Warrick, D. D.; Donovan, Tom
From a survey of leaders in organization development, the authors identified 40 major needed skills which they categorize under four headings: knowledge skills, consulting skills, conceptual skills, and human skills. They discuss concerns and needs in each category, providing a chart of the identified skills for self-evaluation. (MF)
Moore, Charleen M.; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope
One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art…
Hendrickson, A. Dean
In the fall of 1980, a course titled Developing Critical Thinking Skills was approved at the University of Minnesota-Duluth for offering as one of the options in the liberal education category called Communication, Language, and Symbolic Systems. This paper provides a description of the course (designed to provide experiences with methods and…
Bryce, Donna; Whitebread, David
This study aimed to better understand how metacognitive skills develop in young children aged 5 to 7 years. In particular, we addressed whether developmental changes reflect quantitative or qualitative improvements, and how metacognitive skills change with age and task-specific ability. Previous research into the development of metacognitive…
These assignments are adaptations of field labs to incorporate writing. For each field lab, students write a partial geologic report, consisting of a description (or "Structural Data") section, an interpretation section, and appropriate supporting figures (potentially including stereonets, field sketches, maps, cross-sections, etc.). Handouts given at the beginning of lab list: the goals to be accomplished in the field (measurement of foliations and lineations, measurement of bedding around a fold, description of structures, field sketches, etc.), the figures expected in the write-up (stereonets, field sketches, etc.), a list of information to include in the description section, and a list of questions to address in the interpretation section. Depending on the field area, students may be given two or more competing models to test in the field or may be asked to relate descriptive analysis to kinematic or mechanical analysis. This adaptation can be used for field labs at all levels, from labs designed to review field techniques and identify basic types of secondary structures to labs that simulate research experience. This type of write-up improves student writing by giving students practice using terminology and describing spatial relationships, and improves critical thinking skills by requiring written interpretation of structural data.
Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…
Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…
Donna R. Sterling
The ability to accurately observe and notice small details is a skill important to scientists. To help students develop this skill, have them record and share observations, successively focusing in on smaller, more precise details. When students observe changes in the seasons, they can extend their science knowledge by carefully noting changes in color, shape, and patterns in vegetation, asking questions, and making predictions.
Cotter, Amanda J
In a 1987 practicum report one researcher says, "Teaching children to become effective thinkers is increasingly recognized as an immediate goal of education ... If students are to function successfully in a highly technical society, then they must be equipped with the lifelong learning and thinking skills necessary to acquire and process information in an ever-changing world." There is no doubt that critical thinking skills will help you diagnose what is wrong with your patients and formulate a care plan, keep you and your partner safe, and make you more employable. PMID:17672280
De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene
The present study focuses on the design and evaluation of an innovative instructional approach to developing oral presentation skills. The intervention builds on the observational learning theoretical perspective. This perspective is contrasted with the traditional training and practice approach. Two sequencing approaches--learners starting with…
A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].
reach the desired skill objective. You'll also be able to search within the skill kit for specificGain just-in-time skills with a developerWorks skill kit Skill Level: Introductory Kevin Czap and technologies? Are you looking to increase your skills for your next promotion or assignment? Do you sometimes
You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian
The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917
Heidemann, Sandra; Hewitt, Deborah
Play skills are vital to a child's overall healthy development. However, the training many caregivers receive may not include extensive information on play skills. This book presents a play checklist to help caregivers observe children's play skills, pinpoint play skills on which children need to work, and plan goals for improving those play…
Funk, Hal D.; Funk, Gary D.
Provides guidelines for developing listening skills at the elementary level. Asserts that effective listening instruction occurs as part of ongoing classroom activities, and suggests that students be given a variety of different listening experiences, such as listening for appreciation, information, critical analysis, and creative exposure.…
Hanson, Robert N.; Stickrod, Sandra L.
Describes seven essential considerations for shorthand writing skill development: (1) observe students as they write, (2) use postviews as well as previews, (3) dictate in thought phrases, (4) force the speed, (5) reduce hesitations, (6) provide immediate feedback, and (7) require homework practice. (TA)
For the last 15 years, a series of policy initiatives have advocated for development of employability skills by young and unemployed people in the United Kingdom. The call for these employability skills has been championed by these two distinct but related movements: the Key Skills Development Movement (KSDM) and the Enterprising Skills…
Kemper, Peter F; van Noord, Inge; de Bruijne, Martine; Knol, Dirk L; Wagner, Cordula; van Dyck, Cathy
Background A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the development and reliability of an instrument to measure and quantify the use of non-technical skills by direct observations of explicit professional oral communication (EPOC) in the clinical situation. Methods In an iterative process we translated, tested and refined an existing checklist from the aviation industry, called self, human interaction, aircraft, procedures and environment, in the context of healthcare, notably emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU). The EPOC comprises six dimensions: assertiveness, working with others; task-oriented leadership; people-oriented leadership; situational awareness; planning and anticipation. Each dimension is specified into several concrete items reflecting verbal behaviours. The EPOC was evaluated in four ED and six ICU. Results In the ED and ICU, respectively, 378 and 1144 individual and 51 and 68 contemporaneous observations of individual staff members were conducted. All EPOC dimensions occur frequently, apart from assertiveness, which was hardly observed. Intraclass correlations for the overall EPOC score ranged between 0.85 and 0.91 and for underlying EPOC dimensions between 0.53 and 0.95. Conclusions The EPOC is a new instrument for evaluating the use of non-technical skills in healthcare, which is reliable in two highly different settings. By quantifying professional behaviour the instrument facilitates measurement of behavioural change over time. The results suggest that EPOC can also be translated to other settings. PMID:23412933
Mason, Fred J.
Lesson plans designed to increase the observation skills for intermediate elementary students and provide them with a variety of sensory experiences in learning situations are presented in this document. Lesson plans include objectives, outlines for both indoor and outdoor learning experiences, materials and equipment needed, and evaluation…
Gordon, Robert A.; Friedenberg, Joan E.
Describes special vocational education programs in New York City and San Francisco for adult immigrants. The programs offer English as a second language, office skills, survival training, counseling, and job search skills. (JOW)
Walter, Donald J.; Walter, Jennifer S.
Practice is a major element in cultivating musical skill. Some psychologists have proposed that deliberate practice, a specific framework for structuring practice activities, creates the kind of practice necessary to increase skill and develop expertise. While psychologists have been observing behavior, neurologists have studied how the brain…
Clark, Jane E.
As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…
Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.
The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials.
This textbook attempts to clarify the nature of teaching during the field experience or simulation of that experience for student teachers. The text takes a data-based approach to the development of teaching skills. It is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter, "Systematic Improvement of Teaching Skills," is a narrative description of…
Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Conrado Laborin
Science teachers need specific strategies to develop writing skills along with science content. Fortunately, research has demonstrated that science-teaching methodology can accomplish both the teaching of science content and various language skills, including writing. A technique suitable for and utilized by science teachers is the "mode…
This article outlines the potential impact of ineffective handover skills on nurses' confidence, competence and coordination, as well as on patient safety. It focuses on how student nurses can develop their communication skills by looking specifically at how the University of Derby used simulation to teach pre-registration student nurses effective handover techniques. PMID:24683692
Redish, Edward F
Current concerns over reforming engineering education have focused attention on helping students develop skills and an adaptive expertise. Phenomenological guidelines for instruction along these lines can be understood as arising out of an emerging theory of thinking and learning built on results in the neural, cognitive, and behavioral sciences. We outline this framework and consider some of its implications for one example: developing a more detailed understanding of the specific skill of using mathematics in modeling physical situations. This approach provides theoretical underpinnings for some best-practice instructional methods designed to help students develop this skill and providesguidance for further research in the area.
Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.
The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.
Akins, Lean M.
"Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate team skills and leadership development.
Mills, John; Bowman, Kaye; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle
This literature review examines the available research on skill sets. It provides background for a larger research project "Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets," the report of which will be released early next year. This paper outlines the origin of skill sets and explains the difference between skill sets…
Page 2660 What is Metacognitive Skill? Collaborative Learning Strategy to Facilitate Development model of metacognitive skill and describe difficulties in learning and executing the skill. Based on our model, we also propose a learning support environment where learners develop their metacognitive skills
Academic writing is an important aspect of professional development for students and lecturers. It is one way in which they demonstrate their learning, but it can be a difficult skill to master. This article aims to enable students and professionals to develop their academic writing style using a coherent and effective framework. PMID:17601238
Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth
In this article, the authors discuss how children develop their motor skills at different age levels. Newborn's movements are jerky and uncoordinated. Spending lots of floor time with a baby lying on her back or stomach helps her develop coordination, balance, and muscle strength during her earliest months. As locomotion enters a baby's life, she…
Watts, A. G.
Action planning is a tool for developing individual learning management skills such as self-awareness, planning, information seeking, communication, interpersonal assertiveness, target setting, personal organization, and reviewing. They can be developed through briefing, practice, supported practice, exercises, and modeling. (SK)
In developing countries, skills development has been neglected. Skills development does not appear in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) or in many poverty reduction strategies and has been side-lined in favour of investment in primary education. However, it is hoped that discussion of skills development in the 2005 Global Monitoring Report…
Peterson, Elizabeth A.; Ott, Joyce; Wilson, Kathleen
This document is intended to help literacy practitioners and others in South Carolina promote workplace literacy and basic skills development programs. The introduction examines the following topics: South Carolina's current workforce and its outlook; the definitions of literacy and workplace literacy; the need for workplace literacy and basic…
Pellathy, Stephen L.; Paul, John; Cartier, Jennifer L.; Wittfeldt, Claudia
Members of a team of educators and university students participating in the project, Pittsburgh Partnership for Energizing Science in Urban Schools, addressed the issue of helping students develop investigative skills within the context of an introductory science unit for fourth graders. The unit focuses on data-collection techniques and is a…
Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid; Dardier, Virginie; Pajon, Cecile; Tan-Bescond, Geraldine; David, Kristell; Deleau, Michel; Godey, Benoit
Previous studies of preverbal development have highlighted the recurrent difficulties experienced by deaf children in acquiring knowledge of the social rules and social skills pertaining to discourse. We expected cochlear implants in children with bilateral profound deafness to improve their use of verbal language, so that their communication…
Duffy, Michelle Moreau
This study investigated the perceptions of faculty regarding why they choose to attend basic skills faculty development; what they choose to implement in their classrooms; and how they determine the effectiveness of the strategies selected. A survey was completed by 173 full and part-time faculty from a large, suburban single-campus community…
In the United Kingdom higher education environment, government may make efforts to encourage institutions to engage in governance structures to secure policy objectives through a steering approach. In this article connections between skills governance structures and the recent Higher Education Funding Council for England workforce development…
Quantic, Diane Dufva
The goals and objectives of a college library instruction program should be developed jointly by library staff and composition faculty. Such a program should (1) attempt to overcome student insecurity and confusion about conducting research; (2) focus on tools and skills necessary at each university level; (3) emphasize the unique aspects of the…
Russell, James R.; Stafford, Carl W.
This paper describes the teaching skills workshops at Purdue University (Indiana), which were originally developed in 1980 to train graduate assistants to teach college classes but are now being used by the faculty--instructors through full professors--to improve their teaching. It is noted that the workshops have been successfully modified for…
Hodgson, Paula; Wong, Dora
The curriculum for journalism is being forced to change because the traditional print-based and broadcast modes are being challenged by wide and easy access to online mass communication. Primarily, students need to develop proficiency in writing, editing and publishing. However, they are also expected to be skilled in the Web medium as they…
Grites, Thomas J.
A counseling approach encourages students' development of job-applicable, career-transferable skills to meet the changing demands of specialization, automation, mobility, urban growth, and industrial trends in the job market. These include writing; speaking; research; and analytical, organizational, leadership, interpersonal, and quantitative…
NAGEL, CHARLES; MOORE, FREDRICKA
A DISCUSSION OF THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, THE PURPOSES OF DEVELOPING MOVEMENT SKILLS IN GAMES AND RHYTHMS, AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COMPRISES THE INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER OF THIS TEXTBOOK FOR BEGINNING PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS. SUCCEEDING CHAPTERS ARE CONCERNED WITH FIVE…
Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2006
Canadian society is undergoing a significant transformation, largely in response to the forces of globalization and the development of the knowledge/information economy. The key to the economic and social well being of Canada's diverse communities lies in the knowledge-and-skills base of its citizens. Canada must design policies and programs which…
also propose a learning support environment to facilitate development of a learner's self-regulation metacognitive activities, especially, how to support a learner's development of self-regulation skill. So, we skill. The environment provides learners with opportunities to develop their self-regulation skill
Mottershead, Derek; Suggitt, Steve
Demonstrates how the development of transferable skills can be promoted as a matter of policy in undergraduate geography programs and implemented throughout individual classes. Defines transferable skills as skills of a widely applicable nature independent of the disciplinary context. Presents two examples of transferable skill development in…
Williams, A M
In this review, key components of perceptual skill in soccer are identified and implications for talent identification and development highlighted. Skilled soccer players can recall and recognize patterns of play more effectively than their less skilled counterparts. This ability to encode, retrieve and recognize sport-specific information is due to complex and discriminating long-term memory structures and is crucial to anticipation in soccer. Similarly, experts use their knowledge of situational probabilities (i.e. expectations) to anticipate future events. They have a better than average idea of what is likely to happen given a particular set of circumstances. Also, proficiency-related differences in visual search strategy are observed. Skilled players use their superior knowledge to control the eye movement patterns necessary for seeking and picking up important sources of information. The nature of the task plays an important role in constraining the type of search used. Skilled soccer players use different search strategies when viewing the whole field (i.e. 11 vs 11 situations) compared with micro-states of the game (i.e. 1 vs 1, 3 vs 3 situations). Visual search behaviour also differs between defensive and offensive plays. These observations have implications for the development of perceptual training programmes and the identification of potential elite soccer players. PMID:11043899
Hasse, Jeanette M
Someone once told me that you (as a writer) are only as good as your worst publication. I think the point of that statement is that you should not submit a paper unless you have put your best effort into writing it. The quality of a paper is often a reflection of the amount of time you spent planning and writing it. As detailed in this Commentary, writing for publication is a not a single step but a process that includes planning, writing, submitting, revising, resubmitting, and proofing. Developing good writing skills involves seeking mentors and opportunities to write. However, if you have the passion or desire to publish, it is possible to develop the "write" skills. PMID:23454722
Smeaton, Barry; Hughes, Maria; Hall, Graeme
The United Kingdom's Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), UK SKILLS, and the Further Education Skills Competition Council conducted a collaborative action research project to improve students' vocational learning and skills through enhanced learning experiences. From February 2001 to April 2002, three further education colleges worked to…
A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…
This section of the website, Appetizers and Lessons for Mathematics and Reason, written by Alan Selby, PD. (see also Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, May 24, 2002) offers lesson ideas for teaching linear equations in high school or college. The approach uses stick diagrams to solve linear equations because they "provide a concrete or visual context for many of the rules or patterns for solving equations, a context that may develop equation solving skills and confidence." The idea is to build up student confidence in problem solving before presenting any formal algebraic statement of the rule and patterns for solving equations. Links to related chapters from his book, "Three Skills for Algebra," are also provided.
This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…
Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.
Robinson, Rosanna L.; McDonald, James E.
Development of skills in bioscience undergraduates is seen as desirable by academic staff, students and employers, and this is reflected across most degree programmes. However, providing the opportunity for students to practise skills may alone be insufficient for their development. With an evident discrepancy between the skills expected of…
Naghshineh, Sheila; Hafler, Janet P.; Miller, Alexa R.; Blanco, Maria A.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Dubroff, Rachel P.; Khoshbin, Shahram
Background Despite evidence of inadequate physical examination skills among medical students, teaching these skills has declined. One method of enhancing inspection skills is teaching “visual literacy,” the ability to reason physiology and pathophysiology from careful and unbiased observation. Objective To improve students’ visual acumen through structured observation of artworks, understanding of fine arts concepts and applying these skills to patient care. Design Prospective, partially randomized pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. Participants Twenty-four pre-clinical student participants were compared to 34 classmates at a similar stage of training. Intervention Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis consists of eight paired sessions of art observation exercises with didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical diagnosis topics and an elective life drawing session. Measurements The frequency of accurate observations on a 1-h visual skills examination was used to evaluate pre- vs. post-course descriptions of patient photographs and art imagery. Content analysis was used to identify thematic categories. All assessments were blinded to study group and pre- vs. post-course evaluation. Results Following the course, class participants increased their total mean number of observations compared to controls (5.41?±?0.63 vs. 0.36?±?0.53, p?0.0001) and had increased sophistication in their descriptions of artistic and clinical imagery. A ‘dose-response’ was found for those who attended eight or more sessions, compared to participants who attended seven or fewer sessions (6.31?+?0.81 and 2.76?+?1.2, respectively, p?=?0.03). Conclusions This interdisciplinary course improved participants’ capacity to make accurate observations of art and physical findings. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0667-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18612730
The seasonal activities presented are: observing herbs to encourage use of the senses in writing; watching a jack-o'-lantern wither to learn skills in writing details; and building snowmen to learn to explain a string of events in writing. (SM)
Gumbus, Andra; Lussier, Robert N
Can you walk into a room full of strangers and chat easily, get to know people, and let them get to know you? Networking is not just a job search strategy; it is a critical professional career development enrichment strategy that can help you build your knowledge and expertise. When you need help, do you have a network of available people or do you know how to develop a network to assist you? Networking sounds easy and we tend to think it should come naturally. However, networking is a learned skill that just about everyone struggles with at some time or another (1). This article provides a how- to network process, summarized in Table 1, that will enhance your career development. PMID:12592872
Hunt, James G.; Sorenson, Ritch L.
A learned-behavior approach to competency-based management education involves (1) learning and role plying of micro skills; (2) observing, critiquing, and reflecting on use of micro skills; (3) application in real situations; and (4) analysis of application. Micro skills components and inductive learning of behavior provide a useful foundation for…
Integrating art into science can help students hone their observation skills. In this introductory biology course, the teacher requires students to sketch everything from prepared slides of mitosis and plant anatomy to field sightings of birds and protists. The sketchbooks are a valuable tool for assessing how much time and effort students dedicate to their world as well as how well they observe. Encourage your students to become "one" with nature by incorporating the suggestions presented in this article into your science curriculum.
Philip A. Hirsch; Gerald L. Stone
To examine the association between attitudes and skill performance under laboratory conditions, 37 undergraduates received brief training in 2 counseling skills (reflection of feeling and interpretation) and then conducted interviews with coached clients. Ss with positive attitudes toward using reflection of feeling produced significantly higher quality reflective responses than did those with negative attitudes toward the use of this skill.
Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.
The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…
A. M. Williams
In this review, key components of perceptual skill in soccer are identified and implications for talent identification and development highlighted. Skilled soccer players can recall and recognize patterns of play more effectively than their less skilled counterparts. This ability to encode, retrieve and recognize sport-specific information is due to complex and discriminating long-term memory structures and is crucial to anticipation
Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing
This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…
Sorby, Sheryl A.
Three-dimensional spatial skills have been shown to be critical to success in engineering and other technological fields. Well-developed 3D spatial skills are particularly important for success in engineering graphics courses. Further, 3D spatial skills of women lag significantly behind those of their male counterparts, which could hinder their…
Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig
Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)
Linnea C. Ehri; Lee S. Wilce
Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-, and 4th-grade classes, skilled and less skilled
Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter
This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…
Kaiser, Lauren; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Gravois, Todd
A primary hypothesized outcome of consultee-centered consultation, including instructional consultation (IC), is that consultees will become more skilled. However, these claims have not been well researched. Data from 274 teachers implementing IC were analyzed to investigate perceptions of satisfaction and skill development. Results indicated that…
ORIGINAL PAPER Local traditions in gorilla manual skill: evidence for observational learning techniques in gorillas. Here, we show that captive western gorillas at Port Lympne, Kent, have developed behavior with that of wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Both populations are similar in their repertoires
Kleon, Scott; Rinehart, Susan
Teen participants in the Ohio 4-H Teen Community Leadership College (n=64) perceived their leadership skills to be much higher after the program. They appeared to need improvement in initiative, assertiveness, and objectivity. (SK)
Ferrer, Lourdes M.
This study has two parallel research agenda: (1) the development of social skills and pedagogical content knowledge in teacher candidates as they work collaboratively in pairs, and (2) the development of conceptual understanding and social skills in elementary school students who are taught by teacher candidates with cooperative learning…
Thomas Lange; Mélanie Ottens; Andrea Taylor
Reviews and elaborates on some of the major skills development barriers for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The analysis reveals the influence of the prevalent SME culture to be significant. Other barriers that are identified refer to awareness, finance, access and provision of training and other skills development opportunities. By highlighting the difficulties that SMEs face in deciding to advance
Peggy Buffington; Edward L. Vockell
Whole language and cooperative learning are effective ways to help students develop and integrate academic skill. The computer makes available the possibility of multimedia opportunities to apply whole language, cooperative learning, and other strategies to promote the development of cognitive, affective, and social skills.The project reported in this paper explored a successful strategy for using HyperCard and interactive technology to
Amarantides, Niki; Blumner, Ellen
The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project had the following objectives: perform literacy audits on at least 20 job titles within the port-related industries; develop curriculum modules providing literacy skill instruction using a functional context approach reflecting the Port of Baltimore needs; offer instructional services to at…
learning strategies and systems support as metacognitive skill or what ac- tivity they do not support. Next existing learning strategies and systems to facilitate the development of learners' metacognition whichTowards Shared Understanding of Metacognitive Skill and Facilitating Its Development Michiko
Ajjawi, Rola; Rees, Charlotte; Monrouxe, Lynn V.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore how opportunities for learning clinical skills are negotiated within bedside teaching encounters (BTEs). Bedside teaching, within the medical workplace, is considered essential for helping students develop their clinical skills. Design/methodology/approach: An audio and/or video observational study examining…
Background Learning physical examination skills is an essential element of medical education. Teaching strategies include practicing the skills either alone or in-group. It is unclear whether students benefit more from training these skills individually or in a group, as the latter allows them to observing their peers. The present study, conducted in a naturalistic setting, investigated the effects of peer observation on mastering psychomotor skills necessary for physical examination. Methods The study included 185 2nd-year medical students, participating in a regular head-to-toe physical examination learning activity. Students were assigned either to a single-student condition (n = 65), in which participants practiced alone with a patient instructor, or to a multiple-student condition (n = 120), in which participants practiced in triads under patient instructor supervision. The students subsequently carried out a complete examination that was videotaped and subsequently evaluated. Student’s performance was used as a measure of learning. Results Students in the multiple-student condition learned more than those who practiced alone (81% vs 76%, p < 0.004). This result possibly derived from a positive effect of observing peers; students who had the possibility to observe a peer (the second and third students in the groups) performed better than students who did not have this possibility (84% vs 76%, p <. 001). There was no advantage of observing more than one peer (83.7% vs 84.1%, p > .05). Conclusions The opportunity to observe a peer during practice seemed to improve the acquisition of physical examination skills. By using small groups instead of individual training to teach physical examination skills, health sciences educational programs may provide students with opportunities to improve their performance by learning from their peers through modelling. PMID:23594455
Purpose: Reports examining graduate employment issues suggest that employers are concerned by the lack of employability skills exhibited by entry-level job applications. It is also suggested that employers consider it the responsibility of educational institutions to develop such skills. The current study seeks to identify peer assessment as a…
Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman
The research aims to determine the effectiveness of using blended learning Approach in developing student teachers teaching skills, and defining teaching skills that confront students of teachers college at King Saud University need it. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with four experimental groups (Mathematics (21)--Science…
Barnes, Stacie B.
