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Sample records for developing nations rising

  1. Rise, Development and Changing Conceptions of Curriculum Administration and Curriculum Guidelines in Norway: The National-Local Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg B.

    The current move toward decentralized curriculum work throughout the western world marks a reversal of a historical trend: the gradual shifting from local to national control. In Norway, this trend is manifested by the emergence of changing conceptions of curriculum work, curriculum administration, and the nature of curriculum guidelines as…

  2. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  3. Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2013-02-01

    We explored whether rising income in nations is associated with increasing subjective well-being (SWB), with several advances over earlier work. Our methods are improved in that across time, the same well-being questions were asked in the same order, and we employed broad and equivalent representative samples over time from a large number of nations. We also assessed psychosocial factors that might mediate the relation of income and SWB. We found that changes in household income were associated with concomitant changes in life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. The effects of gross domestic product (GDP) change were weaker and significant only for life evaluations, perhaps because GDP was a less certain index of the standard of living of the average household. The association of income and SWB is more likely to occur when the average person's material welfare accompanies rising income, when people become more satisfied with their finances, and when people become more optimistic about their futures. People did not adapt to the income rises during the period of years we studied, in that income rises produced SWB increases that did not return to earlier levels. It appears that previous researchers failed to come to agreement because of the small sample sizes of the nations, the inconsistent methods across years and surveys, and the lack of measures of potential mediating variables. Analyses of income relative to people in one's nation and between-nation slopes together suggest that income standards are now largely global, with little effect of national social comparison. PMID:23106249

  4. RISE Evaluation and Development System: Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With the help of teachers and leaders throughout the state, the Indiana Department of Education has developed an optional model teacher evaluation system named RISE. Whether corporations choose to adopt RISE or a model of their own, the department's goal is to assist corporations in developing or adopting models that both comply with IC 20-28-11.5…

  5. Late Noachian development of the Coprates rise, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Schultz, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    The Coprates rise forms a 900 km long, north to northeast trending ridge south of Coprates Chasma between long. 56 and 60 degs. Radar and stereo photogrammetric data indicate that the rise is 2 to 4 km above a neighboring trough to the east. The break in slope between the rise and this trough is well defined topographically and in Viking images. In turn, the trough is bordered to the to the east at long. 52 deg by a much gentler rise. West of the Coprates rise, the terrain dips about 0.2 deg to roughly long. 75 deg. The rise and flanking highs were previously interpreted to be tilted fault blocks formed by either Tharsis tectonism or an ancient impact. Results are now reported of a preliminary geologic study that documents Late Noachian growth of the Coprates rise as a asymmetric fold. More comprehensive work will lead to a mechanical analysis of the kinematic development of the rise. It is concluded that the Coprate rise formed during the Late Noachian by 2 to 4 km of asymmetric uplift (steeper on its east flank). The timing is inconsistent with an origin by an early impact, but it coincides in time with early Tharsis centered radial faulting at Syria Planum.

  6. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  7. Rising Nationalism vs. The International Language of Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, S. Watson

    One of the cherished myths of the 1960s and the 1970s has been that the countries of the world are at last giving up their long-standing nationalism and are approaching the one world that Wendell Wilkie, Dag Hammarskjold, and many others used to talk about. There is indeed much evidence to indicate that this may be true. On the other hand, Peter…

  8. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    National Park units with Natural, Cultural and Historic Resource-based data products and management documents that will aid the parks in better managing aspects of storm-preparedness and post-storm response and recovery. These results as well as specific efforts to address vulnerability of NPS facilities and natural and cultural resources to sea level rise will be discussed. NPS is also coordinating with NOAA to fill a new position for coastal adaptation and apply the information learned from research, vulnerability studies, and work with partners to develop adaptation strategies for coastal and ocean parks. To adapt to sea level rise, NPS will develop strong policies, guidance, and interpretive materials to help parks take actions that will increase the resilience of ocean and coastal park biological and geologic resources, reduce inappropriate stressors and greenhouse gas emissions in ocean and coastal parks, and educate the public about the need for comprehensive, swift and effective measures that will help the NPS conserve ocean and coastal park resources for future generations.

  9. Developing a Coastal Risk Indicator for Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, D. S.; Nerem, R.

    2012-12-01

    coupled with storm surges and tides. Since large-scale ocean modes such the ENSO and NAO can have large temporary effects on local sea levels, we will also investigate whether the timing of these modes can be used in this risk assessment. The goal is to produce a climate indicator for use by planners, policy makers, and the general public, such as the National Climate Assessment, and as an ongoing effort to assess changing risks from expected sea level rise. References Strauss, B., R. Ziemlinski, J. Weiss, and J. Overpeck. "Tidally adjusted estimates of topographic vulnerability to sea level rise and flooding for the contiguous United States." Environmental Research Letters 7, no. 1 (2012). Tebaldi, C., B. Strauss, and C. Zervas. "Modelling sea level rise impacts on storm surges along US coasts." Environmental Research Letters 7, no. 1 (2012). Vermeer, M., and S. Rahmstorf. "Global sea level linked to global temperature." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, no. 51 (2009): 21527-21532.

  10. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) to Sea-Level Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress; Beavers, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Padre Island National Seashore in Texas. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Padre Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, tidal flat, or grassland. The areas within Padre that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  11. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  12. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cumberland Island National Seashore (CUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Jeffress Williams, S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cumberland Island National Seashore in Georgia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cumberland Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover-dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, mudflat and tidal creek. The areas within Cumberland that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest foredune ridge and highest rates of shoreline erosion.

  13. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Olympic National Park to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Olympic National Park (OLYM), Washington. The CVI scores the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. The Olympic National Park coast consists of rocky headlands, pocket beaches, glacial-fluvial features, and sand and gravel beaches. The Olympic coastline that is most vulnerable to sea-level rise are beaches in gently sloping areas.

  14. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) consists of relatively stable to washover-dominated portions of carbonate beach and man-made fortification. The areas within Dry Tortugas that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest rates of shoreline erosion and the highest wave energy.

  15. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Theiler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value was calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cape Hatteras National Seashore consists of stable and washover dominated segments of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Cape Hatteras that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  16. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) in Mississippi and Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The Gulf Islands in Mississippi and Florida consist of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash, the highest rates of shoreline change, the gentlest regional coastal slope, and the highest rates of relative sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  17. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Cod National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2003-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within the Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO). The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. CACO consists of high glacial cliffs, beaches, sand spits, and salt marsh wetlands. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest regional coastal slopes, geomorphologic types that are susceptible to inundation, and the highest rates of shoreline change. Most of CACO's infrastructure lies on high elevation uplands away from the shore; most high use areas are accessible by foot only. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  18. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Fire Island National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), New York. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. Fire Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by lagoons, tidal wetlands and marsh. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest historic occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change. Implementation of large-scale beach nourishment and other coastal engineering alternatives being considered for Fire Island could alter the CVI computed here. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  19. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1020/html/cvi.htm) was used to map relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) in Maryland and Virginia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. Rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Assateague Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Assateague that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  20. The Rise of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    SciTech Connect

    DALE,BRUCE C.; MOY,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-09-01

    Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCS) area unique class of research and development (R and D) facilities that share aspects of private and public ownership. Some FFRDCS have been praised as national treasures, but FFRDCS have also been the focus of much criticism through the years. This paper traces the history of FFRDCS through four periods: (1) the World War II era, which saw the birth of federal R and D centers that would eventually become FFRDCS; (2) the early Cold War period, which exhibited a proliferation of FFRDCS despite their unclear legislative status and growing tension with an increasingly capable and assertive defense industry, (3) there-evaluation and retrenchment of FFRDCS in the 1960s and early 1970s, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of FFRDCS; and (4) the definition and codification of the FFRDC entity in the late 1970s and 1980s, when Congress and the executive branch worked together to formalize regulations to control FFRDCS. The paper concludes with observations on the status of FFRDCS at the end of the twentieth century.

  1. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  2. Rising above the Gathering Storm: Developing Regional Innovation Environments--A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrison, Tom, Ed.; Olson, Steve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2005, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine released a policy report that served as a call to action. The report, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future" observed that "the scientific and technological building blocks…

  3. A flexible and national scale approach to coastal decision tools incorporating sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science and sea level models constantly evolve. In this context, maps and analyses of exposure to sea level rise - or coastal flooding aggravated by rise - quickly fall out of date when based upon a specific model projection or projection set. At the same time, policy makers and planners prefer simple and stable risk assessments for their future planning. Here, using Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, we describe and illustrate a decision tool framework that separates the spatial and temporal dimensions of coastal exposure in order to help alleviate this tension. The Risk Finder presents local maps and exposure analyses simply as functions of a discrete set of local water levels. In turn, each water level may be achieved at different times, with different probabilities, according to different combinations of sea level change, storm surge and tide. This temporal dimension is expressed in a separate module of the Risk Finder, so that users may explore the probabilities and time frames of different water levels, as a function of different sea level models and emissions scenarios. With such an approach, decision-makers can quickly get a sense of the range of risks for each water level given current understanding. At the same time, the models and scenarios can easily be updated over time as the science evolves, while avoiding the labor of regenerating maps and exposure analyses. In this talk, we will also use the tool to highlight key findings from a new U.S. national assessment of sea level and coastal flood risk. For example, more than 2.5 million people and $500 billion dollars of property value sit on land less than 2 meters above the high tide line in Florida alone.

