studies started with a measurement of the proton and deuteron spin structure in the resonances at Q2 {approx} 1.3 [GeV/c]2. This work will be extended for the proton to more than 5 [GeV/c]2 for both DIS and the resonances in the upcoming SANE experiment. SANE will use a novel non-magnetic very large solid angle detector, BETA. Semi-inclusive asymmetries will be measured to determine the flavor composition of the nucleon spin in the recently approved Semi-SANE experiment. The 11 GeV energy upgrade will open new opportunities to study other functions, such as the transversity, Collins and Sievers functions, using vertical polarized targets.
Polarized Structure Functions: Proton/Deuteron Measurements in Hall C
Rondon, Oscar A.
2005-02-10
The study of the nucleon polarized structure functions has matured beyond the inclusive measurements of the past to the investigation of all eight quark distribution functions in the nucleon. Jefferson Lab's Hall C program of polarized structure functions studies started with a measurement of the proton and deuteron spin structure in the resonances at Q2 {approx} 1.3 [GeV/c]2. This work will be extended for the proton to more than 5 [GeV/c]2 for both DIS and the resonances in the upcoming SANE experiment. SANE will use a novel non-magnetic very large solid angle detector, BETA. Semi-inclusive asymmetries will be measured to determine the flavor composition of the nucleon spin in the recently approved Semi -- SANE experiment. The 11 GeV energy upgrade will open new opportunities to study other functions, such as the transversity, Collins and Sievers functions, using vertical polarized targets.
High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section
Elaine Schulte
2002-05-01
New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees
NICA Facility in Polarized Proton and Deuteron Mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.
2016-02-01
NICA project at JINR is aimed at the experiments with polarized protons and deuterons at both as fixed target and colliding mode over beam momentum range from 2 to 13.5GeV/c. Polarized beams are injected into collider from the Nuclotron-superconducting synchrotron. Dynamic solenoid “Siberian snakes” are proposed to prevent resonance depolarization of proton beam during acceleration in the Nuclotron up to momentum of 6 GeV/c and further in the collider up to the maximum momentum after storage and stochastic cooling of necessary number of particles in each ring. By means of pair of the Snakes placed in the opposite collider straight sections “spin transparency” mode is provided. Stabilization and control of the polarization is reached due to “weak field” solenoids integrated in the lattice. The proposed scheme of the polarization control is universal and can be used for different ion spices (p, d, t, He3…).
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently from _{X}EFT predictions to order N^{3}LO.
The proton-deuteron scattering length in pionless EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans-Werner
2016-03-01
We present a fully perturbative calculation of the quartet-channel proton-deuteron scattering length (4ap-d) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory. In particular, we use a framework that consistently extracts the Coulomb-modified effective range function for a screened Coulomb potential in momentum space. We find a natural convergence pattern as we go to higher orders in the EFT expansion. Our NNLO result of (10.9 ± 0.4) fm agrees with older experimental determinations but deviates from more recent calculations, which find values around 14 fm. To resolve this discrepancy, we discuss the scheme dependence of Coulomb subtractions in a three-body system.
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently frommore » XEFT predictions to order N3LO.« less
Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies
Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Stephenson, E. J.; Gasparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Stephan, E.
2008-07-15
Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the {sup 2}H(p-vector,d)p and {sup 1}H(d-vector,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.
Saturation in Deuteron Hadamard NMR Spectroscopy of Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greferath, M.; Blumich, B.; Griffith, W. M.; Hoatson, G. L.
Hadamard NMR was investigated for wide-line solid-state deuteron spectroscopy by numerical simulations and experiments on hexamethylbenzene. Similar signal-to-noise ratios were obtained at large filter bandwidths (500 kHz) by both the quadrupolar echo and the Hadamard methods, although the excitation power differs by up to four orders in magnitude. Increasing the excitation power leads to systematic, noise-like features in Hadamard spectra. In contrast to phase modulation, simulations indicate that for amplitude modulation of the pseudorandom excitation, the pulse sequence burns a saturation hole into the lineshape at the carrier frequency. Violation of the cyclicity requirement by introduction of a recycle delay between successive Hadamard scans results in a high-frequency noise contribution. Finite pulse widths are shown not to cause significant spectral distortions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Naipor Eric
The polarization of the protons emerging at 0 ^circ from the inclusive deuteron breakup reaction ^1H(vec d,vec p)X was measured using a deuteron beam with kinetic energy of 2.1 GeV. The momentum of the protons was selected by the magnetic spectrometer SPES4 and the polarization was measured with the polarimeter POMME. This experiment was performed at eight different proton momenta. When those momenta are Lorentz transformed to the deuteron rest frame, they corresponded to values from 0.00 to 0.34 GeV/c. The result of the measurements is expressed in terms of polarization transfer coefficient which is defined as the ratio of the measured proton polarization P_{p} to the deuteron beam vector polarization P _{Z}:kappa_{o} = P_{p}/P_{Z}. The values of kappa_{o} decreased from 0.995 to -0.320 across the proton momentum range of this experiment. The trend of kappa_{o} is in general agreement with the expected behavior arising from the D state in the deuteron wave function. The impulse approximation predicts quite well the general shape of kappa_{o}. Multiple scattering and relativistic effect based on different models of reaction mechanism are discussed.
Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions
Potel, G; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J
2015-09-18
Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the Nb93(d,p)X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We then look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. We finally make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.
Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions
Potel, G; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J
2015-09-18
Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the priormore » formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the Nb93(d,p)X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We then look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. We finally make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.« less
Establishing a theory for deuteron-induced surrogate reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potel, G.; Nunes, F. M.; Thompson, I. J.
2015-09-01
Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the 93Nb(d ,p )X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states. Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. Finally, we make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.
Cross Section Calculations of Deuteron-induced Reactions Using the Extended CCONE Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, S.; Araki, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Iwamoto, O.; Ye, T.; Ogata, K.
2014-04-01
We have extended the CCONE code to make it possible to calculate cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions. Elastic breakup and stripping reactions to continuum are calculated using another codes based on the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels theory (CDCC) and the Glauber model, respectively, and the calculated results are inputted to the CCONE code as direct reaction components. Statistical decay from compound nuclei formed by nucleon stripping and deuteron absorption is calculated with the exciton and Hauser-Feshbach models implemented in the original CCONE code. The extended CCONE code is applied to analyses of deuteron-induced reactions on 27Al and 58Ni. CDCC calculations for deuteron elastic scattering show good agreement with the experimental data at incident energies of several tens of MeV. The calculated double-differential (d,xp) cross sections reproduce the measured ones at forward angles for incident energies of 56 and 100 MeV fairly well.
Neutron Production and Fast Deuteron Characteristics at the Plasma Focus Discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Karpinski, L.; Tomaszewski, K.
2009-01-01
This paper summarized the results of interferometry, X-ray and neutron diagnostics performed at the plasma focus facility filled with deuterium. The fusion processes are produced mainly in the dense and hot spherical structure of 2 cm diameter 5-8 cm in front of the anode. The electron temperature of this structure is about 750 eV and the density 5×1024-5×1025. The neutron energy distribution was calculated using time of flight analysis and showed the dominant direction of the fast deuteron velocity downstream. The deuteron energy distribution was estimated supposing isotropy distribution of the sum of opposite orientation. The total number of fast deuterons in the energy range of 10-400 keV is about 1018 with total energy of 20 kJ. Plasma in the spherical structure is heated dominantly with ion-ion Coulomb collisions of fast deuterons in the energy range below 10 keV.
Gakh, G. I.; Konchatnij, M. I. Merenkov, N. P.
2012-08-15
The model-independent QED radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic scattering of unpolarized and longitudinally polarized electron beams by a deuteron target are calculated in leptonic variables. The experimental setup when the deuteron target is arbitrarily polarized is considered and the procedure for applying the derived results to the vector or tensor polarization of the recoil deuteron is discussed. The calculation is based on taking all essential Feynman diagrams into account, which results in the form of the Drell-Yan representation for the cross section, and the use of the covariant parameterization of the deuteron polarization state. Numerical estimates of the radiative corrections are given in the case where event selection allows undetected particles (photons and electron-positron pairs) and the restriction on the lost invariant mass is used.
Nuclear physics in soft-wall AdS/QCD: Deuteron electromagnetic form factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Schmidt, Ivan; Vega, Alfredo
2015-06-01
We present a high-quality description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a soft-wall anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics approach. We first propose an effective action describing the dynamics of the deuteron in the presence of an external vector field. Based on this action the deuteron electromagnetic form factors are calculated, displaying the correct 1 /Q10 power scaling for large Q2 values. This finding is consistent with quark counting rules and the earlier observation that this result holds in confining gauge/gravity duals. The Q2 dependence of the deuteron form factors is defined by a single and universal scale parameter κ , which is fixed from data.
Description of elastic polarized-deuteron scattering in the optical model with Skyrme forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilipenko, V. V.; Kuprikov, V. I.
2015-07-01
Microscopic deuteron-nucleus optical potential was constructed on the basis of the nucleon-nucleus optical potentials recently obtained by the authors from approximate calculations of the mass operator of the single-particle Green function using the Skyrme forces, which in general involve additional density- and momentum-dependent terms. Both the nucleon- and deuteron-nucleus elastic scattering processes are described in a self-consistent approach using the effective nucleon-nucleon forces, which simultaneously provide a satisfactory description of nuclear structure. The calculations performed using the Watanabe-type approximation have made it possible to obtain reasonable results for describing differential cross sections and polarization observables for the elastic deuteron scattering in a wide range of target-nucleus mass numbers at different incident deuteron energies, when using several Skyrme-force variants both from literature and proposed by the authors. Contributions to elastic deuteron-nucleus scattering cross sections coming from the effects of deuteron virtual breakup have been estimated in the continuum-discretized coupled channels approach.
Experimental deuteron momentum distributions with reduced final state interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanal, Hari P.
This dissertation presents a study of the D( e, e'p)n reaction carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for a set of fixed values of four-momentum transfer Q 2 = 2.1 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta pm ranging from pm = 0.03 to pm = 0.65 GeV/c. The analysis resulted in the determination of absolute D(e,e' p)n cross sections as a function of the recoiling neutron momentum and it's scattering angle with respect to the momentum transfer [vector] q. The angular distribution was compared to various modern theoretical predictions that also included final state interactions. The data confirmed the theoretical prediction of a strong anisotropy of final state interaction contributions at Q2 of 2.1 (GeV/c)2 while at the lower Q2 value, the anisotropy was much less pronounced. At Q2 of 0.8 (GeV/c)2, theories show a large disagreement with the experimental results. The experimental momentum distribution of the bound proton inside the deuteron has been determined for the first time at a set of fixed neutron recoil angles. The momentum distribution is directly related to the ground state wave function of the deuteron in momentum space. The high momentum part of this wave function plays a crucial role in understanding the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon force. At Q2 = 2.1 (GeV/c)2, the momentum distribution determined at small neutron recoil angles is much less affected by FSI compared to a recoil angle of 75°. In contrast, at Q2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)2 there seems to be no region with reduced FSI for larger missing momenta. Besides the statistical errors, systematic errors of about 5--6 % were included in the final results in order to account for normalization uncertainties and uncertainties in the determi- nation of kinematic veriables. The measurements were carried out using an electron beam energy of 2.8 and 4.7 GeV with beam currents between 10 to 100 μ A. The scattered electrons and the ejected protons originated from a 15cm
Deuteron-induced reactions on Ni isotopes up to 60 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avrigeanu, M.; Šimečková, E.; Fischer, U.; Mrázek, J.; Novak, J.; Štefánik, M.; Costache, C.; Avrigeanu, V.
2016-07-01
Background: The high complexity of the deuteron-nucleus interaction from the deuteron weak binding energy of 2.224 MeV is also related to a variety of reactions induced by the deuteron-breakup (BU) nucleons. Thus, specific noncompound processes as BU and direct reactions (DR) make the deuteron-induced reactions so different from reactions with other incident particles. The scarce consideration of only pre-equilibrium emission (PE) and compound-nucleus (CN) mechanisms led to significant discrepancies with experimental results so that recommended reaction cross sections of high-priority elements as, e.g., Ni have mainly been obtained by fit of the data. Purpose: The unitary and consistent BU and DR account in deuteron-induced reactions on natural nickel may take advantage of an extended database for this element, including new accurate measurements of particular reaction cross sections. Method: The activation cross sections of 64,61,60Cu, Ni,5765, and 55,56,57,58,59m,60Co nuclei for deuterons incident on natural Ni at energies up to 20 MeV, were measured by the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma spectrometry using U-120M cyclotron of CANAM, NPI CAS. Then, within an extended analysis of deuteron interactions with Ni isotopes up to 60 MeV, all processes from elastic scattering until the evaporation from fully equilibrated compound system have been taken into account while an increased attention is paid especially to the BU and DR mechanisms. Results: The deuteron activation cross-section analysis, completed by consideration of the PE and CN contributions corrected for decrease of the total-reaction cross section from the leakage of the initial deuteron flux towards BU and DR processes, is proved satisfactory for the first time to all available data. Conclusions: The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations validates the description of nuclear mechanisms taken into account for deuteron-induced reactions on Ni, particularly the BU and
Measurement of inclusive spin structure functions of the deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Dodge, G. E.; Forest, T. A.; Taiuti, M.; Adams, G. S.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bertozzi, W.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Bueltmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J.; Sanctis, E. De; Vita, R. De; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Demirchyan, R. A.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L. C.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Djalali, C.; Domingo, J.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Eckhause, M.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Farhi, L.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Fissum, K.; Freyberger, A.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Gai, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gavrilov, V. B.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Golovatch, E.; Gordon, C. I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hancock, D.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Heimberg, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Keith, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Lawrence, D.; Leksin, G. A.; Loukachine, K.; Major, R. W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McNabb, J. W.; McCarthy, J.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morrow, S.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niczyporuk, B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Ohandjanyan, M. S.; Opper, A.; Ossipenko, M.; Park, K.; Patois, Y.; Peterson, G. A.; Philips, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rock, S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C. W.; Sapunenko, V.; Sargsyan, M.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Shuvalov, S. M.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D. I.; Sorrell, L.; Spraker, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tung, T. Y.; Tur, C.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Welsh, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, S.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.
2003-05-01
We report the results of a new measurement of spin structure functions of the deuteron in the region of moderate momentum transfer [Q2=0.27 1.3 (GeV/c)2] and final hadronic state mass in the nucleon resonance region (W=1.08 2.0 GeV). We scattered a 2.5 GeV polarized continuous electron beam at Jefferson Lab off a dynamically polarized cryogenic solid state target (15ND3) and detected the scattered electrons with the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. From our data, we extract the longitudinal double spin asymmetry A|| and the spin structure function gd1. Our data are generally in reasonable agreement with existing data from SLAC where they overlap, and they represent a substantial improvement in statistical precision. We compare our results with expectations for resonance asymmetries and extrapolated deep inelastic scaling results. Finally, we evaluate the first moment of the structure function gd1 and study its approach to both the deep inelastic limit at large Q2 and to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule at the real photon limit (Q2→0). We find that the first moment varies rapidly in the Q2 range of our experiment and crosses zero at Q2 between 0.5 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2, indicating the importance of the Δ resonance at these momentum transfers.
Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, P.; Fischer, U.; Honusek, M.; Koning, A. J.; Mrázek, J.; Šimečková, E.; Štefánik, M.; Závorka, L.
2013-07-01
The activation cross sections of (d,p), (d,2n), (d,2np+nd+t), (d,2nα), and (d,pα) reactions on 93Nb were measured in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Then, within a simultaneous analysis of elastic scattering and reaction data, the available elastic-scattering data analysis was carried out in order to obtain the optical potential for reaction cross-section calculations. Particular attention was paid to the description of the breakup mechanism and direct reaction stripping and pick-up, followed by pre-equilibrium and compound-nucleus calculations. The measured cross sections as well as all available deuteron activation data of 93Nb were compared with results of local model calculations carried out using the codes fresco and stapre-h and both default and particular predictions of the code talys-1.4 and tendl-2012-evaluated data.
Two-pion exchange currents in photodisintegration of the deuteron
Rozp edzik, D.; Golak, J.; Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.
2011-10-24
Chiral effective field theory (ChEFT) is a modern framework to analyze the properties of few-nucleon systems at low energies. It is based on the most general effective Lagrangian for pions and nucleons consistent with the chiral symmetry of QCD. For energies below the pion-production threshold it is possible to eliminate the pionic degrees of freedom and derive nuclear potentials and nuclear current operators solely in terms of the nucleonic degrees of freedom. This is very important because, despite a lot of experience gained in the past, the consistency between two-nucleon forces, many-nucleon forces and the corresponding current operators has not been achieved yet. In this presentation we consider the recently derived long-range two-pion exchange (TPE) contributions to the nuclear current operator which appear at next-to leading order of the chiral expansion. These operators do not contain any free parameters. We study their role in the deuteron photodisintegration reaction and compare our predictions with experimental data from Refs [3]. The bound and scattering states are calculated using five different chiral N2LO nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials which allows to estimate the theoretical uncertainty at a given order in the chiral expansion. For some observables the results are very close to the reference predictions based on the AV18 NN potential and the current operator (partly) consistent with this force.
Fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic derivatives: The role of ion-neutral complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, Alex G.; Wang, Jian-Yao
1997-01-01
The low-energy collision-induced dissociation reactions of the MD+ ions of a number of alkyl phenyl ethers, alkylbenzenes, acetophenones and benzaldehyde have been studied as a function of collision energy to establish qualitatively the dependence of the fragmentation reactions observed on internal energy. Deuteronated alkyl phenyl ethers (ROC6H5·D+, R = C3H7, C4H9) fragment at low collision energies to form C6H5OHD+ + (R-H), the thermochemically favoured products; with increasing collision energy (and, hence, internal energy) formation of the alkyl ion R+ increases significantly in importance. Deuteronated alkylbenzenes (RC6H5, RC6H4R', R = C2H5, C3H7) similarly form the deuteronated benzene (the thermochemically favoured product) at low collision energies with formation of the alkyl ion R+ being observed at higher collision energies. The results for both systems are consistent with a fragmentation mechanism involving initial formation of an R+/aromatic ion/neutral complex. At low internal energies proton transfer occurs within this complex to form an ion/neutral complex consisting of the deuteronated aromatic and a neutral olefin; this complex fragments to the thermochemically favoured products. Since the transition state leading to these products is a "tight" transition state involving loss of rotational degrees of freedom, the proton transfer reaction is unfavourable entropically with respect to simple dissociation of the R+/aromatic complex to R+ + ArD. Consequently, these products increase in importance as the internal energy is increased. The fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic carbonyl compounds can also be rationalized by similar mechanisms involving the intermediacy of ion/neutral complexes. Deuteronated acetophenone forms only CH3CO+ at all collision energies; this is both the thermochemically and entropically favoured product. However, deuteronated p-aminoacetophenone forms deuteronated aniline, the thermochemically favoured product at low collision
Deuteron formation in expanding nuclear matter from a strong coupling BCS approach
Baldo, M.; Lombardo, U.; Schuck, P.