This research proposal reviews the literature on the development of mobility skills in students with severe physical disabilities and proposes a single-subject study, using a multiple baseline across subjects design, to evaluate effects of the Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum on the mobility skills of sitting, standing, and…
The current health care environment requires practitioners with the skills to find and apply the best currently available evidence for effective health care, to contribute to the development of evidence-based practice protocols, and to evaluate the impact of utilizing validated research findings in practice. Current approaches to teaching research are based mainly on gaining skills by participation in the research
Instant-messaging software was used as a method to promote development of argumentation skills in middle schoolers. Transfer of skills across content domains was the major question investigated. Forty sixth graders engaged in electronic dialogues with peers on a controversial topic--for half a science topic (dinosaur extinction) and for half a…
dos Santos, Vanessa J. S. V.; Galembeck, Eduardo
We have developed a metabolic pathways visualization skill test (MPVST) to gain greater insight into our students' abilities to comprehend the visual information presented in metabolic pathways diagrams. The test is able to discriminate students' visualization ability with respect to six specific visualization skills that we identified as key to…
Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.
The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…
Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister
Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…
Advocates in-class group writing exercises to increase business students' writing skills as an alternative to homework writing assignments that may make a student feel extremely pressured. Also provides excellent practice in revision--one of the most important facets of business writing. (NKA)
Lawrence, Carolena Lyons
Explores communication technology as an instructional tool in relationship to quality of interaction, individual productivity, group productivity, and satisfaction with the learning environment. Discusses collaborative learning skills and examines differences in graduate students' perception using groupware versus face-to-face learning.…
Pamela L. Hirsch; Elisabeth Hollister Sandberg
Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with difficulties, Study 2 exposed groups to enhanced vantage points, either
Bickens, Sarah; Bittman, Franny; Connor, David J.
This article provides an overview of the Autobiography Project, listing the topics of the ten chapters and the targeted skills that accompany them. The authors discuss the purposes of each chapter and describe the methods incorporated to promote the four broad components of literacy. This unit also addresses almost all components of the Common…
Human patient simulation (HPS) is used in health care education to enhance the transition from classroom learning to competent performance. It has been used frequently in nursing and medical schools and less often in pharmacy and other allied health professions. HPS is used to improve the development of pharmacy practice skills such as physical assessment, pharmacotherapy plan development, and monitoring plans. Engaging multiple health care disciplines in simulations enables participants to practice teamwork and communication skills that are essential in preventing errors and events of harm to patients. This article reviews current literature and use of simulation in pharmacy curricula for the development, enhancement, and assessment of pharmacy practice skills. PMID:22171116
This paper examines experiences with "skills development" in South Africa to contribute to broader debates about "skills" and the relationships between vocational education and development. Numerous policy interventions and the creation of new institutions and systems for skills development in South Africa are widely seen as having failed to lead…
Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji
Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov
The present study investigated relative contributions of initial status and growth rates of emergent literacy skills (i.e., phonological awareness, letter-name knowledge, vocabulary, and rapid serial naming) to initial status and growth rates of conventional literacy skills (i.e., word reading, pseudoword reading, and spelling) for young Korean…
Sung, Yoonhee; Turner, Sherri L.; Kaewchinda, Marid
The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the utility of the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (ICM) to describe the career development behavior of college students was examined. Second, relationships among educational and career development skills (career exploration, person-environment fit, goal setting,…
Arnold, Ree K. Spaeth
This monograph on sport skill development: (1) raises questions concerning the teaching and learning of sport skills; (2) provides a general information base from which answers may be derived; and (3) identifies teaching strategies which appear to facilitate sport skill learning. The monograph's intent is to raise questions as well as to suggest…
Farran, Carol J.; McCann, Judith J.; Fogg, Louis G.; Etkin, Caryn D.
This report presents a conceptual approach to assessing skills of family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer’s disease and recommends next steps for development of this science. Researchers used multiple methods to develop a conceptual strategy for assessing family caregiver skills. Study participants included clinical/outreach staff from an Alzheimer’s Disease Center, nursing faculty with expertise in dementia care, and family caregivers. Mixed methods contributed to the conceptual clarification of caregiving skill and to the development of three approaches to assessing caregiver skill: caregiver self report, clinician assessment, and direct observational assessment. Caregiver effectiveness has the potential to affect the process of caregiving and outcomes for the person with dementia and caregiver. PMID:20179779
Edmonson, Charlie P.
There is no escaping it. Working in industry requires working in teams. The industries hiring our graduates recognize this. TAC of ABET Criterion 2e requires it, stating graduates need an ability to function effectively on teams. How do we, as teachers, go about ensuring that our students learn how to work effectively on teams? How do we go about teaching them team work and team management skills? The traditional approach to developing team work and team management skills involves assigning students randomly to teams, giving them a project to work on, and expecting them to somehow magically learn to work effectively on teams. This they'll learn about teamwork if they work on teams approach fails to give students adequate preparation and insight into team work and team management skills. It doesn't work. Surveys of students reveal that they do not feel they knew how to effectively work on teams or how to be a team leader. This sentiment was echoed by respondents to last years project management survey. To effectively prepare students to work on teams, coordinated teambuilding and leadership skills training is needed. Beginning with a discussion of necessary project management and team skills, this paper will describe how to structure a project course to include techniques and exercises specifically designed to develop teamwork and team management skills and the benefits they provide.
The movement of many countries towards knowledge-based economic development requires the transition to more effective skill formation systems. This paper proposes an institutionalist approach to national skills development systems in the advancement towards knowledge-based economic development. There is currently no accepted general framework to analyze national skills development systems which has resulted in countries adopting reactive approaches to skills development
Goldberg, Sarah; Cooper, Jo; Russell, Catherine
Improving hospital care for frail older people requires expertise, leadership and resources as these patients have multiple complex needs. One innovative solution to providing the skilled care necessary is to train experienced nurses to become advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs). Such roles encompass activity previously undertaken by medical staff, together with leadership, teaching, research and service development. Skills specific to caring for older people, such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, are also required. This article discusses the need for ANPs in this clinical area, a pilot that is under way in one acute trust to develop these roles, and the potential benefits and challenges that may accompany this development. PMID:24787943
B. Tang; G. B. Hanna; F. Carter; G. D. Adamson; J. P. Martindale; A. Cuschieri
Background There is no agreed system that is acknowledged as the ideal assessment of laparoscopic operative and cognitive skills. A new\\u000a approach that combines Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and Observational Clinical Human Reliability Assessment\\u000a (OCHRA) was developed and used to assess trainees’ operative and cognitive skills during laparoscopic training courses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Performance of 60 trainees participating in 3-day essential laparoscopic skills
This set of learning modules was developed during a project to deliver workplace literacy instruction to individuals employed in the more than 50 businesses related to the activities of the Port of Baltimore. It is intended to help office staff of port businesses develop basic interpersonal communication and time and stress management skills. The…
Speech writing can be an excellent vehicle for helping students develop writing skills. The course described in this paper blends rhetorical principles and practices from public speaking, speech composition, persuasion and public relations with "real world applications." Students work on developing purposeful communication, a consistent and…
Hurst, Deborah; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Hawranik, Pamela; Gauvreau, Sarah
Graduate students are assumed to develop skills in oral and written communication and collegial relationships that are complementary to formal graduate programs. However, it appears only a small number of universities provide such professional development opportunities alongside academic programs, and even fewer do so online. There appears to be…
Avila, Judy; Pahuski, Linda; Perez, Linda
This report describes a program for the development of language arts skills through the reading and writing connection. The targeted population is a split third and fourth grade class, a third grade class, and a high school cross-categorical special education class. The difficulties in the area of language arts development and student…
ROSALÍA MONTEALEGRE; LUZ ADRIANA FORERO
This work analyzes the development of reading\\/writing skills, specifying two phases: acquisition and dominion. In the fi rst phase, it shows the different conceptual levels developed by the child, from early ages, in his attempt for understand the written language. It describes the paper of gestures, scribbles, drawings and games, as the fi rst constructions with symbolic characteristics. Conceptualization of
DeLuca, V. William; Lari, Nasim
This paper examines the development of students' metacognitive skills in a data-rich environment. The study involves the development and use of a Metacognitive Inventory, which evaluates students' awareness of their cognitive processes as they approach and solve problems. This 26-item inventory is based on the Problem Solving Inventory and State…
Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne
There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…
Value Chains, Mobilizing SME Investment in Frontier Finance Countries, Smart Regulation, Cultivating Development Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber and Gary Gereffi 132 5. The Tourism Global Value Chain
This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Schneider-Mitchell, Gail; Graff, Randy
Practical and effective faculty development programs are vital to individual and institutional success. However, there is little evidence that program outcomes result in instructional changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how faculty development would enhance participants' use of critical thinking skills in instruction. Seven faculty members from the University of Florida College of Dentistry and one faculty member from another health science college participated in six weekly two-hour faculty development sessions in spring 2007 that focused on enhancing critical thinking skills in instruction. Kaufman's and Rachal's principles of andragogy (adult learning) were used to design the sessions. Participants used learning journals to respond to four instructor-assigned prompts and provided one presentation to peers. With the use of qualitative methods, eight themes emerged across the learning journals: teaching goals, critical thinking, awareness of learners, planned instructional change, teaching efficacy, self-doubt, external challenges, and changes made. Five of eight participants incorporated critical thinking skills into their presentations at a mean level of 2.4 or higher on a 5-point scale using Paul and Elder's behavioral definition of critical thinking skills. Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development. PMID:19491344
Do Internet search engines point us to the information that we need or confuse us with irrelevant or questionable information? How can Internet users improve their searches to find reliable information? What are some ways to perform effective searches? In this lesson, students conduct Web searches on open-ended questions, and draw on their experiences to develop guides to searching effectively and finding reliable information online.
O'Reilly, John; Wong, Stephen H S
Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant work has been completed to date, there is still a need for further focused investigations, which can more closely assess the physiological demands of an elite soccer player, with a particular emphasis on sport-specific exercises during the execution of soccer skills. In this regard, more reliable and specific performance tests can be designed to more efficiently assess soccer players in the future. PMID:23046223
Polly, Drew; Ausband, Leigh
In this study, 32 teachers participated in a year-long professional development project related to technology integration in which they designed and implemented a WebQuest. This paper describes the extent to which higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and levels of technology implementation (LoTI) occur in the WebQuests that participants designed.…
Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien
A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…
Paparistodemou, Efi; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria
This paper focuses on developing students' informal inference skills, reporting on how a group of third grade students formulated and evaluated data-based inferences using the dynamic statistics data-visualization environment TinkerPlots[TM] (Konold & Miller, 2005), software specifically designed to meet the learning needs of students in the early…
"Developing the infrastructure and skills needed to handle big data." Don Brown W.S. Calcott Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 434.982.2074 Big Data Research Group Our research group and uncertain behaviors. Methodological interests in these areas include data- mining, simulation
Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Anderson, Vicki
Despite significant advances in the field of social neuroscience, much remains to be understood regarding the development and maintenance of social skills across the life span. Few comprehensive models exist that integrate multidisciplinary perspectives and explain the multitude of factors that influence the emergence and expression of social…
Lee, Dong Yul; And Others
A Microcounseling Skill Discrimination Scale (MSDS) was developed to measure ability to discriminate between effective and ineffective verbal and nonverbal helping messages. Both trained and naive groups successfully discriminated between effective and ineffective verbal and nonverbal helping messages, with trained raters showing a greater range…
Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen
The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…
Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA
This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…
Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.
The relation between the maturation of brain mechanisms responsible for the N400 elicitation in the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the development of behavioral language skills was investigated in 12-month-old infants. ERPs to words presented in a picture-word priming paradigm were analyzed according to the infants' production and…
Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem
The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…
Rabanos, Natalia Larraz; Torres, Pedro Allueva
Introduction: The aim of this study is to present an intervention program for creative skills development applied to a group of students of lower Secondary Education. Method: This program was applied in a school in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2008-09 academic year. The study used a repeated-measures, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent…
Mekheimer, Mohamed Amin A.
This study investigates the effects on EFL students of using Blackboard technology and online dictionaries in developing translating skills and building positive attitudes towards translation in male Saudi college students. The study compares two groups of students in a translation course; one in a traditional, face-to-face setting (control) and…
Lucia Kohlhauf; Ulrike Rutke; Birgit Neuhaus
Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is\\u000a often regarded as ‘just looking’ rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods\\u000a in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is\\u000a necessary. Because observation skills form the basis
Love, Bryan L.
Objective To develop a methodology for a reliable, valid annual skills mastery assessment examination to provide formative student feedback, inform curricular review, and comply with the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2007. Design A sample of program-level ability-based outcomes skills were chosen for the examination. Test items were written, underwent quality control, and were scored for level of difficulty. Versions of the examination for first-, second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students were developed and administered, the results were analyzed, reliability and validity were evaluated, and reports were generated. Item-writing guidelines, quality control procedures, and examination production steps were codified to create a criterion-referenced examination. Students and faculty advisors received detailed score reports and results were used to guide student performance and stimulate a review of curricular outcomes. Assessment Content, criterion, and construct validity were analyzed as defined in the literature for the intended use of this assessment tool. Data suggest the Annual Skills Mastery Assessment (ASMA) examination is both reliable and valid. Students and faculty members were surveyed regarding the usefulness of the examination. Results indicate general satisfaction with the assessment program. Conclusion A reasonably reliable, reasonably valid multiple-choice annual skills mastery assessment for selected outcomes statements providing formative feedback and informed curricular review was developed. PMID:20798805
Hanley, Gregory P.; Heal, Nicole A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.
Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 years and 5 years. Classroom observations were…
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Downer, Jason T.; Barbarin, Oscar A.; Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane M.; Howes, Carollee
This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of…
Calsyn, Donald A.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Cousins, Sarah; Chen, TeChieh; Godinez, Melinda
Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger NIDA Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS, FCUS) at pre-intervention, two weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. The MCUS and FCUS scores were compared for three intervention exposure groups (demonstration only [DO, n=149], demonstration plus practice [D+P; n=112], attended no sessions [NS, n=139]) across the 4 assessment time points using a mixed effects linear regression model. There is a statistically significant intervention group-by-time effect (p<.0001) for both the MCUS and FCUS. Post hoc, pairwise linear trends across time indicated that for both the MCUS and the FCUS the D+P group is significantly superior to the DO group and the NS group. PMID:21038177
White, David J.; Gersick, Andrew S.; Snyder-Mackler, Noah
The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of ‘social complexity’ across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments ‘trained’ individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827
White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah
The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827
Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T
Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5?years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed. PMID:17624068
Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.
Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…
Coplan, Robert J.; Schneider, Barry H.; Matheson, Adrienne; Graham, Allison
The aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary evaluation of a social-skills-based early intervention program specifically designed to assist extremely inhibited preschoolers. Participants were a sample of n = 522 extremely inhibited preschool-aged children, who were randomly assigned to either the "Social Skills…
Lindquist, Ruth; Hadidi, Niloufar
In an era of health care reform and limited financial support, good ideas for changes in clinical practice may await the available time, resources, and attention that are required to test and implement them. Developing grant writing skills is a way to attract resources to explore the feasibility and potential efficacy of changes to improve patient outcomes or efficiencies of care. This article describes the purpose of grant writing by advanced practice nurses (APNs), discusses the needs for and benefits of grant writing, identifies types and sources of available grants, describes potential roles of APNs in grant writing, describes ways to overcome barriers to grant writing, and presents strategies for writing winning grants to develop and improve practice in acute and critical care settings. These strategies will help APNs get started and provide a guide to follow in writing their first grant or will refresh their existing grant writing skills. PMID:23615015
This paper focuses on developing students' informal inference skills, reporting on how a group of third grade students formulated and evaluated data-based inferences using the dynamic statistics data-visualization environment TinkerPlotsTM (Konold & Miller, 2005), software specifically designed to meet the learning needs of students in the early grades. Children analyzed collected data using TinkerPlots as an investigation tool, and made
Bhaerman, Robert D.; North, Ricke A.
This guide was developed to assist vocational instructors in automotive repair programs in presenting broadly applicable nontechnical (often called quality of work life--QWL) skills, such as interpersonal and group process skills, problem solving and decision making, planning, communications, reasoning skills, and organizational management skills.…
Winstead, Ann S.; Adams, Barbara L.; Sillah, Marion Rogers
Today's business climate requires that management recruits not only know the technical aspects of their jobs, but also possess communication, teambuilding and leadership skills. Most business school curricula, however, focus only on technical skills, and do not address the "soft skills" in a formal setting or on a consistent basis. As…
Didus, E; Anderson, V A; Catroppa, C
This study investigated the developmental levels of pragmatic language skills in children following head injury (HI), in comparison to their uninjured peers. Participants were 30 head-injured and 19 healthy controls, classified into a 'young' age group, 8-9 years, and an 'old' age group, 11-12 years. Participants were administered the WISC- III, a negotiating requests task and a hint task, the latter two assessing verbal reasoning skills and abilities to be indirect, respectively. It was found that negotiation and hinting strategies were rapidly developing in these age groups, where abilities to hint were less mature for all groups. Results found a main effect for injury on cognitive and functional language tasks, reflected by lower performance levels and inflexibility in reasoning for the head-injured group. Injury sustained at an earlier age consistently predicted poorer performance on the language tasks, complicating the ongoing development of generalized and higher-order communicative skills. Severity of injury did not predict performance on either language task. PMID:10819430
Richards, Marcus; Hatch, Stephani L.
A wide variety of factors across the life course jointly influence cognitive and emotional development. Indeed, research from a variety of disciplines strongly suggests that cognition and mental health are intertwined across the life course, by their common antecedents and underlying physiology in development, and in their interplay across adult and later life. We suggest that cognitive and socio-emotional function fuse to form skills for life supporting self-regulation, competence and quality of life that persist into later life, through linked reciprocal processes of genetic influence, nurturing, schooling, work, and lifestyle. PMID:21398418
Bowers, B; McCarthy, D
This article describes how a required prenursing health issues course was substantially restructured to increase the opportunities for students to develop analytic skills and for faculty to gain greater insight into how the students processed course content. Using writing-to-learn (WTL) strategies based on theories of adult cognitive development (Kinneavy, McCleary, & Nakadate, 1985; Kohlberg, 1978; Perry 1978), course readings, writing assignments, and exam questions were revised continuously over five semesters. This article describes the purpose and process of redesigning the course and some reflections on the outcome. PMID:8388926
Blumberg, A. F.; Bruno, M. S.; Fullerton, B.; Fan, S.
The New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS) provides nowcasts and forecasts of surface/bottom currents, salinities and temperatures, waves, and water level, for the New York /New Jersey Harbor Estuary including the waters eastward to the continental shelf break of the New York Bight and Long Island Sound in one contiguous fashion. The system has been in operation since the end of 2003. The operations, from the acquisition of oceanographic and meteorological data to the delivery of marine nowcast/forecast information to a wide group of users are now automated. The observational system consists of shore-based and moored platforms at strategic locations inside the harbor, and at four sites along the coast of New Jersey, most of them equipped with both oceanographic and meteorological sensors. Ferry-based conductivity and temperature sensors are also part of the observational network. The Stevens web site imports and serves all available real-time data (www.stevens.edu/maritimeforecast). The prediction system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model and is designed to provide accurate and comprehensive realizations of meteorological and oceanographic conditions. Forcing is based on NOAA/NWS/NCEP's Mesoscale Eta 12km atmospheric forecast model, USGS river flow gauges, NOAA/NOS water level stations and effluents from 110 wastewater treatment plants. The water level at all the open boundary locations is specified by a combination of a reconstructed tidal record using tidal harmonics and by persisting the low frequency observed water level variation at Atlantic City, NJ. Temperature and salinity at the open boundaries are taken from climatology. The system is designed to automatically transfer forcing data and perform forecasts once daily, at 0000 hours. In order to firmly establish the credibility and robustness of NYHOPS, a skill assessment protocol continually runs in the background. This protocol has been implemented to quantify the accuracy of the system products. The first step in the assessment process, to be reported here, involves the nowcast portion of the forecast system. Point measurements and spatial maps of observed water levels, temperature and salinity at ten spatially distributed locations have been used to determine the skill of the system nowcasts. While the analysis indicates that the system skill is quite reasonable, regions have been identified where higher model resolution and better observational coverage are needed. A data assimilation scheme suitable for the highly variable NYHOPS environment is being developed and implemented. The scheme is being guided by the distribution of model errors.
Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit
Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as "just looking" rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice…
Woloschuk, Donna M M; Raymond, Colette B
Background and Objective: Many Canadian hospital pharmacies are experiencing difficulties recruiting supervisory personnel. It was expected that, through a “learning-by-doing” course, pharmacy staff would learn to apply basic skills in the day-to-day supervision of pharmacy operations and human resources and to apply the principles of supervisory documentation. Methods: A supervisory skills course targeted to pharmacy staff members was developed and implemented by the pharmacy department of a large urban health region. The course was initially offered to practising pharmacy technicians. The course design emphasized a constructivist framework incorporating authentic learning and reflective practice during seminars, with experiential and self-directed learning in the workplace. Preceptors assisted learners to achieve the course goals. Learners and preceptors provided feedback about hours spent (as the course progressed) and about their satisfaction with the course itself (at the end of the course). Learners and preceptors completed a post-program evaluation 2 months after completing the course to help in the assessment of the transfer of learning (lasting impact) associated with the course. Overall performance in the course was assessed on a pass/fail basis. Results: Eighteen pharmacy technicians were admitted to the program, but one withdrew because of a job change. All learners successfully completed the course. Two months after the course, learners and preceptors described enhanced organization, time management, leadership, communication, and conflict-resolution skills on the part of learners, as well as their increased confidence, maturity, and ability to supervise staff. Learners’ evaluations revealed a broadened perspective of pharmacy. The preceptors valued the enhancement of learners’ skills and their increased enthusiasm. At the time of writing, 6 of the participants had secured supervisory positions. Conclusion: Creating formal instruction that engages pharmacy staff to pursue management positions is challenging. Instructional design grounded in constructivist theory and incorporating authentic learning experiences and reflection resulted in high learner satisfaction with learning outcomes. PMID:22478992
NCEP collects and processes monthly average forecast output data from ECMWF, MeteoFrance and MetOffice, along with CFSv2 outputs to generate seasonal forecast products on a routine basis. These models form what is called the International Multi-Model Ensemble (IMME), which are developed and maintained at operational centers, thus their outputs are reliable and their skills are constantly improving. The IMME products add to the robust collection of guidance tools made available to forecasters at CPC and to other users through a CPC's website. In particular, IMME complements to the NMME efforts to provide forecasts based on state-of-the-art dynamical models.
Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul
The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…
Leckey, Janet F.; McGuigan, Maureen A.
A study at the University of Ulster (Northern Ireland) explored student (n=1,456) and faculty (n=357) views on whether course content develops skills that are transferable to work. While faculty and students ascribed equal importance to key generic skills, they differed in the extent to which they believed necessary skills are being developed…
Jackson, Denise; Hancock, Phil
The development of discipline-specific skills and knowledge is no longer considered sufficient in graduates of Bachelor level degrees in Business. Higher education providers are becoming increasingly responsible for the development of a generic skill set deemed essential in undergraduates. This required skill set comprises a broad range of…
Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat
The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…
Hansen, Eric; Huntsberger, Terry; Elkins, Les
Many emerging UV (Unmanned Vehicle) cooperative control systems utilizing mission decomposition and generic UV management techniques are UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) oriented and transition well from model simulations to hardware due to the relative homogeneity of the air environment. Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV's) and other ground borne vehicles, to function robustly, must have an additional onboard capacity to negotiate local environmental and indigenous operational factors in order to be commanded by a network, and this capacity is most easily delineated into Skill Sets. The Autonomous Maritime Navigation Program (AMN) is developing USV systems which target full intelligent autonomous operations and autonomy Skill Sets to allow USV's to perform unsupervised complex missions over extended time periods at the platform level with minimum human supervision. Importantly, this allows control systems developed for cooperating UV's to effectively control USV's by enabling local platform issues decision making at the platform level. Using a 40 foot laboratory boat, advanced on-board control, sensing, data fusion, physical plant and payload monitoring and management are being adapted and integrated as a system to replace traditional human crew functions. This paper discusses a path to achieve the goal of full USV autonomy equipped with skills to self manage, survive and navigate, and progress being made with enabling technology pieces. Initiatives and partnerships have been formed with academia, industry, and other DoD laboratories to these ends in both independent and collaborative RDT&E projects. Discussion includes ongoing work in sensing, data fusion, dynamic mission planning, execution and boat operations, and integration to JAUS/TCS control protocols.
Mills, John; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle; Bowman, Kaye
There has been some debate over whether skill sets have the capacity to be part of a more flexible skilling solution, one in which vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is enhanced. This proposition is explored using a case study of agrifood students who were enrolled in TAFE NSW Statement of Attainment in Rural Production Studies…
Thomas, J Graham; Spitalnick, Josh S; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S; Wing, Rena R
Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations. PMID:25367014
Joyce, Barbara L.; Scher, Eric; Steenbergh, Timothy; Voutt-Goos, Mary J.
Objective We describe a collaboration between the graduate medical education office and the Henry Ford Health System's Office of Clinical Quality and Safety to create an institution-wide communication skills curriculum pertinent to the institution's safety and patient- and family-centered care initiatives. Methods A multidisciplinary committee provided oversight for the curriculum design and used sentinel event and other quality and safety data to identify specific target areas. The curriculum consisted of 3 courses: “Informed Consent,” “Sharing Bad News,” and “Disclosure of Unanticipated Events.” Each course included 3 components: a multimedia online module; small group discussions led by the program director that focused on the use of communication scripts; and 2 objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) requiring residents to demonstrate use of the communication scripts. All first-year residents (N ?=? 145) and faculty (N ?=? 30) from 20 residency programs participated in this initiative. Evaluation of the residents consisted of a self-assessment; the standardized patients' assessment of the residents' performance; and faculty assessment of resident performance with verbal feedback. Results Survey data showed that residents found the courses valuable, with residents identifying communication scripts they would use in clinical settings. Focus groups with faculty highlighted that the resident debriefing sessions provided them with insight into a resident's communication skills early in their training. Conclusion Our institutional curriculum was developed in a collaborative manner, and used an evidence-based approach to teach communication skills relevant to institutional safety and quality initiatives. Other institutions 5 wish to adopt our strategy of departmental collaboration and alignment of resident education with institutional initiatives. PMID:23205202
A teacher used classics of children's literature to teach critical reading skills. Although scoring above the national average on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), the teacher's fourth-grade gifted students exhibited problems with critical reading skills. A literature unit involving whole language strategies and using Beverly Cleary's "The…
Stuart, Ann E
This article describes a graduate class in presentation skills ("PClass") as a model for how a class with similar objectives, expectations and culture might be mounted for undergraduates. The required class is given for students in neuroscience and physiology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; I describe the class in the years I led it, from 2003-2012. The class structure centered on peer rehearsal, critiquing of PowerPoint, and chalk talks by the students; video-recording of student talks for later review by the student with the instructor; and presentation of polished talks in a formal setting. A different faculty visitor to the class each week gave the students a variety of perspectives. The students also gained insight into their own evolving skills by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of seminars given by visitors to the campus. A unique feature of the class was collaboration with a professional actor from the University's Department of Dramatic Arts, who helped the students develop techniques for keeping the attention of an audience, for speaking with confidence, and for controlling nervousness. The undergraduate campus would be expected to lend itself to this sort of interdisciplinary faculty cooperation. In addition, students worked on becoming adept at designing and presenting posters, introducing speakers graciously and taking charge of the speaker's question session, and speaking to a lay audience. PMID:24319389
Stuart, Ann E.
This article describes a graduate class in presentation skills (“PClass”) as a model for how a class with similar objectives, expectations and culture might be mounted for undergraduates. The required class is given for students in neuroscience and physiology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; I describe the class in the years I led it, from 2003–2012. The class structure centered on peer rehearsal, critiquing of PowerPoint, and chalk talks by the students; video-recording of student talks for later review by the student with the instructor; and presentation of polished talks in a formal setting. A different faculty visitor to the class each week gave the students a variety of perspectives. The students also gained insight into their own evolving skills by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of seminars given by visitors to the campus. A unique feature of the class was collaboration with a professional actor from the University’s Department of Dramatic Arts, who helped the students develop techniques for keeping the attention of an audience, for speaking with confidence, and for controlling nervousness. The undergraduate campus would be expected to lend itself to this sort of interdisciplinary faculty cooperation. In addition, students worked on becoming adept at designing and presenting posters, introducing speakers graciously and taking charge of the speaker’s question session, and speaking to a lay audience. PMID:24319389
Ruitenberg, Marit F L; Abrahamse, Elger L; Verwey, Willem B
This study investigated to what extent preadolescent children, like young adults, learn to perform sequential movements in an automatic fashion. A sample of 24 children (mean age = 11.3 years) practiced fixed 3-key and 6-key sequences in the discrete sequence production task by responding to key-specific stimuli via spatially compatible key presses. We compared their performance with that of 24 young adults (mean age = 22.0 years). Results showed that performance improved with practice for both age groups, although children were generally slower. Compared with young adults, children had less explicit knowledge but relied more on the available explicit knowledge when executing familiar 6-key sequences. Furthermore, they completed fewer of these sequences on the basis of just the first stimulus and showed a slower transition between successive segments within the sequences. Together, these findings provide insight into the degree to which preadolescent children develop automaticity in sequential motor skill, suggesting that preadolescent children automatize the processes underlying longer movement sequences slower and/or to a lesser extent than is the case with young adults. The current study is in line with the idea that there are several mechanisms that underlie sequencing skill and suggests that the use of these mechanisms may be dependent on age. PMID:23708125
Geroy, Gary D.; Kaman, Vickie
The purpose of skills-training needs-assessment is to identify what type of skills and knowledge are needed to support economic strategies and, as a result, improve organizational decisionmaking related to training investments and general work force development. This paper presents findings of 11 skills-retraining, needs-assessment,…
Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…
Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Wells, Jamie; Scott, Ian
This paper presents an examination of the importance of softer skills in the accountancy profession and a discussion of the contribution that universities can make in supporting the development of these skills. With employers increasingly demanding a greater range of softer skills such as effective communication, the paper is intended to challenge…
While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…
Steve Beyerlein; Denny Davis; Mike Trevisan
Professional skills are vital to preparing engineers for their careers, but how well do we teach and assess them in our professional programs? Many design faculty are unclear about the required skills, how to develop them, and how to assess them. In response to this need, the Integrated Design Engineering Assessment and Learning System (IDEALS) promotes professional skills in a
Predicting Students' Performance with SimStudent: Learning Cognitive Skills from Observation1 students solving problems. It then creates a cognitive model that can replicate the students' performance. If the model is accurate, it would predict the human students' performance on novel problems. An evaluation
This qualitative study examines the perceptions of principals in the implementation of Skillful Observation and Coaching Laboratory (SOCL), an instructional program designed to help principals improve teaching and learning in the classroom. Specifically, this study sought to describe the extent to which components of SOCL were implemented with…
Gray, Neal D.; Erickson, Paul
The present paper advocates for standardized regulations and laws for supervision of pre-licensed counselors in the United States, particularly for direct observation of clinical skills. A review of regulations by the American Counseling Association (ACA) Office of Professional Affairs (2012) reveals that only two states (Arizona and North…
, nonlinear. Iteration with a linearized inverse achieves fast, monotonic convergence. The model reconstructs formidable problems in inference and inversion; and the relevant dynamics are a nonlinear blend of processesInversion Skill for LimitedArea Shelf Modeling -- Observational System Simulation Experiments
Rajalahti, Elina; Heinonen, Jarmo; Saranto, Kaija
The purpose of this paper is to assess nurse educators' competence development in nursing informatics (NI) and to compare their competence to the NI competence of other healthcare professionals. Electronic health records (EHR) have been in use for many years. However, the adoption of the nursing care plan finally made it possible for nurses in Finland to develop a model for structured documentation with nursing terminology. A total of n?=?124 (n?=?85 pre-test and n?=?39 post-test) participants from Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), hospitals, hospitals' information management and health centres were surveyed with a e-questionnaire designed to assess the development of their NI competences during the nursing documentation development project. The questionnaire included 145 structured questions and 6 open questions. Data analysis focused on classification and comparison of NI competences through data description and statistical parameters using figures and tables. The basic NI competences of the nurse educators were good at the end of project and the nurse educators had better information literacy and information management competences than other participants. The information retrieval skills varied greatly, but they improved evenly towards the end. The nurse educators mastered better evidence-based nursing and use of nursing process models in their work. PMID:24152130
Ayubi, Harry H
Observations from first hand experience on the Boeing 787 Program during development of perhaps the most important and exciting new commercial airplane in recent history has identified opportunities to enhance the global ...
Miller-Sims, Vanessa C.; Bottjer, Sarah W.
Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult “tutors”, and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning. PMID:23285011
, Kelley, & Grafton, 2009; Ellenbuerger, Boutin, Blandin, Shea, & Panzer, 2012; Gruetzmacher, Panzer, Blandin, & Shea, 2011). Another aspect of observation that has not been examined as extensively is the impact that observational learning has... research has shown that split attention influences motor skill learning and actually constrains production capabilities (Kovacs, Buchanan, & Shea, 2009a; Shea, 2 Buchanan, Kovacs, & Krueger, 2008). Another goal of this research will be to reveal how...
Molitor, Loretta L.; George, Kenneth D.
Evaluated is a Science Process Skills test to determine instrument reliability and validity for measuring science inquiry skills of inference and verification. Students involved were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. Results indicate the instrument is valid, but reliability is low, particulary for the inference subtest. (SL)
Smeby, Jens-Christian; Heggen, Kåre
It can be difficult for students to relate theoretical knowledge and practical skills when making the transition from the classroom to professional practice. The concept of coherence has been suggested as an appropriate way to address how the relationships involved (i.e. between theoretical knowledge and practical skills and between classroom…
Adams, Jean; Morgan, Gareth
This article develops the concept of "second generation" e-learning as a new paradigm for thinking about online learning. Whereas "first generation" approaches have been effective for developing technical skills, the same approach has not proven effective for developing management soft-skills (e.g., in the field of leadership education). The…
Ste-Marie, Diane M; Vertes, Kelly A; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M
There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2?years; SD?=?1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1?day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman's (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826
Khademi, Allen; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Cerillo, Lynn M; Dibling, Janice; Wade, Chris; Liang, Jing; Martin, Michele L; Petagna, Ann Marie; Strax, Thomas E
This educational unit was developed to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation residents on tracheostomy management in non-ventilator-dependent patients and to implement an objective assessment format to measure the attainment of these skills. Thirty-one subjects participated in a 2-day didactic and hands-on workshop supervised by an attending physiatrist, certified speech pathologists, and registered nurses. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. To test the success of the standardized educational module, data have been collected on an ongoing basis for a period of 6 yrs. A before-and-after multiple-choice written examination, as well as simulated patient encounters consisting of eight segments divided into four stations, was used to assess knowledge acquisition and skill achievement. Before instruction, none of the 31 participants were able to perform appropriate tracheostomy care. After the workshop, 31 of 31 (100%) successfully demonstrated clinical proficiency in every segment of the evaluation element of the educational module. Furthermore, a significant increase in knowledge was observed in the multiple-choice examination from pretest to posttest (pretest, 52.7%; posttest, 84.5%). Participation in this module resulted in substantial acquisition of knowledge and skills regarding tracheostomy management for physical medicine and rehabilitation residents. PMID:22157437
Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Danielsen, Stein; Opheim, Elin; Bjørndal, Arild; Reinar, Liv Merete; Flottorp, Signe; Oxman, Andrew David; Helseth, Sølvi
Background Providing insight into the developmental processes involved in building interventions is an important way to ensure methodological transparency and inform future research efforts. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a web portal designed to improve health literacy skills among the public. Methods The web portal was tailored to address three key barriers to obtaining information, using the conceptual frameworks of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice and based on explicit criteria for selecting the content and form of the intervention. Results The web portal targeted the general public and took the form of structured sets of tools. Content included: an introduction to research methods, help on how to find evidence-based health information efficiently based on the steps of evidence-based practice, an introduction to critical appraisal, information about patient participation rights in decision-making, and a decision aid for consultations. Conclusions The web portal was designed in a systematic and transparent way and address key barriers to obtaining and acting upon reliable health information. The web portal provides open access to the tools and can be used independently by health care users, or during consultations with health professionals. PMID:24251890
Jamison, Kristen R.; Forston, Lindsay D.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.
Social skill acquisition is an essential step in young children's development with lasting implications for the quality of social experiences throughout life. Difficulties with social skill acquisition may be related to delays in physical development, communication methods, and/or social awareness that limit one's ability to progress along a…
du Preez, I.; Fossey, A.
The development of graduate attributes in higher education is enjoying much attention worldwide. Employers consistently rank communication skills, in particular writing ability, among the most important skills for graduates to possess. The inclusion and development of graduate attributes in undergraduate curricula have received little attention.…
Aladwani, Adel M.
The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the skills needed by developers of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) systems. The paper proposes a framework pertaining to three categories of e-Commerce development knowledge: technical, human, and organizational. The initial findings reveal that there are some 16 possible e-Commerce skills tapping…
Isaacs, Patricia A.
Although the development of process skills has been accepted as being an important part of elementary school curricula in science and in other subjects, few valid and reliable tests exist for their assessment. Therefore, a test is currently being developed to assess these skills. It is designed to meet seven criteria (such as testing process…
Montori, Laura; Lally, Julia
A topic of student interest, earthquakes, is used as a vehicle for teaching reading and research skills in a California junior high school. Students develop geography skills by labeling fault lines on maps of the Pacific Basin, California, and San Francisco; develop their vocabulary by preparing a list of words about earthquakes; and practice word…
Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.
Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…
Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee
We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…
Johnson, Carl I.
This booklet describes the test development process used to upgrade New Jersey's basic skills competency test, the High School Proficiency Test (HSPT). Ninth-grade students in New Jersey public schools must pass this test of reading, writing, and mathematics skills in order to receive a state endorsed high school diploma. Test development…
Tran, Thi Tuyet
This study investigates the perceptions of higher education students, recent graduates and employers in Vietnam on the issue of skill development in the higher education system in Vietnam. Enhancing skill development is considered essential for students, not only to pursue their study, but also for their success later, at work and in life. The…
One of the main goals of many educational courses at various colleges, especially those which focus on applied economics and management, is the development of students' entrepreneurship skills. It is usually accomplished through various project-oriented tasks. The development of the students' entrepreneurship skills is also the primary objective…
Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.
Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…
This paper discusses the development of the Basic Skills Model, a theoretical framework that has enabled North Carolina educators to propose to the Department of Public Instruction the development of a curriculum for high school juniors and seniors with disabilities. The curriculum is designed to enable students to gain the necessary skills to…
Barbara A Goff; Gretchen M Lentz; David Lee; Dee Fenner; Jamie Morris; Lynn S Mandel
OBJECTIVE:We have previously shown that objective structured assessment of technical skills performed in an animal model was an innovative, reliable, and valid method of assessing surgical skills. Our goal was to develop a less costly bench station objective structured assessment of technical skills and to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of this exam.METHODS:A seven-station examination was administered to 24
Approaches to teaching the dynamics of development at South Africa's National University of Lesotho are criticized. Teaching development geography, which focuses on articulation and class formation and which rejects the spatial approach, is detrimental to the geography department. The objective should be to provide technical skills unavailable…
Neema Moraveji; Meredith Ringel Morris; Daniel Morris; Mary Czerwinski; Nathalie Henry Riche
We explore the use of social learning - improving knowledge skills by observing peer behavior - in the domain of Web search skill acquisition, focusing specifically on co-located classroom scenarios. Through a series of interviews, pilot studies, and classroom deployments, we conclude that a peripheral display of Web search activity within a classroom facilitates both social learning and teacher-led discourse.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Development of Entrepreneurial Skills in the Field of Social Services Social Entrepreneurship, Sophie Louargant National Report for the EU Leonardo da Vinci Pilot Project PP-166018 Development Services ............................................................................... 145 II.2. Gender
Lannon, Susan L
Preparation for advanced leadership roles requires hospital-based staff nurses to develop skills beyond clinical expertise. Non-clinical activities such as poster and oral presentations, article publication, and professional portfolio development are ways to demonstrate these skills. This article cle discusses how an educational initiative was developed to provide instruction and mentoring for these areas of professional development. In addition, the relationship between this initiative and a clinical advancement ladder is discussed. PMID:17269435
The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…
Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita
This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…
Lamancusa, John S.
Teamwork Skills in a Multi-disciplinary Course Lueny Morell de Ramírez, Jorge I. Vélez-Arocho, José L in the students are design/synthesis, communication and teamwork. These skills have also been identified Entrepreneurship, is the course designed to nurture and develop teamwork and interpersonal proficiency. At UPR
Gholamain, Mitra; Geva, Esther
Examined two hypotheses regarding reading skill development--the script-dependent hypothesis and the central processing hypothesis--by studying the linguistic, cognitive, and basic reading skills of 70 children in grades 1 through 5 learning to read in English (first language) and Persian (second language) concurrently. Findings supported both…
in the development of work- place skills, the challenges of the transfer of knowledge and skills, and the particular provide a physical setting in a co- operative environment in which undergraduate and grad- uate college students engage in research. A nity groups involve students with a wide range of experiences, tal- ents
Missett, Tracy C.
This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.
It is increasingly popular to "teach" thinking skills in schools. A diverse variety of programmes exist to support practitioners in this task, and some research has been gathered on the effectiveness of individual approaches. However, the difficulties when assessing the development of thinking skills are widely documented. This study aimed to…
Howell, Leanne; Sulak, Tracey N.; Bagby, Janet; Diaz, Cathy; Thompson, LaNette W.