  4. Developing National Biosecurity Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-03-05

    Biosecurity literally means ‘safe life’ and encompasses all policies and measures taken to secure humans, animals and plants against biological threats regardless of whether they are naturally-occurring or man-made. This includes the prevention, detection and mitigation of damage by disease, pests and bioterrorism to economies, the environment (including water, agriculture, biodiversity) and human and animal health. Biosecurity cannot be defined singularly; rather it is the sum of government policies and programs; the role of institutions and individuals; the relationship of businesses and bio-responsibility, education and community engagement at the local, national and international levels.

  5. National Lupus Hospitalization Trends Reveal Rising Rates of Herpes Zoster and Declines in Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sara G.; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Trupin, Laura; Gensler, Lianne; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therapeutic practices have evolved over the past 15 years, but effects on infectious complications of SLE are unknown. We evaluated trends in hospitalizations for severe and opportunistic infections in a population-based SLE study. Methods Data derive from the 2000 to 2011 United States National Inpatient Sample, including individuals who met a validated administrative definition of SLE. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of bacteremia, pneumonia, opportunistic fungal infection, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, or pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used Poisson regression to determine whether infection rates were changing in SLE hospitalizations and used predictive marginals to generate annual adjusted rates of specific infections. Results We identified 361,337 SLE hospitalizations from 2000 to 2011 meeting study inclusion criteria. Compared to non-SLE hospitalizations, SLE patients were younger (51 vs. 62 years), predominantly female (89% vs. 54%), and more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities. SLE diagnosis was significantly associated with all measured severe and opportunistic infections. From 2000 to 2011, adjusted SLE hospitalization rates for herpes zoster increased more than non-SLE rates: 54 to 79 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 24 to 29 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conversely, SLE hospitalizations for PCP disproportionately decreased: 5.1 to 2.5 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 0.9 to 1.3 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conclusions Among patients with SLE, herpes zoster hospitalizations are rising while PCP hospitalizations are declining. These trends likely reflect evolving SLE treatment strategies. Further research is needed to identify patients at greatest risk for infectious complications. PMID:26731012

  6. Bilingualism and National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gary M., Ed.; Ozog, A. Conrad K., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The subject of bilingualism is especially important in Bruni, a country with a multilingual population and a bilingual education policy, and it was felt that an international conference which examined bilingualism and bilingual education in a variety of 'development' contexts would be useful in reviewing and fine tuning of Bruneis' already…

  7. Inventory and protection of salt marshes from risks of sea-level rise at Acadia National Park, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) climate studies in the northeastern United States have shown substantial evidence of climate-related changes during the last 100 years, including earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing occurrence of river ice, and decreasing winter snowpack. These studies related to climate change are being expanded to include investigation of coastal wetlands that might be at risk from sealevel rise. Coastal wetlands, particularly salt marshes, are important ecosystems that provide wildlife nursery and breeding habitat, migratory bird habitat, water quality enhancement, and shoreline erosion control. The USGS is investigating salt marshes in Acadia National Park with the goal of determining which salt marshes may be threatened by sea-level rise and which salt marshes may be able to adapt to sea-level rise by migrating into adjacent low-lying lands.

  8. Meiofauna Analyses of Sediment Cores to Investigate the Influence of Sea Level Rise on Saltmarsh Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radl, Michaela; Hughes, Rob G.; Horne, David J.

    2013-04-01

    The text-book explanation for the development of coastal saltmarshes is through increase in sediment elevation (with respect to sea level), mainly facilitated by plants leading to seaward progradation and succession from the lowest plant species to higher ones. An alternative hypothesis is that saltmarshes develop mainly by sea level rise leading to landward migration, where succession will be from the higher to lower species. These competing hypotheses are tested by comparing the assemblages of foraminifera in sediment cores with surface samples, in saltmarshes on isostatically rising (NW Scotland) and sinking coasts (SE England and Wales). The surface meiofauna assemblages differ with saltmarsh vertical zones and between saltmarshes. Ostracod abundance decreased with elevation at both sites and none were found in the high marsh (among sea couch grass Elytrigia atherica), limiting their use in some succession studies. The ratio of agglutinated foraminifera (e.g. Jadammina macrescens) to calcified species (e.g. Quinqueloculina spp.) increases with elevation. Geographical differences also occur which may be related to different sediment characteristics, particularly grain size, water content and plant species or grazing effects. For example, the domination of the mid-low saltmarsh by Cornuspira involuens on the sandier west coast in Wales and Quinqueloculina spp. in a muddier saltmarsh in SE England. Foraminifera assemblages throughout a 2.5 meter core in Tollesbury (SE England) were dominated by agglutinated species, indicating high marsh. The absence of lower marsh assemblages supports the hypothesis for the importance of sea level rise in saltmarsh development. In Loch Riddon (W Scotland) too there is no evidence of low marsh assemblages in the sediment strata (1 meter core). While there is no evidence of facilitation succession in this saltmarsh, sea level rise is unlikely to be responsible for its formation and development as it is on a rising coast.

  9. Rising Happiness in Nations 1946-2004: A Reply to Easterlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Hagerty, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The "Easterlin paradox" holds that economic growth does not add to the quality-of-life and that this appears in the fact that average happiness in nations has not risen in the last few decades. The latest trend data show otherwise. Average happiness has increased slightly in rich nations and considerably in the few poor nations for which data are…

  10. A Human Resource Approach to the Development of African Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, Frederick H.

    The growth, prosperity, and viability of the new African nations will depend ultimately on their ability to develop systematically and to utilize effectively their human resources. The major human resource problems are 1) rising unemployment in urban areas, 2) under-employment of the rural masses, 3) shortages of strategic skills, 4) poorly geared…

  11. Metamorpha: A National Development Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation game that involves high school or college students in developing a 5-year economic plan for a newly independent third world country. Role playing the members of a revolutionary junta, students weigh individual benefits against national and group benefits. Game involves one or more cycles of strategy formulation, open debate, and voting.…

  12. Language Problems of Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.; And Others

    Most of the papers in this collection were presented at a conference on language problems of the developing nations at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia in November 1966. This conference was one of the several organized and sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics of the Social Science Research Council in its effort to promote…

  13. The National Latina/o Psychological Association: Like a Phoenix Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…

  14. The rise and fall of a National Safety Promotion Programme:the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skjonberg, Guldbrand; Svanstrom, Leif; Schelp, Lothar

    2011-06-01

    In 1982, when Sweden got a new Health Service Act, the health sector was given a new role - to collect, analyse and actively disseminate the knowledge it gained. A National Safety Promotion Programme was build up by the National Board for Health and Welfare, and a National Inter-sector Cooperation Group and medical advisory board were established. In 1992, the programme was transferred to the National Institute of Public Health. Later the Institute was given a new role and therefore the programme was relocated to the Swedish Rescue Service Agency. In some aspects we can see a parallel with the paradigm that was behind the Civil Protection Act 2003 and the Health Service Act 1982. It was a logic consequence to move the national programme to the rescue service sector. Within the National Rescue Service Agency the programme ended up in the line organisation, which lacked a cross-sector work orientation. The programme was closed down. In the article the reason for the decisions is described and also the background and the possibilities for the programme to act in different national boards as well as the preconditions for an inter-sector group. PMID:21442504

  15. Preliminary models of normal fault development in subduction zones: lithospheric strength and outer rise deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naliboff, J. B.; Billen, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    A characteristic feature of global subduction zones is normal faulting in the outer rise region, which reflects flexure of the downgoing plate in response to the slab pull force. Variations in the patterns of outer rise normal faulting between different subduction zones likely reflects both the magnitude of flexural induced topography and the strength of the downgoing plate. In particular, the rheology of the uppermost oceanic lithosphere is likely to strongly control the faulting patterns, which have been well documented recently in both the Middle and South American trenches. These recent observations of outer rise faulting provide a unique opportunity to test different rheological models of the oceanic lithosphere using geodynamic numerical experiments. Here, we develop a new approach for modeling deformation in the outer rise and trench regions of downgoing slabs, and discuss preliminary 2-D numerical models examining the relationship between faulting patterns and the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere. To model viscous and brittle deformation within the oceanic lithosphere we use the CIG (Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics) finite element code Gale, which is designed to solve long-term tectonic problems. In order to resolve deformation features on geologically realistic scales (< 1 km), we model only the portion of the subduction system seaward of the trench. Horizontal and vertical stress boundary conditions on the side walls drive subduction and reflect, respectively, the ridge-push and slab-pull plate-driving forces. The initial viscosity structure of the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere follow a composite viscosity law that takes into account both Newtonian and non-Newtonian deformation. The viscosity structure is consequently governed primarily by the strain rate and thermal structure, which follows a half-space cooling model. Modification of the viscosity structure and development of discrete shear zones occurs during yielding

  16. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historic tidal records indicate that mean sea level in San Francisco Bay has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/yr over the past 100 years. Over the past 20 years, the annual rate has accelerated to about 3 mm/yr. Recent climate change studies related to greenhouse gas emissions indicate that sea levels could rise much faster than even this rate, which would have a significant effect on coastal communities. Several communities in the San Francisco Bay area, which were not mapped to be within a flood zone by FEMA, are now prone to flooding due to rising sea levels. There is a significant amount of uncertainty associated with quantifying the rate of sea level change because climate change science is still evolving and feedback loops such as temperature-ice melt, temperature-sea levels, and CO2-temperature are still under investigation. Therefore, the traditional engineering approach to solving a problem, which includes defining the problem, assessing existing conditions, analyzing data, and developing solutions is difficult when addressing climate change induced sea level change. This paper describes work completed for two major proposed communities in the City of San Francisco. Peer-reviewed literature included the body of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, US federal and state agencies, and scientific papers by academia. Rates of sea level rise were statistically analyzed using the end values and start or end rates specified in the studies. Probabilistic analyses of extreme values using Generalized Extreme Value Distributions (GEVD) and the Maximum Likelihood Approach were completed to develop extreme values for water levels including the effects of astronomical tides, storm events, ocean swell events, and tsunami events. These values were subsequently combined with sea level rise estimates, and various scenarios of required coastal improvements were developed for discussions with stakeholders and project developers. Based on the analysis and

  17. Climate change adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of sea level rise in Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to climate change. This "Green Climate Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of climate change. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to sea level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of sea level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.