1995-08-01
The process of deuteron formation in intermediate heavy ion reactions is approached within the strong coupling BCS theory assuming that the final stage of the reaction can be described as an adiabatic expansion of a piece of nuclear matter. Since the gap equation in the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1}-{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} channel goes over into the deuteron Schroedinger equation in the low density limit, a smooth transition from the superfluid Cooper pair phase to a Bose deuteron gas is found. For a fixed entropy ranging from 0.5 to 2 units per particle the deuteron fraction, the chemical potential and temperature are reported as a function of density. For densities down to {rho}=0.1 fm{sup {minus}3} and lower, the deuteron-to-nucleon ratio rapidly increases from a density threshold strongly depending on the entropy. Decreasing further the density this ratio tends logarithmically to one. The possible relevance of these results for heavy ion collisions and the shortcomings of the present approach are briefly discussed.
Study of the Two-pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron
Graham, Lewis P.
2012-12-01
Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong interaction physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the yN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Delta resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large
Maksimchuk, A.; Raymond, A.; Yu, F.; Dollar, F.; Willingale, L.; Zulick, C.; Krushelnick, K.; Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J.
2013-05-13
Experiments on the interaction of an ultra-short pulse laser with heavy-water, ice-covered copper targets, at an intensity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, were performed demonstrating the generation of a 'pure' deuteron beam with a divergence of 20 Degree-Sign , maximum energy of 8 MeV, and a total of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} deuterons with energy above 1 MeV-equivalent to a conversion efficiency of 1.5%{+-} 0.2%. Subsequent experiments on irradiation of a {sup 10}B sample with deuterons and neutron generation from d-d reactions in a pitcher-catcher geometry, resulted in the production of {approx}10{sup 6} atoms of the positron emitter {sup 11}C and a neutron flux of (4{+-}1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} neutrons/sterad, respectively.
Generation of fast neutrons through deuteron acceleration at the PALS laser facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krása, J.; Klír, D.; Velyhan, A.; Řezáč, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Ryć, L.; Krouský, E.; Pfeifer, M.; De Marco, M.; Skála, J.; Dudžák, R.; Ullschmied, J.
2016-03-01
Recent experiments at the laser facility PALS focused on the laser driven fusion of deuterons are reviewed. They benefit of high reaction cross-sections and of a high number of multi-MeV deuterons from thick CD2 targets irradiated by intensity of 3× 1016 W cm-2. In the reported experiments fast fusion neutrons with energy up to 16 MeV were produced through 7Li(d, n)8Be and 11B(d, n)12C reactions in a pitcher-catcher target configuration. When using a large area CD2 foil as a secondary catcher target the total maximum neutron yield from the 2H(d, n)3He reaction increased by a factor of about 5, from 4× 108 to 2× 109. This result reveals that most of the deuterons having enough kinetic energy to enter a fusion reaction are emitted from the primary target into vacuum.
Low and medium energy deuteron-induced reactions on {sup 27}Al
Bem, P.; Simeckova, E.; Honusek, M.; Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Forrest, R. A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Obreja, A. C.; Roman, F. L.; Avrigeanu, V.
2009-04-15
The activation cross sections of (d,p), (d,2p), and (d,p{alpha}) reactions on {sup 27}Al were measured in the energy range from 4 to 20 MeV using the stacked-foils technique. Following a previous extended analysis of elastic scattering, breakup, and direct reaction of deuterons on {sup 27}Al, for energies from 3 to 60 MeV, the preequilibrium and statistical emissions are considered in the same energy range. Finally, all deuteron-induced reactions on {sup 27}Al including the present data measured up to 20 MeV deuteron energy are properly described due to a simultaneous analysis of the elastic scattering and reaction data.
P- and T-odd two-nucleon interaction and the deuteron electric dipole moment
Liu, C.-P.; Timmermans, R.G.E.
2004-11-01
The nuclear physics relevant to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron is addressed. The general operator structure of the P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed and applied to the two-body contributions of the deuteron EDM, which can be calculated in terms of P- and T-odd meson-nucleon coupling constants with only small model dependence. The one-body contributions, the EDMs of the proton and the neutron, are evaluated within the same framework. Although the total theoretical uncertainties are sizable, we conclude that, compared to the neutron, the deuteron EDM is competitive in terms of sensitivity to CP violation, and complementary with respect to the microscopic sources of CP violation that can be probed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, Patrik U.; Holmlid, Leif
2010-06-01
Deuterons are released with kinetic energy up to 630 eV from ultra-dense deuterium as shown previously, by Coulomb explosions initiated by ns laser pulses at ⩽10 W cm. With higher laser intensity at <10 W cm, the initial kinetic energy now observed by TOF-MS with variable acceleration energy is up to 1100 eV per deuteron. This indicates ejection of one deuteron by Coulomb repulsion from two stationary charges in the material. It proves a full kinetic energy release of 1260 eV or a deuteron temperature of 15 MK, similar to the temperature in the interior of the Sun. Plasma processes are excluded by the sharp TOF peaks observed and by the slow signal variation with laser intensity. Deuterons with even higher energy from multiple charge repulsion are probably detected. D + D fusion processes are expected to exist in the ultra-dense phase without plasma formation.
Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.
2016-02-01
Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented.
Deuterons and space-momentum correlations in high energy nuclear collisions
Monreal, B.; Li, Q.; Sakrejda, I.; Snellings, R.; Spieles, C.; Thomas, J.; Voloshin, S.; Wang, F.; Xu, N. ); Bass, S.A. ); Bleicher, M.; Greiner, W.; Stoecker, H. ); Esumi, S. ); Liu, H.; Panitkin, S. ); Llope, W.J. ); Mattiello, R. ); Sorge, H. )
1999-09-01
Using a microscopic transport model together with a coalescence afterburner, we study the formation of deuterons in Au+Au central collisions at [radical] (s) =200A GeV. It is found that the deuteron transverse momentum distributions are strongly affected by the nucleon space-momentum correlations, at the moment of freeze-out, which are mostly determined by the number of rescatterings. This feature is useful for studying collision dynamics at ultrarelativistic energies. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society
Coherent {pi}{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables
Darwish, E. M.; Akopov, N.; El-Zohry, M.
2011-10-27
Coherent {pi}{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization effects in the energy region from {pi}-threshold up to 1 GeV is studied using an enhanced elementary pion photo-production operator on the free nucleon and a realistic NN potential model for the deuteron wave function. Results for double polarization observables are predicted for which the sensitivity to various models for the elementary pion photoproduction amplitude is investigated. We find considerable dependence of the results on the elementary amplitude. In addition, results for differential cross section are predicted and compared with the experimental data from TAPS and a satisfactory agreement was found.
Study By Spin Tracking of A Storage Ring For Deuteron Electric Dipole Moment
Lin, F.; Malitsky, N. D.; Luccio, A. U.; Morse, W. M.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlov, Y. F.
2009-08-04
Spin tracking of polarized deuterons for a proposed experiment to measure a possible Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the deuteron was done by using the codes UAL and SPINK. In the experiment the direction of spin polarization will be frozen using crossed electric and magnetic fields. Systematics, in particular the effects of non-linearities of the lattice on a beam with finite emittance and energy spread, have been extensively simulated and the effect of sextuple corrections to increase the spin coherence time has been studied.
On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron-induced surrogate reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mǎnǎilescu, C.
2015-02-01
An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.
Probing the Nucleus with Deuteron+Gold Collisions at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citron, Zvi Hirsh
2011-12-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to produce and study Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), the phase of matter thought to exist under conditions sufficiently hot and dense to create a medium in which the degrees of freedom are quarks and gluons rather than color neutral hadrons. Already in its early years of running, the data from RHIC provided tantalizing evidence of QGP signatures in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. A crucial part of understanding the putative QGP in Au+Au collisions is to have both a well understood reference as well as a robust control experiment. Proton-proton collisions at the same sNN serve as the baseline for heavy ion collisions at RHIC, and play an invaluable role in setting our frame of reference in interactions that do not create any nuclear medium. For the control experiment, RHIC's ability to collide asymmetric beams is utilized and d+Au collisions are used. Unlike p+p collisions, in the d+Au system there is a nuclear medium present---the heavy Au nucleus---and so we may study this system to distinguish initial state cold nuclear matter effects from final state effects that occur in the hot dense medium of Au+Au collisions. Beyond its use as a control experiment, the d+Au collision system presents the opportunity for important study of nuclear and nucleonic structure, it is after all necessary for our colored parton theory to operate in the nucleus as well as in a QGP. Deuteron - gold collisions at RHIC are a powerful tool for shedding light on cold nuclear matter effects. This thesis describes two analyses of d+Au collisions measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The first is a measurement of the midrapidity yield of unidentified charged hadrons in the 2003 RHIC run. This is used a key baseline for understanding particle production in Au+Au collisions as well as a detailed look at the Cronin effect. The second analysis measures rapidity separated two-particle production where one of the particles is at either forward
Time reversal invariance violating and parity conserving effects in neutron-deuteron scattering
Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas
2011-08-15
Time reversal invariance violating and parity conserving effects for low-energy elastic neutron-deuteron scattering are calculated for meson exchange and effective field theory type potentials in a distorted wave-born approximation using realistic hadronic wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space.
A Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(A2)
Andrian Honegger
1999-12-01
During summer 1997 experiment 394-018 measured the deuteron tensor polarization in D(e,e'd) scattering in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. In a momentum transfer range between 0.66 and 1:8 (GeV=c){sup 2}, with slight changes in the experimental setup, the collaboration performed six precision measurements of the deuteron structure function A(Q{sup 2}) in elastic D(e,e'd) scattering . Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence in the High Momentum Spectrometer and the recoil polarimeter POLDER, respectively. At every kinematics H(e,e') data were taken to study systematic effects of the measurement. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older data sets and put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat 'a l'Energie Atomique, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wong Foundation.
Time reversal invariance violating and parity conserving effects in proton-deuteron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Young-Ho; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Gudkov, Vladimir
2016-06-01
Time reversal invariance violating parity conserving (TVPC) effects are calculated for elastic proton-deuteron scattering with proton energies up to 2 MeV. The distorted-wave Born approximation is employed to estimate TVPC matrix elements, based on hadronic wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev-Merkuriev equations in configuration space with realistic potentials.
The flux of secondary anti-deuterons and antihelium produced in the interstellar medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allkofer, O. C.; Brockhausen, D.
1985-01-01
Several measurements were performed to find antiprotons in the primary cosmic radiation. Because it is difficult to get completely separated secondarily produced antiprotons from primary ones, calculations based on accelerator results were performed for the flux of secondarily produced anti-deuterons and antihelium.
Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.
2015-06-18
Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (10^{8}/s at 2.5 MeV, 10^{10}/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>10^{12}/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction^{ 11}B(d,n)^{12}C(γ_{15.1}), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.
Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.
2015-06-18
Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a shortmore » RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.« less
Neutron Production and Fast Deuteron Characteristics at the Plasma Focus Discharge
Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Karpinski, L.; Tomaszewski, K.
2009-01-21
This paper summarized the results of interferometry, X-ray and neutron diagnostics performed at the plasma focus facility filled with deuterium. The fusion processes are produced mainly in the dense and hot spherical structure of 2 cm diameter 5-8 cm in front of the anode. The electron temperature of this structure is about 750 eV and the density 5x10{sup 24}-5x10{sup 25}. The neutron energy distribution was calculated using time of flight analysis and showed the dominant direction of the fast deuteron velocity downstream. The deuteron energy distribution was estimated supposing isotropy distribution of the sum of opposite orientation. The total number of fast deuterons in the energy range of 10-400 keV is about 10{sup 18} with total energy of 20 kJ. Plasma in the spherical structure is heated dominantly with ion-ion Coulomb collisions of fast deuterons in the energy range below 10 keV.
Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franco, V.
1977-01-01
A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.
Net-proton-number kurtosis and skewness in nuclear collisions: Influence of deuteron formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecková, Zuzana; Steinheimer, Jan; Tomášik, Boris; Bleicher, Marcus
2015-12-01
We explore the influence of deuteron formation in the late stage of nucleus-nucleus reactions on the fluctuations observed in the final net-proton yields around midrapidity. At each investigated energy, the produced (anti)proton yield at chemical freeze-out is assumed to fluctuate according to a Poisson distribution and in each event the probability for deuteron formation by coalescence is proportional to (dNproton/d y ) 2. The protons that are then clustered in deuterons are usually not included in the experimental measurement of the net-proton fluctuations, therefore, we subtract these clustered protons from the final state proton number for the calculation of the net-proton fluctuations (the same is done in the antiproton sector). Due to the nonlinear deuteron formation probability the resulting distribution is not a Skellam distribution, but shows the interesting feature of a decrease in the kurtosis κ σ2 and a local maximum in the skewness S σ observables as the collision energy decreases.
Gross, Franz; Dmitrasinovic, Veljko
1995-07-01
We establish a simple, explicit relation between the formalisms employed in the treatments of polarization observables in deuteron two-body electrodisintegration published by Arenhovel, Leidemann, and Tomusiak in Few-Body Systems 15 , 109 (1993) and the results of the present authors published in Phys. Rev. C 40, 2479 (1989). We comment on the overlap between the two sets of results.
Deuteron and antideuteron production in Au+Au collisions at square root of s(NN)=200 GeV.
Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L
2005-04-01
The production of deuterons and antideuterons in the transverse momentum range 1.1
deuteron and antideuteron spectra with that of proton and antiproton, has been performed. The coalescence probability is equal for both deuterons and antideuterons and it increases as a function of p(T), which is consistent with an expanding collision zone. Comparing (anti)proton yields, p /p=0.73+/-0.01, with (anti)deuteron yields, d /d=0.47+/-0.03, we estimate that n /n=0.64+/-0.04. The nucleon phase space density is estimated from the coalescence measurement. PMID:15903909
Influence of the deuteron energy on the testing volume of IFMIF and its impact on other parameters
Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.
1995-09-01
The influence of the energy of the deuteron beam on irradiation parameters of IFMIF is analyzed. The main purpose of this paper is to identify possible positive and negative impacts on irradiation parameters that an increase in the deuteron energy of the beam can cause. Several parameters of the facility, such as neutron generation rate, number of neutrons with energy above 20 MeV at the source and in the test assembly, volume with dpa rate above a threshold value, gas production, and gradient of the atomic displacement rate, are analyzed and conclusions are drawn based on the calculated values. It is shown that an increase in the deuteron energy to 40 MeV does not produce a significant negative impact for the elements analyzed, but instead is beneficial in producing nuclear responses more similar to a fusion environment than the lower deuteron energies.
Deuteron production in p-Be interactions at 450 GeV/c and the coalescing model NA56 collaboration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonesini, M.
2008-05-01
The analysis of the deuteron production in p-Be interactions at 450 GeV/c taken by the NA56/SPY experiment at CERN SPS is presented. In the framework of the coalescence model, the coalescence factor k is determined as (0.79±0.05±0.13) × 10-2. Our results disfavour the hypothesis that coalescence be the dominant mechanism for deuteron production in p + Be interactions at low pT.
Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Filatov, Yury; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kondratenko, M. A.; Zhang, Yuhong
2014-01-01
We propose a scheme of preserving the proton and deuteron beam polarizations during acceleration and storage in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. This scheme allows one to provide both the longitudinal and transverse polarization orientations of the proton and deuteron beams at the interaction points of the figure-8 ion collider ring. We discuss questions of matching the polarization direction at all stages of the beam transport including the pre-booster, large booster and ion collider ring.
Low-energy neutron-deuteron reactions with N 3 LO chiral forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golak, J.; Skibiński, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Witała, H.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Kamada, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Bernard, V.; Maris, P.; Vary, J.; Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Hebeler, K.; Langhammer, J.; Roth, R.; Nogga, A.; Liebig, S.; Minossi, D.
2014-11-01
We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Emphasis is put on A y puzzle in elastic scattering and cross sections in symmetric-space-star and neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering breakup configurations, for which large discrepancies between data and theory have been reported.
Probing the high momentum component of the deuteron at high Q^2.
Boeglin, Werner; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Aniol, Konrad; Arrington, John; Batigne, Guillaume; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chang, C; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Deur, Alexandre; Epstein, Martin; Finn, John; Frullani, Salvatore; Furget, Christophe; Garibaldi, Franco; Gayou, Olivier; Gilman, Ronald; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hayes, David; Higinbotham, Douglas; Hinton, Wendy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; De Jager, Cornelis; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kaufman, Lisa; Klein, Andreas; Kox, Serge; Kramer, Laird; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Laget, Jean; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Margaziotiz, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Milbrath, Brian; Mitchell, Joseph; Monaghan, Peter; Moteabbed, Maryam; Moussiegt, Pierre; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Punjabi, Vina; Qattan, Issam; Quemener, Gilles; Ransome, Ronald; Raue, Brian; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Reinhold, Joerg; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Rikki; Roedelbronn, Michael; Saha, Arunava; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vincent; Ulmer, Paul; Voutier, Eric; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zeier, Markus
2011-12-01
The {sup 2}H(e,e'p) cross section at a momentum transfer of 3.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} was measured over a kinematical range that made it possible to study this reaction for a set of fixed missing momenta as a function of the neutron recoil angle {theta}{sub nq} and to extract missing momentum distributions for fixed values of {theta}{sub nq} up to 0.55 GeV/c. In the region of 35{sup o} {le} {theta}{sub nq} {le} 45{sup o} recent calculations, which predict that final state interactions are small, agree reasonably well with the experimental data. Therefore these experimental reduced cross sections provide direct access to the high momentum component of the deuteron momentum distribution in exclusive deuteron electro-disintegration.
Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from the COMPASS data
Pagano, Paolo
2005-10-06
COMPASS is a fixed target experiment presently running at CERN. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 it used a 160 GeV polarized muon beam coming from SPS and scattered off a 6LiD (deuteron) target. The nucleons in the target can be polarized either longitudinally or transversely with respect to the muon beam and 20% of the running time has been devoted to transverse polarization. Hereby the final results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries calculated from the data taken in transverse polarization in 2002 are presented. In the forthcoming 2006 run, COMPASS plans to run with a NH3 (proton) target. Projections for the statistical accuracy which will be ultimately achieved on both the proton and the deuteron asymmetries are also given.
Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, Erin C.; McNamara, Bruce; Greenwood, Larry; Wittman, Richard; Soderquist, Charles; Woods, Vincent; VanDevender, Brent; Metz, Lori; Friese, Judah
2015-04-01
A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggest that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20-30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.6 ± 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.
Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymov, S.; Azaryan, T.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chiladze, D.; Engels, R.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Macharashvili, G.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Seyfarth, H.; Shmakova, V.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.
2015-05-01
The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy Epp, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ≈1/2Td = 363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both Epp and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial wave solution that was used in the estimation.
Resonant formation of {Lambda}(1405) by stopped-K{sup -} absorption in the deuteron
Esmaili, Jafar; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu
2011-05-15
To solve the current debate on the position of the quasibound K{sup -}p state, namely, ''{Lambda}(1405) or {Lambda}*(1420),'' we propose to measure the T{sub 21}=T{sub {Sigma}{pi}<-K}-bar{sub N} {Sigma}{pi} invariant-mass spectrum in stopped-K{sup -} absorption in the deuteron, since the spectrum, reflecting the soft and hard deuteron momentum distribution, is expected to have a narrow quasifree component with an upper edge of M=1430 MeV/c{sup 2}, followed by a significant 'high-momentum' tail toward the lower mass region, where a resonant formation of {Lambda}(1405) of any mass and width in a wide range will be clearly revealed. We introduce a 'deviation' spectrum as defined by DEV = OBS (observed or calculated) / QF (nonresonant quasifree), in which the resonant component can be seen as an isolated peak free from the QF shape.
Nuclear effects in the proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process
Ehlers, Peter J.; Accardi, Alberto; Brady, Lucas T.; Melnitchouk, Wally
2014-07-01
We compute the nuclear corrections to the proton-deuteron Drell-Yan cross section for inclusive dilepton production, which, when combined with the proton-proton cross section, is used to determine the flavor asymmetry in the proton sea, dbar - ubar. In addition to nuclear smearing corrections that are known to be important at large values of the nucleon's parton momentum fraction x_N, we also consider dynamical off-shell nucleon corrections associated with the modifications of the bound nucleon structure inside the deuteron, which we find to be significant at intermediate and large x_N values. We also provide estimates of the nuclear corrections at kinematics corresponding to existing and planned Drell-Yan experiments at Fermilab and J-PARC which aim to determine the dbar/ubar ratio for x < 0.6.
Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target
Finn, Erin C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Woods, Vincent T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.
2015-02-01
A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggests that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20-30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.3 ± 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.
Spin observables in proton-deuteron scattering and T-invariance test
Temerbayev, A. A.; Uzikov, Yu. N.
2015-01-15
The total cross section for the interaction of transversely polarized protons p{sub p}{sup y} and deuterons that have a tensor polarization P{sub x}{sup z} provides a null-test signal of T-invariance violation under the condition of P invariance. The relevant experiment is planned by the PAX Collaboration at the COSY accelerator with protons accelerated to the energy of 135 MeV. A modified Glauber theory is used here to calculate the differential spin observables A{sub y}, C{sub y,y}, C{sub xz,y}, C{sub z,x}, and C{sub x,z} and the differential and total cross sections for proton-deuteron scattering in the case of T-even P-even proton-nucleon interactions. This makes it possible to estimate background conditions of the planned experiment.
Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on 54,58,56Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.
2015-07-01
Deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α -particle emission spectra, from d + 54,58,56Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 57Co, 55Co, 57Fe, 55Fe, 52Mn, 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)], 10.1016/0375-9474(92)90278-R was found to have a good agreement with our results.
Energy loss of protons and deuterons at low energies in Pd polycrystalline thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celedón, C.; Sánchez, E. A.; Moreno, M. S.; Arista, N. R.; Uribe, J. D.; Mery, M.; Valdés, J. E.; Vargas, P.
2013-07-01
We have investigated experimentally and by computer simulations the energy-loss distributions of low-energy (E<10 keV) protons and deuterons transmitted through polycrystalline palladium thin films. In contrast to previous experiments on various transition metals we find that the stopping power of Pd is proportional to the ion velocity. Data of protons and deuterons are coincident within the experimental uncertainties, showing the absence of an isotopic effect on the stopping power of Pd in this energy range. The experimental results were analyzed and compared with Monte Carlo computer simulations and previous theoretical models. The difference in the velocity dependence of the energy loss of hydrogen ions in Pd with respect to other transition metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) is explained by a theoretical analysis based on the properties of the d-electron bands of those elements.
{beta}-Delayed Deuteron Emission from {sup 11}Li: Decay of the Halo
Raabe, R.; Ponsaers, J.; Duppen, P. van; Andreyev, A.; Buchmann, L.; Capel, P.; Kanungo, R.; Kirchner, T.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, J.; Ruprecht, G.; Walden, P.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Riisager, K.; Huyse, M.; Mattoon, C.; Sarazin, F.; Mukha, I.
2008-11-21
The deuteron-emission channel in the {beta} decay of the halo nucleus {sup 11}Li was measured at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility at TRIUMF by implanting postaccelerated {sup 11}Li ions into a segmented silicon detector. The events of interest were identified by correlating the decays of {sup 11}Li with those of the daughter nuclei. This method allowed the energy spectrum of the emitted deuterons to be extracted, free from contributions from other channels, and a precise value for the branching ratio B{sub d}=1.30(13)x10{sup -4} to be deduced for E{sub c.m.}>200 keV. The results provide the first unambiguous experimental evidence that the decay takes place essentially in the halo of {sup 11}Li and that it proceeds mainly to the {sup 9}Li+d continuum, opening up a new means to study the halo wave function of {sup 11}Li.
Measurement of 230Pa and 186Re Production Cross Sections Induced by Deuterons at Arronax Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchemin, Charlotte; Guertin, Arnaud; Metivier, Vincent; Haddad, Ferid; Michel, Nathalie
2014-02-01
A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particles at the ARRONAX cyclotron. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility of using them to produce medical isotopes. Two isotopes dedicated to targeted therapy have been considered: 226Th, a decay product of 230Pa, and 186Re. The production cross sections of 230Pa and 186Re, as well as those of the contaminants created during the irradiation, have been determined by the stacked-foil technique using deuteron beams. Experimental values have been quantified using a referenced cross section. The measured cross sections have been used to determine expected production yields and compared with the calculated values obtained using the Talys code with default parameters.
Measurement of the tensor structure function b1 of the deuteron.
Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Balin, D; Baturin, V; Beckmann, M; Belostotski, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Borysenko, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capitani, G P; Chen, T; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Fechtchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Frullani, S; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Graw, G; Grebeniouk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Gregor, I M; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lu, H; Lu, J; Lu, S; Ma, B-Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Pickert, N; Potashov, S; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R; Shearer, C; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Tkabladze, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, M C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2005-12-01
The Hermes experiment has investigated the tensor spin structure of the deuteron using the 27.6 GeV/c positron beam of DESY HERA. The use of a tensor-polarized deuteron gas target with only a negligible residual vector polarization enabled the first measurement of the tensor asymmetry A(d)zz and the tensor structure function b(d)1 for average values of the Bjorken variable 0.01<
Milavec, J; Domenici, V; Zupančič, B; Rešetič, A; Bubnov, A; Zalar, B
2016-02-01
Differences in the temperature behaviour of orientational ordering of structurally equivalent side-chain liquid single crystal elastomers (LSCEs) with (2)H-labelled crosslinker and mesogen have been studied by deuteron quadrupole-perturbed NMR. The impact of nematic director reorientations on the deuteron NMR spectral shapes was analyzed in terms of a discrete reorientational exchange model. This provided for the determination of the degree of nematic director alignment and for the quantification of the influence of the reorientational exchange on the (2)H NMR spectra in terms of two parameters, the nematic director orientational dispersion parameter σθ and the motional effectiveness parameter α. A comparative analysis of model simulations and experimental spectra reveals that mesogenic molecules in LSCEs exhibit faster reorientational dynamics as compared to crosslinker molecules and that mesogens and crosslinkers exhibit a similar and rather substantial static director orientational disorder. PMID:26778188
Nakao, Makoto; Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Ishioka, Noriko S.
2005-05-24
Activation cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions on aluminum, copper, and tungsten were measured by using a stacked-foil method. The stacked foils were irradiated with deuteron beam at the AVF cyclotron in the TIARA facility, JAERI. We obtained the activation cross sections for 27Al(d,2p)27Mg, 27Al(d,x)24Na, natCu(d,x)62,63Zn, 61,64Cu, and natW(d,x)181-184,186Re, 187W in the 22-40 MeV region. These cross sections were compared with other experimental ones and the data in the ACSELAM library calculated by the ALICE-F code.
New Precision Measurements of Deuteron Structure Function A(Q) at Low Momentum Transfer
Lee, Byungwuek
2009-08-01
Differences between previous measurements of low momentum transfer electron-deuteron elastic scattering prevent a clean determination of even the sign of the leading low momentum transfer relativistic corrections, or of the convergence of chiral perturbation theory. We have attempted to resolve this issue with a new high-precision measurement in Jefferson Lab Hall A. Elastic electron scattering was measured on targets of tantalum, carbon, hydrogen, and deuterium at beam energy of 685 MeV. The four-momentum transfer covered the range of 0.15 - 0.7 GeV. The experiment included a new beam calorimeter, to better calibrate the low beam currents used in the experiment, and new collimators to better define the spectrometer solid angles. We obtained cross sections of deuteron as ratios to hydrogen cross sections. A fit function of B(Q) world data is newly made and subtracted from cross sections to find values of A(Q).
Observation of a deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance Knight shift in conductive polyaniline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, Yanina A.; Vold, Robert L.; Cross, Jennifer; Espe, Matthew P.; Hoatson, Gina L.
2005-02-01
Solid state deuteron magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of conductive ring-deuterated polyaniline consist of two peaks, one at the same chemical shift as the insulating form of the polymer and the second shifted by 5.8±1 ppm. The magnitude of the shift is field and temperature independent and is identified as a Knight shift. The deuterons undergoing a Knight shift originate from both the crystalline and amorphous regions of the sample, implying that conduction is mediated by delocalized polarons in both these regions. Spin count experiments demonstrate that in highly conductive samples, signal is lost not only by dephasing due to the proximity of localized unpaired electrons but also to high rf reflectance.
Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on Fe54,56,58
Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.
2015-07-06
Here, deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α-particle emission spectra, from d+54,56,58Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 55Co, 57Co, 55Fe, 57Fe, 52Mn, and 54Mn have been deduced from themore » compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)] was found to have a good agreement with our results.« less
Coherent (pi)^{0} Photoproduction on the Deuteron up to 4 GeV.
Meekins, David; Abbott, David; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Assamagan, Ketevi; Baker, O.; Barrow, Steve; Beatty, David; Beck, Douglas; Beedoe, Shelton; Beise, Elizabeth; Belz, John; Bochna, Christopher; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Breuer, Herbert; Cadman, Robert; Cardman, Lawrence; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Collins, Glenn; Cothran, Christopher; Cummings, William; Danagoulian, Samuel; Duncan, Fraser; Dunne, James; Dutta, Dipangkar; Eden, Thomas; Ent, R.; Filippone, Bradley; Forest, Tony; Fortune, Harry; Frolov, Valera; Gao, Haiyan; Gilman, Ronald; Gueye, Paul; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Harvey, Mark; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Jackson, Harold; Keppel, Cynthia; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kinney, Edward; Klein, Andreas; Koltenuk, Douglas; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Madey, Richard; Markowitz, Pete; McFarlane, Kenneth; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Miller, M.A.; Mitchell, Joseph; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mohring, Richard; Napolitano, James; Nathan, Alan; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; O'neill, Thomas; Owen, Brynnen; Pate, Stephen; Potterveld, David; Price, John; Rakness, Gregory; Ransome, Ronald; Reinhold, Joerg; Rutt, Paul; Salgado, Carlos; Savage, Geoff; Segel, Ralph; Simicevic, Neven; Stoler, Paul; Suleiman, Riad; Tang, Liguang; Terburg, Bart; Westrum, D.van; Vulcan, William; Williamson, Steven; Witkowski, Michael; Wood, Stephen; Yan, Chen; Zeidman, Benjamin
1999-11-01
The differential cross section for D( gamma,d)(pi)^{0} has been measured at deuteron center-of-mass angles of 90z and 136z. This work reports the first data for this reaction above a photon energy of 1 GeV, and permits a test of the apparent constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude behavior as observed in elastic ed scattering.
Exclusive Photoproduction of K^{+}Σ*^{-}(n) Off Deuteron
Lu, Haiyun; Graham, Lewis; Zhao, Zhiwen; Park, Kijun; Gothe, Ralf
2010-08-16
We are using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the exclusive photoproduction of K^{+}Σ*^{-} (1385) off the deuteron. It will be the first published total cross section of this reaction channel. We show the preliminary results of the total cross section, while we present all the key steps of achieving it. In order to study the reaction mechanism, we also study and show the angular distribution in the Gottfried-Jackson frame.
Spectroscopic study of Λ(1405) via the in-flight (K-,n) reaction on deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enomoto, S.; Ajimura, S.; Beer, G.; Bhang, H.; Bragadireanu, M.; Buehler, P.; Busso, L.; Cargnelli, M.; Choi, S.; Curceanu, C.; Faso, D.; Fujioka, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Guaraldo, C.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayano, R.; Hiraiwa, T.; Iio, M.; Inoue, K.; Ishibashi, N.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishimoto, S.; Ishiwatari, T.; Itahashi, K.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Kienle, P.; Kou, H.; Marton, J.; Matsuda, Y.; Mizoi, Y.; Morra, O.; Nagae, T.; Noumi, H.; Ohnishi, H.; Okada, S.; Outa, H.; Sada, Y.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sato, M.; Sekimoto, M.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsuno, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tomono, D.; Toyoda, A.; Tsukada, K.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, T.; Yim, H.; Yoshida, K.; Zmeskal, J.
2011-10-01
We present an experimental study of Λ(1405) via the in-flight (K-,n) reaction on the deuteron target (J-PARC E31). We will measure all Σ+π-, Σ-π+ and Σ0π0 final states so that the isospin structure of the produced hyperon resonance state can be decomposed. In this report, we present an overview of the experiment and preparation status.
Characterization of a tunable quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam from deuteron breakup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleuel, D. L.; McMahan, M. A.; Ahle, L.; Barquest, B. R.; Cerny, J.; Heilbronn, L. H.; Jewett, C. C.
2007-08-01
A neutron irradiation facility is being developed at the 88-inch cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the purposes of measuring neutron reaction cross sections on radioactive targets and for radiation effects testing. Applications are of benefit to stockpile stewardship, nuclear astrophysics, next generation advanced fuel reactors and cosmic radiation biology and electronics in space. The facility will supply a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam in the range of 10-30 MeV or a white neutron source, produced by deuteron breakup reactions on thin and thick targets, respectively. Because the deuteron breakup reaction has not been well studied at intermediate incident deuteron energies, above the target Coulomb barrier and below 56 MeV, a detailed characterization was necessary of the neutron spectra produced by thin targets. Neutron time-of-flight (TOF) methods have been used to measure the neutron spectra produced on thin targets of low-Z (titanium) and high-Z (tantalum) materials at incident deuteron energies of 20 MeV and 29 MeV at 0°. Breakup neutrons at both energies from low-Z targets appear to peak at roughly half of the available kinetic energy, while neutrons from high-Z interactions peak somewhat lower in energy, owing to the increased proton energy due to breakup within the Coulomb field. Furthermore, neutron spectra appear narrower for high-Z targets. These centroids are consistent with recent preliminary proton energy measurements using silicon telescope detectors conducted at LBNL, though there is a notable discrepancy with spectral widths. Prospects for producing a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic neutron facility of 106-108 n/cm2/s at LBNL are promising.
Deuteron and triton magnetic moments from NMR spectra of the hydrogen molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2015-08-01
We present a theory and calculations of the nuclear magnetic shielding with finite nuclear mass effects and determine the magnetic moments of deuteron and triton using the known NMR spectra of HD and HT molecules. The results μd=0.857 438 234 6 (53 ) μN and μt=2.978 962 471 (10 ) μN are more accurate and in good agreement with the currently accepted values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannaske, R.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Birgersson, E.; Ferrari, A.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kempe, M.; Kögler, T.; Kosev, K.; Marta, M.; Massarczyk, R.; Matic, A.; Schilling, K. D.; Schramm, G.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D.
2016-01-01
The photodissociation of the deuteron is a key reaction in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, but is only sparsely measured in the relevant energy range. To determine the cross section of the d(γ,n)p reaction we used pulsed bremsstrahlung and measured the time-of-flight of the neutrons. In this article, we describe how the efficiency of the neutron detectors was experimentally determined and how the modification of the neutron spectrum by parts of the experimental setup was simulated and corrected.
High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction
Elaine Schulte; et. Al.
2002-10-01
The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Egamma = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results.
Jiang, X.; Arrington, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Qattan, I. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Physics; Rutgers Univ.; Univ. Blaise Pascal; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
2007-05-01
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Camsonne, A.
2007-05-04
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Mofﬁt; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; and L. Zhu
2007-05-01
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsian, Misak; Cosyn, Wim; Weiss, Christian
2015-10-01
For the past several years there have been an intensive research and development for the possible electron-ion collider that will be able to probe deep inelastic processes at unprecedentedly high energies in eA channel. One of the important advantages of the collider kinematics in DIS processes is the possibility for an unambiguous separation of hadrons emerging from DIS and hadrons fragmenting from the target nucleus. This creates a unique possibility for tagging the interacting nucleon with the recoil slow fragments in the DIS process. The situation is most clean for the deuteron target in which case the recoil particle is a nucleon. In addition, the possibility of having polarized deuteron beams will create unprecedented opportunities in probing polarization degrees of freedom for parton distributions in the interacting bound nucleon. In this work we develop a theoretical framework for the polarized electron-polarized deuteron deep inelastic scattering in which the recoil nucleon is detected in the target fragmentation region. Two main contributions for which theoretical models are developed are the plane-wave impulse approximation, in which no reinteractions are taking place between the final state products of DIS and the recoil nucleon.
The modeling of a linear multi-beam deuteron compact accelerator for neutron generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo, Wagner L.; Campos, Tarcisio P. R.