Educational philosophy in elementary and secondary schools has often centered on creating a "product," full of content knowledge and basic skills (Bagby, 2002). However, no longer is academic achievement in the classroom considered the sole gauge of lifelong success. Meltzer (2010) suggested that the development of executive functioning skills…
Comparison of small and medium-sized enterprises' skill requirements in the European Union and Eastern/Central Europe shows considerable similarities and identifies skill needs universities need to address. New courses and modules are being developed by the University of Surrey in conjunction with Eastern/Central European partners. (Contains 14…
Ward, Carol Knowlton
Alumni of 4-H animal science programs in New Jersey were surveyed (n=52). Participation had a positive influence on life skill development, especially "accepting responsibility." Experience with shows and judging was beneficial to public speaking/job interview skills. Although many were not in animal science careers, they enjoyed related hobbies.…
Gormally, Cara; Brickman, Peggy; Lutz, Mary
Life sciences faculty agree that developing scientific literacy is an integral part of undergraduate education and report that they teach these skills. However, few measures of scientific literacy are available to assess students' proficiency in using scientific literacy skills to solve scenarios in and beyond the undergraduate biology classroom.…
Joseph P. Allen; Penny Marsh; Christy McFarland; Kathleen Boykin McElhaney; Deborah J. Land; Kathleen M. Jodl; Sheryl Peck
This study examined adolescent attachment organization as a predictor of the development of social skills and delinquent behavior during midadolescence. Delinquent activity and skill levels were assessed for 117 moderately at-risk adolescents at ages 16 and 18, and maternal and adolescent attachment organi- zation and autonomy in interactions were assessed at age 16. Adolescent attachment security predicted relative increases in
Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.
Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…
Dorris, John Peter
The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the workforce skills perceived to be critical in the Chattanooga region, and to explore how colleges and businesses can partner to effectively develop those skills. Data from a June 2011 survey of workforce stakeholders in the Chattanooga region were analyzed. The 78 survey respondents…
Fiona Brown; Marshall Dozier
This paper uses the example of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine Libraries at the University of Edinburgh. It examines the changing course structure in veterinary medicine and shows how information skills training has developed to provide students with transferable skills which they can take into their veterinary career. This is particularly relevant as the profession is increasing the
Jensen, Roger D., Jr.
Critical thinking skills are an important topic of the United States' education system. This study examines the literature on critical thinking skills and defines them. The study also explores one specific teaching and assessment strategy known as the Socratic Method. The five-week research study used the Socratic Method for developing critical…
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan
This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…
Feyzioglu, Burak; Demirdag, Baris; Akyildiz, Murat; Altun, Eralp
Science process skills are claimed to enable an individual to improve their own life visions and give a scientific view/literacy as a standard of their understanding about the nature of science. The main purpose of this study was to develop a test for measuring a valid, reliable and practical test for Science Process Skills (SPS) in secondary…
Elliott, Julian G.; Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Hoffman, Newman
Skilled interpersonal relations are crucial for effective teaching and learning but much professional knowledge here is tacit and thus not easily communicated. This article presents the results of a study that examined the tacit knowledge of trainee and experienced teachers in relation to various problematic interpersonal aspects of school life.…
Lewis, Zella, Comp.
Compiled from a 1980 survey requesting library science guides for elementary and secondary schools, this booklet contains numerous learning activity examples from 36 states which are presented in three main sections. The introduction contains the preface and strategies for teaching learning skills. The major part of the document focuses on using…
Tyre, Betty B.
One of the major objectives of all schools is to help each student become an independent reader. By necessity then, the teacher, the materials utilized in the teaching process, and the classroom organization used must help students learn and gain proficiency in applying basic reading skills to the reading of all types of materials. To achieve the…
Fastre, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Sluijsmans, Dominique; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
One of the goals of current education is to ensure that graduates can act as independent lifelong learners. Graduates need to be able to assess their own learning and interpret assessment results. The central question in this article is how to acquire sustainable assessment skills, enabling students to assess their performance and learning…
Senik, Rosmila; Broad, Martin
This paper discusses the findings on factors perceived to mitigate educators from incorporating IT skills in their taught unit(s). The factors are discussed under three main categories, which are academic staff-based barriers, environmental-based barriers and student-based barriers. These barriers should be considered in order to encourage the…
Alvermann, Donna E.; Marshall, James D.; McLean, Cheryl A.; Huddleston, Andrew P.; Joaquin, Jairus; Bishop, John
Five qualitative multiple-case studies document adolescents' uses of Web-based resources and digital literacy skills to construct their online identities. Working from a perspective that integrates new literacies with multimodality, the researchers enlisted the help of five high school students who kept daily logs of the websites they visited for…
Zilinski, Lisa D.; Sapp Nelson, Megan; Van Epps, Amy S.
Undergraduate STEM students are increasingly expected to have some data use skills upon graduation, whether they pursue post-graduate education or move into industry. This project was an initial foray into the application of data information literacy competencies to training undergraduate students to identify markers of data and information…
Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Lindsay, David H.; Garner, Don E.
The CSU, Stanislaus, accounting program is providing a new course that meets the university-wide upper-division writing requirement and offers accounting students additional professional study. While a writing skills course is not unusual in a business program, few offer an alternative centered on the accounting body of knowledge. Undergraduate…
This study examined the relationship of soft skills gained to the amount of leadership education completed by graduates from the Department of Leadership studies at a Midwestern regional university. Those who received no leadership education were compared with those who received a leadership certificate and those who received a bachelor's degree…
Brownell, Celia A.
Children's ability to produce integrated sequences of discrete behaviors was examined as a function of age and task demands for several behavioral domains. Results are discussed in terms of possible age-related constraints on combinatorial skills that operate at a general, cross-domain level during toddlerhood. (RH)
Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.
Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…
Ambrosia, V. G.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Watts, A.; Reynolds, K. W.; Ball, T.
Wildfires are regularly occurring emergency events that threaten life, property, and natural resources in every U.S. State and many countries around the world. Despite projections that $1.8 billion will be spent by U.S. Federal agencies alone on wildfires in 2014, the decades-long trend of increasing fire size, severity, and cost is expected to continue. Furthermore, the enormous potential for UAS (and concomitant sensor systems) to serve as geospatial intelligence tools to improve the safety and effectiveness of fire management, and our ability to forecast fire and smoke movements, remains barely tapped. Although orbital sensor assets are can provide the geospatial extent of wildfires, generally those resources are limited in use due to their spatial and temporal resolution limitations. These two critical elements make orbital assets of limited utility for tactical, real-time wildfire management, or for continuous scientific analysis of the temporal dynamics related to fire energy release rates and plume concentrations that vary significantly thru a fire's progression. Large UAS platforms and sensors can and have been used to monitor wildfire events at improved temporal, spatial and radiometric scales, but more focus is being placed on the use of small UAS (sUAS) and sensors to support wildfire observation strategies. The use of sUAS is therefore more critical for TACTICAL management purposes, rather than strategic observations, where small-scale fire developments are critical to understand. This paper will highlight the historical development and use of UAS for fire observations, as well as the current shift in focus to smaller, more affordable UAS for more rapid integration into operational use on wildfire events to support tactical observation strategies, and support wildfire science measurement inprovements.
Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Walton, Kristen L.W.; Grillo, Wendy Heck
Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education. Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT) was developed to measure students’ data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research. The skills analyzed included basic skills, such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data, and advanced skills, such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments. Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students’ data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts. The instrument also measures students’ perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities. As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy. Thus science education will need to support and assess students’ development of these skills as part of students’ scientific training. PMID:25574292
Florida Coalition for the Development of a Performance Measurement System, Tallahassee.
Reports, summaries, and recommendations are presented on the following research studies: (1) Beginning Teacher Studies; (2) Instructional Skills for Teaching Higher Order Thinking; (3) Development of the Conferential Observation Instrument; (4) Predictive Validity Studies Conducted to Test the Relationship Between Teacher Performance as Measured…
Haden, Catherine A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; O’Brien, Barbara S.; Elischberger, Holger B.; Tyler, Caroline S.; Burchinal, Margaret J.
A multi-task battery tapping nonverbal memory and language skills was used to assess 60 children at 18, 24, and 30 months. Analyses focused on the degree to which language, working memory, and deliberate memory skills were linked concurrently to children’s Elicited Imitation performance, and whether the patterns of association varied across the different ages. Language ability emerged as a predictor of immediate Elicited Imitation performance by 24 months and predicted delayed performance at each age. In addition to the contributions of language, the children’s abilities to search for and retrieve toys in the deliberate memory task were associated with their immediate Elicited Imitation performance at each age. In addition to language, working memory was positively associated with aspects of both immediate and delayed performance at all ages. The extent to which it was possible to replicate and extend previous cross-sectional work in this longitudinal study is discussed. PMID:20673914
Kwangsu Cho; Christian Schunn
\\u000a Writing skills are considered to be critical for academic and professional success (National Commission on Writing, 2004,\\u000a The neglected “r” the need for a writing revolution. The College Board). However, a large number of students are not writing\\u000a well. According to National Assessment of Educational Progress (2002, Writing report card for the nation and the states: National\\u000a Center for Education
Richard C. Thelwell; Iain A. Greenlees; Neil J. V. Weston
The present study examined the effects of a soccer, midfielder-specific psychological skills intervention comprising relaxation, imagery and self-talk on position-specific performance measures. Using a multiple-baseline-across-individuals design, five participants had three per-formance subcomponents assessed across nine competitive matches. The results of the study indicated the position-specific intervention to enable at least small improvements on the three dependent variables for each participant.
M. B. Moldwin; T. S. Hogue; P. Nonacs; R. E. Shope; J. Daniel
Many science and research skills are taught by osmosis in graduate programs with the expectation that students will develop good communication skills (speaking, writing, and networking) by observing others, attending meetings, and self reflection. A new National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education (GK-12; http:\\/\\/ehrweb.aaas.org\\/gk12new\\/) program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http:\\/\\/measure.igpp.ucla.edu\\/GK12-SEE-LA\\/overview.html ) attempts to make the development of
Sánchez, Jaime; de Borba Campos, Marcia; Espinoza, Matías; Merabet, Lotfi B
Interactive digital technologies are currently being developed as a novel tool for education and skill development. Audiopolis is an audio and haptic based videogame designed for developing orientation and mobility (O&M) skills in people who are blind. We have evaluated the cognitive impact of videogame play on O&M skills by assessing performance on a series of behavioral tasks carried out in both indoor and outdoor virtual spaces. Our results demonstrate that the use of Audiopolis had a positive impact on the development and use of O&M skills in school-aged learners who are blind. The impact of audio and haptic information on learning is also discussed. PMID:25485312
Gregory, William Bres
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SKILL ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR BEGINNING SKIERS ON AN ARTIFICIAL SURFACE A Thesis by WILLIAM BRES GREGORY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AQ1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Health and Physical Education THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SKILL ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR BEGINNING SKIERS ON AN ARTIFICIAL SURFACE A Thesis by WILLIAM BRES GREGORY, JR. Approved as to style and content by...
Hendriks, Sarah; Selber, Jesse C; Parekattil, Sijo J
Robotically assisted microsurgery or telemicrosurgery is a new technique using robotic telemanipulators. This allows for the addition of optical magnification (which defines conventional microsurgery) to robotic instrument arms to allow the microsurgeon to perform complex microsurgical procedures. There are several possible applications for this platform in various microsurgical disciplines. Since 2009, basic skills training courses have been organized by the Robotic Assisted Microsurgical and Endoscopic Society. These basic courses are performed on training models in five levels of increasing complexity. This paper reviews the current state of the art in robotically asisted microsurgical training. PMID:23898425
Ray, Jessica M; Ray, Roger D
Problems in training behavioral observers to a high degree of interindividual accuracy and intraindividual stability are fundamental concerns in descriptive research, as well as in provisions of behavioral intervention services. This article presents design characteristics of and results from three formative evaluations of an adaptive computerized expert system that shapes observation and recording skills and maximizes both individual coding accuracy and stability. The system, called Train-to-Code, allows instructors or trainers to import their own video source files and to code those videos using any appropriate descriptive behavioral-coding scheme. This generates customized expert reference data that automate subsequent training on the basis of an operant response-shaping instructional design model. Successful training relies on transitions through alternative levels of prompting and feedback designed to optimize ongoing performance until stable expert-equivalent levels of interobserver accuracy are maintained without prompting or feedback. PMID:18697662
Houlton, H. R.; Ricci, J.; Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.
Professional development experiences, such as internships, research presentations and professional network building, are becoming increasingly important to enhance students' employability post-graduation. The practical, non-technical skills that are important for succeeding during these professional development experiences, such as public speaking, project management, ethical practices and writing, transition well and are imperative to the workplace. Thereby, graduates who have honed these skills are more competitive candidates for geoscience employment. Fortunately, the geoscience community recognizes the importance of these professional development opportunities and the skills required to successfully complete them, and are giving students the chance to practice non-technical skills while they are still enrolled in academic programs. The American Geosciences Institute has collected data regarding students' professional development experiences, including the preparation they receive in the corresponding non-technical skills. This talk will discuss the findings of two of AGI's survey efforts - the Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the Geoscience Careers Master's Preparation Survey (NSF: 1202707). Specifically, data highlighting the role played by internships, career opportunities and the complimentary non-technical skills will be discussed. As a practical guide, events informed by this research, such as AGI's professional development opportunities, networking luncheons and internships, will also be included.
Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
The extent to which mathematical development is dependent upon language is controversial. This longitudinal study investigates the role of language ability in children's development of number skills. Participants were 229 children with specific language impairment (SLI) who were assessed initially at age 7 and again 1 year later. All participants completed measures of psycholinguistic development (expressive and receptive), performance IQ, and the Basic Number Skills subtest of the British Ability Scales. Number skills data for this sample were compared with normative population data. Consistent with predictions that language impairment would impact on numerical development, average standard scores were more than 1 SD below the population mean at both ages. Although the children showed improvements in raw scores at the second wave of the study, the discrepancy between their scores and the population data nonetheless increased over time. Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for the effect of PIQ, language skills explained an additional 19 and 17% of the variance in number skills for ages 7 and 8, respectively. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that less improvement in the child's language ability over the course of the year was associated with a greater odds of a drop in performance in basic number skills from 7 to 8 years. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of linguistic and cognitive factors in numerical development and the implications for mathematical education. PMID:24027548
Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene
Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…
Hébert, Ali; Hauf, Petra
Although anecdotal evidence and research alike espouse the benefits of service learning, some researchers have suggested that more rigorous testing is required in order to determine its true effect on students. This is particularly true in the case of academic development, which has been inconsistently linked to service learning. It has been…
Oermann, Marilyn H; Leonardelli, Adrianne K; Turner, Kathleen M; Hawks, Sharon J; Derouin, Anne L; Hueckel, Rémi M
The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing the writing skills of nursing students and nurses. Of 728 screened citations, 80 articles were included in the review. Writing assignments in nursing courses were the most common, followed by strategies for writing across the curriculum and specific courses to improve the writing skills of nursing students. To improve nurses' writing skills, workshops were used most frequently. Only 28 (35%) of the articles were data based, and most articles described the writing program, strategy, or assignment but did not evaluate its effectiveness. PMID:25535756
Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Goudreau, Johanne; Dumont, Katia
Continuing education of newly graduated nurses (NGN) depends on several factors related to the characteristics of skills to be developed, the target population and the organizational context. Few studies describe both how nurses develop their skills and how institutions promote this development. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) describe the behaviors that the NGN use to develop their reasoning skills and leadership and (2) document the organizational elements that facilitate this development. Method. Individual interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 34) using a grid of semistructured interviews and two group interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 7) and managers (n = 19) in two teaching hospitals in eastern Canada. The results show that nurses develop mainly by reflecting on their professional practice in their workplace. However, the lack of time for reflection in the workspace is a considerable obstacle while managerial leadership is an important asset. PMID:23671988
This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.
Naoko Niimi; Kenichi Maeda
Four skills (interpersonal relationship, information utilization, future planning, and decision-making) and three identity styles (informational, normative, and diffuse\\/avoidant) were measured among Japanese high school students (N = 963: 335 tenth-graders, 307 eleventh- graders, and 321 twelfth-graders), using the Basic Skills for Career Development Scale and the Japanese version of Identity Style Inventory, respectively. Grade and gender differences were found across
Pakey Pui-man Chik; Connie Suk-han Ho; Pui-sze Yeung; Yau-kai Wong; David Wai-ock Chan; Kevin Kien-hoa Chung; Lap-yan Lo
This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically\\u000a developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese\\u000a reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly\\u000a less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls
Barbara A Goff; Gretchen M Lentz; David Lee; Brenda Houmard; Lynn S Mandel
Objective: To develop an objective structured assessment for evaluating surgical skills of obstetrics and gynecology residents and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the assessment.Methods: A seven-station, objective, structured assessment of technical skills was administered to 24 residents. The test included laparoscopic procedures (port placement, salpingostomy, suturing, vessel ligation) and open abdominal procedures (hypogastric ligation, repair of enterotomy, salpingo-oophorectomy.)
Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat
Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948
Alan Rosen; Tom Trauer; Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic; Gordon Parker
Objective: To develop a brief form of the Life Skills Profile (LSP) that incorporates all five subscales of the full form.Method: A new short form of the LSP (LSP-20) was developed to incorporate all five subscales of the full form. The LSP-20 development was based on a reanalysis of data from previously published studies. These data sets were also reanalysed
Ashley E. Maynard
Psychology has considered the development of learning, but the development of teaching in childhood has not been considered. The data presented in this article demonstrate that children develop teaching skills over the course of middle childhood. Seventy-two Maya children (25 boys, 47 girls) ranging in age from 3 to 11 years ( M ? 6.8 years) were videotaped in sibling
Gill, Joel C.
Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.
Watts, Edward; Peacock, Oliver; Liyanage, Shehan; Elsey, Elizabeth; Lund, Jonathan
Objectives The ability to deliver public presentations is important for doctors of all specialities. Despite this, there is little emphasis on training in presentation skills within medical curriculae. The aim of this paper was to establish the current standard of presentations being delivered by surgical trainees at a national conference and to confirm the need for further training. Design An observational study of 96 six-minute research presentations. Setting A national surgical conference in the United Kingdom. Participants Four independent observers each appraised 24 six-minute presentations by surgical trainees against a pre-determined standard. Main outcome measures A set of 19 audit criteria were established after a literature search to ascertain commonly accepted presentation standards. These outcome measures included keeping to time, number of slides used, the nature of slide content, methods of data representation, use of images and presentation style. Results A total of 61 (64%) presenters overran. The median number of slides used was 13 (range 6–28). Thirty-three (34%) presenters displayed slides with more than six bullet points on two or more occasions. Sixty-four (67%) presenters displayed whole paragraphs of text on two or more occasions. Sixty-eight (71%) presenters displayed raw numerical data in the course of their presentations. Seventy (73%) presenters used images. Thirty-one (32%) presenters repeatedly read out sentences word-for-word from their slides. Nineteen (20%) presenters appeared not to know their presentation content well. Conclusions Presentation skills amongst surgical trainees are well below those that should be aspired to. Efforts to improve training, motivation and the examples set by senior surgeons should be instigated in order to improve this situation. PMID:22666527
Ruse, Stacy A.; Davis, Vicki G.; Atkins, Alexandra S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.; Fox, Kolleen H.; Harvey, Philip D.; Keefe, Richard S.E.
Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term psychosocial outcomes. Treatment studies aimed at cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests, but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to clinically meaningful improvements. Measures of “functional capacity” index the extent to which individuals have the potential to perform skills required for real world functioning. Current data do not support the recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of functional capacity. The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a realistic simulated environment to recreate routine activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT’s sensitivity, reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use, and has several features that improve validity and sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of patients with CNS disorders. PMID:24798174
Allen, Joseph P.; Marsh, Penny; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Land, Deborah J.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Peck, Sheryl
This study examined adolescent attachment organization as a predictor of the development of social skills and delinquent behavior during midadolescence. Delinquent activity and skill levels were assessed for 117 moderately at-risk adolescents at ages 16 and 18, and maternal and adolescent attachment organization and autonomy in interactions were assessed at age 16. Adolescent attachment security predicted relative increases in social skills from age 16 to 18, whereas an insecure–preoccupied attachment organization predicted increasing delinquency during this period. In addition, preoccupied teens interacting with highly autonomous mothers showed greater relative decreases in skill levels and increases in delinquent activity over time, suggesting a heightened risk for deviance among preoccupied teens who may be threatened by growing autonomy in adolescent–parent interactions. PMID:11860056
Christopher J. Lonigan; Stephen R. Burgess; Jason L. Anthony
Although research has identified oral language, print knowledge, and phonological sensitivity as important emergent literacy skills for the development of reading, few studies have examined the relations between these aspects of emergent literacy or between these skills during preschool and during later reading. This study examined the joint and unique predictive significance of emergent literacy skills for both later emergent
Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung
There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…
Gordon Boyce; Sarah Williams; Andrea Kelly; Helen Yee
It is vital that accounting educators take responsibility for the development of students' generic (soft) skills in conjunction with, discipline-specific skills. Research indicates that the typical learning styles of accounting students are not suited to the acquisition of generic skills. In this paper learning theory is used to provide a framework to support the use of case studies as a
Purpose: Little attention is paid to understanding generic skills in business. Even less attention is paid to collecting evidence of students' development of these skills. This paper aims to fill this gap. Design/methodology/approach: Four generic skills in business undergraduate and graduate programs are examined--written communication; critical…
Schen, Melissa S.
Scientific reasoning is a skill of critical importance to those students who seek to become professional scientists. Yet, there is little research on the development of such reasoning in science majors. In addition, scientific reasoning is often investigated as two separate entities: hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation, even though these skills may be linked. With regard to argumentation, most investigations look at its use in discussing socioscientific issues, not in analyzing scientific data. As scientists often use the same argumentation skills to develop and support conclusions, this avenue needs to be investigated. This study seeks to address these issues and establish a baseline of both hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation of scientific data of biology majors through their engagement in introductory biology coursework. This descriptive study investigated the development of undergraduates' scientific reasoning skills by assessing them multiple times throughout a two-quarter introductory biology course sequence for majors. Participants were assessed at the beginning of the first quarter, end of the first quarter, and end of the second quarter. A split-half version of the revised Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) and a paper and pencil argumentation instrument developed for this study were utilized to assess student hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation skills, respectively. To identify factors that may influence scientific reasoning development, demographic information regarding age, gender, science coursework completed, and future plans was collected. Evidence for course emphasis on scientific reasoning was found in lecture notes, assignments, and laboratory exercises. This study did not find any trends of improvement in the students' hypothetico-deductive reasoning or argumentation skills either during the first quarter or over both quarters. Specific difficulties in the control of variables and direct hypothetico-deductive reasoning were found through analysis of the LCTSR data. Students were also found to have trouble identifying and rebutting counterarguments, compared to generating initial arguments from scientific data sets. Although no overall improvement was found, a moderate, positive relationship was detected between LCTSR and argumentation scores at each administration, affirming the predicted association. Lastly, no difference was determined between biology majors and other students also enrolled in the courses. Overall, the results found here are similar to those classified in the literature for both hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation, indicating that biology majors may be similar to other populations studied. Also, as no explicit attention was paid to scientific reasoning skills in the two courses, these findings complement those that illustrate a need for direct attention to foster the development of these skills. These results suggest the need to develop direct and explicit methods in order to improve the scientific reasoning skills of future biological scientists early in their undergraduate years.