  18. The rising risks of rising tides

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.; Lindh, G.

    1996-12-31

    The erosion of beaches, flooding of agricultural land, and intrusion of saltwater into coastal streams could become a reality if temperatures climb. Over the past century, sea levels have risen 4 to 6 inches. Now, the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that sea levels will rise between 8 and 28 inches by 2070, say Hans Hanson, associate professor emeritus in the Department of Water Resources Engineering at the University of Lund in Sweden. Coastal communities, which harbor more than half the world`s population, are poorly equipped to combat the threat of encroaching waters. {open_quotes}Few public officials have developed comprehensive strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies, the IPCC has recommended that coastal nations implement coastal-zone management plans by 2000. {open_quotes}Low-lying islands and high-use, developed coastal areas... face an urgent need to develop strategies for coping with sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors conclude.

  19. Rising to the Challenge: Hispanic College Graduation Rates as a National Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Schneider, Mark; Carey, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama has called for the United States to reclaim its position as the nation with the highest concentration of adults with postsecondary degrees in the world. Given the changing demographics of the United States, this target cannot be achieved without increasing the rate at which Hispanic students obtain a college degree. In this…

  20. A PHOENIX RISING: ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM AND THE COASTAL 2000 NATIONAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Coastal Resources is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and n...

  1. Thyroidectomy prevents the development of photorefractoriness and the associated rise in plasma prolactin in starlings

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, A.R.; Nicholls, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    Intact and radiothyroidectomized male starlings were transferred from short (8-hr) to long (16-hr) day lengths and measurements made of testicular development and of plasma prolactin concentrations. In intact birds the testes reached full maturity within 3 weeks and regressed after 6 weeks of photostimulation, indicative of the development of photorefractoriness . Prolactin levels increased gradually, reaching maximal values at the time of testicular regression. Testicular growth was normal in the thyroidectomized birds. Removal of the testes from thyroidectomized birds after 1 year on long days resulted in a marked rise in plasma FSH, indicating that these birds were indeed not photorefractory ; FSH levels in the refractory-intact starlings remained low after castration. These results confirm that the presence of an intact thyroid gland is essential for the development of photorefractoriness and for the release of prolactin which normally follows photostimulation.

  2. The Measure of a Nation: The USDA and the Rise of Survey Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Kevin T.; Baker, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Survey research has played a major role in American social science. An outgrowth of efforts by the United States Department of Agriculture in the 1930s, the Division of Program Surveys (DPS) played an important role in the development of survey methodology. The DPS was headed by the ambitious and entrepreneurial Rensis Likert, populated by young…

  3. The Rise of Nationalism: Freedom Regained. Through African Eyes: Cultures in Change, Unit V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    The exciting period after World War II, when independence movements developed and flourished throughout Africa is the topic of this book, fifth in a series dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students. Almost all of the selections in the book were written by Africans and come from a variety of sources including…

  4. MRO High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE): Instrument Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, Alan; Becker, Ira; Bergstrom, Jim; Burkepile, Jon; Day, Joe; Dorn, David; Gallagher, Dennis; Hamp, Charlie; Lasco, Jeffrey; Meiers, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The primary functional requirement of the HiRISE imager is to allow identification of both predicted and unknown features on the surface of Mars to a much finer resolution and contrast than previously possible. This results in a camera with a very wide swath width, 6km at 300km altitude, and a high signal to noise ratio, >100:1. Generation of terrain maps, 30 cm vertical resolution, from stereo images requires very accurate geometric calibration. The project limitations of mass, cost and schedule make the development challenging. In addition, the spacecraft stability must not be a major limitation to image quality. The nominal orbit for the science phase of the mission is a 3pm orbit of 255 by 320 km with periapsis locked to the south pole. The track velocity is approximately 3,400 m/s.

  5. Nutrition and national development planning.

    PubMed

    Joy, J L; Payne, P R

    1975-01-01

    We have argued that development strategies aimed at the reduction of all forms of deprivation, according to an explict statement of values and priorities, are necessary for the integration of nutrition planning into overall national development planning. We do not regard this as likely to lead to the neglect of the key issues of investment and production. Instead, we argue that consideration of investment and production strategies should be explicitly directed to their purpose, the reduction of deprivation, rather than, as in the past, treated as the necessary means to that purpose. Thus investment and production strategies would be aimed directly at relieving deprivation including, especially, nutritional deprivation, and their impact in this respect will need to be explicitly predicted and evaluated. We have argued that problems and potentials differ greatly at the area level and that planning must be an iterative process in which national and area-level strategies and programmes are brought to consistency through successive cycles of adjustment and reappraisal. A major role in planning, especially in detailed design and implementation, is assigned to area level. Planning must proceed from an identification of the deprivations under attack to the identification of intervention measures. Elsewhere we have argued the case for the 'functional classification" of malnutrition and the use of "typical profiles" in the understanding of "the ecology and etiology of malnutition". Where planning accepts the need for an integrated approach to the attack on all forms of deprivation, these analyses of nutritional deprivation would from part of a more comprehensive analysis of general deprivation. The existence of "functional classification" and "typical profiles" analysis with respect to malnutrition would provide an excellent base from which a more comprehensive view might be developed. The factors affecting the evolution of nutritional - and other - deprivation problems need

  6. Role of submarine canyons in the US Atlantic Continental Slope and upper Continental rise development

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    Three areas of the US Atlantic continental slope and rise (seaward of George Bank, Delaware Bay, and Pamlico Sound north of Cape Hatteras) have been studied using seismic reflection profiles and mid-range sidescan-sonar data. The continental slope in all three areas is dissected by numerous submarine canyons. The general sea floor gradient of the slope and the morphology of the rise, however, vary among the areas. Submarine canyons are dominant morphologic features on the slope and have an important function in sediment transport and distribution on the rise. In the study area north of Cape Hatteras, however, the low relief of the rise topography indicates that ocean currents flowing parallel to the margin may also affect sediment distribution on the rise. Morphology and sedimentation patterns suggest that differences in canyon ages exist both within each area and among the areas. Spatial and temporal variability of canyon activity is important in determining sediment sources for the construction of the rise. Although the US Atlantic slope and rise are relatively sediment-starved at present, mid-range sidescan data and submersible observations and samples suggest that periodic sediment transport events occur within the canyons.

  7. Nanotechnology - A path forward for developing nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. Ismat; Powers, Thomas M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the major issues with technology in general, and nanotechnology in particular, is that it could exacerbate the divide between developed and developing nations. If the benefits of the research do not flow beyond the national and geographical borders of the traditional major bastions of R&D, these benefits will not be equally and globally available. The consequence is that the technological divide becomes wider at the expense of mutual reliance. As much as developed nations need to rethink the strategy and the policy to bring nanotechnology products to market with the goal of global prosperity, developing nations cannot afford to simply wait for the lead from the developed nations. In the spirit of collaboration and collegiality, we describe issues with the current practices in nanotechnology R&D in the developing world and suggest a path for nanotechnology research in energy, water and the environment that developing nations could follow in order to become contributors rather than simply consumers.

  8. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2008-10-01

    Caesarean section rates have risen dramatically in several developing countries, especially in Latin America and South Asia. This raises a range of concerns about the use of caesarean section for non-emergency cases, not least the progressive shift of resources to non-essential medical interventions in resource-poor settings and additional health risks to mothers and newborns following a caesarean section. There are only a few studies that have systematically examined the factors influencing the recent increase in caesarean rates. In particular, it is not clear whether high elective caesarean rates are driven by medical, institutional or individual and family decisions. Where a woman's decisions predominate her interaction with peers and significant others have an impact on her caesarean section choices. Using random intercept logistic regression analyses, this paper analyses the institutional, socio-economic and community factors that influence caesarean section in six countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Morocco and Vietnam. The analyses, based on data from over 20,000 births, show that women of higher socio-economic background, who had better access to antenatal services are the most likely to undergo a caesarean section. Women who exchange reproductive health information with friends and family are less likely to experience a caesarean section than their counterparts. The study concludes that there is a need to pursue community-based approaches for curbing rising caesarean section rates in resource-poor settings. PMID:18657345

  9. The Influence of a Fluctuating Mass Flux on the Development and Rise of Volcanic Eruption Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharff, L.; Hort, M. K.; Herzog, M.; Esposti Ongaro, T.