2012-07-01
There is a prominent interest in obtaining high-flux neutron generators due to its wide range of applications and possibilities. The beam current that reaches the target is one of the main factors for determining the performance of the generator. In the present paper we address the modeling of a deuteron compact accelerator for neutron generation underlying the electrode placement and providing an optimized multiple beam accelerator geometry. The methodology consists of electrode displacement calculations and simulations of the deuteron and neutron beam transport. A phenomenological model has been proposed based on experimental data, which provides two electrode configuration patterns. Both configurations were compared through electromagnetic simulations considering a single-beam accelerator-type. The configuration with highest ion current has led to a new geometry incorporating multiple beams. The final prototype presents an interesting beam profile achieving deuteron kinetic energy in the order of 180 keV and current up to 198 mA. Estimated yield for this generator was 1012 n/s. A shield was designed, based on Monte Carlo simulations. Dose calculation was appraised showing a neutron and photon dose rate of 7.73 and 14.50 mGy h-1 in front of 46 cm shield. The achieved design offers a suitable performance toward a compact high-flux neutron generator.
Covariant Spectator Theory of np scattering: Deuteron magnetic moment and form factors
Gross, Franz L.
2014-06-01
The deuteron magnetic moment is calculated using two model wave functions obtained from 2007 high precision fits to $np$ scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar $np$ interaction currents which are automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. After normalizing the wave functions, nearly identical predictions are obtained: model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, gives 0.863(2), while model WJC-2 with very small $P$-state components gives 0.864(2) These are about 1\\% larger than the measured value of the moment, 0.857 n.m., giving a new prediction for the size of the $\\rho\\pi\\gamma$ exchange, and other purely transverse interaction currents that are largely unconstrained by the nuclear dynamics. The physical significance of these results is discussed, and general formulae for the deuteron form factors, expressed in terms of deuteron wave functions and a new class of interaction current wave functions, are given.
Strauch, Matthias; Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Golub, Benjamin; Overbeck, Viviane; Michalik, Dirk; Paschek, Dietmar; Ludwig, Ralf
2016-07-21
We describe a method for the accurate determination of deuteron quadrupole coupling constants χD for N-D bonds in triethylammonium-based protic ionic liquids (PILs). This approach was first introduced by Wendt and Farrar for O-D bonds in molecular liquids, and is based on the linear relationship between the deuteron quadrupole coupling constants χD, and the proton chemical shifts δ(1)H, as obtained from DFT calculated properties in differently sized clusters of the compounds. Thus the measurement of δ(1)H provides an accurate estimate for χD, which can then be used for deriving reorientational correlation-times τND, by means of NMR deuteron quadrupole relaxation time measurements. The method is applied to pure PILs including differently strong interacting anions. The obtained χD values vary between 152 and 204 kHz, depending on the cation-anion interaction strength, intensified by H-bonding. We find that considering dispersion corrections in the DFT-calculations leads to only slightly decreasing χD values. The determined reorientational correlation times indicate that the extreme narrowing condition is fulfilled for these PILs. The τc values along with the measured viscosities provide an estimate for the volume/size of the clusters present in solution. In addition, the correlation times τc, and the H-bonded aggregates were also characterized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. PMID:27067640
Riad Suleiman
1999-10-01
The deuteron elastic structure functions, A(Q{sup 2}) and B(Q{sup 2}), have been extracted from cross section measurements of elastic electron-deuteron scattering in coincidence using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator and Hall A Facilities of Jefferson Laboratory. Incident electrons were scattered off a high-power cryogenic deuterium target. Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in the two High Resolution Spectrometers of Hall A. A(Q{sup 2}) was extracted from forward angle cross section measurements in the squared four-momentum transfer range 0.684 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 5.90 (GeV/c){sup 2}. B(Q{sup 2}) was determined by means of a Rosenbluth separation in the range 0.684 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 1.325 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data are compared to theoretical models based on the impulse approximation with the inclusion of meson-exchange currents and to predictions of quark dimensional scaling and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results are expected to provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.
The development of high resolution coordinate detectors for the DEUTERON facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Maltsev, T. V.; Nikolenko, D. N.; Rachek, I. A.
2014-09-01
The DEUTERON internal target facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring at BINP is intended for the experiments on interaction of electrons and positrons with proton and deuteron. These experiments require high resolution tracking detectors which can provide the energy and angles of scattered electron. The prototype detector with a sensitive area of 160 × 40 mm2 was built and proved to be operational. It consists of three cascades of gaseous electron multiplier (GEM), the readout structure and detector electronics. Readout structure has 640 strips which are uniformly distributed in two layers skewed by 30 degrees. Electronics of the detector includes APC128 ASICs, Altera Cyclone III FPGA, 100 MBit ethernet. In the APC128 ASIC each channel has a separate analog pipeline consisting of 32 cells which are cyclically switched by a global clock synchronized to the bunch crossing rate ( ~ 4 MHz). For the needs of DEUTERON facility the expected resolution of less than 100 μm and thickness of ~ 0.15% of radiation length are considered to be quite satisfactory. The latest results obtained at the test beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider show that detector is fully operational with maximum detection efficiency reached 98%.
Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions at large momentum transfers
Kathy McCormick
1999-08-01
The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been measured using the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Laboratory. Scattered electrons and recoiling deuterons were detected in coincidence in the two 4 GeV/c High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) of Hall A. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) and B(Q{sup 2}) have been extracted from these data. Results for the measurement of A(Q{sup 2}) in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 6.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} are reported. Results for the magnetic structure function, B(Q{sup 2}), are presented in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 1.35 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results for both structure functions are compared to predictions of meson-nucleon based models, both with and without the inclusion of meson-exchange currents. The A(Q{sup 2}) results are compared to predictions of the dimensional scaling quark model and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results can provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.
Deuteron Acceleration and Fusion Neutron Production in Z-pinch plasmas
Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Ananeev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kazakov, E. D.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.
2009-01-21
Fusion neutron measurements were carried out on the S-300 generator (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow). We tried deuterated fibers, various types of wire arrays imploding onto a deuterated fiber, and deuterium gas puffs as Z-pinch loads. On the current level of 2 MA, the peak neutron yield of 10{sup 10} was achieved with a deuterium gas-puff. The neutron and deuteron energy spectra were quite similar in various types of Z-pinch configurations. The broad width of radial neutron spectra implied a high radial component of deuteron velocity. On the basis of neutron measurements, we concluded that neutron production mechanism is connected with the study of plasma voltage. It means that the acceleration of fast deuterons is not a secondary process but it reflects the global dynamics of Z-pinch plasmas. For this reason it is useful to add deuterium as a 'tracer' in Z-pinch loads more often. For instance, it seems attractive to prepare wire-arrays from deuterated metal wires such as Pd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Tanır, G.
2013-06-01
The growing demands for energy consumption have led to the increase of the research and development activities on new energy sources. Fusion energy has the highest potential to become a very safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. To get energy from fusion are needed for development of fusion reactor technology. Particularly, the design and development of international facilities as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility requires for the cross-section data of deuteron induced reactions. Moreover, the selection of fusion structural materials are an indispensable component for this technology. Therefore, the cross-section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development of fusion reactor technology. In this study, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 59Co, 55Mn, 50Cr, 54Cr, 64Ni, 109Ag, 184W and 186W have been carried out for incident energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects for ( d, p) stripping reactions have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model and hybrid model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.
A study of neutron structure with (un)polarized deuterons and forward spectator tagging at EIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kijun
2015-10-01
An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable measurements of neutron structure through deep-inelastic electron-deuteron scattering with coincidence tagging of the forward-moving spectator proton. This technique allows to identify the active neutron and control its quantum state in the deuteron through measurement of the recoil proton momentum. An intensive study has established the feasibility of spectator tagging, including measurements of neutron spin structure with a polarized deuteron beam. A Monte Carlo simulation with the GEANT4 modular framework is developed with the physical processes, the MEIC accelerator/detector design and used to optimize the analysis strategy. A technique is implemented for obtaining the free neutron structure function by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum to the on-shell point. Such measurements provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, an d precision studies of QCD evolution. The EMC effect in light nuclei can be elucidated by studying the recoil momentum dependence of the nuclear modification away from the on-shell point. In this talk, I describe the proposed experimental set up, analysis procedure, and present results of the neutron structure functions.
Repetitive production of positron emitters using deuterons accelerated by multiterawatt laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimoto, Masatoshi; Matsukado, Koji; Takahashi, Hironori; Kawada, Yoichi; Ohsuka, Shinji; Aoshima, Shin-Ichiro
2009-11-01
Positron emitters C11, N13, and O15, which can be used in positron emission tomography, were produced using deuterons accelerated by irradiation of laser pulses ˜70 TW in peak power and ˜30 fs in duration with a repetition of 10 Hz during a period of as long as 200 s. Every laser pulse irradiates the fresh surface of a long strip of a solid-state thin film. Deuterons contained in the film are accelerated in the relativistic plasma induced by the pulse. The deuterons are repetitively incident on solid plates, which are placed near the film, to produce positron emitters by nuclear reactions. The radioactivities of the activated plates are measured after the termination of laser irradiation. In activation of graphite, boron-nitride, and melamine plates, the products had total activities of 64, 46, and 153 Bq, respectively. Contamination in the setup was negligible even after several thousands of laser shots. Our apparatus is expected to greatly contribute to the construction of a compact PET diagnostic system in the future.
Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.
2008-01-15
On the basis of the Bargmann representation of the S matrix, the pole approximation is obtained for the effective-range function k cot {delta}. This approximation is optimal for describing the neutron-deuteron system in the doublet spin state. The values of r{sub 0} = 412.469 fm and v{sub 2} = -35 495.62 fm{sup 3} for the doublet low-energy parameters of neutron-deuteron scattering and the value of D = 172.678 fm{sup 2} for the respective pole parameter are deduced by using experimental results for the triton binding energy E{sub T}, the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length a{sub 2}, and van Oers-Seagrave phase shifts at energies below the deuteron-breakup threshold. With these parameters, the pole approximation of the effective-range function provides a highly precise description (the relative error does not exceed 1%) of the doublet phase shift for neutron-deuteron scattering at energies below the deuteron-breakup threshold. Physical properties of the triton in the ground (T) and virtual (v) states are calculated. The results are B{sub v} = 0.608 MeV for the virtuallevel position and C{sub T}{sup 2} = 2.866 and C{sub v}{sup 2} = 0.0586 for the dimensionless asymptotic normalization constants. It is shown that, in the Whiting-Fuda approximation, the values of physical quantities characterizing the triton virtual state are determined to a high precision by one parameter, the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length a{sub 2}. The effective triton radii in the ground ({rho}{sub T} = 1.711 fm) and virtual ({rho}{sub v} = 74.184 fm) states are calculated for the first time.
Garcon, M.; Arvieux, J.; Beck, D.H.; Beise, E.J.; Boudard, A.; Cairns, E.B.; Cameron, J.M.; Dodson, G.W.; Dow, K.A.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fielding, H.W.; Flanz, J.B.; Goloskie, R.; Hoibraten, S.; Jourdan, J.; Kowalski, S.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nia, B.; Pham, L.D.; Redwine, R.P.; Rodning, N.L.; Roy, G.; Schulze, M.E.; Souder, P.A.; Soukup, J.; The, I.; Turchinetz, W.E.; Williamson, C.F.; Wilson, K.E.; Wood, S.A.; Ziegler, W. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820 Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Service de Physique Nucleaire, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Laboratoire National Saturne, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Syracuse University, Syracuse, New
1994-05-01
The tensor polarization of the recoil deuteron in elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been measured at the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at three values of four-momentum transfer [ital Q]=3.78, 4.22, and 4.62 fm[sup [minus]1], corresponding to incident electron energies of 653, 755, and 853 MeV. The scattered electrons and the recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence. The recoil deuterons were transported to a liquid hydrogen target to undergo a second scattering. The angular distribution of the [ital [rvec d
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharov, V. I.
2016-02-01
The report shows the possibilities of studying the spin one observables in the elastic dN and dd interactions at the NICA collider of the VBLHEP JINR. The use of the colliding deuteron beams would allow us to carry out the measurements of the differential cross sections I0(dN, dd) of the elastic scattering of unpolarized deuterons and the differential cross sections Ipol(dN,dd) and the vector Ay(Ed,θ) and tensor Ayy(Ed,θ) and Axx(Ed.θ) analyzing powers in elastic collisions of the vector and tensor polarized deuterons. The planned luminosity of the colliding polarized deuteron beams will provide sufficiently high elastic events counting rate. The use of the colliding beams of the polarized deuterons for the spin one >dN and dd observables research has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the experiments with the “fixed” target. The angular acceptance of the collider detector covers the full solid angle 4π radians while the wide ranges of the energies of the dN, dd interactions and the 4-momentum transfer squared are available.
Nuclear fusion of deuterons with light nuclei driven by Coulomb explosion of nanodroplets
Ron, Shlomo; Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua
2012-11-15
Theoretical-computational studies of table-top laser-driven nuclear fusion of high energy (up to 15 MeV) deuterons with {sup 7}Li, {sup 6}Li, T, and D demonstrate the attainment of high fusion yields. The reaction design constitutes a source of Coulomb exploding deuterium nanodroplets driven by an ultraintense, near-infrared, femtosecond Gaussian laser pulse (peak intensity 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18}-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) and a solid, hollow cylindrical target containing the second reagent. The exploding nanodroplets source is characterized by the deuteron kinetic energies, their number, and the laser energy absorbed by a nanodroplet. These were computed by scaled electron and ion dynamics simulations, which account for intra-nanodroplet laser intensity attenuation and relativistic effects. The fusion yields Y are determined by the number of the source deuterons and by the reaction probability. When laser intensity attenuation is weak within a single nanodroplet and throughout the nanodroplets assembly, Y exhibits a power law increase with increasing the nanodroplet size. Y is maximized for the nanodroplet size and laser intensity corresponding to the 'transition' between the weak and the strong intensity attenuation domains. The dependence of Y on the laser pulse energy W scales as W{sup 2} for weak assembly intensity attenuation, and as W for strong assembly intensity attenuation. This reaction design attains the highest table-top fusion efficiencies (up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} J{sup -1} per laser pulse) obtained up to date.
Thermal H/D exchange in polar ice - deuteron scrambling in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamberts, T.; Ioppolo, S.; Cuppen, H. M.; Fedoseev, G.; Linnartz, H.
2015-04-01
We have investigated the thermally induced proton/deuteron exchange in mixed amorphous H2O:D2O ices by monitoring the change in intensity of characteristic vibrational bending modes of H2O, HDO, and D2O with time and as function of temperature. The experiments have been performed using an ultrahigh vacuum setup equipped with an infrared spectrometer that is used to investigate the spectral evolution of homogeneously mixed ice upon co-deposition in thin films, for temperatures in the 90-140 K domain. With this non-energetic detection method, we find a significantly lower activation energy for H/D exchange - 3840 ± 125 K - than previously reported. Very likely this is due to the amorphous nature of the interstellar ice analogues involved. This provides reactive time-scales (τ < 104 yr at T > 70 K) fast enough for the process to be important in interstellar environments. Consequently, an astronomical detection of D2O will be even more challenging because of its potential to react with H2O to form HDO. Furthermore, additional experiments, along with previous studies, show that proton/deuteron swapping also occurs in ice mixtures of water with other hydrogen-bonded molecules, in particular on the OH and NH moieties. We conclude that H/D exchange in ices is a more general process that should be incorporated into ice models that are applied to protoplanetary discs or to simulate the warming up of cometary ices in their passage of the perihelion, to examine the extent of its influence on the final deuteron over hydrogen ratio.
Elastic electron-deuteron scattering in the light-front Hamiltonian dynamics
Salme, Giovanni; Marinho, Adnei; Frederico, Tobias; Pace, Emanuele
2011-10-24
Within the Light-Front Hamiltonian Dynamics, we are extending our investigation of the deuteron electromagnetic properties by adding new, dynamical two-body terms to the one-body current operator, introduced in previous works. These two-body contributions are generated in a four-dimensional Yukawa model (two fermions interacting through a pion) from an analysis of the Light-Front-projected current that acts on the three-dimensional valence component and fulfills the Ward-Takahashi identity. Preliminary results for the magnetic moment and the non valence probability are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred
2010-09-01
We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with χ2/Ndata≃1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.
Medical Application of the SARAF-Proton/Deuteron 40 MeV Superconducting Linac
Halfon, Shlomi
2007-11-26
The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) is based on a superconducting linear accelerator currently being built at the Soreq research center (Israel). The SARAF is planned to generate a 2 mA 4 MeV proton beam during its first year of operation and up to 40 MeV proton or deuteron beam in 2012. The high intensity beam, together with the linac ability to adjust the ion energy provides opportunities for medical research, such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the production of medical radioisotopes, for instance {sup 103}Pd for prostate brachytherapy.
Hadron production in deuteron-gold collisions and nuclear parton distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeluyi, Adeola; Fai, George
2007-11-01
We calculate nuclear modification factors RdAu, central-to-peripheral ratios, RCP, and pseudorapidity asymmetries YAsym in deuteron-gold collisions at s=200 GeV in the framework of leading-order (LO) perturbative quantum chromodynamics. We use the Eskola-Kolhinen-Salgado (EKS), the Frankfurt-Guzey-Strikman (FGS), and the Hirai-Kumano-Nagai (HKN) nuclear parton distribution functions and the Albino-Kramer-Kniehl (AKK) fragmentation functions in our calculations. Results are compared to experimental data from the BRAHMS and STAR collaborations.
Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler
2010-09-01
We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.
Parity-Violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Weak Axial Vector Form Factor
Ito, Takeyasu; Averett, Todd; Barkhuff, David; Batigne, Guillaume; Beck, Douglas; Beise, Elizabeth; Blake, A.; Breuer, Herbert; Carr, Robert; Clasie, Benjamin; Covrig, Silviu; Danagoulian, Areg; Dodson, George; Dow, Karen; Dutta, Dipangkar; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Filippone, Bradley; FRANKLIN, W.; Furget, Christophe; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Hannelius, Lars; Hasty, R.; Allen, Alice; Herda, M.C.; Jones, CE; King, Paul; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kox, Serge; Kramer, Kevin; Lee, P.; Liu, Jinghua; Martin, Jeffery; McKeown, Robert; Mueller, B.; Pitt, Mark; Plaster, Bradley; Quemener, Gilles; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Ritter, J.; Roche, Julie; Savu, V.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Seely, Charles; Spayde, Damon; Suleiman, Riad; Taylor, S.; Tieulent, Raphael; Tipton, Bryan; Tsentalovich, E.; Wells, Steven; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Jing; Yun, Junho; Zwart, Townsend
2004-03-01
We report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at backward angles at Q2 = 0.038 (GeV/c)2. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon, which can potentially receive large electroweak corrections. The measured asymmetry A = z3.51Â±0.57 (stat)Â±0.58 (syst) ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at Q2 = 0.091 (GeV/c)2, which are also consistent with theoretical predictions.