Drawing on a mixed-methods study of in-service learning and skills sector (LSS) trainees, comprising beginning- and end-of-year surveys and six longitudinal case studies together with literature on trainees' development in the LSS, schools and higher education sectors, conceptual and practice development continua are proposed. Conceptions become…
This paper presents a critical argument to the profession of career development for the purpose of stimulating reflexive consideration on the myriad influences that impinge upon practitioners. The paper suggests that given the current skills agenda in the Australian economy, it may be timely to reflexively consider career development practice. The…
Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather
This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…
Wojcikowski, K.; Brownie, S.
Problem-based learning can be an effective tool to develop clinical reasoning skills. However, it traditionally takes place in tutorial groups, giving students little flexibility in how and when they learn. This pilot study compared the effectiveness of generic reflective feedback (GRF) with tutorial-based reflective feedback on the development of…
Rehman, H.-u.; Said, R. A.; Al-assaf, Y.
This paper proposes an integrated approach for developing the engineering curricula with a specific focus on engineering design. The proposed approach allows a continuous and coherent development of engineering students' design skills throughout the entire undergraduate curriculum. This ongoing design experience is delivered at an involvement and…
Goldstein, Jessica; McCoach, D. Betsy
Developmentally appropriate, psychometrically sound instruments are needed to assess young children and evaluate learning programs. In the United States, little guidance exists on the development and use of large-scale assessments that cover the broad range of skills that encompass young children's development. In 2005 and 2006, the State of…
Minott, Mark A.; Willett, Ionie Liburd
The purpose of this research was to identify and outline the work-related skills that cooperating teachers in the Cayman Islands and Saint Kitts-Nevis developed or reinforced as they supervised student-teachers. A qualitative case-study methodology was used. The findings indicate that cooperating teachers developed and reinforced essential…
Brickman, Peggy; Gormally, Cara; Francom, Greg; Jardeleza, Sarah E.; Schutte, Virginia G. W.; Jordan, Carly; Kanizay, Lisa
Students must learn content knowledge and develop scientific literacy skills to evaluate and use scientific information in real-world situations. Recognizing the accessibility of scientific information to the average citizen, we developed an instructional approach to help students learn how to judge the quality of claims. We describe a…
Brown, Richard F.; Bylund, Carma L.; Gueguen, Jennifer A.; Diamond, Catherine; Eddington, Julia; Kissane, David
Communication Skills Training (CST) is a proven aid to help oncologists achieve high quality patient-centered communication. No research studies have provided clear guidelines for developing the content of CST. The aim of this work is to describe a method of developing such content and evaluation of effectiveness of CST training workshops (based…
Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.
This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002–03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using the Early Screening Project (ESP). Participants (n=16) were randomly assigned to receive social skills training, First Step to Success, social skills plus literacy training, Early Literacy Essentials, or to a comparison condition. Participants in the two intervention groups were combined and compared with the comparison group. Results indicated statistically significant gains in social skills outcomes for the intervention group. However, parent ratings of social skills showed superior effects for the comparison group as well. Receptive vocabulary, as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), yielded a large effect size (Cohen’s d=.95) for the intervention group. Findings suggest that a combined intervention addressing literacy and social skills, shows promise and is worthy of further development and evaluation. PMID:17364005
Thomas, Theda Ann
Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…
Levitt, Roberta; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Palumbo, Anthony; Kelly, Susan P.
In this era of globalization, students need to know how to write well. Faculty development needs to focus on assisting primary teachers as they prepare students for a twenty-first-century world. Strategic curriculum reform and professional development can be achieved by partnerships between district administrators and professional consultants. Two…
Helitzer, Deborah L.; Newbill, Sharon L.; Morahan, Page S.; Magrane, Diane; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Shine
Purpose The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Drexel University College of Medicine have designed and implemented national career development programs (CDPs) to help women faculty acquire and strengthen skills needed for success in academic medicine. The authors hypothesized that skills women acquired in CDPs would vary by career stage and program attended. Method In 2011, the authors surveyed a national cohort of 2,779 women listed in the AAMC Faculty Roster who also attended one of three CDPs (Early- and Mid-Career Women in Medicine Seminars, and/or Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine) between 1988 and 2010 to examine their characteristics and CDP experiences. Participants indicated from a list of 16 skills whether each skill was newly acquired, improved, or not improved as a result of their program participation. Results Of 2537 eligible CDP women, 942 clicked on the link in an invitation e-mail and 879 (35%) completed the survey. Respondents were representative of women faculty in academic medicine. Participants rated the CDPs highly. Almost all reported gaining and/or improving skills from the CDP. Four skills predominated across all three programs: interpersonal skills, leadership, negotiation, and networking. The skills that attendees endorsed differed by respondents’ career stages, more so than by program attended. Conclusions Women participants perceived varying skills gained or improved from their attendance at the CDPs. Determining ways in which CDPs can support women’s advancement in academic medicine requires a deeper understanding of what participants seek from CDPs and how they use program content to advance their careers. PMID:24871241
Employers and policymakers have traditionally sought to manage skill shortages in technical and other occupations through initiatives predicted in one of two broad definitions of skill: skill-as-input and skill-as-artifact. A weakness of both these perspectives is that focusing on the inputs and outcomes of a labor process obscures or ignores the…
Gormally, Cara; Brickman, Peggy; Lutz, Mary
Life sciences faculty agree that developing scientific literacy is an integral part of undergraduate education and report that they teach these skills. However, few measures of scientific literacy are available to assess students’ proficiency in using scientific literacy skills to solve scenarios in and beyond the undergraduate biology classroom. In this paper, we describe the development, validation, and testing of the Test of Scientific Literacy Skills (TOSLS) in five general education biology classes at three undergraduate institutions. The test measures skills related to major aspects of scientific literacy: recognizing and analyzing the use of methods of inquiry that lead to scientific knowledge and the ability to organize, analyze, and interpret quantitative data and scientific information. Measures of validity included correspondence between items and scientific literacy goals of the National Research Council and Project 2061, findings from a survey of biology faculty, expert biology educator reviews, student interviews, and statistical analyses. Classroom testing contexts varied both in terms of student demographics and pedagogical approaches. We propose that biology instructors can use the TOSLS to evaluate their students’ proficiencies in using scientific literacy skills and to document the impacts of curricular reform on students’ scientific literacy. PMID:23222832
A group of 12 disadvantaged women--mostly Mexican-Americans, Negroes, and Yaqui Indians--were enrolled in a twelve-week Migrant Opportunity Program at the Early Childhood Education Laboratory of the University of Arizona in order to train them as preschool teacher aides. Some reading materials were developed by the laboratory staff, but the…
Cairns, Helen Smith; Schlisselberg, Gloria; Waltzman, Dava; McDaniel, Dana
Seventy-seven 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were presented with well-formed and ill-formed versions of 10 different sentence types. They were asked to judge the grammaticality of the sentences and correct the ill-formed ones. The sentences were presented in an interview format, developed by McDaniel and Cairns (1990, 1996). Both grammaticality…
Yuen, Mantak; Fong, Ricci W.
A. Ziegler and S. N. Phillipson draw upon the Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) to give an overview of a systemic approach to gifted education. They argue the value of such a systemic approach for understanding the development of exceptionality. The reviewers certainly agree that the achievement of excellent performance is not only the result of…
Hale, Michael E.; And Others
The graphics and animation capabilities of computers offer a new dimension in science testing. Instead of presenting verbal situations or questions with accompanying pictures, computers can present simulated actions and events that are the focus of science questions. The purpose of this project was to develop a valid and reliable computer-based…
Karim, Wazir-Jahan B.
This paper attempts to evaluate and explain the dynamic processes of decision-making and leadership development through participatory research, using the Malaysian experience as a case study. The focus is on the structural and situational constraints in the Malaysian rural society, the formal political machinery and the implementation of…
Perry, Laura B.; Southwell, Leonie
Researchers from a range of disciplines have been theorising and empirically examining intercultural competence and intercultural education for decades. This review article synthesises the research literature about these concepts around three questions: What is intercultural competence? How can it be developed? And how can it be measured? Our aim…
Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…
Herman, Janice L.; Herman, Jerry J.
To ensure high performance, administrators should develop an articulated structure and process systems approach that identifies the critical success factors (CSFs) of performance for each position; appropriate indicators and scales; and a personal-improvement plan based on last year's evaluation. Once CSFs are identified and written into the…
Mosley, Barbra; Edwards, Gloria
To help students learn to navigate the information superhighway, a 2-hour pilot program with 10 hours of guided access time was developed to test a method for teaching the basics of maneuvering the superhighway and extracting information once located. This pilot was designed as a two-part instructional session. The first instructional session…
Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; McCall, Laura E.; Curran, Patrick J.
This longitudinal study was designed to (i) examine changes in children’s deliberate memory across the first grade; (ii) characterize the memory-relevant aspects of their classrooms; and (iii) explore linkages between the children’s performance and the language their teachers use in instruction. In order to explore contextual factors that may facilitate the development of skills for remembering, 107 first graders were assessed three times with a broad set of tasks, while extensive observations were made in the 14 classrooms from which these children were sampled. When the participating teachers were classified as high or low in terms of their “mnemonic orientation,” in part on the basis of their use of metacognitive information and requests for deliberate remembering during instruction in language arts and mathematics, differences were observed in the use of mnemonic techniques by the children in their classes. By the end of the year, the children drawn from these two groups of classrooms differed in their spontaneous use of simple behavioral strategies for remembering and in their response to training in more complex verbally-based mnemonic techniques. PMID:18999327
Bloom, K. C.; Leitner, J. E.; Solano, J. L.
An interdisciplinary project was instituted in 1986 for the development and testing of an instructional system to be used in a nursing curriculum for teaching and developing the diagnostic skills of undergraduate nursing students. The system serves two major functions: to assist students in learning and becoming proficient in the diagnostic process and to assist educators in evaluating the students' learning.
Dudney, Grazyna M.
This paper describes an approach to teacher evaluation intended to establish a meaningful link between classroom observations and teacher development. In this approach, observations are always announced. They last for the duration of the teaching hour and constitute one link in a three-part observation cycle. The pre-observation session with the…
Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Flevares, Lucia M.
Early childhood teachers realize the importance of inquiry-based instruction for children's science learning and their development of inquiry skills. The term "inquiry skills" refers to the science process skills scientists use to investigate the natural world--observing, inferring, posing questions, recording data, looking for patterns, and…
In the 2005 NSTA monograph Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories , the authors presented and discussed student inquiry at the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) (Scheppler et al. 2005). This monograph focused on the on-campus portion of the Student Inquiry and Research (SIR) program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) investigations. Evaluation and evolution of the SIR program has led them to consolidate and standardize the experiences for students pursuing work both on campus and off campus. What they have learned from having students conduct inquiry investigations and the rethinking of their science program led them to design, develop, and implement a required core science course for all incoming sophomore students. This course helps prepare students for their own independent investigations and supports their development with respect to various habits of mind important to science. This chapter discusses the course, Methods in Scientific Inquiry (MSI), how knowledge from this course has transferred into their science elective program, and how it has improved the quality of SIR investigations that their students conduct. Also included is a discussion of their long-term successes with IMSA graduates. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index.
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Deen, Darwin; Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Gold, Marthe R.
The authors developed and delivered a brief patient activation intervention (PAI) that sought to facilitate physician-patient communication. The intervention was designed to assist low-income, racial/ethnic minority users of community health centers in building skills and confidence asking questions. The PAI takes 8 to 10 minutes to deliver and…
Green, Michael L; Gross, Cary P; Kernan, Walter N; Wong, Jeffrey G; Holmboe, Eric S
Incorporating clinical content into medical education faculty development programs has been proposed as a strategy to consolidate faculty continuing medical education time and enhance learning. We developed a faculty development program for ambulatory internal medicine preceptors that integrated primary care genetics with ambulatory precepting. The instructional strategies addressed both areas simultaneously and included facilitated discussions, mini-lectures, trigger tapes, and role plays. To evaluate the program, we conducted a pre-post trial. Skills were measured by retrospective pre-post self-reported ratings and behaviors by self-reported implementation of commitment to change (CTC) statements. Participants' (N = 26) ambulatory precepting and primary care genetics skill ratings improved after the intervention. They listed an average of 2.4 clinical teaching CTC statements and 2.0 clinical practice CTC statements. By 3 months after the workshop, preceptors, as a group, fully implemented 32 (38%), partially implemented 35 (41%), and failed to implement 18 (21%) CTC statements. The most common barrier to clinical teaching change was insufficient skills (8 of 25; 32%) and to clinical practice change was lack of a suitable patient (15 of 25; 60%). Integrating clinical content with clinical teaching in a faculty development workshop is feasible, can improve clinical and teaching skills, and can facilitate behavior change. PMID:12823654
Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.
This article discusses an approach to assessment and intervention of challenging behavior in early education settings that integrates a focus on instructional conditions and early academic skill development. The authors suggest this approach allows for a better understanding of the relationship between social behavior and child performance with…
Kikas, Eve; Mägi, Katrin
This study examined transactional development of mothers' beliefs (self-efficacy, success attributions of a child's success to maternal effort) and children's academic skills. Six hundred sixty-eight children and their mothers were evaluated twice: at the beginning of the first grade and at the end of the third grade. Mothers' beliefs were…
Houghton, Ted; Proscio, Tony
This publication describes four highly regarded workforce development programs, concentrating on how they cultivate emotional intelligence--how they prepare trainees for the cultural demands of the workplace. Section 1 describes how ACHIEVE, Cabrillo Community College, Watsonville, California (CA) teaches business dress, skills and culture in two…
Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a special interest group among all children that score below average on early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the early numeracy development of these children through remedial education, by comparing them with children with typically working memory…
Pea, Roy D.; Kurland, D. Midian
Findings are presented from two separate year-long longitudinal studies of the development of planning skills among school aged children in relation to learning LOGO programming, and a theoretical context is provided for predictions of greater improvement by the programming groups. In the first year, experimental groups comprised students in each…
DeLuca, V. William; Lari, Nasim
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of using renewable energy data, obtained from a comprehensive data acquisition system, on improving students' learning and developing their higher-order learning skills. This study used renewable energy data available through a data acquisition system installed and tested by the Green Research…
Milkova, Liliana; Crossman, Colette; Wiles, Stephanie; Allen, Taylor
An activity involving analysis of art in biology courses was designed with the goals of piquing undergraduates' curiosity, broadening the ways in which college students meaningfully engage with course content and concepts, and developing aspects of students' higher-level thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. To…
Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…
Correnti, Richard; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Hamilton, Laura S.; Wang, Elaine
Guided by evidence that teachers contribute to student achievement outcomes, researchers have been reexamining how to study instruction and the classroom opportunities teachers create for students. We describe our experience measuring students' opportunities to develop analytic, text-based writing skills. Utilizing multiple methods of data…
Sargeant, Joan; Hill, Tanya; Breau, Lynn
Introduction: Interprofessional education (IPE) is interactive and constructivist in nature and requires specific facilitation skills to engage participants in a unique body of content, interpersonal interaction, and learning from each other. This article describes the development and testing of a scale, the Interprofessional Facilitation Scale…
Özgen, Kemal; Alkan, Hu¨seyin
The purpose of this research is to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' skills in the development of activities. The research was carried out using the case study which is descriptive method. For the collection of data, 57 pre-service mathematics teachers' in their final year secondary math teachers' education department…
Liew, Chun Wai
Teaching Software Development Skills Early in the Curriculum Through Software Engineering C. W. This paper describes our experience in teaching software engineering to second year students in computer, Â· systematically test software units and modules, At Lafayette college, a software engineering course that teaches
Liberman, Aaron; Scharoun, Kourtney; Rotarius, Timothy; Fottler, Myron; Dziuban, Charles; Moskal, Patsy
This study seeks to determine the level of acceptance of the Constructive Engagement Method (CEM) as a teaching, learning, and leadership skills development model. Employing a modified debate format, constructive engagement requires active student participation, even among the most introverted of students, and it fosters a learning environment…
Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.
Four reports are presented detailing the plans for obtaining employment and ensuring job retention for students who have completed a course of study in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Job development plans are submitted for: Los Angeles Southwest College's computer programming program;…
Tucci, Valerie K.; O'Connor, Abby R.; Bradley, Lynn M.
An innovative, three-year seminar program was developed for undergraduates at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) that supplements the core chemistry curriculum by teaching the auxiliary skills necessary for life as a professional chemist. Advising, good laboratory practice, and information literacy are the strategic components of this program that…
Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…
Wizda, Lorraine L.
The purpose of the this study was to explore how peer coaches support the development of collaborative communication skills in an online format for consultants in training (CITs). The program examined was Instructional Consultation which pairs a consultant with a teacher to work collaboratively to resolve the teacher's concern regarding a student.…
Hall, Kristopher G.; Barden, Sejal; Conley, Abigail
Increases in diverse clientele have caused counselor education to enhance its focus on multicultural pedagogy, using the Tripartite Model (TM) to impart multicultural learning. While knowledge and awareness are important, it also is important to enhance skill development in counselors-in-training. Counselor educators have a unique opportunity to…
Diyyab, Eman Aly; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhamad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a multimedia-based program for developing EFL speaking fluency skills among second year, English section student teachers. The sample of the present study consisted of thirty students at Sadat Faculty of Education, Minufiya University, Egypt. The study sample was…
Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre
This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening
Green, Shulamite A.; Carter, Alice S.
Self-sufficiency is central to child and family well-being. This report focuses on predictors of adaptive daily living skills (DLS) development in young children with ASD and whether DLS gains predict decreases in parenting stress. Participants were 162 toddlers with ASD and their parents, assessed at 3 annual timepoints. Hierarchical Linear…
Suits, Jerry P.
A laboratory practical examination was used to compare the investigative skills developed in two different types of general-chemistry laboratory courses. Science and engineering majors (SEM) in the control group used a traditional verification approach (SEM-Ctrl), whereas those in the treatment group learned from an innovative, inquiry-based…
Carr, Jeremy M.
The technique, termed "collaborative critiquing", was developed to teach fundamental technical writing skills to analytical chemistry students for the preparation of laboratory reports. This exercise, which can be completed prior to peer-review activities, is novel, highly interactive, and allows students to take responsibility for their…
van der Wal, Rachel Jacoba; van der Wal, Ruurd
A collage with pictorial and verbal stimuli to assess life skills of young workers was developed using a framework for alternative assessment and stimuli instruments. The instrument was evaluated using Bloom's taxonomy for the cognitive domain and Krathwohl et al.'s taxonomy for the affective domain. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)
Smith, Erica; Comyn, Paul
The article reports on a research project about employability skills in novice workers. The findings were drawn from case studies in 12 enterprises across Australia that employed young people in their first jobs, in full-time work and/or in part-time work whilst at school. The research focused upon the processes by which employers developed…
Watson, Luke S., Jr.
This paper is concerned with evaluating the Parent Training Program component of the Parent Training Technology System. The specific problem assessed was the relative influence of academic and practicum training on developing behavior modification skills in parents who work with their own psychotic and mentally retarded children. Three parents…
Abdellah, Antar Solhy
The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…
Heidi Julien; Reegan Breu
This paper reports on a national survey of information literacy (IL) instruction in urban and rural public libraries, and public librarians' attitudes towards these services. The survey is the first phase of a study exploring the actual and potential role of public libraries in Canada in developing the public's IL skills. Previous research demonstrates that despite an urgent need to
Kascsak, Theresa Marie
The development of social adjustment during elementary school is of critical importance because early socialization skills are an important predictor of both future social and emotional functioning. However, an examination of current literature reveals there is limited research utilizing sound research methodology and evaluation protocols for…
Kellie S. Bennett; David A. Hay
This study aims to identify the family characteristics that promote the development of social skills in children with physical disabilities. Parents and teachers completed a range of questionnaires in an Australia?wide study of 212 parents of children (5–12 years of age) with physical disabilities who attend mainstream schools. The relationships between parental attitudes, parental involvement, family relationships, teachers’ opinions, disability
Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.
This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…
Sokol, Alexander; Oget, David; Sonntag, Michel; Khomenko, Nikolai
The given paper presents the results of an empirical study into the efficacy of the Thinking Approach (TA) to language teaching and learning which is aimed at the development of students' inventive thinking skills in the context of foreign language education, namely learning of English. The study was conducted among upper secondary students of two…
This article provides an update on the Special Edition of the "Journal of Vocational Education and Training" 57, no. 3, 2005, which focused on the launch of the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) in South Africa. The analysis here evaluates the impact of the first phase of the NSDS, which ran between 1 April 2001 and 31 March 2005. The…
The aim of this paper is to present an application of a sample lesson plan which aimed to develop critical thinking skills through educational games. The participants were 46 second year pre-service English Language teachers who were taking a course titled Advanced Reading and Writing II in the Faculty of Education. The lesson plan included a set…
Silver, Rawley A.
Intended as a basic text for graduate courses in art therapy with handicapped children, the book contains discussions of the role of art in the handicapped child's education and the development of cognitive and creative skills through the use of art. In the first of two parts, the range of opportunities in art for cognition, adjustment, and…
Jaquith, Diane B., Ed.; Hathaway, Nan E., Ed.
Educators at all levels want their students to develop habits of self-directed learning and critical problem-solving skills that encourage ownership and growth. In "The Learner-Directed Classroom," practicing art educators (PreK-16) offer both a comprehensive framework for understanding student-directed learning and concrete pedagogical strategies…
The article considers Ghanaian folk songs as a training ground for music and social skill development. The U.S. is in cultural transition. Such changes have brought about reforms in educational policy including how teachers and school boards address ethnic diversity. The music of Africa is as diverse as its geography and its numerous ethnic…
Presents an interview with Claudio S. Hutz, who is dean of Instituto de Psicologia at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, where he has been teaching psychology since 1977. Discusses topics such as teaching psychology in Brazil and developing critical thinking skills. (CMK)
Maynard, Ashley E.