    2013-12-01

    the buoyant part of the eruption clouds a few kilometers above the vent, because of the spatial distance between weather radar and volcano. As a consequence weather radars are not well suited for the observation of such pulses. Both, Doppler radar data and numerical modeling show that pulsed forcing significantly affects the dynamics of the developing cloud at the vent, which leads to a considerably increased or decreased cloud height, when compared to the empirical prediction at equal - but constant - mass eruption rate. The relative strength of consecutive pulses controls whether a secondary pulse disturbs the developing buoyant rise of the previous pulse or supports it, i.e. either acting as a pump or a restrictor. Even weak volcanic clouds rise to heights of 8-10 km asl, which means that dome growing volcanoes with Vulcanian activity may carry high amounts of fine grained ash to flight levels during periods of minor activity.

  10. Education for National Development: World Bank Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habte, Aklilu; Heyneman, Stephen

    1983-01-01

    The goals of education in developing nations are changing from interest in simply acquiring knowledge and fostering economic development to a greater understanding of the complexity of the relationship between schooling and larger national goals. The World Bank's role in these educational changes is covered. (IS)

  11. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  12. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  13. Plastic cars for developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plastic automobiles may have passed a milestone on the long road to commercial reality with the development of Composite Concept Vehicle (CCV) from Chrysler Corp. in Auburn Hills, Mich. This basic compact car--so basic it could be called bare bones--is built by attaching an injection-molded thermoplastic polyester body onto a tubular steel chassis. The 1,200-pound CCV, which is expected to require one-third the labor and investment needed to build a conventional small car, was designed for new buyers in the emerging economies of China, India, and Southeast Asia. If commercialized, the car would likely cost about $6,000--halfway between a motorcycle and an entry-level auto. The small car was unveiled in September 1996 at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Germany.

  14. 78 FR 17640 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) for a six-month period.... Decker, Designated Federal Officer, National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee,...

  15. The Scientific Impact of Developing Nations

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Brambila, Claudia N.; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco; Perez-Angón, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes science productivity for nine developing countries. Results show that these nations are reducing their science gap, with R&D investments and scientific impact growing at more than double the rate of the developed world. But this “catching up” hides a very uneven picture among these nations, especially on what they are able to generate in terms of impact and output relative to their levels of investment and available resources. Moreover, unlike what one might expect, it is clear that the size of the nations and the relative scale of their R&D investments are not the key drivers of efficiency. PMID:27023182

  16. The Scientific Impact of Developing Nations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Brambila, Claudia N; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco; Perez-Angón, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes science productivity for nine developing countries. Results show that these nations are reducing their science gap, with R&D investments and scientific impact growing at more than double the rate of the developed world. But this "catching up" hides a very uneven picture among these nations, especially on what they are able to generate in terms of impact and output relative to their levels of investment and available resources. Moreover, unlike what one might expect, it is clear that the size of the nations and the relative scale of their R&D investments are not the key drivers of efficiency. PMID:27023182

  17. Universities and National Development: Issues and Problems in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relevance and contribution of universities to national development in economic, sociocultural, and political dimensions. Discusses rates of return, employment, vocational curricula, equality, and ideology. Concludes that a major problem in developing nations is ambivalence of universities stemming from their international and national…

  18. Role of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium in Development of Secondary Calcium Rise and Early Afterdepolarizations in Long QT Syndrome Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Cheng; Wo, Hung-Ta; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shien-Fong; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chu, Yen; Yeh, San-Jou; Chou, Chung-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background L-type calcium current reactivation plays an important role in development of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and torsades de pointes (TdP). Secondary intracellular calcium (Cai) rise is associated with initiation of EADs. Objective To test whether inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ cycling suppresses secondary Cai rise and genesis of EADs. Methods Langendorff perfusion and dual voltage and Cai optical mapping were conducted in 10 rabbit hearts. Atrioventricular block (AVB) was created by radiofrequency ablation. After baseline studies, E4031, SR Ca2+ cycling inhibitors (ryanodine plus thapsigargin) and nifedipine were then administrated subsequently, and the protocols were repeated. Results At baseline, there was no spontaneous or pacing-induced TdP. After E4031 administration, action potential duration (APD) was significantly prolonged and the amplitude of secondary Cai rise was enhanced, and 7 (70%) rabbits developed spontaneous or pacing-induced TdP. In the presence of ryanodine plus thapsigargin, TdP inducibility was significantly reduced (2 hearts, 20%, p = 0.03). Although APD was significantly prolonged (from 298 ± 30 ms to 457 ± 75 ms at pacing cycle length of 1000 m, p = 0.007) by ryanodine plus thapsigargin, the secondary Cai rise was suppressed (from 8.8 ± 2.6% to 1.2 ± 0.9%, p = 0.02). Nifedipine inhibited TdP inducibility in all rabbit hearts. Conclusion In this AVB and long QT rabbit model, inhibition of SR Ca2+ cycyling reduces the inducibility of TdP. The mechanism might be suppression of secondary Cai rise and genesis of EADs. PMID:25875599

  19. The Imperative to Protect Data and the Rise of Surveillance Cameras in Administering National Testing in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the datafication and digitalisation of education policy in the context of the Russian Federation. It taps into the policies and practices invented as a result of rising audit cultures and the scientisation and datafication of education governance. These processes turn sites of public examinations into sites of…

  20. Moon Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  1. Copernicus Rising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Michael A.

    2007-08-01

    Copernicus Rising began as a historical biography when it was first conceived, but as the writing progressed it quickly became a rather absurd play that took historical research and twisted it through the lens of my own wit, philosophy and personal affection for the characters. When working with historical figures--characters who existed in a very tangible way in our own history--the playwriting process opens a dialogue between different points in time and space. The difficulty lies in finding a unique and clear voice amongst the discordant personalities involved in this time and space overlap, both in the writing and production processes, in order to get to the heart of what the play is really all about. This thesis follows the journey of the play from its historical roots through the creation of an absurd journey both insides and outside time, space and the human mind. The first part of the thesis explains the beginnings of the concept and outlines much of the research and development that went into the play. The next part outlines the process of production and integrating the world on paper with that of moving bodies on stage. In the final part, post-production discussions and audience feedback sessions shape the play into the draft included in this thesis.

  2. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND SUBNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of national institutions on subnational African development in a novel framework that accounts for both local geography and cultural-genetic traits. We exploit the fact that the political boundaries on the eve of African independence partitioned more than 200 ethnic groups across adjacent countries subjecting similar cultures, residing in homogeneous geographic areas, to different formal institutions. Using both a matching type and a spatial regression discontinuity approach we show that differences in countrywide institutional structures across the national border do not explain within-ethnicity differences in economic performance, as captured by satellite images of light density. The average noneffect of national institutions on ethnic development masks considerable heterogeneity partially driven by the diminishing role of national institutions in areas further from the capital cities. PMID:25802926

  3. The National Career Development Guidelines. Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This trainer's manual is a companion volume to five local handbooks developed to support specialized implementation of the National Career Development Guidelines in elementary schools, middle and junior high schools, high schools, post-secondary institutions, and business organizations. It describes a 2-day training workshop for members of local…

  4. Bilingualism and National Development in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozog, A. Conrad K.

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia's long tradition of English medium instruction and bilingualism officially ended in 1970. This paper reviews the role of bilingualism in the development of the country, including the role of a bilingual population in national development and the possible effects of the abandonment of bilingual education. (Contains 38 references.)…

  5. Rural Women's Vocational Training for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    Although women are a crucial element in national rural development, their role continues to be neglected in plans and programs for change--especially in Third World countries. In addition to the burden faced by rural people generally in developing countries, women carry a double burden because of their low social status, high illiteracy rate, lack…

  6. The Rising Price of Higher Education. College Affordability in Jeopardy: A Special Supplement to National Crosstalk, Winter 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William

    2003-01-01

    This special supplement to the Winter 2003 issue of "National CrossTalk" offers a snapshot of round one of the current recession and its impact on state higher education budgets enacted and revised in the last half of 2002. It is a composite drawn from the most credible national sources of higher education information in the states at the…

  7. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  8. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  9. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  10. Fourth National Development Plan 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of chapters 6 and 20 of Zambia's Fourth National Development Plan (1989-93). Chapter 6 deals with the interrelationship between population and development. The high rate of population growth has placed enormous pressure on the country's educational system, health sector, and employment and has led to increased rural-urban migration and urbanization. The rate of population growth has outstripped the ability of the country to produce enough food for self-sufficiency. Thus, population dynamics are being considered as part of the national development process for the first time in this development plan, and a national population policy has been adopted. The objectives of the population policy are to slow population growth, to improve maternal-child health, to integrate population into the development planning process, to strengthen institutions involved in population activities, to establish a National Population Council, to strengthen the population data base, to extend family planning (FP) coverage to all adults, to reduce total fertility from 7.2 to 4, and to reduce infant mortality from 97/1000 to 75/1000. The strategies to implement the policy include population education measures, upgrading and expanding FP programs, expanding primary health care and maternal-child health (MCH) programs, and providing human resource training in appropriate fields. The institutional framework to implement these goals and strategies exists in Zambia, and various programs will be coordinated by a newly created National Population Council. Chapter 20 of the development plan covers health issues and specifies measures to improve MCH care, and FP services. Specific FP targets include increasing the number of FP acceptors from 15 to 50% by the end of 1993. PMID:12344448

  11. A National Periodicals Center Technical Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical plan for developing, managing, and operating a national periodicals center (NPC), which was prepared at the request of the Library of Congress, is designed so that it could be used by the Library or any other agency prepared to assume responsibility for the creation of a major periodicals facility. The overall goal of the NPC is to…

  12. Rising to the Challenge: Developing a Survey of Workplace Skills, Civic Engagement, and Global Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the ongoing development of a survey of students' workplace skills, civic engagement, and global awareness that colleges and universities can use to document their contributions to the public good. The student growth survey currently under development offers colleges and universities an opportunity to refocus the attention of…

  13. Developing and managing transdisciplinary and transformative research on the coastal dynamics of sea level rise: Experiences and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, Denise E.; Kidwell, David; Hagen, Scott C.; Stephens, Sonia H.