J. Adam, Jr.; Franz Gross; Sabine Jeschonnek; Paul Ulmer; J.W. Van Orden
2002-05-01
Using the covariant spectator theory and the transversity formalism, the unpolarized, coincidence cross section for deuteron electrodisintegration, d(e, e'p)n, is studied. The relativistic kinematics are reviewed, and simple theoretical formulae for the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) are derived and discussed. Numerical predictions for the scattering in the high Q{sup 2} region obtained from the RIA and five other approximations are presented and compared. We concluded that measurements of the unpolarized coincidence cross section and the asymmetry A{sub phi}, to an accuracy that will distinguish between different theoretical models, is feasible over most of the wide kinematic range accessible at Jefferson Lab.
Deltuva, A; Fonseca, A C; Sauer, P U
2005-08-26
The Coulomb interaction between the two protons is fully included in the calculation of proton-deuteron breakup with realistic interactions for the first time. The hadron dynamics is based on the purely nucleonic charge-dependent (CD) Bonn potential and its realistic extension CD Bonn +Delta to a coupled-channel two-baryon potential, allowing for single virtual Delta-isobar excitation. Calculations are done using integral equations in momentum space. The screening and renormalization approach is employed for including the Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb effect on breakup observables is seen at all energies in particular kinematic regimes. PMID:16197210
Regge-plus-resonance predictions for neutral-kaon photoproduction from the deuteron
Vancraeyveld, P.; De Cruz, L.; Ryckebusch, J.
2011-10-24
We present a Regge-inspired effective-Lagrangian framework for neutral-kaon photo-production from the deuteron. Quasi-free kaon production is investigated using the Regge-plus-resonance elementary operator within the relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation. The Regge-plus-resonance model was developed to describe photoinduced and electroinduced charged-kaon production off protons. We show how this elementary operator can be transformed to account for the production of neutral kaons from both protons and neutrons. Our results compare favourably to the sole {sup 2}H({gamma},K{sup 0})YN dataset published to date.
Choudhury, Rajul Ranjan Chitra, R.; Abraham, Geogy J.
2015-06-24
X-ray powder diffraction and Raman measurements were performed on the mixed crystals of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) and deuterated ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DADP) grown at our lab. These crystals are known to behave like deuteron glasses due to frustration between ferroelectric and antiferroelectric ordering. Both spectral as well as structural studies indicate that crystals belonging to the glassy regions of the crystal composition have stronger O-D-O hydrogen bonds as compared to those belong to the ferroelectric or antiferroelectric regions of the crystal composition.
The Planar-Transverse Phase Pattern in Pion-Deuteron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash, Firooz; Garcilazo, Humberto; Goldstein, Gary R.; Moravcsik, Michael J.
It is shown that a current high-precision theoretical model for pion-deuteron elastic scattering at a few hundred MeV’s predicts amplitudes in the planar-transverse optimal frame which have, to a high degree of accuracy, the feature previously observed in a variety of strong interaction processes, namely that these amplitudes are relatively real or imaginary with respect to each other. This fact provides additional and even more definitive evidence for the existence of this yet unexplained property of strong interactions.
Development of CNS Active Target for Deuteron Induced Reactions with High Intensity Exotic Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ota, Shinsuke; Tokieda, H.; Lee, C. S.; Kojima, R.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Corsi, A.; Dozono, M.; Gibelin, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kawase, S.; Kubono, S.; Kubota, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Michimasa, S.; Nakao, T.; Nishi, T.; Obertelli, A.; Otsu, H.; Santamaria, C.; Sasano, M.; Takaki, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Leung, T.; Uesaka, T.; Yako, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zenihiro, J.; Takada, E.
An active target system called CAT, has been developed aiming at the measurement of deuteron induced reactions with high intensity beams in inverse kinematics. The CAT consists of a time projection chamber using THGEM and an array of Si detectors or NaI scintilators. The effective gain for the recoil particle is deisgned to be 5 - 10 × 103, while one for the beam is reduced by 102 using mesh grid to match the amplified signal to the dynamic range same as the one for recoil particle. The structure of CAT and the effect of the mesh grid are reported.
Scattering length measurements from radiative pion capture and neutron-deuteron breakup
Gibson, B.F.; Tornow, W. |; Carman, T.S.
1997-07-01
The neutron-neutron and neutron-proton {sup 1}S{sub 0} scattering lengths a{sub nn} and a{sub np}, respectively, were determined simultaneously from the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction. Their comparison with the recommended values obtained from two body reactions gives a measure of the importance of three-nucleon force effects in the three-nucleon continuum. In order to check on the result obtained for a{sub nn} from the two-body {pi}{sup {minus}}-d capture reaction, a new measurement was performed at LANL. Preliminary results of the three experiments are given.
Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target
Hassberger, J A
1983-03-01
Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration.
Formation of the 50-Year Element 94 from Deuteron Bombardment of U{sup 238}
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Kennedy, J. W.; Perlman, M. L.; Segre, E.; Wahl, A. C.
1942-06-01
It has been shown by bombardment with deuterons of a sample of U{sup 238}, greatly depleted in U{sup 235} and U{sup 234}, that the 50-year 94 activity and 2.0 day 93 activity are formed in approximately the same yield as with the natural mixture of uranium isotopes. The activities are thus shown to arise from the U{sup 238} nucleus, and from considerations of the energy of the compound nucleus (U{sup 238} + d).
Electron-deuteron scattering based on the Chiral Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozpȩdzik, Dagmara
2014-06-01
Based on the Chiral Effective Field Theory (ChEFT) dynamical picture of the two-pion exchange (TPE) contributions to the nuclear current operator which appear at higher order chiral expansions were considered. Their role in the electron-deuteron scattering reactions was studied and chiral predictions were compared with those obtained in the conventional framework. Results for cross section and various polarization observables are presented. The bound and scattering states were calculated with five different chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials which leads to the so-called theoretical uncertainty bands for the predicted results.
New data on activation cross section for deuteron induced reactions on ytterbium up to 50 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.
2014-10-01
Activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on ytterbium for production of 177g,173,172,171,170,169,167Lu, 177,175,169Yb and 173,168,167,165Tm were extended up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The new data are in acceptable agreement with the earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS 1.4 (TENDL-2013 on-line library results) codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slim, J.; Gebel, R.; Heberling, D.; Hinder, F.; Hölscher, D.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Mey, S.; Nass, A.; Rathmann, F.; Reifferscheidt, L.; Soltner, H.; Straatmann, H.; Trinkel, F.; Wolters, J.
2016-08-01
The conventional Wien filter is a device with orthogonal static magnetic and electric fields, often used for velocity separation of charged particles. Here we describe the electromagnetic design calculations for a novel waveguide RF Wien filter that will be employed to solely manipulate the spins of protons or deuterons at frequencies of about 0.1-2 MHz at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY at Jülich. The device will be used in a future experiment that aims at measuring the proton and deuteron electric dipole moments, which are expected to be very small. Their determination, however, would have a huge impact on our understanding of the universe.
Nucleon and deuteron scattering cross sections from 25 MV/Nucleon to 22.5 GeV/Nucleon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.
1983-01-01
Within the context of a double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to generate tables of nucleon and deuteron total and absorption cross sections at kinetic energies between 25 MeV/nucleon and 22.5 GeV/nucleon for use in cosmic-ray transport and shielding studies. Comparisons of predictions for nucleon-nucleus and deuteron-nucleus absorption and total cross sections with experimental data are also made.
High-intensity polarized H-(proton), deuteron and 3He++ion source development at BNL.
Zelenski,A.
2008-06-23
New techniques for the production of polarized electron, H{sup -} (proton), D (D+) and {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL. An Optically Pumped Polarized H{sup -} Ion Source (OPPIS) delivers beam for polarization studies in RHIC. The polarized deuteron beam will be required for the deuteron Electron Dipole Moment (EDM) experiment, and the {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beam is a part of the experimental program for the future eRHIC (Electron Ion) collider.
Investigation of Three-Body Force Effects in Neutron-Deuteron Scattering at 95 MeV
Mermod, P.; Blomgren, J.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Oesterlund, M.; Pomp, S.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Tippawan, U.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Maeda, Y.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.
2005-05-24
We have measured the neutron-deuteron (nd) elastic-scattering differential cross section at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, using both the Medley and the SCANDAL setups at TSL in Uppsala. The full angular distribution was covered by detecting recoil deuterons from thin CD2 targets, and the result was normalized to the neutron-proton (np) cross section. Recent theories predict that three-nucleon (3N) force effects, if present, would affect the cross section in the minimum region by about 30%. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and are well described if 3N forces are included.
Evidence of three-body force effects in neutron-deuteron scattering at 95 MeV
Mermod, P.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Oesterlund, M.; Pomp, S.; Tippawan, U.; Bergenwall, B.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Maeda, Y.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.
2005-12-15
Recently, we have reported a measurement of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section at 95 MeV. In the present work, the previous results are confirmed with an independent measurement performed with another setup. The new data cover the full angular distribution by combining neutron detection and deuteron detection, and have an unprecedented precision in the region of the cross-section minimum, where three-nucleon forces are expected to be significant. The effect already identified in the previous measurement is clearly seen in the present data, which agree well with theoretical descriptions including three-nucleon forces.
Experiments on screening effect in deuteron fusion reactions at extremely low energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Targosz-Ślȩczka, N.; Czerski, K.; Huke, A.; Ruprecht, G.; Weissbach, D.; Martin, L.; Kiliç, A. i.; Kaczmarski, M.; Winter, H.
2013-10-01
The enhanced electron screening effect in nuclear reactions taking place in dense astrophysical plasmas is extremely important for determination of stellar reaction rates in terrestrial laboratories as well as in prediction of cross sections enhancement in interiors of stars such as White and Brown Dwarfs or Giant Planets. This effect resulting in reduction of the nuclear Coulomb potential by the atomic electrons has been confirmed in many laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, experimental screening energies are much higher than the theoretical predictions and the reason for that remains unknown. Here, we present absorbing results of the experiment studying d + d nuclear reactions in different deuterized metallic targets under ultra high vacuum conditions. The total cross sections and angular distributions of the 2H( d, p)3H and 2H( d, n)3He reactions have been measured using a deuteron beam of energies between 8 and 30 keV provided by the electron cyclotron ion source. The atomic cleanness of the target surface has been secured by combining Ar sputtering of the target and Auger electrons spectroscopy. Due to application of an on-line analysis method, the homogeneity of the implanted deuteron densities could be continuously monitored. We will discuss probable causes of the large discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data.
Saturation physics and deuteron-gold collisions at RHIC [review article
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Kovchegov, Yuri V.
2006-01-01
We present a review of parton saturation/Color Glass Condensate physics in the context of deuteron-gold ( d+Au) collisions at RHIC. Color Glass Condensate physics is a universal description of all high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions. It comprises classical (McLerran-Venugopalan model and Glauber-Mueller rescatterings) and quantum evolution (JIMWLK and BK equations) effects both in small- x hadronic and nuclear wave functions and in the high energy scattering processes. Proton-nucleus (or d+A) collisions present a unique opportunity to study Color Glass Condensate predictions, since many relevant observables in proton-nucleus collisions are reasonably well-understood theoretically in the Color Glass Condensate approach. In this article we review the basics of saturation/Color Glass Condensate physics and reproduce derivations of many important observables in proton (deuteron)-nucleus collisions. We compare the predictions of Color Glass physics to the data generated by d+Au experiments at RHIC and observe an agreement between the data and the theory, indicating that Color Glass Condensate has probably been discovered at RHIC. We point out further experimental measurements which need to be carried out to test the discovery.
Excitation functions of longer lived radionuclides formed by deuteron irradiation of germanium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takács, S.; Takács, M. P.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Adam-Rebeles, R.
2014-10-01
The cross sections of nuclear reactions induced by deuteron particles on natural germanium were investigated by using the stacked target technique, activation method and standard high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets were natural germanium, vacuum evaporated onto 25 micron thick polyimide (kapton) foils with nominal thickness of about 2 μm. The stack was composed of 26 kapton-Ge-Ge-kapton sandwich targets foils and 24 aluminum and 25 titanium foils with nominal thickness of 50 and 11 μm respectively. The Al foils served as monitors and at the same time as energy degraders in the high energy part of the stack. Ti foils were included in the stack to monitor the beam parameters in the low energy region. The irradiation was done with 50 MeV deuteron particles with a beam current of about 50 nA for about 1 h. Activation cross sections were determined for production of the 70,71,72,73,74,76As, 69,75,77Ge and 66,67,73Ga radionuclides. The deduced experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL-2013 data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and were compared with the data published before. The possible production routes of arsenic radioisotopes are discussed.
First-order neutron-deuteron scattering in a three-dimensional approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topolnicki, K.; Golak, J.; Skibiński, R.; Witała, H.; Bertulani, C. A.
2015-10-01
The description of the neutron-deuteron scattering process has been possible using the partial wave approach since the 1980s (Few-Body Syst. 3, 123 (1988); Phys. Rep. 274, 107 (1996); Acta Phys. Pol. B 28, 1677 (1997)). In recent years the so-called "three-dimensional" formalism was developed, where the calculations are performed with operators acting directly on the three-dimensional degrees of freedom of the nucleons. This approach avoids a tedious step of the classical calculations, the partial wave decomposition of operators, and in this paper is applied to the neutron-deuteron scattering process. The calculations presented here are a first step toward a new calculation scheme that would make it possible to easily produce precise predictions for a wide range of nuclear force models. This paper is a continuation of the work presented in Eur. Phys. J. A 43, 339 (2010) where the breakup channel was considered in detail. The theoretical formulation used in this paper is very closely related to the formalism introduced in Eur. Phys. J. A 43, 339 (2010) and Phys. Rev. C 68, 054003 (2003), however, we work directly with the matrix representation of operators in the joined isospin-spin space of the three-nucleon system and use only the driving term of the three-nucleon Faddeev equations. This greatly simplifies the numerical realization of the calculation and allows us to consider also the elastic channel of the reaction.
Simulation of mode converted ion Bernstein wave - beam deuteron interactions on TFTR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Mark; Fisch, Nathaniel
1998-11-01
Experiments on TFTR have documented strong interactions between mode converted ion Bernstein waves (MCIBW) and beam deuterons(D. S. Darrow et al.), Nucl. Fusion 36, 509 (1996).^,(N. J. Fisch et al.), IAEA, Vol. 1, p. 271 (1996). This is of particular interest in the study of α channelling, since the most promising scenarios(M. C. Herrmann and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 1495 (1997). rely on a suitable combination of MCIBW and Alfvén eigenmodes to achieve the cooling of the α particles. Collisional effects, realistic wave fields, and a detailed model of the wave-particle interaction have been added to the Monte Carlo simulations which are used to simulate α channelling in order to model TFTR experiments(M. C. Herrmann, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1998.). The results are found to be in qualitative agreement with the data. In addition, the simulation is used, in conjunction with the data, to demonstrate the existence of the k_\\|-flip of the MCIBW, and to infer a diffusion coefficient for the beam deuterons interacting with the wave. This diffusion coefficient significantly exceeds what would be expected on the basis of quasilinear theory with the fields specified by 1 D ray tracing of the MCIBW.
Revisiting Low Energy Deuteron Production of [18F] Fluoride and Fluorine for PET
Barnhart, T.E.; Nickles, R.J.; Roberts, A.D.
2003-08-26
Fluorine-18 is currently the most widely used radioisotope in PET imaging. While much attention has been paid in recent years to production methods from 18O(p,n)18F, the current work revisits production techniques using non-enriched neon targets and the 20Ne(d,{alpha})18F reaction. While this reaction was originally pursued, and ultimately replaced by the higher yielding 18O reactions, there is an opportunity using high current low-energy deuteron accelerators and the inherent simplicity of gas targetry to provide viable alternatives to the costly 18O water target systems. 18F production systems have been developed for the gas-phase 20Ne(d,{alpha})18F reaction with deuterons from a 3MV NEC 9SDH-2 electrostatic tandem accelerator. High power target systems allowing for irradiation in excess of 100uA provided [18F]F2 yields to 86% of the theoretical maximum, and [18F]F- yields with a wash-off system of 80% of the maximum.
Characterization of a Tunable Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutron Beamfrom Deuteron Breakup
Bleuel, D.L.; McMahan, M.A.; Ahle, L.; Barquest, B.R.; Cerny, J.; Heilbronn, L.H.; Jewett, C.C.
2006-12-14
A neutron irradiation facility is being developed at the88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for thepurposes of measuring neutron reaction cross sections on radioactivetargets and for radiation effects testing. Applications are of benefit tostockpile stewardship, nuclear astrophysics, next generation advancedfuel reactors, and cosmic radiation biology and electronics in space. Thefacility will supply a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam in therange of 10-30 MeV or a white neutron source, produced by deuteronbreakup reactions on thin and thick targets, respectively. Because thedeuteron breakup reaction has not been well studied at intermediateincident deuteron energies, above the target Coulomb barrier and below 56MeV, a detailed characterization was necessary of the neutron spectraproduced by thin targets.Neutron time of flight (TOF) methods have beenused to measure the neutron spectra produced on thin targets of low-Z(titanium) and high-Z (tantalum) materials at incident deuteron energiesof 20 MeV and 29 MeV at 0 deg. Breakup neutrons at both energies fromlow-Z targets appear to peak at roughly half of the available kineticenergy, while neutrons from high-Z interactions peak somewhat lower inenergy, owing to the increased proton energy due to breakup within theCoulomb field. Furthermore, neutron spectra appear narrower for high-Ztargets. These centroids are consistent with recent preliminary protonenergy measurements using silicon telescope detectors conducted at LBNL,though there is a notable discrepancy with spectral widths.
Deuteron-Induced Cross Section Calculations of Some Structural Fusion Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, A.; Özdoğan, H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.