Examined the development of teaching skills in older siblings responsible for teaching their younger siblings to become competent members of their culture among children from a Zinacantec Maya village in Chiapas, Mexico. Found that by age 4, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their younger siblings, and by 8,…
Self-regulated learning skills are important in mathematical problem solving. The aim of the paper is to present a research on how mathematics teachers guide their pupils' mathematical problem-solving activities in order to increase self-regulation. 62 teachers have filled in a questionnaire developed for this research. The results are show that…
Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki
In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music…
By the Numbers, State College, PA.
Interviews with representatives from nine states (Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Iowa, Ohio [Canton City Schools only], Oregon, Rhode Island, and West Virginia) and two nations (Australia and the United Kingdom) provided a context for the development of a certificate of basic or foundational skills as an indicator of an adult's…
Judith J. Carta; Charles R. Greenwood; Gayle J. Luze; Gabriel Cline; Susan Kuntz
Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early intervention practitioners to identify children having
Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)
To provide closer coordination between the Public Affairs Division and environmental restoration management and technical staff, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) matrixed Public Affairs staffers as counselors to project teams within FERMCO. Close coordination between technical staff and public affairs staff is essential for effective public communication in a public participation, environmental risk communication environment. Two-way symmetrical communication (public participation) represents a paradigm shift for public affairs staff who have developed skills primarily in a public information (asymmetrical communication) environment. While there has been much focus in the literature and workshops on management changes needed to support a public participation environment, less attention has been paid to identifying and developing the skills needed by public affairs professionals to support public participation. To support the new counseling role of public affairs staffers, FERMCO used a public affairs training consultant to design and deliver a workshop to initiate development of the skills needed for the public affairs counseling role. This paper describes FERMCO`s matrixed counseling program and the training to develop public affairs counseling skills for the public participation environment.
Van Bramer, Scott E.; Bastin, Loyd D.
This article describes the use of a progressive paper in a capstone course to develop students' writing skills. A progressive paper is one that students write one section at a time: as they add each new section, they go back and revise the previous parts based on actionable feedback from the instructor. In this course, the progressive paper…
Brakke, Karen E.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue
This case study examined the development of language skills in a bonobo and a chimpanzee raised by human caregivers since infancy, focusing on the primates' ability to comprehend simple speech, understand referential symbol use, and engage in intentionally communicative routines. It is argued that comparative results from these primates can…
Teo, Stephen T. T.; Segal, Naomi; Morgan, Adam C.; Kandlbinder, Peter; Wang, Karen Y.; Hingorani, Anurag
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine variables explaining students' positive and negative experiences of groupwork and connect country of residence with the perception of generic skills development and self-reported satisfaction with groupwork. It also aims to examine the effect of prior training in groups from the perspective of…
Kicken, Wendy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen; Slot, Wim
In on-demand education, students often experience problems with directing their own learning processes. A Structured Task Evaluation and Planning Portfolio (STEPP) was designed to help students develop 3 basic self-directed learning skills: Assessing the quality of own performance, formulating learning needs, and selecting future learning tasks. A…
Worthy, Jo; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko; Pruitt, Alina; Peterson, Katie
A substantial body of research has collectively concluded that encouraging students to draw flexibly on multiple aspects of their linguistic repertoires is positively associated with developing bilingualism, metalinguistic awareness, and academic skills. However, most bilingual education programs--including transitional and dual-language--limit,…
In an attempt to deal with the problem of generating the thinking skills needed for the 21st century, this article discusses how a statewide of 30 teachers developed Grade Level Foundations. The core component of the Grade Level Foundations for Social Studies consists of a set of questions that are designed to stimulate higher level thinking about…
Mattheis, Floyd E.; Nakayama, Genzo
The purpose of this project was to construct a valid and reliable noncurriculum specific measure of integrated science process skills intended for use with middle school students. The major efforts in test development were focused on the refinements and modifications of the set of objectives and test items assessed by the existing Middle Grades…
Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir
The current study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the junior high school level. The sample population included about 50 eighth-grade students from two different classes of an urban Israeli junior high school who studied an earth systems-based curriculum that focused on the hydro cycle. The study addressed the following…
O'Donoghue, Michael; Cochrane, Tom A.
Civil and natural resources engineering students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, take specific courses requiring small group research projects and the presentation of findings to staff and peers. Although one of the aims of these presentations is to assist in the development of the students' communication skills, staff have raised…
Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William
The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…
Brothers, Roy J.; Huff, Roger A.
The manual is intended to provide teachers of young blind children with activities to develop sound localization skills. Both group and individual activities are suggested for the following four categories: activities in which both child and sound are stationary, activities in which the child is stationary but the sound is moving, activities in…
Schied, Fred M.; And Others
This document includes a final report and curriculum guide developed by a project to improve the basic skills of adults enrolled in a union-based, preallied health, adult basic education program. Its objective was to prepare learners to become more effective workers and union members by incorporating worker-centered materials into the curriculum.…
Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Modise, Oitshepile M.
In a rapidly changing society like Botswana, the competition for employment, training and progression on the job has become very high. The development of skills is therefore a crucial and integral part of nation building, which needs a direct link to a training programme to continuously help staff to cope with the different needs they meet in the…
Larkin, Judith E.; Pines, Harvey A.
How do you engage faculty in the task of developing student information literacy? This case study offers a model for incorporating information retrieval into a social science research project so that literacy becomes an intrinsic part of the course assignment. Students showed significant gains in database search and assessment skills with minimal…
Nathaniel T. Wheelwright; Jennifer J. Templeton
We investigated the timing and pattern of the development of foraging skills in juvenile Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis ). Juveniles of known age, par- entage, and in some cases sex were mist netted and tested in an aviary on Kent Island, an isolated island in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Captive birds were exposed to three standard- ized and ecologically
White, Charles S.
Conducted to determine whether use of computerized file-management programs can enhance the development of information processing skills, this two-treatment experiment found that seventh through twelfth grade students in the computer-using/structured activities group received significantly higher mean scores than the…
Qurban, Mustafa H.; Austria, Richmond D.
The improvement of communication skills among Information Systems (IS) developers can be considered as a strategy to mitigate the risk of project failure during IS design. This paper addresses issues on various communication barriers normally encountered during its requirements elicitation (RE) stage. This study aims to adopt experiential learning…
Quinn, Nancy W.; Quinn, David W.
Reuther High School has been an alternative school in the Kenosha, Wisconsin, school district for many years. In 1998, PLATO Learning, Inc. made it possible for Reuther to offer consistent skill development on a flexible schedule through computer assisted instruction. PLATO systems have been made part of five credit completion programs. An…
Shing, Richard Wong Kwok
Practitioners as well as language approach and language development scholars need to work together to create an environment in which research-based learning methods can be put into practice with developmentally appropriate content. Inadequate attention has been given to the crucial language skills that underpin children's language and…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.
This student workbook contains instructional units dealing with developing reading, writing, and listening skills and using a newspaper. Addressed in the unit on reading and writing skills are finding main ideas; mastering reading attack skills; improving memory skills; learning words from context; skimming; developing vocabulary; improving study…
Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519
Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim
Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292
College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.
The report discusses students' general educational skills development and outcomes assessment at College of DuPage (COD)(Illinois). Since one goal of general education assessment was to provide a comparison to other institutions, selection from among three national standardized tests of general skills was undertaken rather than the development of…
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…
Chen, Xueqing; Yan, Fei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Sha; Kong, Ying; Zheng, Jun; Li, Yongxin; Gong, Shusheng
The aim of this study is to survey and compare the development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia and profoundly-deaf young children with radiologically normal inner ears over a period of 3 years after cochlear implantation. A total of 545 young children (age 7 to 36 months) with prelingual, severe to profound hearing loss participated in this study. All children received cochlear implantation. Based on whether or not there was a Mondini dysplasia as diagnosed with CT scanning, the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (A) 514 young children with radiologically normal inner ears and (B) 31 young children with Mondini dysplasia. The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) was used to assess the children's auditory skills that include vocalization changes, spontaneous alerting to sounds in everyday living environments, and the ability to derive meaning from sounds. The assessment was performed prior to surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after implant device switch-on. The mean scores for overall auditory skills were not significantly different between groups A and B at pre-surgery, 1, 12, 24, and 36 months post-surgery, but were significantly different at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery. The mean scores for all auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia showed significant improvement over time. The mean scores for the three subcategories of auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia also showed significant differences at pre-surgery, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, however, there were no significant differences at 12, 24, and 36 months. Overall, the auditory skills of young children with Mondini dysplasia developed rapidly after cochlear implantation, in a similar manner to that of young children with radiologically normal inner ears. Cochlear implantation is an effective intervention for young children with Mondini dysplasia. PMID:25247792
Rutkow, Lainie; Levin, Mindi B; Burke, Thomas A
Public health graduate education helps future practitioners to develop relevant skills, yet students have few opportunities to gain experience with community-level public health practice beyond work with health departments. Although the importance of academic-community partnerships is mentioned in the classroom, many students believe that they lack the time to pursue hands-on public health work in their local communities. Despite this, community-based organizations recognize the potential benefits of collaborating with public health students. This article describes the inception and implementation of the Connection Community Consultant Group, a program designed to increase interactions between students of public health and community-based organizations as well as to provide a forum for the application of students' developing public health knowledge and skills. Students who participate in the Connection gain public health practice experience in areas such as environmental health, healthcare access, health education, and violence prevention. The Connection serves as a model program for a mutually beneficial exchange: Graduate students can develop public health practice skills, and community-based organizations can capitalize on these skills to meet short-term needs. PMID:19704311
Presentations are integral to my role as a learning and development practitioner. The CPD article enabled me to develop my presentation skills and those of my colleagues. Many healthcare staff have up-to-date knowledge, experience and understanding of the requirements of the organisation, yet lack confidence in their presentation skills. PMID:26153972
McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.
Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476
Hadromi; Rachman, Maman; Soesanto; Kartana, Tri Jaka
The purpose of this research is to develop automotive Mechanical Technology Skill Program (TMO) in Vocational School. The Research and Development (R&D) object was done in SMK 1, 4 and 7 Semarang, Indonesia. The result was achieved productivity Practical Management Final Model at TMO skill Program in Vocational school named momanticproter.…
Pikkarainen, Minna; Conboy, Kieran; Karlstöm, Daniel; Still, Jari; Kerievsky, Joshua
Agile methods are largely used in software intensive companies in all over the world [1-3]. It seems that the use of agile methods have a high impact on the skills that are needed in software development . For instance, in agile context, developers need to have capabilities to communicate all the information and continuously work as a part of the social teams (communication and agile ).
Maciel, Anderson; Liu, Youquan; Ahn, Woojin; Singh, T. Paul; Dunnican, Ward; De, Suvranu
Background Minimally invasive surgery has become more and more important in modern hospitals. In this context, increasingly more surgeons need to be trained to master the necessary laparoscopic surgical skills. The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training tool box has now been adopted by the Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) as an official training tool. While useful, there are major drawbacks of such physical tool boxes including the need to constantly replace training materials, inability to perform objective quantification of skill and the inability to easily adapt to training surgeons on surgical robots such as the da Vinci® which provides high resolution stereo visualization. Methods To overcome the limitations of the FLS training tool box, we have developed a Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST™) system, which will allow trainees to acquire basic laparoscopic skill training through the bimanual performance of four tasks including peg transfer, pattern cutting, ligating loop and suturing. A high update rate of about 1 kHz is necessary to ensure continuous haptic interactions and smooth transitions. Results The outcome of this work is the development of an integrated visio-haptic workstation environment including two Phantom® Omni™ force feedback devices and a 3D display interface from Planar Systems, Inc whereby trainees can practice on virtual versions of the FLS tasks in 2D as well as in 3D, thereby allowing them to practice both for traditional laparoscopic surgery as well as that using the da Vinci® system. Realistic graphical rendering and high fidelity haptic interactions are achieved through several innovations in modeling complex interactions of tissues and deformable objects. Conclusions Surgical skill training is a long and tedious process of acquiring fine motor skills. Even when complex and realistic surgical trainers with realistic organ geometries and tissue properties, which are currently being developed by academic researchers as well as the industry, mature to the stage of being routinely used in surgical training, basic skill trainers such as VBLaST™ will not lose their relevance. It is expected that residents would start on trainers such as VBLaST™ and after reaching a certain level of competence would progress to the more complex trainers for training on specific surgical procedures. In this regard, the development of the VBLaST™ is highly significant and timely. PMID:18348181
Allison, Mary Ghesquiere; Ayllon, Teodoro
A review of the literature indicates that methods of skill acquisition based on the operant paradigm have been scientifically validated with many motor behaviors. However, these procedures have been limited to the use of positive reinforcement for correct performance when applied to the acquisition of complex sports skills in natural settings. To find complementary procedures to enhance skill acquisition, a coaching method involving several behavioral techniques was developed that focused on remediation of errors. This coaching method combined the following components: (1) systematic use of verbal instructions and feedback, (2) positive and negative reinforcement, (3) positive practice, and (4) time out. Three sports, football, gymnastics, and tennis, were selected to determine the effectiveness and generality of this behavioral coaching method. A total of 23 male and female subjects, ranging in age from 11 to 35, was included in this study. Baseline data were first collected for each sport under standard coaching conditions. Next, the behavioral coaching method was evaluated depending on the sport in either a multiple baseline or a reversal design. The behavioral dimensions selected were blocking in football; backward walkovers, front hand springs, and reverse kips in gymnastics; and the forehand, backhand, and serve in tennis. Behavioral coaching was immediately effective in increasing the correct execution of complex skills in all three sports. Gains of up to 10 times the baseline performance were achieved in each sport. In football, behavioral coaching resulted in an increase in correct blocking performance from a baseline average of 5% to 51.3%. Gymnasts' performances increased from baseline averages of 2.7% to 52.6% across the three skills. In tennis, standard coaching produced an average of 6% correct performance which increased dramatically under behavioral coaching to 57% across the three strokes. The success of the behavioral coaching package used here suggests that a technology of behavior may offer additional and complementary strategies to the acquisition of motor skills in the natural environment. PMID:16795626
Quality control on the plant floor is practiced much differently than it is presented in the classroom with numerous opportunities for inaccurate data collection and unclear conclusions. Experienced quality professionals often find that newly hired graduates have difficulty with issues such as gaging, data interpretation, and conforming to a production and cost oriented environment. While many of these issues are a matter of experience, both industry professionals and the related literature indicate that applied quality concepts should be added to basic quality control curricula at the college level. Every effort should be made to strengthen students skills by combining theoretical knowledge with practical situations. Developing Practical Skills for Quality Assurance and Metrology Applications in Manufacturing investigates the practical skills needed by entry level personnel in the quality control environment. The procedure used to gain this information includes:1) In-depth conversations with industry professionals to identify needed skills and specific gaps in entry-level abilities; 2) Development and validation of a survey tool to determine practical industryrequirements of entry-level quality control personnel; 3) Administering the survey and drawing conclusions from the results. The paper ends with suggested classroom activities to give students experience in capability analysis, statistical process control, gage R&R, and process analysis.
Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D
Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. PMID:25474292
Ishii, David N.; Baba, Kyoko
This article explores how teachers, students, and other stakeholders collaboratively develop classroom-based assessment procedures for the evaluation of oral skills. By considering crucial issues in assessment such as validity, teacher-learner collaboration, and contextual factors, the authors provide a checklist that will help ESL/EFL teachers…
Tendick, Frank; Downes, Michael S.; Cavusoglu, Murat C.; Gantert, Walter A.; Way, Lawrence W.
In every surgical procedure there are key steps and skills that, if performed incorrectly, can lead to complications. In conjunction with efforts, based on task and error analysis, in the Videoscopic Training Center at UCSF to identify these key elements in laparoscopic surgical procedures, the authors are developing virtual environments and modeling methods to train the elements. Laparoscopic surgery is particularly demanding of the surgeon's spatial skills, requiring the ability to create 3D mental models and plans while viewing a 2D image. For example, operating a laparoscope with the objective lens angled from the scope axis is a skill that some surgeons have difficulty mastering, even after using the instrument in many procedures. Virtual environments are a promising medium for teaching spatial skills. A kinematically accurate model of an angled laparoscope in an environment of simple targets is being tested in courses for novice and experienced surgeons. Errors in surgery are often due to a misinterpretation of local anatomy compounded with inadequate procedural knowledge. Methods to avoid bile duct injuries in cholecystectomy are being integrated into a deformable environment consisting of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tree. Novel deformable tissue modeling algorithms based on finite element methods will be used to improve the response of the anatomical models.
Liz M. Y. Chan; Ann C. Jones; Eileen Scanlon; Richard W. Joiner
This paper concerns the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in music classrooms, with the focus on the secondary school music curriculum in the United Kingdom. In particular, it reports on a study of learners in a UK school using software designed to support practical music skills. The paper begins by briefly raising and summarising some key issues for
Key skills required in the total quality workplace are cross-functional teaming, interpreting charts/graphs, oral communication, brainstorming, understanding cause/effect, categorizing ideas, critical pathing, formulating suggestions, analyzing the needs of internal and external customers, and writing status reports. (SK)
Roger Hartley; Glen Varley
The management of large-scale incidents, such as demonstrations that can affect public order, involves careful planning that takes into account possible contingencies and the effective control of police resources at strategic and tactical levels. The training and development of such skills presents problems, since exercises on the ground are necessarily small-scale, and tabletop map-based simulations are difficult to manage. In
This article describes a research project undertaken as part of a Master’s degree drawing on the author’s recent professional experience as a primary teacher and headteacher. It explores the possibilities and benefits of supporting the development of social research skills with a class of seven?and eight?year?old (Year 3) children in one English primary school over a period of seven afternoons.
S. K. Croft; C. E. Walker; S. Howell; S. M. Pompea
The Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) professional development program has been successfully running through the National Optical Astronomy Observatory for the past four years, providing training in research in the classroom, mentoring, and leadership. During the 2003-04 observing season, we have experimented with a new component of the program, Teacher Observing Experiences, in which teachers who have
Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…
Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert
The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…
This study aimed at designing a program based on the Pragmatic theory to develop grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and examining its effectiveness. Hence, the problem of the study has been summarized in the weakness of grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and in the need…
Orsak, Charles G.; And Others
A Navarro College, Texas, study determined the quantitative and qualitative needs for developing skilled manpower for the solar industry and secondarily identified the (present) solar industry manpower populations and tasks performed by solar technical and skilled workers. Results from three initial working groups addressing equipment, market…
Pedaste, Margus; Sarapuu, Tago
The aim of this explorative study was to find the factors limiting sixth-grade learners' outcomes in acquiring skills related to the transformative inquiry learning processes as well as to analyse the interrelations between inquiry skills in order to develop an optimal support system for designing Web-based inquiry learning environments. A…
Robinson, Leah E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.
Part I of this study examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on object-control (OC) skill development in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. OC skills were assessed at pretest, posttest, and retention test with…
Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.
This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…
Capellini, Cara S.
Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…
Han, Myae; Silva, Luisa; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Hou, Likun
This study examined the early English language and literacy skill development of 179 children from 11 Head Start classrooms who participated in an added focus on language and literacy skill-building supported by Early Reading First programme. Of this sample, 118 children were Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELL). All children were…
Stone, Teresa M., Ed.
This guide is intended to help home economics teachers develop an issues-based curriculum using the home- and life-management content. The guide is intended to help teachers identify issues, teach process skills, and then apply those process skills to issues (content). The guide consists of five sections. Within each section, short discussions…
Stone, Elisa M.
New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific…
Lau, Ying; Wang, Wenru
The objectives were to develop a learner-centered educational camp program for nursing students and to evaluate 4 areas of soft skills, communication ability, clinical interaction, interpersonal relationships, and social problem solving, before and after the program. The results showed that the summer camp program was effective in improving nursing students' soft skills. PMID:24978015
Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the cross-lagged associations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidant behaviour in the context of homework, and parental beliefs about their child's success from kindergarten to Grade 2. The participants were 1267 children. The children's pre-skills were assessed at the end of the…
Reid Searl, Kerry; McAllister, Margaret; Dwyer, Trudy; Krebs, Katrina Lane; Anderson, Carina; Quinney, Loretto; McLellan, Sandy
Learning the skills of child health nursing requires more than technical skill development. Humanistic attributes such as being genuine, accepting and empathic are imperative in gaining the trust of a child and in helping them feel comforted and safe in a health care setting. Interpersonal theory has a long history in nursing and numerous contemporary theories have drawn on the seminal work of Peplau to advance nursing practice. However, rarely has this theory been applied to simulation learning. This paper reports on an innovative simulation technique that blends interpersonal theory with puppets. Qualitative evaluation using focus group method with fifteen undergraduate nursing students revealed that the pedagogy had a positive impact on characteristics of the learner, the learning process and on interpersonal communication skills development. The study deepened insights about the educative process and led to learning impacts that suggest that puppet-based learning is a powerful medium to bridge theory and practice, bringing the importance of interpersonal theory to life for students. PMID:24844763
Although clinicians and the public are more informed about the factors that give rise to mental disorders, stigmatization does not seem to be abating. This article argues for one solution: altering the way students are taught, moving beyond content toward a focus on enticing attitudinal shifts, such as empathy and personal commitment to social change. This article describes a strategy for learners to develop critical literacy skills and to acknowledge and develop their role in encouraging students to become critical agents who possess the knowledge and courage to struggle against despair and to embrace hope. PMID:18792711
Kastens, K. A.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Ippolito, J.; Krumhansl, R.