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing emphasis from funding agencies on transdisciplinary approaches to integrate science and end-users. However, transdisciplinary research can be laborious and costly and knowledge of effective collaborative processes in these endeavors is incomplete. More guidance grounded in actual project experiences is needed. Thus, this article describes and examines the collaborative process of the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico transdisciplinary research project, including its development, implementation, and evaluation. Reflections, considerations, and lessons learned from firsthand experience are shared, supported with examples, and connected to relevant scholarly literature.

  14. Something's got to give: psychiatric disease on the rise and novel drug development on the decline.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Daniel J

    2013-02-01

    Research and development of drugs for psychiatric disease is currently in a state of decline. Despite the increasing prevalence and healthcare costs of psychiatric disease, the costly and unpredictable drug development process has led to decreased public and investor confidence in the abilities of companies to develop safe and efficacious drugs. Industrial research in this disease area is therefore being scaled back owing to various scientific, corporate, financial and legal factors. This review will consider how these factors contribute to the current status of psychiatric drug development and offer several avenues forward to spur reinvestment in this type of research. Such a shift is needed to reduce the burden psychiatric disease imposes on the healthcare system and its patient populations. PMID:22980124

  15. Claims to protection: the rise and fall of feminist abolitionism in the League of Nations' Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children, 1919–1936.

    PubMed

    Pliley, Jessica R

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the League of Nations Advisory Committee on the Trafficking of Women and Children (CTW) to assess the impact of international feminists on the interwar anti-sex trafficking movement. It argues that women who were firmly embedded in the transnational and international women's rights movement built a coalition on the CTW to ensure the prominence of the feminist abolitionist position of sex trafficking in the 1920s. This position was defined by calls for equal standards of morality between the sexes, resistance to laws that treated prostitutes as a group and infringed on their human rights, and unwavering demands for the abolition of state-regulated prostitution. Changes in the personnel and bureaucratic structure of the CTW and the rising tide of nationalism served to undermine the feminist abolitionists' position in the League in the 1930s. PMID:21174888

  16. The rise and fall of gay: a cultural-historical approach to gay identity development.

    PubMed

    Weststrate, Nic M; McLean, Kate C

    2010-02-01

    Research on identity development has paid relatively little attention to the development of marginalised identities such as those of gays and lesbians, whose isolation from the canonical narrative of sexuality may limit the available resources required for establishing a coherent identity. We examined these contested identities in relation to cultural-historical factors that may have played a role in shaping these identities over the past 50 years, and looked at how such factors have impacted the voicing and silencing of gay experiences. Participants (N=251) reported (1) a memory of a cultural event relevant to their sexuality, and (2) a self-defining memory about their sexuality. Those in older cohorts reported cultural memories centred on politics and other external events (e.g., Stonewall riots), and younger cohorts reported more personal memories (e.g., coming out), suggesting that homosexual identities have become less culturally defined, and instead more personally defined. Further, participants of older cohorts reported self-defining events that were predominantly from one private domain (e.g., sex). In contrast, younger participants reported a variety of self-defining events. These results suggest that cultural-historical factors play an important role in defining the developmental pathway of individuals, perhaps especially those who have marginalised identities. PMID:19927257

  17. Energy use in the developing world: A crisis of rising expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P. )

    1991-04-01

    The world is facing a serious short-run energy supply problem. The Persian Gulf crisis has not caused this problem, but it does serve to underline its seriousness. The expectation is that in the longer term the energy situation will ease because of new technical developments, which will assist in the transformation out of the current fuels cycle to a radically new one. The short-run problem is particularly difficult because the societies most affected are those that can least afford to be without the energy essential for their climb out of mass poverty. There appears to be a potentially severe shortage of liquid fuels that will become progressively worse over the next 20 years. The rich countries will be able to command their share with ease. It is the Third World countries that will suffer the most.

  18. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  19. Development of a novel voltage divider for measurement of sub-nanosecond rise time high voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Ranjeet; Sharma, Archana

    2016-02-01

    This paper is about the development of a copper sulphate based aqueous-electrolytic voltage divider for the measurement of high voltage pulses, 100 kV, with pulse widths of 1-2 ns and rise time <1 ns. Novel features are incorporated in the design of the divider, to meet the performance requirements for the application. Analytical calculations to justify design are described. Structural simulation of the divider is carried out using field wave simulation software to verify the effectiveness. A calibration procedure has been developed to calibrate the divider. Results obtained during calibration are subjected to statistical analysis to determine the confidence of measurement. Details of design, analysis, and simulation are described in this paper.

  20. Future sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta floodplains: Impacts of hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manh, Nguyen Van; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Hung, Nguyen Nghia; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities that are endangering livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, climate change and the combined effects of sea level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes and sedimentation patterns in the Mekong Delta. We develop a sensitivity-based approach to assess the response of the floodplain hydrology and sediment dynamics in the delta to these drivers. A quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of suspended sediment dynamics is used to simulate the sediment transport and sediment deposition in the delta, including Tonle Sap Lake, for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver we derive a plausible range of future states and discretize it into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations. Our results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. Our results indicate that hydropower development dominates the changes in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while sea level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the changes compared to the other subsystems of the delta. The median changes of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the sediment load to the South China Sea would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum changes in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation and a 95% reduction of the sediment reaching the sea. Our findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these changes.

  1. Sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta: impacts of planned hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities endangering the livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, climate change and the combined effects of sea level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes, sedimentation patterns and erosion in the Mekong Delta. In order to estimate the individual and combined impacts of the different drivers sensitivity-based scenario simulations were performed. The hydraulic processes and the sediment transport and deposition in the Mekong delta including the Tonle Sap Lake was simulated with a quasi-2D hydrodynamic for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver a plausible range of future states was determined based on existing literature and studies. The ranges were discretized into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations of driver combinations. The results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. The results indicate that hydropower development dominates the changes in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while sea level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the changes compared to other subsystems of the delta. The median changes of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the suspended sediment load to the South China Sea would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum changes in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation, and a 95% reduction of the suspended sediment reaching the sea. These findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta, and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these changes. This, in turn, provides a

  2. Everything Rises and Falls on Leadership: An Assessment of Undergraduate Leadership Development Programs at the University of Arkansas--Fayetteville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Louis Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Today's students are the leaders of tomorrow, and their ability to lead in the 21st century will be critical to the sustainability of life, and the nation's ability to prosper will depend on the quality of leadership demonstrated at all levels of society. Student leadership development in institutions of higher education has never been…

  3. Structure and Development Processes of the Sediment Ridges on the Continental Rise off the Prydz Bay Margin, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z.; Yang, C.; Gao, J.; Ji, F.

    2015-12-01

    Several sediment ridges (SRs) are located on the continental slope and rise off the Prydz Bay margin, East Antarctica. These SRs contain the history of the regional glacial movements and bottom current activities. Multichannel seismic reflection data and bathymetric data in this region have been interpreted to know the planar distribution, cross-section structures along strike, and the formation and development processes of the SRs. Based on the above work, two different groups of the SRs have been identified. The first one includes two SRs which were asymmetric levees on both sides of the Wild Canyon in the western part of the study area. The second one includes SRs in the eastern part of the study area whose formation and development are closely related to the local, diachronous hiatuses generated by the turbidity flow. The onset time of the turbidity activities in different canyons are not concurrent. For Wild Canyon in the west, the onset time is P1, which is the base of the glaciomarine deposit on the continental rise, while for Wilkins and Murray Canyon in the east, it is a later time P3 (~26.1 Ma), which represents an expansion of the glaciers in Prydz Bay area. All the canyons and the turbidity currents within them both extend seaward with time and so does the consequent SRs. In the areas north of the seaward edge of the SRs, large deep-sea sediment waves consisting of fine-grain sediments supplied mainly by down-slope turbidity currents were generated under westward-flowing bottom currents.