2013-02-01
The development of fusion materials for the safety of fusion power systems and understanding nuclear properties is important. The reaction cross-section data have a critical importance on fusion reactors and development for fusion reactor technology. In this study, the theoretical cross sections of some structural fusion materials such as Cr, V, Fe, Ni, Zr and Ta in deuteron-induced reactions have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 50Cr(d, α)48V, 51V(d, 2n)51Cr, 51V(d, 4n)49Cr, 54Fe(d, α)52Mn, 54Fe(d, n)55Co, 58Ni(d, α)56Co, 96Zr(d, n)97Nb, 96Zr(d, 2n)96Nb and 181Ta(d, 2n)181W reactions have been carried out up to 90 MeV incident deuteron energies. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the geometry dependent hybrid model and hybrid model. Equilibrium effects have been calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. The ALICE/ASH computer code has been used in all calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data existing in EXFOR database and found to be in good agreement.
The proton and deuteron F2 structure function at low Q2
Tvaskis, Vladas; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, Oliver; Blok, Henk; Bosted, Peter; Boswell, Melissa; Bruell, Antje; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Ent, Rolf; Filippone, Bradley; Gasparian, Ashot; Keppel, Cynthia; Kinney, Edward; Lapikas, L; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Mammei, Juliette; Martin, J W; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Piercey, Rodney; Potterveld, David; Smith, Gregory; Spurlock, Kurt; Van der Steenhoven, Gerard; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Wood, Stephen
2010-06-01
Measurements of the proton and deuteron F2 structure functions are presented. The data, taken at Je erson Lab Hall C, span the four-momentum transfer range 0:06 < Q2 < 2:8 GeV2, and Bjorken x values from 0.009 to 0.45, thus extending the knowledge of F2 to low values of Q2 at low x. Next-to-next-to-leading order calculations using recent parton distribution functions start to deviate from the data for Q2 < 2 GeV2 at the low and high x-values. Down to the lowest value of Q2, the structure function is in good agreement with a parameterization of F2 based on data that have been taken at much higher values of Q2 or much lower values of x, and which is constrained by data at the photon point. The ratio of the deuteron and proton structure functions at low x remains well described by a logarithmic dependence on Q2 at low Q2.
Comparison of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for deuterons, tritons and helions.
Copeland, Kyle; Friedberg, Wallace; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji
2012-02-01
Secondary radiation in aircraft and spacecraft includes deuterons, tritons and helions. Two sets of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for isotropic exposure to these particles were compared: one used the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) radiation transport code coupled with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms (PHITS-ICRP) and the other the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport code coupled with modified BodyBuilder™ phantoms (MCNPX-BB). Also, two sets of fluence-to-effective dose equivalent conversion coefficients calculated using the PHITS-ICRP combination were compared: one used quality factors based on linear energy transfer; the other used quality factors based on lineal energy (y). Finally, PHITS-ICRP effective dose coefficients were compared with PHITS-ICRP effective dose equivalent coefficients. The PHITS-ICRP and MCNPX-BB effective dose coefficients were similar, except at high energies, where MCNPX-BB coefficients were higher. For helions, at most energies effective dose coefficients were much greater than effective dose equivalent coefficients. For deuterons and tritons, coefficients were similar when their radiation weighting factor was set to 2. PMID:21474471
Delta-Isobar Production in the Hard Photodisintegration of a Deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granados, Carlos; Sargsian, Misak
2010-02-01
Hard photodisintegration of the deuteron in delta-isobar production channels is proposed as a useful process in identifying the quark structure of hadrons and of hadronic interactions at large momentum and energy transfer. The reactions are modeled using the hard re scattering model, HRM, following previous works on hard breakup of a nucleon nucleon (NN) system in light nuclei. Here,quantitative predictions through the HRM require the numerical input of fits of experimental NN hard elastic scattering cross sections. Because of the lack of data in hard NN scattering into δ-isobar channels, the cross section of the corresponding photodisintegration processes cannot be predicted in the same way. Instead, the corresponding NN scattering process is modeled through the quark interchange mechanism, QIM, leaving an unknown normalization parameter. The observables of interest are ratios of differential cross sections of δ-isobar production channels to NN breakup in deuteron photodisintegration. Both entries in these ratios are derived through the HRM and QIM so that normalization parameters cancel out and numerical predictions can be obtained. )
Final-state interactions in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron
Cosyn, Wim; Melnitchouk, Wally; Sargsian, Misak M.
2014-01-16
We explore the role of final-state interactions (FSI) in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron. Relating the inclusive cross section to the deuteron forward virtual Compton scattering amplitude, a general formula for the FSI contribution is derived in the generalized eikonal approximation, utilizing the diffractive nature of the effective hadron-nucleon interaction. The calculation uses a factorized model with a basis of three resonances with mass W~<2 GeV and a continuum contribution for larger W as the relevant set of effective hadron states entering the final-state interaction amplitude. The results show sizeable on-shell FSI contributions for Bjorken x ~> 0.6 andmore » Q2 < 10 GeV2 increasing in magnitude for lower Q2, but vanishing in the high-Q2 limit due to phase space constraints. The off-shell rescattering contributes at x ~> 0.8 and is taken as an uncertainty on the on-shell result.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.
1972-01-01
The exact nucleon-deuteron elastic single scattering integral was calculated numerically in order to evaluate errors in sticking factor approximations. A similar analysis made by using S wave separable potentials concluded that errors for these approximations were negligible except near backward angles where they were found to be about 10 percent.
Elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei in the alpha-cluster model
Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V. Fedorchenko, D. V.
2013-07-15
On the basis of the dispersive alpha-cluster model for target nuclei and the theory of multiple diffractive scattering, differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the elastic scattering of 400 and 700-MeV deuterons on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O target nuclei were calculated in the pointlike-deuteron approximation. In these calculations, the amplitude for incident-deuteron scattering on nuclei was constructed with the aid of amplitudes for d{alpha} scattering that were obtained from a fit to data on d{sup 16}O scattering. The same features were calculated on the basis of the diffraction approximation with allowance for the internal deuteron structure by using the amplitudes obtained earlier for nucleon scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei within the same dispersive alpha-clustermodel. The latter made it possible to perform calculations without employing adjustable parameters. The observables calculated on the basis of either approach agree with available experimental data.
Klir, D.; Krasa, J.; Velyhan, A.; Cikhardt, J.; Rezac, K.; Dudzak, R.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Sila, O.
2015-09-15
Neutron-producing experiments have been carried out on the Prague Asterix Laser System. At the fundamental wavelength of 1.315 μm, the laser pulse of a 600 J energy and 300 ps duration was focused on a thick deuterated-polyethylene target. Neutron yields reached (4.1 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 8} at the peak intensity of ≈3 × 10{sup 16 }W/cm{sup 2}. A more detailed analysis of neutron time-of-flight signals showed that a significant fraction of neutron yields was produced both by the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction and by other neutron-producing reactions. Neutron energies together with delayed neutron and gamma emission showed that MeV deuterons escaped from a laser-produced plasma and interacted ≈50 ns later with a borosilicate blast-shield glass. In order to increase DD neutron yields and to characterize deuteron beams via nuclear reactions, a secondary deuterated polyethylene target was used in a pitcher-catcher scheme at the target front side. In this experimental arrangement, the neutron yield reached (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 9} with the peak neutron fluence of (2.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 8 }n/sr. From the neutron yield, it was calculated that the secondary target was bombarded by 2 × 10{sup 14} deuterons in the 0.5–2.0 MeV energy range. The neutron yield of 2 × 10{sup 9} at the laser energy of 600 J implied the production efficiency of 3 × 10{sup 6 }n/J. A very important result is that the efficient neutron production was achieved with the low contrast, sub-nanosecond laser pulse of the intensity of 10{sup 16 }W/cm{sup 2}. The latter parameters can be achieved in a rep-rate mode more easily than ultra-high intensities and contrasts.
Kim, Yeong E
2009-07-01
Recently, there have been many reports of experimental results which indicate occurrences of anomalous deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in metals at low energies. A consistent conventional theoretical description is presented for anomalous low-energy deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in metal. The theory is based on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state occupied by deuterons trapped in a micro/nano-scale metal grain or particle. The theory is capable of explaining most of the experimentally observed results and also provides theoretical predictions, which can be tested experimentally. Scalabilities of the observed effects are discussed based on theoretical predictions. PMID:19440686
Coherent {pi}{sup 0} photoproduction on the deuteron up to 4 GeV
Meekins, D.G.; Armstrong, C.S.; Meekins, D.G.; Abbott, D.J.; Baker, O.K.; Cardman, L.; Carlini, R.D.; Dunne, J.A.; Ent, R.; Keppel, C.E.; Mack, D.J.; Mitchell, J.H.; Tang, L.; Vulcan, W.F.; Wood, S.A.; Yan, C.; Ahmidouch, A.; Madey, R.; Suleiman, R.; Arrington, J.; Filippone, B.W.; McKeown, R.D.; Assamagan, K.A.; Baker, O.K.; Cha, J.; Eden, T.; Gueye, P.L.; Harvey, M.; Hinton, W.; Keppel, C.E.; Madey, R.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Savage, G.; Tang, L.; Barrow, S.P.; Beatty, D.P.; Fortune, H.T.; Koltenuk, D.M.; Beck, D.H.; Bochna, C.; Cadman, R.V.; Forest, T.A.; Gao, H.; Holt, R.J.; Miller, M.A.; Nathan, A.M.; Owen, B.R.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.P.; Williamson, S.E.; Beedoe, S.Y.; Danagoulian, S.; Beise, E.J.; Breuer, H.; Chant, N.S.; Collins, G.; Duncan, F.A.; Gustafsson, K.K.; Lung, A.F.; Mohring, R.M.; Belz, J.E.; Bosted, P.E.; Brash, E.J.; and others
1999-11-01
The differential cross section for {sup 2}H({gamma},d){pi}{sup 0} has been measured at deuteron center-of-mass angles of 90{degree} and 136{degree}. This work reports the first data for this reaction above a photon energy of 1 GeV, and permits a test of the apparent constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude behavior as observed in elastic {ital ed} scattering. Measurements were performed up to a photon energy of 4.0 GeV, and are in good agreement with previous lower energy measurements. Overall, the data are inconsistent with both constituent-counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Coherent [pi][sup 0] photoproduction on the deuteron up to 4 GeV
Meekins, D.G.; Armstrong, C.S. ); Meekins, D.G.; Abbott, D.J.; Baker, O.K.; Cardman, L.; Carlini, R.D.; Dunne, J.A.; Ent, R.; Keppel, C.E.; Mack, D.J.; Mitchell, J.H.; Tang, L.; Vulcan, W.F.; Wood, S.A.; Yan, C. ); Ahmidouch, A.; Madey, R.; Suleiman, R. ); Arrington, J.; Filippone, B.W.; McKeown, R.D. ); Assamagan, K.A.; Baker, O.K.; Cha, J.; Eden, T.; Gueye, P.L.; Harvey, M.; Hinton, W.; Keppel, C.E.; Madey, R.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Savage, G.; Tang, L. ); Barrow, S.P.; Beatty, D.P.; Fortune, H.T.; Koltenuk,
1999-11-01
The differential cross section for [sup 2]H([gamma],d)[pi][sup 0] has been measured at deuteron center-of-mass angles of 90[degree] and 136[degree]. This work reports the first data for this reaction above a photon energy of 1 GeV, and permits a test of the apparent constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude behavior as observed in elastic [ital ed] scattering. Measurements were performed up to a photon energy of 4.0 GeV, and are in good agreement with previous lower energy measurements. Overall, the data are inconsistent with both constituent-counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude predictions. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society
Deuteron NMR spectra of ND4ClO4 single crystal at low temperatures.
Birczyński, A; Lalowicz, Z T; Ingman, L P; Punkkinen, M; Ylinen, E E
1993-03-01
2H NMR spectra of ND4ClO4 single crystal were obtained at v0 = 44 MHz. Orientation and temperature (1.9-75 K) dependences were measured. Fitting the spectra gives the effective quadrupole coupling constants for all deuterons and the ground torsional level structure. The isotope reduction of the (A-T) and (A-E) tunnelling splittings, i.e., the ratios of the respective splittings for NH4+ and ND4+, were found to be different. The splittings at T = 24 K are about 60% of the helium temperature values. The spectrum undergoes intermediate narrowing by reorientations between 26 and 34 K and tunnelling related features in the spectra are eradicated. After reaching the extreme narrowing limit, a doublet with gradually decreasing separation was observed, what was attributed to averaging by torsional oscillations of increasing amplitude. At high temperatures (T > 75 K), the narrow spectrum reflects fast multiaxial reorientation of the ammonium ion. PMID:7834308
Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred
2010-09-15
We present the effective range expansions for the {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data{approx_equal}}1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.
Azimuthal asymmetries of hadrons produced in muon SIDIS off longitudinally polarized deuterons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savin, I. A.
2016-02-01
The azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of charged-hadron production in the muon SIDIS reactions off the longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the COMPASS data of 2006 and combined data of 2002-2006. The asymmetries are presented as functions of the hadron azimuthal angle ϕ in two ways: first, for hadrons integrated over the kinematic variables and, second, as a function of one of the kinematic variables x, z or phT while integrating over two other. In each case asymmetries were fitted by functions included the ϕ-independent terms and terms amplitude of which are modulated with ø as predicted by the theory: sin ϕ, sin 2ϕ, sin 3ϕ and cos ϕ. Results for amplitudes are presented and discussed.
Break-up and Coherent Photoproduction of {eta} Mesons on the Deuteron
Hoffmann-Rothe, P.; Breuer, M.; Hourany, E.; Rigney, M.; Ajaka, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Didelez, J.; Rosier, L.; Hey, J.; Anton, G.; Beulertz, W.; Bock, A.; Helbing, K.; Krebeck, M.; Edel, G.v.; Maass, R.; Schumacher, M.; Smend, F.; Blanpied, G.; Preedom, B.; Richie, B.; Saghai, B.; Arends, J.
1997-06-01
We present new break-up and coherent data for {eta} meson photoproduction on the deuteron, using a deuterium target and tagged bremsstrahlung photons up to 1GeV. The differential cross sections for the coherent process were measured from threshold to 800MeV. They are much smaller than those previously reported. The break-up channel provides a direct measurement of the neutron to proton differential cross section ratios. At the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance peak, {sigma}{sub n}/{sigma}{sub p}=0.68{plus_minus}0.06 leading to an isoscalar to isovector amplitude ratio of A{sub s}/A{sub {upsilon}}=0.096{plus_minus}0.02 . {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
First measurement of coherent $\\phi$-meson photoproduction on deuteron at low energies
Tsutomu Mibe; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Hicks; Kevin Kramer; Stepan Stepanyan; David Tedeschi; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Gerard Audit; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Barry Berman; Angela Biselli; Lukasz Blaszczyk; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Hall Crannell; Volker Crede; John Cummings; Natalya Dashyan; Rita De Masi; Raffaella De Vita; Enzo De Sanctis; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Lamiaa Elfassi; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Christopher Gordon; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Cynthia Hadjidakis; Kawtar Hafidi; Hayk Hakobyan; Rafael Hakobyan; Charles Hanretty; John Hardie; F. Hersman; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; John Johnstone; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Alexei Klimenko; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Viacheslav Kuznetsov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Tsung-shung Lee; Ji Li; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Claude Marchand; Nikolai Markov; Paul Mattione; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Joseph Melone; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Ralph Minehart; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; S. Anefalos Pereira; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Dinko Pocanic; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Gregory Riccardi; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Julian Salamanca; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Dmitri Sharov; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Daria Sokhan; A. Stavinsky; Samuel Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; Paul Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Luminita Todor; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Daniel Watts; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao
2007-11-01
The cross section and decay angular distributions for the coherent \\phi meson photoproduction on the deuteron have been measured for the first time up to a squared four-momentum transfer t =(p_{\\gamma}-p_{\\phi})^2 =-2 GeV^2/c^2, using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The cross sections are compared with predictions from a re-scattering model. In a framework of vector meson dominance, the data are consistent with the total \\phi-N cross section \\sigma_{\\phi N} at about 10 mb. If vector meson dominance is violated, a larger \\sigma_{\\phi N} is possible by introducing larger t-slope for the \\phi N \\to \\phi N process than that for the \\gamma N \\to \\phi N process. The decay angular distributions of the \\phi are consistent with helicity conservation.
Proton and deuteron spin structure function measurements in the resonance region
F.R. Wesselmann
2003-07-01
The RSS collaboration has measured the spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron at Jefferson Lab using the Hall C HMS spectrometer, a polarized electron beam and a polarized solid target. The asymmetries A and A were measured in the region of the nucleon resonances (0.82 GeV < W < 1.98 GeV) at an average four momentum transfer of Q2 = 1.3 GeV2. The extracted spin structure functions and their kinematic dependence will make a significant contribution in the study of higher-twist effects and polarized duality tests. A description of the experiment and the latest findings of the analysis will be presented.
Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV
Burtebayev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Kuranov, S. B.; Sakuta, S. B.
2010-05-15
At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.
Proton and deuteron induced reactions on natGa: Experimental and calculated excitation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanne, A.; Adam-Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.
2015-09-01
Cross-sections for reactions on natGa, induced by protons (up to 65 MeV) and deuterons (up to 50 MeV), producing γ-emitting radionuclides with half-lives longer than 1 h were measured in a stacked-foil irradiation using thin Ga-Ni alloy (70-30%) targets electroplated on Cu or Au backings. Excitation functions for generation of 68,69Ge, 66,67,68,72Ga and 65,69mZn on natGa are discussed, relative to the monitor reactions natAl(d,x)24,22Na, natAl(p,x)24,22Na, natCu(p,x)62Zn and natNi(p,x)57Ni. The results are compared to our earlier measurements, the scarce literature values and to the results of the code TALYS 1.6 (online database TENDL-2014).
Wang, G. B.; Wang, K.; Liu, H. G.; Li, R. D.
2013-07-01
A Monte Carlo tool RSMC (Reaction Sequence Monte Carlo) was developed to simulate deuteron/triton transportation and reaction coupled problem. The 'Forced particle production' variance reduction technique was used to improve the simulation speed, which made the secondary product play a major role. The mono-energy 14 MeV fusion neutron source was employed as a validation. Then the thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor was studied with our tool. Moreover, an in-core conversion efficiency measurement experiment was performed with {sup 6}LiD and {sup 6}LiH converters. Threshold activation foils was used to indicate the fast and fusion neutron flux. Besides, two other pivotal parameters were calculated theoretically. Finally, the conversion efficiency of {sup 6}LiD is obtained as 1.97x10{sup -4}, which matches well with the theoretical result. (authors)
Hovanes Egiyan
2012-01-01
We searched for the {Phi}{sup --}(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} decay channel using CLAS. The invariant mass spectrum of the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M = 1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of {Phi}{sup --}(1860) with a consecutive decay into {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} in the photon energy range 4.5 GeV < E{sub {gamma}} < 5.5 GeV.