In August of 2014, the Oceans of Data Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) is convening an expert panel to begin the process of developing an occupational skills profile for the "big-data-enabled professional." We define such a professional as an "individual who works with large complex data sets on a regular basis, asking and answering questions, analyzing trends, and finding meaningful patterns, in order to increase the efficiency of processes, make decisions and predictions, solve problems, generate hypotheses, and/or develop new understandings." The expert panel includes several geophysicists, as well as data professionals from engineering, higher education, analytical journalism, forensics, bioinformatics, and telecommunications. Working with experienced facilitators, the expert panel will create a detailed synopsis of the tasks and responsibilities characteristic of their profession, as well as the skills, knowledge and behaviors that enable them to succeed in the workplace. After the panel finishes their work, the task matrix and associated narrative will be vetted and validated by a larger group of additional professionals, and then disseminated for use by educators and employers. The process we are using is called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), adapted by EDC and optimized for emergent professions, such as the "big-data-enabled professional." DACUM is a well-established method for analyzing jobs and occupations, commonly used in technical fields to develop curriculum and training programs that reflect authentic work tasks found in scientific and technical workplaces. The premises behind the DACUM approach are that: expert workers are better able to describe their own occupation than anyone else; any job can be described in terms of the tasks that successful workers in the occupation perform; all tasks have direct implications for the knowledge, skills, understandings and attitudes that must be taught and learned in preparation for the targeted career. At AGU, we will describe the process and present the finalized occupational profile.
Riccio, Gary E.; McDonald, P. Vernon
Key attributes of skilled mass handling were identified through an examination of lessons learned by the extravehicular activity operational community. These qualities were translated into measurable quantities. The operational validity of the ground-based investigation was improved by building a device that increased the degrees of freedom of extravehicular mobility unit motion on the Precision Air-Bearing Floor. The results revealed subtle patterns of interaction between motions of an orbital replacement unit mockup and mass handler that should be important for effective performance on orbit. The investigation also demonstrated that such patterns can be measured with a variety of common instruments and under imperfect conditions of observation.
Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.
Arocha-Gill, Theresa A.
A comparative analysis of the perceptions of special education teachers in the San Antonio Independent School District (SAISD) regarding the importance, comfort, and frequency levels of educative activities to further develop their teaching skills...
Burke, Lynsey A
This thesis considers teachers’ and pupils’ conceptions of effective thinking, and analyses how these are developed through an explicit thinking skills intervention. An analysis of children’s concepts of intelligence has ...
Real, Laura A; Real, Laura A.
Many youth organizations, including 4-H, FFA, and Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), offer countless opportunities for their members to learn and further develop leadership life skills that are ...
Dean, David Worth, Jr.
Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and valid explanation, in combination) as well as most component measures of this skill. Performance of the two practice groups was superior to that of the DI-only group. Direct instruction conferred no additional benefit to the group receiving both direct instruction and practice compared to the practice-only group. Examined over an extended time interval, the merits of brief direct instruction are thus brought into question.
Nothnagle, Melissa; Goldman, Roberta; Quirk, Mark; Reis, Shmuel
Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are essential for the formation and ongoing competence of today's physicians who work in the context of expanding scientific knowledge and changing health care systems. In 2007-2008, the authors developed a program to promote SDL in the Brown University Family Medicine Residency. Through an iterative process, the project team juggled learning theories (i.e., Knowles' SDL model, Collins' cognitive apprenticeship model, and Quirk's expertise development model) with curricular goals, instructional options, and local constraints to design a practical and theoretically robust intervention.The intervention that emerged from this process features a faculty physician serving as a learning coach who meets individually each month with all second-year residents to assist them in generating learning goals, reflecting on their learning experiences, and practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills. An electronic portfolio serves as a documentation tool that supports reflection; residents record their goals and reflections in the portfolio, which also contains their formative assessments, procedure logs, and special projects. To address the hidden curriculum, the program designers took special care to avoid increasing faculty and resident workload and created a forum for discussion and group reflection. Program evaluation combines qualitative and quantitative methods, such as surveys of and interviews with residents and faculty, to assess changes in residents' SDL and EBM skills and in the program's educational culture. The authors use Kern and colleagues' six-step model for curriculum development to describe both the unfolding of this complex project and the choices that resulted in the current program design. PMID:20978433
Pitchford, Nicola J
Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental stage. PMID:25954236
Milkova, Liliana; Crossman, Colette; Wiles, Stephanie; Allen, Taylor
An activity involving analysis of art in biology courses was designed with the goals of piquing undergraduates' curiosity, broadening the ways in which college students meaningfully engage with course content and concepts, and developing aspects of students' higher-level thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. To meet these learning outcomes, the activity had three key components: preparatory readings, first-hand visual analysis of art during a visit to an art museum, and communication of the analysis. Following a presentation on the methodology of visual analysis, students worked in small groups to examine through the disciplinary lens of biology a selection of approximately 12 original artworks related in some manner to love. The groups then developed and presented for class members a mini-exhibition of several pieces addressing one of two questions: 1) whether portrayals of love in art align with the growing understanding of the biology of love or 2) whether the bodily experience of love is universal or, alternatively, is culturally influenced, as is the experience of depression. Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative assessment data revealed that the assignment engaged students, supported development of higher-level thinking skills, and prompted meaningful engagement with course material. PMID:24297295
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…
Faber, Irene R; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W G; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Oosterveld, Frits G J
A motor skills assessment could be helpful in talent development by estimating essential perceptuo-motor skills of young players, which are considered requisite to develop excellent technical and tactical qualities. The Netherlands Table Tennis Association uses a motor skills assessment in their talent development programme consisting of eight items measuring perceptuo-motor skills specific to table tennis under varying conditions. This study aimed to investigate this assessment regarding its reproducibility, internal consistency, underlying dimensions and concurrent validity in 113 young table tennis players (6-10 years). Intraclass correlation coefficients of six test items met the criteria of 0.7 with coefficients of variation between 3% and 8%. Cronbach's alpha valued 0.853 for internal consistency. The principal components analysis distinguished two conceptually meaningful factors: "ball control" and "gross motor function." Concurrent validity analyses demonstrated moderate associations between the motor skills assessment's results and national ranking; boys r = -0.53 (P < 0.001) and girls r = -0.45 (P = 0.015). In conclusion, this evaluation demonstrated six test items with acceptable reproducibility, good internal consistency and good prospects for validity. Two test items need revision to upgrade reproducibility. Since the motor skills assessment seems to be a reproducible, objective part of a talent development programme, more longitudinal studies are required to investigate its predictive validity. PMID:25482916
Brockmark, S; Adriaenssens, B; Johnsson, J I
Theory suggests that habitat structure and population density profoundly influence the phenotypic development of animals. Here, we predicted that reduced rearing density and increased structural complexity promote food search ability, anti-predator response and the ability to forage on novel prey, all behavioural skills important for surviving in the wild. Brown trout were reared at three densities (conventional hatchery density, a fourth of conventional hatchery density and natural density) in tanks with or without structure. Treatment effects on behaviour were studied on trout fry and parr, whereupon 20 trout from each of the six treatment groups were released in an enclosed natural stream and recaptured after 36 days. Fry reared at natural density were faster to find prey in a maze. Moreover, parr reared at natural density were faster to eat novel prey, and showed more efficient anti-predator behaviour than fish reared at higher densities. Furthermore, parr reared at reduced densities were twice as likely to survive in the stream as trout reared at high density. In contrast, we found no clear treatment effects of structure. These novel results suggest that reduced rearing densities can facilitate the development of behavioural life skills in captive animals, thereby increasing their contribution to natural production. PMID:20462903
Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.
John R. Anderson
A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system
Middendorf, Joan; McNary, Erin
When student end-of-course ratings are not commensurate with instructor skill and effort, one possible reason may be that students question the instructor's authority. It is proposed here that such doubts about authority are reinforced by specific instructor behaviors. This pilot study attempts to identify these behaviors in the interest of…
Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.
Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…
Britton, Gwendolyn Suzanne
Employers of newly minted information technology graduates are concerned that students graduating with information technology degrees offered in online environments are lacking critical noncomputing skills (soft skills). Further, it is unclear whether online environments have the capacity to foster the "soft skills" necessary for…
Miller, Ruth A.; Luse, Donna W.
Although research indicates communication is important among information systems (IS) staff, users, and managers to ensure successful development projects, the ineffective communication skills of IS staff are often cited as a possible cause of failed IS projects. To develop effective systems, communication between IS users and systems developers…
Hirani, Saima Shams; Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Shehzad, Shireen; Ali, Nazbano Ahmed
Violence against women is a global epidemic phenomenon that can result in major mental health problems. Not only are women affected but also the health and well-being of their children are in jeopardy. To prevent violence and promote women's safety, several strategies have been tested in various cultural contexts. This article describes the process of developing and validating an economic skill building intervention for women of an urban slum area of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of the intervention is to increase women's economic independence, promote women's safety, and improve the behavioral functioning of their children. PMID:20070221
Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.
Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768
Mandell, Dorothy J; Ward, Sarah E
The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by using an error analysis approach where traditional measures of the tasks, as well as identification of major error patterns are related. Results show that during the infancy and early juvenile period, two processes that help support set-maintenance could be differentiated: modulation of responses to novelty and persistence despite negative feedback. The results suggest that these two aspects of set-maintenance were largely independent. Modulation of responses to novelty was most prominent in the infancy and early juvenile period. The ability to persist with a response set despite negative feedback emerged in the early juvenile period and was related to task performance until the end of the study. PMID:21563178
Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Zölitz, Ulf
This paper studies the extent to which young children develop their cognitive ability in high and low quality schools. We use a representative panel data set containing cognitive test scores of 4-6 year olds in Dutch schools. School quality is measured by the school’s average achievement test score at age 12. Our results indicate that children in high-quality schools develop their skills substantially faster than those in low-quality schools. The results remain robust to the inclusion of initial ability, parental background, and neighborhood controls. Moreover, using proximity to higher-achieving schools as an instrument for school choice corroborates the results. The robustness of the results points toward a causal interpretation, although it is not possible to erase all doubt about unobserved confounding factors. PMID:26182123
Resources and Skills Development to be styled Minister of Human Resources and Social Development LIMITED-time) with the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development to be styled Minister of Human Resources and Social into and endorsing a Direct Loan Agreement with the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development to be styled
Paterson, Kevin B; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A; Jordan, Timothy R
Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we compared the performance of developing child readers (aged 8-10 years) against the end-state performance of skilled adult readers in a timed naming task, employing anagrams used previously in this area of research. Moreover, to explore the use of letter position by developing readers and skilled adult readers more fully, we used anagrams which, to form another word, required letter transpositions over only interior letter positions, or both interior and exterior letter positions. The patterns of effects across these two anagram types for the two groups of readers were very similar. In particular, both groups showed similarly slowed response times (and developing readers increased errors) for anagrams requiring only interior letter transpositions but not for anagrams that required exterior letter transpositions. This similarity in the naming performance of developing readers and skilled adult readers suggests that the end-state skilled use of letter position is established earlier during reading development than is widely assumed. PMID:25055930
What skills do people need to survive in the 21st century? It's a great question and one that is examined in painstaking detail by the authors of this 242-page report published by the National Academies Press. Released in 2012, the report responds to a charge from the National Research Council to define the set of key skills that are referenced by the labels "deeper learning, "21st century skills," and so on. The chapters here include "A Preliminary Classification of Skills and Abilities" and "Importance of Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills." This is a great read for those with an interest in education, public policy, and the like.
Croft, S. K.; Walker, C. E.; Howell, S.; Pompea, S. M.
The Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) professional development program has been successfully running through the National Optical Astronomy Observatory for the past four years, providing training in research in the classroom, mentoring, and leadership. During the 2003-04 observing season, we have experimented with a new component of the program, Teacher Observing Experiences, in which teachers who have already received training through either the RBSE or TLRBSE programs in using professional telescopes at Kitt Peak, are invited back to Kitt Peak for an observing run with one or two of their students. The objectives of the program are to re-involve our teachers at a higher level in the program than originally designed to help build the TLRBSE community, to provide a professional research experience of a higher order that they had in the original program, and to involve a few of their best students in a hands-on observing experience. To participate in the program, teacher had to work with a small team of students to design an observing project, and then submit a proposal to a TLRBSE evaluation committee for competitive selection for observing time on one of three professional telescopes. The teams were provided help in preparing their proposals, including online support materials and telephone conferences with the astronomer in charge of each telescope. Once selected, the teacher/student teams came to Tucson, made their run (including the vagaries of weather faced by all astronomers), returned home with their data, and then provided us with their scientific reports and any TV or print news articles. In this talk, we will describe our first year's experiences: what worked and what didn't, and describe changes for the upcoming year.
Chen, Hui-Jung; She, Jui-Lin; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Tsai, Yeun-Min; Chiu, Mei-Hung
The purpose of this study was to develop a scoring rubric to assess students' manipulation skills and identify students' learning difficulties in conducting organic chemistry experiments. In constructing the scoring rubric, we first analyzed the skills needed in the experiment, then divided the skills into subskills, and finally…
Robert L. Hulsman; Wynand J. G. Ros; Miriam Janssen; Jacques A. M. Winnubst
One of the main problems in training medical specialists in communication skills is the fact that very few specialists participate in such courses. Most courses on communication skills are hard to combine with a busy medical practice because of the course attendance requirement on working days. Interact-Cancer has been developed to facilitate training in communication skills for medical specialists. It
This project evaluated the suitability of the NASA/JSC developed electronic still camera (ESC) digital image data for Earth observations from the Space Shuttle, as a first step to aid planning for Space Station Freedom. Specifically, image resolution achieved from the Space Shuttle using the current ESC system, which is configured with a Loral 15 mm x 15 mm (1024 x 1024 pixel array) CCD chip on the focal plane of a Nikon F4 camera, was compared to that of current handheld 70 mm Hasselblad 500 EL/M film cameras.
The Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been involved in Team and Diagnostic Skills training since the early part of 1988. This training was developed in-house utilizing material from numerous sources. To assist in achieving a high quality program that would be both well received by operations and effective in bringing positive behavioral changes, concepts of adult learning were utilized in the development and implementation. This paper will state the concepts and discuss how they were and continue to be used to develop, revise, and implement Team and Diagnostic Skills training at ATR. 4 refs.
Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310
SmithBattle, Lee; Leander, Sheila; Westhus, Nina; Freed, Patricia E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E
Although therapeutic letters (TLs) have been included in graduate nursing programs, studies have not examined the impact of TLs on the clinical learning of undergraduate students. This qualitative study was part of a larger project that introduced TLs into already established undergraduate clinical courses. Instructors prepared students for writing TLs by discussing their purpose and by providing a relevant article and examples. In all, 74 students participated in 12 focus group interviews. Interviews were audiotaped, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative description. Results suggest that TLs cultivate rapport building and the development of students' relational skills. Although the assignment promoted clinical learning and reflection on helping relationships for the vast majority of students, a few students treated TLs as an instrumental activity. Implications for educating health professionals are described. PMID:19940088
Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.
Purpose: A signature characteristic of positive youth development (PYD) programs is the opportunity to develop life skills, such as social, behavioral, and moral competencies, that can be generalized to domains beyond the immediate activity. Although context-specific instruments are available to assess developmental outcomes, a measure of…
Shriver, Edgar L.
This is the report of a study designed to develop and test methods of deriving, directly from an analysis of the system or its surrogate, an effective and economical set of skills and knowledge for operating and maintaining a weapon system. Two methods for analyzing electronic weapon systems were developed, one method for the operator task and one…
Neil. J Brocklehurst; Ann Rowe
The public health skills assessment instrument described in this paper was developed to provide a key group of UK primary care practitioners (health visitors) with a personal development planning tool and researchers with a robust assessment tool for use in evaluations of innovative local public health programmes. Pilot testing with over 120 practitioners has provided evidence of its reliability and
Blackwell, Cindy Southard
prevails and the student is seen as the mere receiver of information (Chickering, 1977; Keyser, 2000). Arthur W. Chickering observed that, ?With the death of chivalry and the decline of the guilds, only the university survived ? with its emphasis... collection and evaluation, and reflective observation through evaluation within the interdisciplinary group process (Svinicki and Dixon, 1987; Kolb, 1984; Chickering, 1977). It has been the intent and the program impact theory of ELDP that, through...
Susan Williams White; Kathleen Keonig; Lawrence Scahill
Social reciprocity deficits are a core feature of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review summarizes the state of\\u000a research in group-based social skills training programs for school-age children and adolescents with ASD. All published studies\\u000a of group social skills interventions between 1985 and 2006 were reviewed, as well as dissertations examining group-based social\\u000a skills intervention programs. To assess the
Gorman, Anna K; Wilson, Dominique; CLARK, KATHERINE
Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded ten laboratory critical skills development programs in FY04. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status. 3
von Staa, Betina; Reis, Loureni; Scandola, Matilde Conceição Lescano
Here we present the results of the pilot-project undertaken in ten Pre-Schools with third stage (5 year-old) children who used ALFABETO Multi-sensory Program. The study shows that the project rendered meaningful results as to the development of writing hypotheses among the children who had access to the program. We also observed the opinions of the teachers involved in the project, who mentioned that ALFABETO motivated students to develop their reading, writing and oral skills, and promoted socialization and interaction among students.
Recognition is increasing that Ph.D. graduates require transferable skills for employment within or outside academia, and professional written communication skills form an important subset which contributes to many other skill categories. Writing journal articles for publication is a key task within candidatures and research workplaces, so…
Towne, Forrest S.
Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.
Chaffey, M.; Graybeal, J. B.; O'Reilly, T.; Ryan, J.
The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) has a major development program underway to design, build, test and apply technology suitable to deep ocean observatories. The Monterey Ocean Observing System (MOOS) program is designed to form a large-scale instrument network that provides generic interfaces, intelligent instrument support, data archiving and near-real-time interaction for observatory experiments. The MOOS mooring system is designed as a portable surface mooring based seafloor observatory that provides data and power connections to both seafloor and ocean surface instruments through a specialty anchor cable. The surface mooring collects solar and wind energy for powering instruments and transmits data to shore-side researchers using a satellite communications modem. The use of a high modulus anchor cable to reach seafloor instrument networks is a high-risk development effort that is critical for the overall success of the portable observatory concept. An aggressive field test program off the California coast is underway to improve anchor cable constructions as well as end-to-end test overall system design. The overall MOOS observatory systems view is presented and the results of our field tests completed to date are summarized.
Argues that journalists and photojournalists require training in the same skills, including the skills needed in news judgment, organization, interviewing, story idea development, and copy writing. (AEA)
Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
Research has proven limited working memory skills to be a high risk factor for educational underachievement in mathematics across the primary school years. Less is known, however, about the performance of children with limited working memory skills in early numeracy tasks. The main purpose of the two studies reported in this article is to explore…
Fugate, Mark H.
Evaluated the effect of training to improve letter-naming speed on beginning reading skills with 39 first graders. Results show that trained students demonstrated significantly faster letter-naming speed as compared to untrained peers. However, this difference did not lead to a significant difference in overall measured reading skill. (RJM)
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta
Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…
Dyer, Judith Sandra
The purpose of this case study was to explore how low-skilled workers who participated in a health care training program learned to acquire the technical, cognitive, and developmental competencies they needed to gain skilled employment in higher-level positions in the field and thus advance their careers. The data methods used were: (1) in-depth…
Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.
Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…
Henning, Gavin W.; Mitchell, Alice A.; Maki, Peggy L.
This article offers a brief discussion on the Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) Standards. The ASK Standards provide a consistent framework that outlines the skills and knowledge that should be advanced in educational sessions. It also recognizes the critical importance of assessment in the roles and responsibilities of student affairs…
McLean, Gary N.; Yang, Baiyin; Kuo, Min-Hsun Christine; Tolbert, Amy S.; Larkin, Carolyn
This article reports on two studies that used three different samples (N = 644) to construct and validate a multidimensional measure of managerial coaching skill. The four dimensions of coaching skill measured were Open Communication, Team Approach, Value People, and Accept Ambiguity. The two studies assessed the context adequacy, dimensionality,…
Beaver, Jessica L.; French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes; Ullrich-French, Sarah C.
Social-emotional (SE) skills in the early developmental years of children influence outcomes in psychological, behavioral, and learning domains. The adult ratings of a child's SE skills can be influenced by sex stereotypes. These rating differences could lead to differential conclusions about developmental progress or risk. To ensure that…
Frank R. Vellutino; William E. Tunmer; James J. Jaccard; RuSan Chen
Elementary and middle school children were given a large battery of tests evaluating reading subskills and reading-related cognitive abilities. These measures were used to define latent representing skills and abilities believed to be important components of reading comprehension. Hypothesized relationships among these constructs were specified within the context of a structural model we call the “Convergent Skills Model of Reading
Juan Pablo Hourcade
Research has shown children's information processing speed increases with age (19) (37). This speed has a direct impact on motor skill, as the human motor system depends on processed feedback from the perceptual system (4). Children use their motor skills when performing Fitts' law tasks, including the operation of input devices (4). Several experiments by psychologists and human factors researchers
Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele
As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…
Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff
At present, oral communication and presentation skills are important components of accounting education. Students can improve their oral presentation skills when they know the expectations for effective presentations, give multiple group and individual presentations, and experience consistent instructor feedback. The authors use a case study…
Alexander, Michael L.; Henry, Michele L.
This study was designed to determine a pitch skill hierarchy for string sight-reading, to determine the effects of key on string sight-reading achievement, and to determine the validity of a tonal pattern system as a measurement of melodic sight-reading skill for string players. High school string students (n = 94) obtained a mean score of 27.28…
Klink, S.; Dibbern, J.