  4. The rise of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model system to investigate development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous systems in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model system. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563

  5. A Rising Tide for Polar Science: Efforts of the U.S. National Committee for the International Polar Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The polar regions, fascinating yet distant and cold places, hold the keys to our changing world. While the upcoming IPY is the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year and the 125th anniversary of the first International Polar Year, it also falls at a crucial time in rapid changes in environmental and social systems that may affect all peoples of the Earth. Further warming of the Arctic, changing ecosystems and opening pathways for ocean travel, impact not only the people there but also the shipping, economics, and strategic considerations of distant nations. Yet potential further warming of the Arctic may be understood by clues in the Antarctic ice. How are the polar regions changing, and how swiftly may those changes affect the entire Earth? This is but one question emerging from community discussions of the science of the upcoming IPY. Our emerging ability to investigate previously unexplored areas is increasing our understanding of the wide world we live in, through interdisciplinary studies and tools for connections. Autonomous vehicles, genomics, and remote sensing technologies are just a few of the emerging areas that may provide new tools for investigating previously inaccessible realms. At the same time, tools such as the internet are making the world smaller, enabling instant communications between the peoples of the world. Joint international investigations enhance our ability to understand one another as well as our ability to understand our world and our universe. Rapid communications and international involvement can revolutionize the way we educate young scientists and our future leaders in a complex and changing world. Involving and educating people - young scientists, college students, school children, and the public - will be included as hallmarks of the IPY. The people are here. New tools are emerging. The ideas, or scientific goals, of the IPY are being crafted jointly through broad involvement of the scientific community, through

  6. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  7. Sediment accretion and organic carbon burial relative to sea-level rise and storm events in two mangrove forests in Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine how sediment accretion and organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests respond to climate change. Specifically, will the accretion rates keep pace with sea-level rise, and what is the source and fate of OC in the system? Mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were determined via 210Pb dating (i.e. 100 year time scale) on sediment cores collected from two mangrove forest sites within Everglades National Park, Florida (USA). Enhanced mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were found in an upper layer that corresponded to a well-documented storm surge deposit. Accretion rates were 5.9 and 6.5 mm yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to overall rates of 2.5 and 3.6 mm yr−1. These rates were found to be matching or exceeding average sea-level rise reported for Key West, Florida. Organic carbon burial rates were 260 and 393 g m−2 yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to 151 and 168 g m−2 yr−1 overall burial rates. The overall rates are similar to global estimates for OC burial in marine wetlands. With tropical storms being a frequent occurrence in this region the resulting storm surge deposits are an important mechanism for maintaining both overall accretion and OC burial rates. Enhanced OC burial rates within the storm deposit could be due to an increase in productivity created from higher concentrations of phosphorus within storm-delivered sediments and/or from the deposition of allochthonous OC. Climate change-amplified storms and sea-level rise could damage mangrove forests, exposing previously buried OC to oxidation and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the processes described here provide a mechanism whereby oxidation of OC would be limited and the overall OC reservoir maintained within the mangrove forest sediments.

  8. Influence of Sea-Level Rise and Storms on Soil Accretion Rates in the Mangrove Forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T., III; Sanders, C. J.; Peterson, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering large quantities of organic carbon (OC) in their soils at rates higher than other forests. Whether or not mangrove soils continue to be a sink for OC will be determined by the mangrove ecosystems' response to climate change-induced stressors. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and increased wave energy associated with this rise may become the primary climate change-induced stressors on mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline. However, storms may enhance accretion rates at some sites due to delivery of storm surge material, which could increase the system's ability to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). To investigate these processes we measure soil accretion rates over the last 100 years (via 210Pb dating) within the mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, which are situated within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. Accretion rates range from 2 to 2.8 mm per year for sites within 10 km of the Gulf of Mexico. These rates match (within error) or exceed SLR over the last 100 years. Sites farther inland than 10 km have slightly lower accretion rates. Throughout the system organic matter accumulation is the most important source material contributing to accretion. The more seaward sites also show an important contribution from carbonate material. Soil cores from the most seaward sites exhibited visual laminations and Ca peaks (determined via x-ray fluorescence). These are indicators of storm surge deposits. While higher sea level might produce more damage and loss of mangrove forest along open water (e.g., Gulf of Mexico), our findings suggest some sites will have enhanced accretion rates due to supplementation with storm surge material.

  9. Applications of space technology to developing nations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freden, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of imagery from the Landsat spacecraft for the monitoring and management of natural resources in developing countries is discussed. The Landsat imagery can be used to make cartographic maps at scales of 1:250,000 which meet the US National Map Accuracy Standards, providing a means of map updating to correct for river meanders or changing shorelines. The Landsat data can also be used in defining and measuring agricultural areas, identifying pest breeding areas, and monitoring irrigation practices and crop performance. Total volume estimates can be obtained in many cases for surface bodies of water, and subsurface water supplies can be detected from changes in vegetation in some instances.

  10. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  11. 78 FR 46923 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and...

  12. 78 FR 46923 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) for a period of time that is either 90 days after the government's Third National Climate Assessment is released to the...

  13. Pyrotechnic component development at Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrotechnic and explosive devices are designed at Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, which must satisfy high reliability requirements for reliable function and storage life. Since only a small number of devices may be built, high standards of quality of both the explosive and structural materials are necessary. We have developed special alloys and glass-ceramic seals for headers and structural parts of these devices to satisfy requirements for minimum size and weight but with increased ruggedness and safety. Hermetic sealing is used extensively to aid in the control of corrosion and aging effects. There is an increasing demand for the integration of these devices with safer (less sensitive) materials, better handling methods, and the use of electrical or fiber optic logic input elements. This paper addresses the trends in active materials, structural materials and a new method of ignition which enhances device designs compatible with low voltage and digital electronics.

  14. Estimates of future inundation of salt marshes in response to sea-level rise in and around Acadia National Park, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Salt marshes are ecosystems that provide many important ecological functions in the Gulf of Maine. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated salt marshes in and around Acadia National Park from Penobscot Bay to the Schoodic Peninsula to map the potential for landward migration of marshes using a static inundation model of a sea-level rise scenario of 60 centimeters (cm; 2 feet). The resulting inundation contours can be used by resource managers to proactively adapt to sea-level rise by identifying and targeting low-lying coastal areas adjacent to salt marshes for conservation or further investigation, and to identify risks to infrastructure in the coastal zone. For this study, the mapping of static inundation was based on digital elevation models derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) topographic data collected in October 2010. Land-surveyed control points were used to evaluate the accuracy of the LiDAR data in the study area, yielding a root mean square error of 11.3 cm. An independent accuracy assessment of the LiDAR data specific to salt-marsh land surfaces indicated a root mean square error of 13.3 cm and 95-percent confidence interval of ± 26.0 cm. LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and digital color aerial photography, taken during low tide conditions in 2008, with a pixel resolution of 0.5 meters, were used to identify the highest elevation of the land surface at each salt marsh in the study area. Inundation contours for 60-cm of sea-level rise were delineated above the highest marsh elevation for each marsh. Confidence interval contours (95-percent,± 26.0 cm) were delineated above and below the 60-cm inundation contours, and artificial structures, such as roads and bridges, that may present barriers to salt-marsh migration were mapped. This study delineated 114 salt marshes totaling 340 hectares (ha), ranging in size from 0.11 ha (marshes less than 0.2 ha were mapped only if they were on Acadia National Park property) to 52 ha, with a median

  15. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146

  16. Development and optimization of a wildfire plume rise model based on remote sensing data inputs - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Freitas, S. R.; Schultz, M. G.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning is one of a relatively few natural processes that can inject globally significant quantities of gases and aerosols into the atmosphere at altitudes well above the planetary boundary layer, in some cases at heights in excess of 10 km. The "injection height" of biomass burning emissions is therefore an important parameter to understand when considering the characteristics of the smoke plumes emanating from landscape scale fires, and in particular when attempting to model their atmospheric transport. Here we further extend the formulations used within a popular 1D plume rise model, widely used for the estimation of landscape scale fire smoke plume injection height, and develop and optimise the model both so that it can run with an increased set of remotely sensed observations. The model is well suited for application in atmospheric Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) aimed at understanding smoke plume downstream impacts, and whilst a number of wildfire emission inventories are available for use in such CTMs, few include information on plume injection height. Since CTM resolutions are typically too spatially coarse to capture the vertical transport induced by the heat released from landscape scale fires, approaches to estimate the emissions injection height are typically based on parametrizations. Our extensions of the existing 1D plume rise model takes into account the impact of atmospheric stability and latent heat on the plume up-draft, driving it with new information on active fire area and fire radiative power (FRP) retrieved from MODIS satellite Earth Observation (EO) data, alongside ECMWF atmospheric profile information. We extend the model by adding an equation for mass conservation and a new entrainment scheme, and optimise the values of the newly added parameters based on comparison to injection heights derived from smoke plume height retrievals made using the MISR EO sensor. Our parameter optimisation procedure is based on a twofold approach

  17. Forecasting the impact of storm waves and sea-level rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—a comparison of passive versus dynamic inundation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Berkowitz, Paul; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and affect terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive "bathtub" inundation models based on geographic information systems (GIS) to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islands on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an island at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled physics-based numerical wave, current, and water-level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level-rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the island shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up along the islands’ shorelines, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and island configuration. Island inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested

  18. The NEED (National Energy Education Development) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, D.; Spruill, M.