Isomer production in intermediate-energy deuteron-induced reactions on a gold target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balabekyan, A. R.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Demekhina, N. A.; Drnoyan, D. R.; Zhemenik, V. I.; Adam, J.; Zavorka, L.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Guimarães, V.; Deppman, A.
2016-05-01
Residual nuclei formed at ground and isomeric states from the interaction of 4.4 GeV deuteron with a gold target have been measured and investigated by the induced-activity method. Eight isomeric and ground-state pairs of target residues in the mass range of 44
Low and medium energy deuteron-induced reactions on {sup 63,65}Cu nuclei
Simeckova, E.; Bem, P.; Honusek, M.; Stefanik, M.; Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Forrest, R. A.; Koning, A. J.; Sublet, J.-C.; Avrigeanu, M.; Roman, F. L.; Avrigeanu, V.
2011-07-15
The activation cross sections of (d,p), (d,2n), (d,3n), and (d,2p) reactions on {sup 63,65}Cu were measured in the energy range from 4 to 20 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Then, following the available elastic-scattering data analysis that provided the optical potential for reaction cross-section calculations, an increased effort was devoted to the breakup mechanism, direct reaction stripping, and pre-equilibrium and compound-nucleus cross-section calculations, corrected for the breakup and stripping decrease of the total reaction cross section. The overall agreement between the measured and calculated deuteron activation cross sections proves the correctness of the nuclear mechanism account, next to the simultaneous analysis of the elastic-scattering and reaction data.
Isoscalar response of 68Ni to α -particle and deuteron probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandebrouck, M.; Gibelin, J.; Khan, E.; Achouri, N. L.; Baba, H.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Caamaño, M.; Càceres, L.; Colò, G.; Delaunay, F.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Garg, U.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Keeley, N.; Mittig, W.; Pancin, J.; Raabe, R.; Roger, T.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Sorlin, O.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thomas, J. C.
2015-08-01
Isoscalar giant resonances have been measured in the unstable 68Ni nucleus using inelastic alpha and deuteron scattering at 50 A MeV in inverse kinematics with the active target MAYA at GANIL. Using alpha scattering, the extracted isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) centroid was determined to be 21.1 ±1.9 MeV and the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance (ISGQR) to be 15.9 ±1.3 MeV. Indications for soft isoscalar monopole and dipole modes are provided. Results obtained with both (α ,α' ) and (d ,d' ) probes are compatible. The evolution of isoscalar giant resonances along the Ni isotopic chain from 56Ni to 68Ni is discussed.
Selective Deuteron Acceleration and Neutron Production on the Vulcan PW Laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krygier, A. G.; Morrison, J. T.; Freeman, R. R.; Ahmed, H.; Green, J. A.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Vassura, L.
2014-10-01
Fast neutron sources are important for a variety of applications including radiography and the detection of sensitive materials. Here we report on the results of an experiment using the Vulcan PW laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to produce a nearly pure deuterium ion beam via Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. The typical contaminants are suppressed by freezing a μ m's thick layer of heavy water vapor (D2 O) onto a cryogenic target during the shot sequence. Neutrons were generated by colliding the accelerated deuterons were into secondary targets made of deuterated plastic in the pitcher-catcher arrangement. Absolute yields for deuterium ions and neutrons are reported. This work is supported by DOE Contract DE-FC02-04ER54789.
Pion-less effective field theory on low-energy deuteron electrodisintegration
Christlmeier, Stefan; Griesshammer, Harald W.
2008-06-15
In view of its relation to Big Bang nucleosynthesis and a reported discrepancy between nuclear models and data taken at S-DALINAC, electro-induced deuteron breakup {sup 2}H(e,e{sup '}p)n is studied at momentum transfer q<100 MeV and close to threshold in the low-energy nuclear effective field theory without dynamical pions, EFT({pi} /). The result at next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 2}LO) for electric dipole currents and at next-to-leading order (NLO) for magnetic ones converges order-by-order better than quantitatively predicted and contains no free parameter. It is at this order determined by simple, well-known observables. Decomposing the triple differential cross section into the longitudinal-plus-transverse (L+T), transverse-transverse (TT), and longitudinal-transverse interference (LT) terms, we find excellent agreement with a potential-model calculation by Arenhoevel and co-workers, based on the Bonn potential. Theory and data also agree well on {sigma}{sub L+T}. There is however no space on the theory side for the discrepancy of up to 30%(3{sigma}) between theory and experiment in {sigma}{sub LT}. From universality of EFT({pi} /), we conclude that no theoretical approach with the correct deuteron asymptotic wave function can explain the data. Undetermined short-distance contributions that could affect {sigma}{sub LT} enter only at high orders (i.e., at the few-percent level). We notice some issues with the kinematics and normalization of the data reported.
Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumano, S.
2014-10-01
We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones (F1, F2, g1, g2) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are b1, b2, b3, and b4 in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist- two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation b2 = 2xb1 in the Bjorken scaling limit. First, these new structure functions are introduced, and useful formulae are derived for projection operators of b1-4 from a hadron tensor Wμν. Second, a sum rule is explained for b1, and possible tensor-polarized distributions are discussed by using HERMES data in order to propose future experimental measurements and to compare them with theoretical models. A proposal was approved to measure b1 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), so that much progress is expected for b1 in the near future. Third, formalisms of polarized proton-deuteron Drell-Yan processes are explained for probing especially tensor- polarized antiquark distributions, which were suggested by the HERMES data. The studies of the tensor-polarized structure functions will open a new era in 2020's for tensor-structure studies in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, which are very different from ordinary descriptions in terms of nucleons and mesons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guidoboni, G.; Stephenson, E.; Andrianov, S.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Bai, M.; Baylac, M.; Bernreuther, W.; Bertelli, S.; Berz, M.; Böker, J.; Böhme, C.; Bsaisou, J.; Chekmenev, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Conto, J.-M.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Esser, F. M.; Eversmann, D.; Felden, O.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Glückler, H.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grigoryev, K.; Grzonka, D.; Hahnraths, T.; Heberling, D.; Hejny, V.; Hempelmann, N.; Hetzel, J.; Hinder, F.; Hipple, R.; Hölscher, D.; Ivanov, A.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kamys, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Khoukaz, A.; Koop, I.; Krause, H.-J.; Krewald, S.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maanen, P.; Macharashvili, G.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Makino, K.; Mariański, B.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Mey, S.; Morse, W.; Müller, F.; Nass, A.; Natour, G.; Nikolaev, N.; Nioradze, M.; Nowakowski, K.; Orlov, Y.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Pretz, J.; Rathmann, F.; Ritman, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Rudy, Z.; Saleev, A.; Sefzick, T.; Semertzidis, Y.; Senichev, Y.; Shmakova, V.; Silenko, A.; Simon, M.; Slim, J.; Soltner, H.; Stahl, A.; Stassen, R.; Statera, M.; Stockhorst, H.; Straatmann, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Trinkel, F.; Trzciński, A.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Valetov, E.; Vassiliev, A.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zakrzewska, M.; Zuprański, P.; Zyuzin, D.; JEDI Collaboration
2016-07-01
We observe a deuteron beam polarization lifetime near 1000 s in the horizontal plane of a magnetic storage ring (COSY). This long spin coherence time is maintained through a combination of beam bunching, electron cooling, sextupole field corrections, and the suppression of collective effects through beam current limits. This record lifetime is required for a storage ring search for an intrinsic electric dipole moment on the deuteron at a statistical sensitivity level approaching 10-29 e cm .
Skorodumina, Yu. A.; Golovach, Evgeny N.; Gothe, Ralf W.; Ishkhanov, Boris S.; Isupov, Evgeny L.; Mokeev, Viktor I.; Fedotov, Gleb V.
2015-04-01
Preliminary results from analyzing π⁺π⁻ pair electroproduction on a proton bound in a deuteron are presented. Procedures for considering the Fermi motion of the initial proton in the deuteron and assessing the effects of interaction in the final states are developed. The yield of the reaction ep(n) → e'p'(n')π⁺π⁻ is obtained for the first time.
Analysis of deuteron breakup reactions on {sup 7}Li for energies up to 100 MeV
Ye, Tao; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki
2009-07-15
Inclusive nucleon spectra from deuteron breakup reactions on {sup 7}Li are analyzed in terms of the continuum discretized coupled channels theory for the elastic breakup process and the Glauber model for the nucleon stripping process. Both theoretical models use the same phenomenological nucleon optical potential of {sup 7}Li and have no other free parameters. The calculations reproduce well a prominent bump observed around half the incident energy in experimental inclusive spectra of 40-MeV (d,xn) and 100-MeV (d,xp) reactions at forward angles. The analysis shows that the stripping process is more important than the elastic breakup process in deuteron breakup reactions on {sup 7}Li.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanna, Gabriel; Kapral, Raymond
2008-04-01
Proton and deuteron transfer reactions in a hydrogen-bonded complex dissolved in a polar solution are studied using quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Reactive-flux correlation functions that involve quantum-classical Liouville dynamics for species operators and quantum equilibrium sampling are used to calculate the rate constants. Adiabatic and nonadiabatic reaction rates are computed, compared, and analyzed. Large variations of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for this reaction have been observed in the literature, which depend on the nature of the approximate calculation used to estimate the proton and deuteron transfer rates. Our estimate of the KIE lies at the low end of the range of previously observed values, suggesting a rather small KIE for this reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shebeko, A.; Dubovik, E.
2013-08-01
One more application of the method of unitary clothing transformations (UCT's) in the theory of nucleon-nucleon ( N - N) interaction has been presented. We have extended our previous analysis (Dubovik and Shebeko in Few-Body Syst 48:109-142, 2010) of the N - N scattering below the pion production threshold to treat the neutron-proton ( n - p) scattering at low energies and the deuteron static properties. Our calculations of deuteron magnetic and quadrupole moments have been carried out in the framework of a gauge independent description of electromagnetic (EM) interactions with nuclei (bound systems) using the clothed particle representation of the Hamiltonian, the boost and EM current density operators for the n-p system.
Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.
1995-08-01
The collaborative effort between Argonne and the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk to measure the tensor analyzing power of the deuteron at high momentum transfer continues. This measurement allows the experimental separation of the deuteron charge and quadrupole form factors, which cannot be obtained from unpolarized scattering alone. Phase 2 of the experiment, which used a storage cell fed by an atomic beam source as the internal target, was completed. The limited statistics collected in this phase of the experiment are insufficient to confirm the existing data from MIT-Bates in the kinematic region up to q = 5 fm{sup -1}. It was decided to change to Phase 3 of the experiment, which uses a laser-driven polarized deuterium source and a passive storage cell as the target. All necessary parts of the Argonne source were delivered to Novosibirsk and work is underway to construct and test the target.
Valery Kubarovsky; Stepan Stepanyan
2003-05-01
CLAS photoproduction data on deuterium and hydrogen targets have been analyzed in a search for an exotic baryon state with strangeness S = +1, the {Theta}{sup +} (originally named the Z{sup +}). This resonance was predicted recently in theoretical work based on the chiral soliton model as a lowest mass member of an anti-decuplet of 5-quark states. The reaction {gamma}d {yields} pK{sup -}K{sup +}n, which requires a final state interaction inside the deuteron, was used in the analysis of deuteron data. In the analysis of proton data, the reaction {gamma}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}n was studied. Evidence for the {Theta}{sup +} state is found in both analyzes in the invariant mass distribution of the nK{sup +}. Our results are consistent with previously reported results by LEPS/Spring-8 collaboration (Japan), and by the ITEP (Moscow) group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Shinsuke; Kouno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Iwamoto, Osamu; Ye, Tao; Ogata, Kazuyuki
2016-06-01
We have so far developed a computational code system dedicated to deuteron-induced reactions in combination with some theoretical models. In our previous works, the code system was successfully applied to systematic analyses of double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of (d,xp) reactions for 12C, 27Al, and 58Ni at incident energies up to 100 MeV. In the present work, we apply the code system to neutron emission from deuteron-induced reactions. Since there is few experimental data of DDXs of (d,xn) reactions, double-differential thick target neutron yields (TTNYs) are calculated and compared with experimental data instead of DDXs. The calculation using the code system reproduces the measured TTNYs for carbon at incident energies up to 50 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaei, B.; Dashtimoghadam, A.
2014-09-01
The basic properties and form factors of the deuteron system are investigated for the different forms of the Wood-Saxon potential. We have used the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method for analytical solution of the radial Schrodinger equation. A comparison of the calculated values with experimental results are given. It is shown that the obtained results for the modified form of the Wood-Saxon potential are very close to the experimental results in comparison with other forms of the potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orcikova, H.; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Varlachev, V. A.
2015-04-01
Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas puffs have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at 3 MA currents. Recently, a novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch was used to accelerate deuterons and to generate fast neutrons. In order to form a homogeneous, uniformly conducting layer at a large initial radius, an inner deuterium gas puff was surrounded by an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed at the diameter of 350 mm by 48 plasma guns. A linear mass of the plasma shell was about 5 µg cm-1 whereas a total linear mass of deuterium gas in single or double shell gas puffs was about 100 µg cm-1. The implosion lasted 700 ns and seemed to be stable up to a 5 mm radius. During stagnation, m = 0 instabilities became more pronounced. When a disruption of necks occurred, the plasma impedance reached 0.4 Ω and high energy (>2 MeV) bremsstrahlung radiation together with high energy deuterons were produced. Maximum neutron energies of 33 MeV were observed by axial time-of-flight detectors. The observed neutron spectra could be explained by a suprathermal distribution of deuterons with a high energy tail f≤ft({{E}\\text{d}}\\right)\\propto E\\text{d}-(1.8+/- 0.2) . Neutron yields reached 3.6 × 1012 at a 2.7 MA current. A high neutron production efficiency of 6 × 107 neutrons per one joule of plasma energy resulted from the generation of high energy deuterons and from their magnetization inside plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raimondi, Francesco; Hupin, Guillaume; Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia
2016-05-01
Background: Low-energy transfer reactions in which a proton is stripped from a deuteron projectile and dropped into a target play a crucial role in the formation of nuclei in both primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, as well as in the study of exotic nuclei using radioactive beam facilities and inverse kinematics. Ab initio approaches have been successfully applied to describe the 3H (d ,n )4He and 3He(d ,p )4He fusion processes. Purpose: An ab initio treatment of transfer reactions would also be desirable for heavier targets. In this work, we extend the ab initio description of (d ,p ) reactions to processes with light p -shell nuclei. As a first application, we study the elastic scattering of deuterium on 7Li and the 7Li(d ,p )8Li transfer reaction based on a two-body Hamiltonian. Methods: We use the no-core shell model to compute the wave functions of the nuclei involved in the reaction, and describe the dynamics between targets and projectiles with the help of microscopic-cluster states in the spirit of the resonating group method. Results: The shapes of the excitation functions for deuterons impinging on 7Li are qualitatively reproduced up to the deuteron breakup energy. The interplay between d -7Li and p -8Li particle-decay channels determines some features of the 9Be spectrum above the d +7Li threshold. Our prediction for the parity of the 17.298 MeV resonance is at odds with the experimental assignment. Conclusions: Deuteron stripping reactions with p -shell targets can now be computed ab initio, but calculations are very demanding. A quantitative description of the 7Li(d ,p )8Li reaction will require further work to include the effect of three-nucleon forces and additional decay channels and to improve the convergence rate of our calculations.
Spectroscopic study of {Lambda}(1405) via the in-flight (K{sup -},n) reaction on deuteron
Enomoto, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishibashi, N.; Kawasaki, S.; Sakaguchi, A.; Yoshida, K.; Ajimura, S.; Noumi, H.; Beer, G.; Bhang, H.; Choi, S.; Yim, H.; Bragadireanu, M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Okada, S.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M.
2011-10-21
We present an experimental study of {Lambda}(1405) via the in-flight (K{sup -},n) reaction on the deuteron target (J-PARC E31). We will measure all {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Sigma}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} final states so that the isospin structure of the produced hyperon resonance state can be decomposed. In this report, we present an overview of the experiment and preparation status.
Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan
Nelson, O.D.
1997-09-04
This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.
M. Osipenko; G. Ricco; S. Simula; M. Battaglieri; M. Ripani; the CLAS Collaboration
2005-06-02
Inclusive electron scattering off the deuteron has been measured to extract the deuteron structure function F2 with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The measurement covers the entire resonance region from the quasi-elastic peak up to the invariant mass of the final-state hadronic system W {approx} 2.7 GeV with four-momentum transfers Q2 from 0.4 to 6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. These data are complementary to previous measurements of the proton structure function F2 and cover a similar two-dimensional region of Q2 and Bjorken variable x. Determination of the deuteron F2 over a large x interval including the quasi-elastic peak as a function of Q2, together with the other world data, permit a direct evaluation of the structure function moments for the first time. By fitting the Q2 evolution of these moments with an OPE-based twist expansion we have obtained a separation of the leading twist and higher twist terms. The observed Q2 behavior of the higher twist contribution suggests a partial cancellation of different higher twists entering into the expansion with opposite signs. This cancellation, found also in the proton moments, is a manifestation of the ''duality'' phenomenon in the F2 structure function.
Study of deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons off polarized deuterons
Kuriki, M.
1996-03-01
This thesis describes a 29GeV electron - nucleon scattering experiment carried out at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Highly polarized electrons are scattered off a polarized ND{sub 3} target. Scattered electrons are detected by two spectrometers located in End Station A (ESA) at angles of 4.5{degrees} and 7{degrees} with respect to the beam axis. We have measured the spin structure function g{sub 1} of deuteron over the range of 0.029 < x < 0.8 and 1. 0 < Q{sup 2} < 12.0(GeV/c){sup 2}. This integral indicates a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations from the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, 0.068{+-}0.005 at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} while our result of g{sub 1}{sup d} in good agreement with SMC results. Combined with g{sub 1} of the proton, the measurement of {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}(g{sub 1}{sup d}-g{sub 1}{sup n}) is 0.169{+-}0.008. We also obtained the strong coupling constant at Q{sup 2} = 3.0(GeV/c){sup 2} to be 0.417{sub -0.110}{sup +0.086}, using the power correction for the sum rule up to third order of {alpha}{sub s}. This result is in agreement with the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) = 3.0(GeV/c{sup 2}) obtained from various experiments. Using our deuteron results and the axial vector couplings of hyperon decays, the total quark polarization along the nucleon spin is found to be 0.286{+-}.055, implying that quarks carry only 30% of the nucleon spin. The strange sea quark polarization is also determined to be -0.101 {+-} .023. These measurements are in agreement with other experiments and provide the world`s most precise measurement of these quark polarizations. 80 refs., 151 figs., 23 tabs.