EUCOS, which stands for EUMETNET Composite Observing System, is a EUMETNET programme whose main objective is a central management of surface based operational observations on a European-wide scale serving the needs of regional scale NWP. EUMETNET is a consortium of currently 26 national meteorological services in Europe that provides a framework for different operational and developmental co-operative programmes between the services. The work content of the EUCOS Programme includes the management of the operational observing networks, through the E-AMDAR, E-ASAP, E-SURFMAR and E-WINPROF programmes. The coordination of NMSs owned territorial networks (e.g. radiosonde stations and synoptic stations), data quality monitoring, fault reporting and recovery, a studies programme for the evolution of the observing networks and liaison with other organisations like WMO are among the tasks of the programme. The current period of the EUCOS programme has a five year duration (2007-2011) and a two stage approach was proposed in the programme definition. During the transition phase 2007-2008 no new programmatic objectives had been set because amongst others the Space-Terrestrial (S-T) study which investigated the relative contributions of selected space based and ground based observing systems to the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models had to be finalised first. Based on the findings of this study EUCOS currently prepares a redesign of its upper-air network. The original EUCOS upper-air network design was prepared in 2000 in order to define a set of stations serving the common general NWP requirement. Additional considerations were to make it possible to supply a common set of performance standards across the territory of EUMETNET Members and to ensure that the radiosonde network interleaved with AMDAR airports. The EUCOS upper-air network now requires a redesign because of several reasons. There is a need to take into account the significant evolution of the AMDAR network. Member states were not able to install the proposed EUCOS radiosonde network design with 4 ascents per day at most of the sites. The results from the S-T study are available with recommendations for the network design. Data assimilation of NWP models has improved significantly with advanced capability to make use of high time resolution data. The guidelines for the redesign of the EUCOS upper-air network will be derived from a study which is currently organised by EUCOS and conducted by ECMWF and several national Met. services. They contribute by running OSEs for different observation network setups with their model suites. The S-T study has shown that despite of all the additional new satellite observations, the degrading of the current terrestrial observing system to a basic (GUAN+GSN) network would have a significant negative impact on the forecast skill. The expected result from the envisaged OSEs is to find an optimum setting of upper-air measurements in space and time which maintains forecast skill. Throughout the second phase of the programme (2009-2011) the revised EUCOS design will be implemented. In the field of observation targeting EUCOS supported the PREVIEW Data Targeting (DTS) project. The main goal of this project was to develop and to assess the feasibility of an operational adaptive control of the operational observing system. The DTS project was lead by Met Office and co-funded by EUCOS and the European Commission (within the PREVIEW project). The main software, an interactive web-based tool, was developed by ECMWF and ran on their computer system during the trial phase which lasted from February until December 2008. During the trial the focus was on improving short range (1-3 days) forecasts of potentially high-impact and/or high-uncertainty weather events in Europe. Forecasters from all EUMETNET members had had the chance to submit sensitive area prediction requests on a daily basis. Afterwards the DTS displayed the sensitive areas calculated by ECMWF, Météo-France and Met Office and the lead user (an experienced forecaster) coul
Martin, Stephen John
to develop an outline solution to a real engineering problem. 11. enable students to gain skills throughThe Department of Materials Science and Engineering Employability Strategy We will: 10. develop opportunities to develop an important set of life skills needed as an Engineer through: practical classes
Martin, Stephen John
for all engineering students where students work in multi-disciplinary teams to develop an outline. develop opportunities within the curriculum to enable students to use their skills in practical contexts. By: Providing opportunities to develop an important set of life skills needed as an Engineer through
Zielinski, Theresa Julia
Explains how the Mathcad computer program can promote the development of higher-order chemical thinking skills of students taking junior-level physical chemistry courses. The kinetics of first-order series and reversible reactions is used as an example of how this can be implemented within an interactive laboratory or lecture format. (PVD)
Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Willcutt, Erik; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian
Genetic and environmental influences on prereading skills in preschool and on early reading and spelling development at the end of kindergarten were compared among samples of identical and fraternal twins from the U.S. (Colorado), Australia, and Scandinavia. Mean comparisons revealed significantly lower preschool print knowledge in Scandinavia,…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of web-based interactive virtual tours on the development of prospective mathematics teachers' spatial skills. The study was designed based on experimental method. The "one-group pre-test post-test design" of this method was taken as the research model. The study was conducted with 3rd year…
Hayes, Kirby D.; Devitt, Amy A.
Critical thinking skills (CTS) are the core learning outcome measures for higher education. Generally, CTS are not extensively developed or practiced during primary and secondary education. As such, early cultivation of CTS is essential for mastery prior to collegiate matriculation. Weekly engagement in 50 min of classroom discussion with student…
Medlin, John; Graves, Christopher; McGowan, Sue
Outlines the use of teams of professionals and a Graduate Qualities framework at the University of South Australia to develop students' generic skills within a Bachelor of Commerce degree. Explains the Graduate Qualities framework, discusses its importance to government, employees, and universities, and includes a summary of Graduate Qualities…
Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.
The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…
Jarczewska-Gerc, Ewa; Gorgolewska, Anna
Emotional intelligence plays a great role in human adaptation to social environments. The individual level of emotional skills depends on one's genes, family environment, and socialisation, as well as personal experience and education. The purpose of the present study was to examine the educational influence of mental simulation in developing the…
Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…
Seibert, Jeffrey M.
This paper describes an assessment instrument being developed to trace the emergence of social-communication skills leading to language and the neo-Piagetian model that is directing the assessment construction efforts. The model is a structural stage model, based on the writings and research of Uzgiris (1976), McCall, Eichorn & Hogarty (1977), and…
Alotaibi, Khaled Nahes; Almutairy, Sultan
The present study aims at showing the effectiveness of a suggested training program for staff members at Teachers' College of King Saud University to develop their skills of using virtual classrooms. The research is empirical as it used two experimental groups. The first group is taught how to use the common teaching method and the second group is…
Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.
The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…
El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher
Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…
This study examined the broader impact that study abroad programs have on students' cross-cultural skills and global understanding and the role that students' goals for participating in study abroad programs play on the development of these outcomes. Two hundred and thirty two (N=232) study-abroad college students were queried regarding their…
Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.
Research Findings: High-quality caregiver-child interactions constitute the core of high-quality child care for young children. This article describes the background and development of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales to rate 6 key skills of caregivers for interacting with 0-to 4-year-old children in child care centers: sensitive…
Yeotis, Catherine; Hosticka, Alice
Described is a three-phase model for teaching problem solving to the middle school student. Phases include cue attendance, thinking aloud, and developing diagrams of steps to solutions. Because middle school students are in a transitional period in their cognitive processes, implementation of problem solving skills seems appropriate. (Author/DS)
In recent years, researches had shown that the development of problem solving skill became important for education, and the educational robots are capable for promoting students not only understand the physical and mathematical concepts, but also have active and constructive learning. Meanwhile, the importance of situation in education is rising,…
Rottinghaus, Patrick J.
This article introduces the Kuder Skills Assessment-College and Adult version (KSA-CA; Rottinghaus, 2006), a new measure incorporating advances in the measurement of self-efficacy across 16 basic occupational domains (e.g., finance, information technology) and the six Kuder Clusters. Similar to the original development sample, all scales of the…
Dick, Robert C.
To address the issue of how effectively speech communication instructors can be trained to develop longitudinal, "value-added" skills in their students one must first ask if they "should" be trained for such a task. One advantage is that it might be strategic for communication programs to initiate value-added testing so faculty might assume their…
Geers, Ann E.; Tobey, Emily
This paper reviews recent research and reports on an ongoing longitudinal study concerning effects of cochlear implants, tactile aids, and hearing aids on the development of speech production skills in 18 children and youth with profound hearing impairments. The most improved speech was seen in the subjects with cochlear implants. (DB)
Hammer, Judith McGowan; O'Bar, Angelina Merenda
The Growing Up Strong (GUS) program, a mental wellness and substance abuse prevention program, is based on the assumption that all children need a sense of belonging, heightened self-esteem, life skills development, and a positive self-concept. The American Indian Supplement was designed for use in conjunction with preschool, kindergarten and…
Just as plagiarism is viewed poorly in the academic community, so is plagiarism viewed poorly in student writing, with a range of sanctions and penalties applying for not displaying academic integrity. Yet learning to cite effectively to progress one's argument, position or understandings is a skill that takes time to develop and hone. This paper…
Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid
Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.
Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players
Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo
The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780
Dunn, Jeffrey G.; Kagi, Robert I.; Phillips, David N.
"This unit gave me a broad industrial view of the chemical world and I am grateful for the professional skills I gained." That is the response of one graduate several years after he had taken the "Chemistry and Technology" unit that we present in the third year of the undergraduate chemistry course at Western Australia's Curtin University of Technology. Students in tertiary education are effectively "cocooned from the real world". There is a growing need for a teaching that links students to situations they will encounter upon gaining employment. The Chemistry and Technology unit has been developed over a 12-year period and is presented in the final semester of the course. It comprises six modules and is taught by lecturers from industry and the staff of the School. The Professional Practice, Consumer Chemistry, and Environmental modules are ones that most teachers could consider in their course. The other three modules are specific to Western Australia's needs, but could be modified or replaced to cater to other employment circumstances. A survey of recent graduates yielded complimentary responses to the appropriateness of such a unit in the course.
Page, G; Bordage, G; Allen, T
This article introduces the concept of a key feature and describes its function as the cornerstone of key-feature problems, a new problem format for the written assessment of clinical decision-making skills of medical trainees and practitioners. The rationale for using this problem format and the steps in problem and examination development--including issues of scoring and standard setting--are described. A key feature is defined as a critical step in the resolution of a clinical problem, and a key-feature problem consists of a clinical case scenario followed by questions that focus on only those critical steps. The questions can be presented to require examinees either to write in their responses or to select them from a list of options. For each question, examines can be instructed to supply or select whatever number of responses is appropriate to the clinical task being tested, and answer keys can comprise one or several responses. This problem format, with its focus on only the critical steps in problem resolution, and with its flexibility in question format and scoring keys, effectively addresses the psychometric considerations of content validity and test score reliability, and accommodates the complexity and configurations of actions often required in the resolution of clinical problems. PMID:7873006
Wagner, Sharon L.; Moffett, Richard G. III
The Assessment, Context, and Empowerment Model provides students with opportunities to practice communication, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills in relevant contexts related to the workplace. They receive developmental feedback from themselves, their peers, and their instructor. (SK)
Vaille Maree Dawson; Grady Venville
An outcome of science education is that young people have the understandings and skills to participate in public debate and\\u000a make informed decisions about science issues that influence their lives. Toulmin’s argumentation skills are emerging as an\\u000a effective strategy to enhance the quality of evidence based decision making in science classrooms. In this case study, an\\u000a Australian science teacher participated
Nathan, Anne Michelle
This study explored the relationship between verbal fluency skills and writing skills in developing writers. There were three research questions addressed: (1) Was there a difference between fifth-grade students who have a learning disability (LD) in written language and fifth-grade students with typical development (TD) on the Delis-Kaplan…
Bastalich, Wendy; Behrend, Monica; Bloomfield, Robert
In recent years, contentiously for some, universities have developed generalist skills lists and associated curricula in response to government demand for more "employment-ready" graduates. Such training usually includes writing and communication. In Australia and the UK, guidelines designed to support the development of skills…
Robinson, J; Walley, Tom; Pearson, M; Taylor, D; Barton, Stuart
BACKGROUND: Consultation skills are essential for general practice. Tools for measuring consultation skills in everyday practice are not well developed AIM: To examine and develop the content validity of the MAAS History-taking and Advice Checklist GP (MAAS-GP) tool which is used in The Netherlands for testing consultation skills, with simulated patients in United Kingdom general practice from the perspectives of both general practitioners and patients. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Alternate patients attending seven general practices in the north west of England. METHOD: Thematic analysis of the contents of patient and GP interviews, and of focus groups, mapping key themes to the MAAS-GP. RESULTS: There was strong agreement between patients and GPs on issues mapping to 46 out of 68 items of the MAAS-GP. Eight further MAAS-GP items were linked to issues only raised by patients and four to issues raised only by GPs. The remaining 10 items could not be related to issues raised by either. All of the issues raised by GPs could be mapped but 27 patient items could not. These were included in a revised checklist, the Liverpool MAAS (LIV-MAAS). CONCLUSION: the revised tool seems to have content validity in measuring consultation skills. Measurement of its relability is now required. PMID:12434956
Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Surabhi; Kremer, Peter; Burnett, Angus F
Despite a recent increase in the amount of research investigating performance in golf, a comprehensive putting skill test has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. In this study, the Golf Australia Putting Test (GAPT) was developed and a series of measurement properties were assessed. Elite (n = 18) and high-level amateur (HLA; n = 22) participants completed six single putts from various areas on six concentric circles (circle radii = 0.9, 1.5, 3.0, 4.6, 6.1 and 7.6 m). Using a scoring system that rewarded participants for holing putts from longer distances, the maximum score from a single round of the test (i.e. 36 putts) was 27 points. After two rounds of the test were completed by all players, a subsample of participants (elite, n = 15; HLA, n = 7) had their putting performance recorded during tournament play for a period of 90 days to assess criterion (predictive) validity of the test. The reliability, sensitivity and discriminative validity of the GAPT were also assessed. Better agreement between Rounds 1 and 2 scores was noted in the elite group, whilst reliability values were similar for both groups. Further, the GAPT scores were shown to predict players from the elite and high-ability groups with a low classification error. An equation for predicting on-course performance from GAPT scores was also developed. Findings from this study indicate that the GAPT is a valid and reliable tool for high-level players and the GAPT may be used for player evaluation in the field. PMID:24993813
Tomolo, Anne M; Lawrence, Renée H; Watts, Brook; Augustine, Sarah; Aron, David C; Singh, Mamta K
Background We developed a practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) curriculum to address important gaps in components of content and experiential learning activities through didactics and participation in systems-level quality improvement projects that focus on making changes in health care processes. Methods We evaluated the impact of our curriculum on resident PBLI knowledge, self-efficacy, and application skills. A quasi-experimental design assessed the impact of a curriculum (PBLI quality improvement systems compared with non-PBLI) on internal medicine residents' learning during a 4-week ambulatory block. We measured application skills, self-efficacy, and knowledge by using the Systems Quality Improvement Training and Assessment Tool. Exit evaluations assessed time invested and experiences related to the team projects and suggestions for improving the curriculum. Results The 2 groups showed differences in change scores. Relative to the comparison group, residents in the PBLI curriculum demonstrated a significant increase in the belief about their ability to implement a continuous quality improvement project (P ?=? .020), comfort level in developing data collection plans (P ?=? .010), and total knowledge scores (P < .001), after adjusting for prior PBLI experience. Participants in the PBLI curriculum also demonstrated significant improvement in providing a more complete aim statement for a proposed project after adjusting for prior PBLI experience (P ?=? .001). Exit evaluations were completed by 96% of PBLI curriculum participants who reported high satisfaction with team performance. Conclusion Residents in our curriculum showed gains in areas fundamental for PBLI competency. The observed improvements were related to fundamental quality improvement knowledge, with limited gain in application skills. This suggests that while heading in the right direction, we need to conceptualize and structure PBLI training in a way that integrates it throughout the residency program and fosters the application of this knowledge and these skills. PMID:22379523
Macnamara, Aine; Collins, Dave
The ability to successfully develop to the highest levels in sport is dependent on a range of variables, not least an individual's ability to cope with the various challenges of development. Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence (PCDEs) include both the trait characteristics and the state-deployed skills that have been shown to play a crucial role in the realisation of potential. Psychological characteristics of developing excellence equip aspiring elites with the mental skills, attitudes, and emotions to cope with the challenges of the development pathway, as well as underpinning their capacity to make the most of their innate abilities. The Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire (PCDEQ) was designed to assess the possession and deployment of these characteristics. The purpose of this paper was to examine the ability of the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire to effectively discriminate between good and poor developers based on their current possession and deployment of psychological characteristics of developing excellence. Two hundred and eighty-five athletes (n = 192 team athletes; n = 93 individual athletes) completed the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire. Results from the discriminant function analysis suggest that the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire correctly classifies between 67% and 75% of athletes based on their responses. The Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire can be used as a formative assessment tool to direct training programmes by identifying weaknesses in psychological characteristics of developing excellence and incorporating specific training to address these weaknesses in advance of developmental challenges. PMID:23194087
Students work with data bases and GIS to develop saturated thickness maps. Each data base consists of observations made by drillers where they have encountered the High Plains aquifer base and the annual water-level measurements taken in wells screened in the High Plains aquifer by field technicians.
Denny E. McCorkle; Joe F. Alexander; James Reardon; Nathan D. Kling
Sooner or later, most marketing and business students realize that today’s job market is competitive, challenging, and requires substantial effort in order to pursue successfully. This article presents the authors’ observations, job market statistics, relevant academic literature, and survey results concerning the marketing and business student job search process. The research findings guide several recommendations for developing student self-marketing and
O'Carroll, Veronica; Braid, Margaret; Ker, Jean; Jackson, Cathy
The practice placement setting offers opportunities and challenges for engaging students in high-quality interprofessional learning. The Fife Interprofessional Clinical Skills Model for Education was established to develop structured interprofessional learning opportunities for students during their clinical attachments in NHS Fife. This short report describes the delivery and evaluation of the model, which was piloted with students from the nursing, medicine and allied health professions. Scheduled workshops were delivered within primary and secondary care locations. The learning activities involved exploring and comparing their professional identities, discussing roles and responsibilities within the healthcare team and practicing nontechnical clinical skills. Students who participated in the workshops reported that they developed a better understanding of each other's roles and responsibilities and also identified that this would be transferable knowledge to their future practice. Exploring the student experience has assisted in developing relevant and accessible interprofessional learning opportunities within the practice placement setting. PMID:22866817
Examines, within a situated-cognition framework, the teaching and learning of a concept in biomechanics, the manual techniques and tactile discrimination skills that accompany it, and the diagnostic frame of mind that informs concept, technique, and skill. Draws on observations of a class of physical-therapy students. (Author/SLD)
Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...
Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Pryzgoda, Jayde; Neal, Andrea; Schuldberg, David
There has been recent interest in adding interventions that aid in skill generalization to standard social skills training programs for schizophrenia. Some of these adjunctive interventions are very comprehensive and clearly promising (e.g., IVAST; Liberman, Glynn, Blair, Ross, & Marder, 2002), but their overall cost-effectiveness and feasibility…
Ellis, T. D.
Too often in geoscience education are the computer skills necessary for success in the workforce put off until the last years of undergraduate education. This is especially true in meteorology, a form of geophysical fluid dynamics many people encounter on a daily basis. Meteorologists often need to know specialized computer skills, including the use of scripting languages to automate handling large bundles of data, manipulating four-dimensional arrays (with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension), visualizing said datasets simply and effectively for publication, and performing statistical analysis of those datasets. Such topics are often addressed only at the senior undergraduate level or graduate school. At SUNY Oneonta, we are piloting a course that teaches these skills to third-semester students with the intent of building confidence in these skills throughout students' careers and with the of building a tool-box of skills that can be used in upper-division courses and undergraduate research. This poster will present the methods used in building this course, the kinds of activities designed, the desired student learning outcomes, and our assessment of those outcomes, and new initiatives engaged since the completion of the NSF-funded portion of the project in 2012.
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID:26190986
Background The Observational Skills Assessment Score (OSAS) measures amount and quality of use of the affected hand in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) in bimanual activities and could therefore be a valuable addition to existing assessment tools. The OSAS consists of tasks that are age appropriate and require use of the affected hand. Methods To measure the agreement and reliability of the OSAS a convenience sample of two groups of 16 children with unilateral spastic CP (2.5-6 and 12–16 years old), performed age specific bimanual tasks in 2 measurement sessions. Three experienced raters took part in testing and 8 in scoring. Intra class correlation (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater reliability, and the mean and standard deviation of the differences between measurements were calculated. For test-retest reliability beside ICC scores, Smallest Detectable Differences (SDDs) were calculated in 16 older and 10 younger children. Results Generally, there seems to be good agreement between repeated measurements of the OSAS, as indicated by the small SDDs on most scales for quality of movement, compared to the range of their scales. This indicates potentially good sensitivity to change if used for patient evaluation purposes. The exceptions were the ‘quality of reach’ score for all tasks, and all quality scores for the stacking blocks task for the young children. As used in the present study, the OSAS has good discriminative capacity within patient populations as indicated by the high ICCs for most quality scores. Measuring the amount of use does not seem to be useful for either discrimination or evaluation. Conclusion In general, the OSAS seems to be a reliable tool for assessing the quality of use of the affected hand in bimanual activities in younger and older children with unilateral CP. Some modifications may improve its usefulness and efficiency. PMID:24139170
Low self-esteem, external control beliefs, and low social problem-solving skill have all been found to correlate with concurrent depressive symptoms, suggesting that they may function as risk factors for the development of future depression. But there have been very few investigations of whether these variables actually place persons at risk for future depression. This research was a 21\\/2-month prospective investigation
Williamson, Kathleen M; Almaskari, Mohammed; Lester, Zanet; Maguire, Deborah
This collaborative study explored nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. It also explored the nurses' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that they face related to fully using EBP in the workplace. Findings will afford the healthcare system the information to develop, plan, and restructure the educational services to meet the demand of enhancing EBP strategies and utilization. PMID:25790357
Richard Tonge; Caroline Willett
This paper describes an assignment designed for a final year management accounting unit\\/module on a portfolio of accounting programmes, all of which are accredited by one or more of the UK-based professional accounting bodies. Its aim is to stimulate the development and use of higher-level academic and written communication and presentation skills through a formative assessment which offers challenging topics,
Dawson R. Hancock
The number of limited-English proficient students in the United States has increased over 10% each year during the last decade. To address one of the resulting challenges, this study sought to determine if exposure to age-appropriate books in their native language would affect the pre-literacy skill development of language minority kindergartners. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study discovered that native
Paula Lyytinen; Kenneth Eklund; Heikki Lyytinen
The relationship between late-talkers’ language development and reading and spelling outcomes was examined in children with\\u000a and without familial risk for dyslexia. The late-talking subgroups were defined using parent- and test-based assessments of\\u000a receptive and expressive vocabulary and grammar at 2 and 2.5 years as intake criteria. The language skills of late talkers\\u000a and the remainders of these two groups
Warren P. Preston; Josef M. Broder
Survey responses were used to develop career skill portfolios for a sample of former agriculture students. Cluster analysis identified three distinct career profiles differentiated by the relative need for communication skills; interpersonal skills; computer, quantitative, and management information; business and economics skills; and technical skills. Statistical tests supported the hypothesis that distinct skill and competency portfolios obtain differential values in
Sontag, Dianne Booth; And Others
The document describes the Pediatric Language Institutes' program to develop speech and language skills to preschool children with language deficits. Initial sections describe the program in terms of assessment of children's skills, the daily schedule, design of classrooms, lesson presentation, incidental teaching, and behavior management. The…
Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.
Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…