    2012-04-01

    The NEED (National Energy Education Development) Project is a non-profit organization which provides a wide range of K-12 curriculum on energy education topics. The curriculum is specific for primary, elementary, intermediate and secondary levels with age appropriate activities and reading levels. The NEED Project covers a wide range of topics from wind energy, nuclear energy, solar energy, hydropower, hydrogen, fossil fuels, energy conservation, energy efficiency and much more. One of the major strengths of this organization is its Teacher Advisory Board. The curriculum is routinely revised and updated by master classroom teachers who use the lessons and serve on the advisory board. This ensures it is of the highest quality and a useful resource. The NEED Project through a variety of sponsors including businesses, utility companies and government agencies conducts hundreds of teacher professional development workshops each year throughout the United States and have even done some workshops internationally. These workshops are run by trained NEED facilitators. At the workshops, teachers gain background understanding of the energy topics and have time to complete the hands on activities which make up the curriculum. The teachers are then sent a kit of equipment after successfully completing the workshop. This allows them to teach the curriculum and have their students perform the hands on labs and activities in the classroom. The NEED Project is the largest provider of energy education related curriculum in the United States. Their efforts are educating teachers about energy topics and in turn educating students in the hope of developing citizens who are energy literate. Many of the hands on activities used to teach about various energy sources will be described and demonstrated.

  19. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R and D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O and M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R and D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with US geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  20. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  1. Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to climate change, land-use/land-cover change (LULC), and sea-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these changing conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to sea-level rise and change in river flow due to the effect of future climate and LULC changes in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and sea-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future climate changes will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC change scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to sea-level rise is strongly nonlinear.

  2. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  3. 78 FR 4132 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... report on climate change science and impacts, is conducted pursuant to the Global Change Research Act... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC433 National Climate Assessment and Development... of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) to announce...

  4. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  6. 76 FR 52377 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board at the ASBDC Conference. DATES: Wednesday, September 7... to the SBA Administrator and Associate Administrator for Small Business Development Centers....

  7. 75 FR 17793 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the fourth... Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss the following issues pertaining to the...

  8. 78 FR 76886 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 2nd quarter... Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining to the...

  9. 76 FR 1657 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the fourth... Business Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining...

  10. 78 FR 23622 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 3rd quarter... Business Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining...

  11. 76 FR 41320 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 4th quarter... Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining to the...

  12. 78 FR 39823 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 4th quarter... Business Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining...

  13. 78 FR 66983 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... cancellation for the December 17, 2013 meeting of the National Small Business Development Center (SBDC... Small Business Development Centers. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss following...

  14. 77 FR 64836 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 3rd quarter... Business Development Centers. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss following issues pertaining...

  15. National Qualification Frameworks: Developing Research Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, Scott; Pilcher, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Arguments for National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are compelling. Indeed, such frameworks are now an international phenomenon. Yet, few studies take a critical perspective and challenge the broad assumptions underpinning NQF. Arguments presented in this paper attempt to open a debate within the higher education community that draws attention…

  16. Teachers' Evaluation of Professional Development in Support of National Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökmenoglu, Tuba; Clark, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    As in many other nations, the Turkish education system has undergone many significant curricular and structural reforms in the last decade. This study was designed to learn from teachers about the quality of professional development programs that were designed to support national reforms. Ten years into a period of intensive national reform,…

  17. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  18. Role of the developing nations in the development and optimal use of space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    The economic and social factors are discussed which play a role in the advancement of space technology in developing nations. It is concluded that mutual collaboration between developed and developing nations is the basic element which will allow developing nations to take part in space experiments and research.

  19. 75 FR 4122 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the fourth... conference call. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee...

  20. Automation Development at the National Library of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Beixin

    1985-01-01

    Reviews activities of Automation Development Department established in 1975 at National Library of China. Education of staff members, introduction of Library of Congress MARC tapes and Japanese computer system (Hitachi M-150H), development of application systems, the National Bibliographic Center Computer System, and long-term targets for the…

  1. The National Climate for Involving Youth in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Edwin L.

    This paper, presented at the Seminar on Involvement of Youth in Community, National 4-H Center, Chevy Chase, Maryland on January 17, 1972, points out the continued interest and national activity concerning rural development. The responsibility of the Extension Service to carry out educational community development programs with adults and youth is…

  2. Updated Guidelines for Training Package Developers. Australia's National Training Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This document contains the latest guidelines for developing nationally endorsed training packages for use in Australia's system of vocational education and training (VET). Discussed in section A are the following aspects of the context in which the training packages emerged: development of the National Training Framework and associated new…

  3. DEVELOPING A QUALITY SYSTEM FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Quality Management Plan (QMP) is under development for a national, interagency, long-term study known as the National Children's Study (NCS). The NCS is a study to examine the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of more than 100,000 children acros...

  4. 77 FR 22057 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 3rd...

  5. 77 FR 1547 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 2nd...

  6. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... September 22 & 23 to discuss Zika virus and child development. View All Slides Get the facts. View All ... the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the NICHD. ​ Extreme temperatures could increase preterm birth ...

  7. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  8. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: when does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    PubMed

    Coursey, Bert M

    2014-05-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. PMID:24369891

  9. 63. Mobile Learning in Developing Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlik, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the diffusion and applications of mobile phone technology in Asia and Africa, compared with North America. It indicates that Asian distance education can be the global leader in the development of educational uses for the mobile phone; and it considers the potential for mobile learning in Africa and other developing regions.…

  10. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development

  11. Interested in developing a national programme to reduce dietary salt?

    PubMed

    Campbell, N R C; Neal, B C; MacGregor, G A

    2011-12-01

    High dietary salt is a major contributor to increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. In several countries, national programmes to reduce dietary salt have been implemented with leadership and involvement of hypertension experts. Other hypertension experts may be interested in assisting or leading a national programme to reduce dietary salt, however, may not have the experience or training to do so. The article is based on the experiences of three hypertension experts who have led the development of national dietary salt reduction programmes in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. The article advises developing leadership and a coalition, conducting a nation-specific environmental scan of facilitators and barriers, estimating the national health and financial costs of high dietary salt and the benefits of reducing salt intake, obtaining core documents to provide the scientific rational for the programme, developing a policy statement to outline the required actions to be undertaken, engaging government and industry, using media to gain public support, overcoming industry supported opposition and sustaining the effort long term. Resources and potential sources for international collaboration are provided as well as caveats for developing the programme within the specific nations' context and overall effort to improve health. Developing and leading a national salt reduction programme is a major commitment, however, reducing dietary salt is estimated to be one of the most effective strategies to improve a nation's health. PMID:21451570

  12. THE EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHRAMM, WILBUR

    THE AUTHOR DEFINES EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AS INTELLECTUAL MULTIPLIERS, WHOSE MAIN CHALLENGES ARE TO CARRY EDUCATION TO UNDERDEVELOPED, UNDER-STAFFED, OR UNDER-FINANCED AREAS AT THE LOWEST COST, AND TO TRAIN TEACHERS AND TO PROVIDE ADULT EDUCATION. THE ROLE OF UNESCO AND THE U.S. IN DEVELOPING AND SPREADING MEDIA USAGE IS ALSO DISCUSSED. THIS ARTICLE IS…

  13. 77 FR 20794 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... announces the selection of the authors for the report of the next National Climate Assessment by the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC). The next National...

  14. Response to the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Career Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) congratulates the Commonwealth Government on the development of the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper. This is a timely and important document that provides a framework to demonstrate the central contribution that career development services play in supporting individuals,…

  15. National Development Plan 1988-1990.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains eight provisions from the fourth chapter (on population issues) of the 1988-90 Development Plan of Mauritius. Because the goals of previous population policies have been attained in Mauritius (with fertility at below replacement levels), social and family welfare goals can be predominant in the development plan, including improvements in health, education, access to employment opportunities, and raising the status of women. Also, despite its success, the family planning program contains some weaknesses which should be addressed, including a high dropout rate and an over-reliance on oral contraceptives. Additionally, the IEC (information, education, and communication) component of the program should be refined to reach hard-core nonacceptors. Breast feeding must be encouraged, especially among working mothers, and the efficiency of the family planning program must be improved to reduce the high reliance on abortion. Because of the mortality and morbidity associated with illegal abortions, the government must develop a consensus on the issue of legalizing this procedure. PMID:12289391

  16. In Demand: Community Colleges Already Train More than Half the Nation's Health Care Workforce--and Demand for Their Services Is on the Rise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony; Smith, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    As health care providers, patients, and employers adjust to the changes related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which promises to extend medical coverage to thirty million previously uninsured Americans, community colleges are gearing up to keep pace with rising economic and societal demands for medical and allied health…

  17. Health Update: Development of New National Child Care Health Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the absence of national standards which are uniformly applicable to health, safety, sanitation, and nutrition aspects of child care programs. Explains the responsive collaborative project of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Public Health Association to develop national reference standards for out-of-home child care…

  18. Rural Development: The Industrialized Free-Enterprise Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Most of the nations of the world have expressed concern for rural revitalization by providing a greater range of economic opportunities, social amenities, and cultural advantages. This report discussed rural development in the highly industrialized nations of the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Norway,…

  19. Professional Development in National Organizations: Insights from Girls Incorporated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Heather Johnston; Houchin, Susan; Stegall, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Whether staff members are working in urban, rural, or suburban branches, for many years national organizations have been committed to preparing them to work effectively with young people. Over the past couple of decades, national organizations have sought and received strong funding to develop targeted, comprehensive professional development…

  20. Pathfinder radar development at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Since the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging in the 1950's, users or potential users have sought to exploit SAR imagery for a variety of applications including the earth sciences and defense. At Sandia Laboratories, SAR Research and Development and associated defense applications grew out of the nuclear weapons program in the 1980's and over the years has become a highly viable ISR sensor for a variety of tactical applications. Sandia SAR systems excel where real-­-time, high-­-resolution, all-­-weather, day or night surveillance is required for developing situational awareness. This presentation will discuss the various aspects of Sandia's airborne ISR capability with respect to issues related to current operational success as well as the future direction of the capability as Sandia seeks to improve the SAR capability it delivers into multiple mission scenarios. Issues discussed include fundamental radar capabilities, advanced exploitation techniques and human-­-computer interface (HMI) challenges that are part of the advances required to maintain Sandia's ability to continue to support ever changing and demanding mission challenges.