A precision measurement of the rate of muon capture on the deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xiao
Because quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is non-perturbative at low energies, strong interactions at the ˜ GeV scale are very challenging to understand. Theoretical progress has been made recently using QCD-based effective field theories (EFT). The short-distance physics of the effective theory is absorbed into a limited number of low energy constants (LECs), which are determined by direct experimental measurement. The MuSun experiment is measuring the rate Lambdad for muon capture on the deuteron, which is the simplest weak interaction in a two nucleon system. Lambda d will be used, in turn, to better determine a fundamental LEC known as dR in the EFT. An improvement in the precision of this LEC will improve our understanding of several other processes in the two-nucleon sector: pp fusion, the main source of energy in the sun and other main-sequence stars and neutrino-deuteron scattering, as observed in the SNO experiment. The MuSun experiment determines Lambdad via a precision measurement of the negative muon lifetime in deuterium. The time difference between an incoming muon, which stops in deuterium, and the subsequent decay electron characterizes the muon disappearance rate. That disappearance rate is the sum of the ordinary muon decay rate and the nuclear capture rate. The ultimate goal of the MuSun experiment is to determine the nuclear capture rate (Lambdad) to a precision of 1.5 %, an order of magnitude improvement over previous efforts. The principal experimental development required to achieve this goal is a cryogenic (T ˜30K) time projection chamber, which not only serves as the deuterium gas target, but also provides an unambiguous measurement of muon stopping position - muons that stop in high Z materials outside the fiducial deuterium volume produce a very large systematic error. The low temperature helps minimize several other systematic errors. The MuSun experiment is taking place at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. Over the past
Measurement of the longitudinal deuteron spin-structure function in deep-inelastic scattering
Bauer, J.M.
1996-09-01
Experiment E143 at SLAC performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements with polarized electrons incident on polarized protons and deuterons. The data for the beam energy of 29 GeV cover the kinematical range of x{sub Bj} > 0.03 and 1 < Q{sup 2} < 12 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1} were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment and its analysis and discusses the results. The measured integral of g{sub 1}{sup d} over x from x = 0 to x = 1 is {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = 0.046 {+-} 0.003 (stat){+-}0.004 (syst) at Q{sup 2} = 3 GeV{sup 2} and disagrees by more than three standard deviations with the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe, sum rule. The data suggest that the quark contribution to the nucleon helicity is 0.35 {+-} 0.05. From the proton data of the same experiment, the integral over the proton spin-structure functional g{sub 1}{sup d} was determined to be {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} = 0.127 {+-} 0.003(stat){+-}0.008(syst). By Combining the deuteron data with the proton data, the integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} was extracted as {minus}0.027 {+-} 0.008 (stat){+-}0.010 (syst). The integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} {minus} {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} is 0.154{+-}0.010(stat) {+-}0.016 (syst) according to the E143 analysis. This result agrees with the important Bjorken sum rule of 0.171 {+-} 0.009 at Q{sup 2} = 3 GeV{sup 2} within less than one standard deviation. Furthermore, results of a separate analysis involving GLAP evolution equations are shown. Data were also collected for beam energies of 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, Results for g{sub 1} at these energies are presented.
Deuteron Induced ( d,p) and ( d,2p) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Kara, A.
2013-06-01
Many studies have shown that the nuclear reactions of charged particles with nuclei are very important in many fields of nuclear physics. The interactions of deuterons with nuclei have been especially the subject of common research in the history of nuclear physics. Moreover, the knowledge of cross section for deuteron-nucleus interactions are required for various application such as space applications, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, nuclear medicine, nuclear fission reactors and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors. Particularly, the future of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors is largely dependent on the nuclear reaction cross section data and the selection of structural fusion materials. Finally, the reaction cross section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development and design of both experimental and commercial fusion devices. In this work, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as Al ( Aluminium), Ti ( Titanium), Cu ( Copper), Ni ( Nickel), Co ( Cobalt), Fe ( Iron), Zr ( Zirconium), Hf ( Hafnium) and Ta ( Tantalum) have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27 Al( d,2p) 27 Mg, 47 Ti( d,2p) 47 Sc, 65 Cu( d,2p) 65 Ni, 58 Ni( d,2p) 58 Co, 59 Co( d,2p) 59 Fe, 58 Fe( d,p) 59 Fe, 96 Zr( d,p) 97 Zr, 180 Hf ( d,p) 181 Hf and 181 Ta( d,p) 182 Ta have been carried out for incident deuteron energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium effects for ( d,p) and ( d,2p) reactions have been investigated. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing ( WE) Model. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model ( GDH) and Hybrid Model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the
Neutron spin structure with polarized deuterons and spectator proton tagging at EIC
Cosyn, W.; Guzey, V.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Hyde, C.; Kuhn, S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Sargsian, M.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.
2014-10-27
The neutron's deep-inelastic structure functions provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, and precision studies of QCD phenomena in the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet sectors. Thus, traditional inclusive measurements on nuclear targets are limited by dilution from scattering on protons, Fermi motion and binding effects, final-state interactions, and nuclear shadowing at x << 0.1. An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of neutron structure with polarized deuteron beams and detection of forward-moving spectator protons over a wide range of recoil momenta (0 < pR << several 100 MeV in the nucleusmore » rest frame). The free neutron structure functions could be obtained by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum distributions to the on-shell point. The method eliminates nuclear modifications and can be applied to polarized scattering, as well as to semi-inclusive and exclusive final states. We review the prospects for neutron structure measurements with spectator tagging at EIC, the status of R&D efforts, and the accelerator and detector requirements.« less
Quasi-free photoproduction of η-mesons off the deuteron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaegle, I.; Krusche, B.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D. E.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dieterle, M.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, C.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Gutz, E.; Hillert, W.; Höffgen, S.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kotulla, M.; Lang, M.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lugert, S.; Maghrbi, Y.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Nanova, M.; Novinski, D. V.; Novotny, R.; Oberle, M.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Pheron, F.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S. V.; Sokhoyan, V.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Werthmüller, D.; Witthauer, L.
2011-08-01
Precise data for quasi-free photoproduction of η-mesons off the deuteron have been measured at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with the combined Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector for incident photon energies up to 2.5GeV. The η-mesons have been detected in coincidence with recoil protons and neutrons. Possible nuclear effects like Fermi motion and re-scattering can be studied via a comparison of the quasi-free reaction off the bound proton to η-production off the free proton. No significant effects beyond the folding of the free cross-section with the momentum distribution of the bound protons have been found. These Fermi motion effects can be removed by an analysis using the invariant mass of the η-nucleon pairs reconstructed from the final-state four-momenta of the particles. The total cross-section for quasi-free η-photoproduction off the neutron reveals even without correction for Fermi motion a pronounced bump-like structure around 1GeV of incident photon energy, which is not observed for the proton. This structure is even narrower in the invariant-mass spectrum of the η-neutron pairs. Position and width of the peak in the invariant-mass spectrum are W ≈ 1665 MeV and FWHM Γ ≈ 25 MeV. The data are compared to the results of different models.
Application of PIGE, BS and NRA techniques to oxygen profiling in steel joints using deuteron beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csedreki, L.; Huszank, R.
2015-04-01
In order to study the oxygen content and to characterize the oxygen depth profile on the surface of welded steel joints in the function of the applied shielding gases, particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), backscattering spectrometry (BS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) methods were used. The measurements were carried out at 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 MeV deuteron energies. From the PIGE oxygen and carbon elemental maps (1000 × 1000 μm2) taken with a beam of 2 × 2 μm2 beam size, oxygen rich regions were chosen for the depth profile analysis. The investigated depth was ∼6 μm using particle detection (BS, NRA), which was extended to ∼11 μm with the application of the differential-PIGE method, using the numerical integration of experimental cross-section data. The oxygen depth profiles show systematic discrepancy in the oxide layer thickness and composition between the two different kind of shielding gases.
Final-state interactions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off the Deuteron
Wim Cosyn, Misak Sargsian
2011-07-01
Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off the Deuteron with production of a slow nucleon in recoil kinematics is studied in the virtual nucleon approximation, in which the final state interaction (FSI) is calculated within general eikonal approximation. The cross section is derived in a factorized approach, with a factor describing the virtual photon interaction with the off-shell nucleon and a distorted spectral function accounting for the final-state interactions. One of the main goals of the study is to understand how much the general features of the diffractive high energy soft rescattering accounts for the observed features of FSI in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Comparison with the Jefferson Lab data shows good agreement in the covered range of kinematics. Most importantly, our calculation correctly reproduces the rise of the FSI in the forward direction of the slow nucleon production angle. By fitting our calculation to the data we extracted the W and Q{sup 2} dependences of the total cross section and slope factor of the interaction of DIS products, X, off the spectator nucleon. This analysis shows the XN scattering cross section rising with W and decreasing with an increase of Q{sup 2}. Finally, our analysis points at a largely suppressed off-shell part of the rescattering amplitude.
Chiral effective field theory predictions for muon capture on deuteron and $^3$He
Laura E. Marcucci, A. Kievsky, S. Rosati, R. Schiavilla, M. Viviani
2012-01-01
The muon-capture reactions {sup 2}H({mu}{sup -}, {nu}{sub {mu}})nn and {sup 3}He({mu}{sup -},{nu}{sub {mu}}){sup 3}H are studied with nuclear strong-interaction potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LEC's) c{sub D} and c{sub E}, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c{sub D}) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The vector weak current is related to the isovector component of the electromagnetic current via the conserved-vector-current constraint, and the two LEC's entering the contact terms in the latter are constrained to reproduce the A=3 magnetic moments. The muon capture rates on deuteron and {sup 3}He are predicted to be 399 {+-} 3 sec{sup -1} and 1494 {+-} 21 sec{sup -1}, respectively, where the spread accounts for the cutoff sensitivity as well as uncertainties in the LEC's and electroweak radiative corrections. By comparing the calculated and precisely measured rates on {sup 3}He, a value for the induced pseudoscalar form factor is obtained in good agreement with the chiral perturbation theory prediction.
Electromagnetic theory of the nuclear interaction. Application to the deuteron {sup 2}H
Schaeffer, Bernard
2012-06-20
Bieler of the Rutherford laboratory imagined in 1924 a magnetic attraction equilibrating an electrostatic repulsion between the protons. Since the discovery of the neutron and the magnetic moments of the nucleons proving that the neutron contains electric charges, nobody, as far as I know, has tried to apply electromagnetism to the nuclear interaction. The electrostatic and magnetic interactions are completely neglected except for a mean Coulomb repulsion. As it is well known, there is an attraction between an electric charge and a neutral conductor. In the neutron, the positive charges are repelled and the negative charges attracted by a nearby proton. There is a net attraction explaining quantitatively the so-called strong force as it is shown in this paper. In the deuteron, the magnetic repulsion equilibrates the electrostatically induced neutron-proton attraction. The experimental value (- 2.2 MeV) is surrounded by - 1.6 MeV and - 2.5 MeV, depending on the calculation method. No arbitrary fitting parameter is used, only physical constants: it is a true ab initio calculation. The theoretical ratio between nuclear and chemical energies has been found to be (m{sub p}/m{sub e}{alpha}), proving that the usual assumption that the electromagnetic interaction is too feeble to predict the nuclear interaction is incorrect.
Rotational diffusion of colloid spheres in concentrated suspensions studied by deuteron NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanetakis, J.; Töautlle, A.; Sillescu, H.
1997-03-01
We present a study of the application of deuteron-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to the investigation of the rotational diffusion of spherical colloidal particles. We performed NMR pulse experiments on colloidal suspensions of polystyrene latex spheres in water-glycerol mixtures in a wide range of particle volume fractions φ from the dilute suspension up to φ=0.504. We have analyzed the stimulated echo NMR signal in the time domain. The full shape of the orientational correlation function deviates from an exponential behavior in the whole φ range examined. We evaluate the rotational diffusion coefficient and calculate its φ dependence up to the φ2 term in view of the theory proposed recently [V. Degiorgio, R. Piazza, and R. B. Jones, Phys. Rev. E 52, 2707 (1995)], which considers the effect of two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions upon particle reorientation. We find considerable slowing down of sphere reorientation for φ>=0.2. The agreement between experimental results and theoretical considerations is satisfactory.
Electron-deuteron scattering in the equal-time formalism: beyond the impulse approximation
D.R. Phillips; Stephen Wallace; N.K. Devine
2004-11-01
Using a three-dimensional formalism that includes relativistic kinematics, the effects of negative-energy states, approximate boosts of the two-body system, and current conservation, we calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron up to Q{sup 2} of 4 GeV{sup 2}. This is done using a dynamical boost for two-body systems with spin. We first compute form factors in impulse approximation, but then also add an isoscalar meson-exchange current of pion range that involves the gamma-pi contact operator associated with pseudovector pi-N coupling. We also consider effects of the rho-pi-gamma meson-exchange current. The experimentally measured quantities A, B, and t20 are calculated over the kinematic range probed in recent Jefferson Laboratory experiments. The rho-pi-gamma meson-exchange current provides significant strength in A at large Q{sup 2} and the gamma-pi contact-term exchange current shifts t20, providing good agreement with the JLab data. Relativistic effects and the gamma-pi meson-exchange current do not provide an explanation of the B observable, but the rho-pi-gamma current could help to provide agreement if a nonstandard value is used for the tensor rho-N coupling that enters this contribution.
Spin coherence time studies of a horizontally polarized deuteron beam at COSY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
G Guidoboni JEDI Collaboration
2015-11-01
The measurement of a non-zero electric dipole moment (EDM) aligned along the spin of sub-atomic particles would probe new physics beyond the standard model. It has been proposed to search for the EDM of charged particles using a storage ring and a longitudinally polarized beam. The EDM signal would be a rotation of the polarization from the horizontal plane toward the vertical direction as a consequence of the radial electric field always present in the particle frame. This experiment requires ring conditions that can ensure a lifetime of the in-plane polarization (spin coherence time, SCT) up to 1000 s. A study has begun at the COoler SYnchrotron (COSY) located at the Forschungszentrum Jülich to examine the effects of emittance and momentum spread on the SCT of a polarized deuteron beam at 0.97 GeV c-1. A special Data AcQuisition has been developed in order to provide a direct measurement of a rapidly rotating horizontal polarization as a function of time. The set of data presented here shows how second-order effects from emittance and momentum spread of the beam affect the lifetime of the horizontal polarization of a bunched beam. It has been demonstrated that sextupole fields can be used to correct for these depolarizing sources and increase the SCT up to hundreds of seconds.
Neutron spin structure with polarized deuterons and spectator proton tagging at EIC
Cosyn, W.; Guzey, V.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Hyde, C.; Kuhn, S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Sargsian, M.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.
2014-10-27
The neutron's deep-inelastic structure functions provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, and precision studies of QCD phenomena in the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet sectors. Thus, traditional inclusive measurements on nuclear targets are limited by dilution from scattering on protons, Fermi motion and binding effects, final-state interactions, and nuclear shadowing at x << 0.1. An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of neutron structure with polarized deuteron beams and detection of forward-moving spectator protons over a wide range of recoil momenta (0 < pR << several 100 MeV in the nucleus rest frame). The free neutron structure functions could be obtained by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum distributions to the on-shell point. The method eliminates nuclear modifications and can be applied to polarized scattering, as well as to semi-inclusive and exclusive final states. We review the prospects for neutron structure measurements with spectator tagging at EIC, the status of R&D efforts, and the accelerator and detector requirements.
Dynamics of Hydrophobic Core Phenylalanine Residues Probed by Solid-State Deuteron NMR
Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Villafranca, Toni; Sharp, Janelle; Xu, Wei; Lipton, Andrew S.; Hoatson, Gina; Vold, Robert L.
2015-11-03
We conducted a detailed investigation of the dynamics of two phenylalanine side chains in the hydrophobic core of the villin headpiece subdomain protein (HP36) in the hydrated powder state over the 298–80 K temperature range. We utilized static deuteron NMR measurements of longitudinal relaxation and line shapes supplemented with computational modeling. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times reveals the presence of two main mechanisms that can be attributed to the ring-flips, dominating at high temperatures, and small-angle fluctuations, dominating at low temperatures. The relaxation is non- exponential at all temperatures with the extent of non-exponentiality increasing from higher to lower temperatures. This behavior suggests a distribution of conformers with unique values of activation energies. The central values of the activation energies for the ring-flipping motions are among the smallest reported for aromatic residues in peptides and proteins and point to a very mobile hydrophobic core. The analysis of the widths of the distributions, in combination with the earlier results on the dynamics of flanking methyl groups (Vugmeyster et al., J. Phys. Chem. 2013, 117, 6129–6137), suggests that the hydrophobic core undergoes concerted fluctuations. There is a pronounced effect of dehydration on the ring-flipping motions, which shifts the distribution toward more rigid conformers. The cross-over temperature between the regions of dominance of the small-angle fluctuations and ring-flips shifts from 195 K in the hydrated protein to 278 K in the dry one. This result points to the role of solvent in the onset of the concerted fluctuations of the core and highlights aromatic residues as markers of the protein dynamical transitions.
Measurement of Inclusive Spin Structure Functions of the Deuteron with CLAS
J. Yun; CLAS Collaboration
2002-12-01
We report the results of a new measurement of spin structure functions of the deuteron in the region of moderate momentum transfer (Q{sup 2} = 0.27 -- 1.3 (GeV/c){sup 2}) and final hadronic state mass in the nucleon resonance region (W = 1.08 -- 2.0 GeV). We scattered a 2.5 GeV polarized continuous electron beam at Jefferson Lab off a dynamically polarized cryogenic solid state target ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}) and detected the scattered electrons with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). From our data, we extract the longitudinal double spin asymmetry A{sub {parallel}} and the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup d}. Our data are generally in reasonable agreement with existing data from SLAC where they overlap, and they represent a substantial improvement in statistical precision. We compare our results with expectations for resonance asymmetries and extrapolated deep inelastic scaling results. Finally, we evaluate the first moment of the structure function g{sub 1}{sup d} and study its approach to both the deep inelastic limit at large Q{sup 2} and to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule at the real photon limit (Q{sup 2}-0). We find that the first moment varies rapidly in the Q{sup 2} range of our experiment and crosses zero at Q{sup 2} between 0.5 and 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}, indicating the importance of the {Delta} resonance at these momentum transfers.