  1. Urbanization in Developing Nations: Trends, Prospects, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the rapid growth of cities in developing nations as one of the most significant demographic phenomena of modern times. Comparative data and policy considerations are presented for the world generally, and for Africa, Latin America, and Asia, specifically. (DB)

  2. Roadmap for a National Wildland Fire Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, R; Bradley, M M; Lin, R R

    2003-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have formed a partnership to facilitate an innovative National Wildfire Research and Development Program. The ultimate purpose of the program will be to establish a deeper scientific understanding of the physics of fire than currently exists, to establish a solid scientific basis for strategic planning and policy making, and to develop and implement a set of advanced, scientifically based decision-making tools for the wildfire management community. The three main components of the program will be wildfire science, societal impacts, and operational applications. Smoke management, prescribed burns, wildfire mitigation and fuels assessment will be cross-cutting themes. We anticipate that this multidisciplinary, interagency program will bridge organizational and institutional barriers, and will be highly collaborative with numerous organizations and agencies, including other national laboratories; universities: federal, state, and county fire agencies; the Environmental Protection Agency; the Federal Emergency Management Agency; and the Western Governor's Association.

  3. First Nations Development Institute Biennial Report, 1994/95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First Nations Development Inst., Fredericksburg, VA.

    This report describes economic development projects that were funded during 1994-95 by the First Nations Development Institute. The Institute was established in 1980 to help tribes build sound, sustainable reservation economies. Through the Eagle Staff Fund, the Institute regrants funds for culturally viable economic development projects from a…

  4. Response to the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Career Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Career Development Strategy Green Paper paper proposes a strategy that is committed to these principles: (1) quality through Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) benchmarking, quality frameworks and processes and as a risk management strategy; (2) lifetime access to career development services; (3) development of career…

  5. The Rise and Development of Physics in Cuba: An Interview with Hugo Pérez Rojas in May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Hugo Celso Pérez Rojas was born in 1938, and works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics, at the Ministry of Science and Technology, Cuba. Pérez Rojas is emeritus member of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences and Fellow TWAS since 1994. He was one of the founders of the School of Physics in the University of Havana in 1962, and moved in 1971 to the Cuban Academy of Sciences. His national awards include the Rafael Maria Mendive and Carlos J. Finlay Medals. He was awarded in 2011 the National Prize in Physics from the Cuban Physical Society. His interests include quantum field theory and its applications to finite temperature problems in high-energy physics and condensed matter. Among these, Pérez Rojas has devoted special attention to quantum electrodynamics in matter and in vacuum in the presence of external fields, phase transitions in electroweak theory, relativistic quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetic fields, and applications of physics to social sciences. He is interviewed here by Angelo Baracca in May 2009.

  6. Holocene tidal back-barrier development at decelerating sea-level rise: a 5 millennia record, exposed in the western Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beets, Dirk J.; De Groot, Thomas A. M.; Davies, Huw A.

    2003-05-01

    A succession of tidal back-barrier deposits, ranging in age from about 6000 to 0 cal BC, was recently exposed in an up to 17-m-deep excavation in the western Netherlands. The lower part of the succession shows the flooding of the area and the establishment of a tidal back-barrier basin during high rates of relative sea-level rise; the upper part of the succession consists mainly of estuarine channel and tidal flat deposits. Medieval lake deposits cover the estuarine sequence. The development of the Holocene Holland Tidal Basin took place in the Atlantic and Early Subboreal sub-stages between ˜7000 and 3500 cal BC after which the tidal inlets closed and fresh water marshes developed. Its evolution was largely controlled by both the rates of sea-level rise and of sediment supply. All the sediment was derived from the North Sea and the shoreface. During initial flooding of the outcrop area, the rate of sea-level rise (0.1-0.06 cm/year) far outran that of sediment supply. Facies zones developed controlled by the inundated topography and sediment supply. Fresh water reed marshes evolved along the landward side of the tidal basin. The Basal Peat that formed in these marshes is overlain by a thin layer of organic-rich clays, which represent the deposits in a lagoon separating the marshes from the tide-influenced sands and clays of the proximal zone of the tidal basin. The latter consisted of sand-rich channel sequences separated by mud-rich interchannel areas. Position of the channels was controlled by the pre-existing topography; the channels were confined by levees consisting of overbank and crevasse deposits. The interchannel areas consisted of sub-tidal mudflats. The studied outcrop showed a subtidal fan or delta, connecting a non-exposed channel to a mud-rich sequence of subtidal interchannel sediments. The latter graded upwards into inter- and supratidal flats deposited when the rate of sea-level rise decelerated after ±5000 cal BC and sediment supply eventually

  7. The development of a national children’s formulary

    PubMed Central

    Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The British National Formulary has been in existence for over 30 years. The prescribing of medicines for children has been less well organized. Many medicines used in children have never been tested in the appropriate age groups and have been prescribed ‘off-label’. This has led to safety issues and concerns that children continued to be treated as second-class citizens. The first attempt at the development of a national formulary specifically for prescribing in children occurred in 1999 with the publication of ‘Medicines for Children’. This generated much national and international interest resulting in the government agreeing to fund the development and production of the first British National Formulary for Children in 2005. This article charts the process and progress of the formulary to the present day. PMID:24215142

  8. Flat panel display development activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    DiBello, E.G.; Worobey, W.; Burchett, S.; Hareland, W.; Felter, T.; Mays, B.

    1994-12-31

    The flat panel display development activities underway at Sandia National Laboratories are described. Research is being conducted in the areas of glass substrates, phosphors, large area processes, and electron emissions. Projects are focused on improving process yield, developing large area processes, and using modeling techniques to predict design performance.

  9. Professional Development for Early Childhood Education: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the reader to a special issue of "NHSA Dialog" that focuses on the professional development (PD) of early childhood educators. The article opens with a perspective from a historical lens, namely that of PD in K-12 education and the evolution of Learning Forward, formerly the National Staff Development Council. The recently…

  10. The Role of Education within National Human Resource Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Kathleen V.

    2008-01-01

    Trade and economic viability are becoming increasingly important in all countries around the world. As a result, Human Resource Development (HRD) is becoming an integral part of a country's ability to sustain development and it is evident that many countries outside of the United States are integrating HRD as part of their national policy (NHRD).…

  11. Canadian Forces Education as a Contributor to National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoberts, B. G.

    The education and training provided by the Canadian Armed Forces is analyzed in consideration of its contribution to both the economic and social aspects of national development. From this analysis it appears that the Armed Forces' extensive formally organized education and training program has an important impact on economic development when…

  12. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  13. Rising above My Raisin'?: Using Heuristic Inquiry to Explore the Effects of the Lumbee Dialect on Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Chris; Brown, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Using heuristic inquiry, this study investigates how dialect affects the ethnic identity development of the first author as well as fellow Lumbee students attending a predominantly white university. Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem that the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. Findings from this study…

  14. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  15. Global burden of atrial fibrillation in developed and developing nations.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Sumeet S; Roth, Gregory A; Gillum, Richard F; Mensah, George A

    2014-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disorder in the world, with major public health impact especially due to increased risk of stroke and hospitalizations. The recently published results on epidemiology of atrial fibrillation from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study confirm the existence of a significant and progressive worldwide increase in the burden of atrial fibrillation. However, there appears to be regional variation in both the burden of atrial fibrillation and availability of epidemiological data regarding this condition. In this review, the authors identify issues that are unique to the developed versus developing regions and outline a road map for possible approaches to surveillance, management, and prevention of atrial fibrillation at the global level. PMID:25432121

  16. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  17. 75 FR 81233 - National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Establishment and Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory...: This Notice advises of the public of the establishment of the National Climate Assessment Development... with GSA, the Secretary of Commerce has determined that the establishment of the National...

  18. 76 FR 25309 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC). The members will discuss and... be determined. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site for this information at...

  19. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    PubMed

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. PMID:25304520

  20. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity. PMID:22038320

  1. Monolithic circuit development for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, G.T.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Kennedy, E.J.; Newport, D.F.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1991-12-31

    The work performed for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during FY 91 is presented in this paper. The work includes preamplifier, analog memory, and analog-digital converter development for Dimuon Pad Readout, and evaluation and development of preamplifier-shapers for silicon strip readout. The approaches for implementation are considered as well as measured data for the various circuits that have been developed.

  2. Development of a 3D Model for the Assessment of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise on the Historic Strawbery Banke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, M.; Curran, B.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The study of climate change is now starting to be widely researched around the world. One prominent exception to this fact is within the discipline of Historic Preservation. With the likelihood of climate change causing sea levels to rise over decades to come, historical preservationists are now looking for data and information which can help them mitigate potential threats to our cultural heritage along our sea coasts. Some such information that can be helpful in understanding these threats includes geographic information such as the locations of artifacts, fossils, and historic structures as well as their vertical elevation above mean sea level. In an effort to build a set of protocols to help preservations study these threats, our work is currently focusing on a historic living history museum site known as Strawbery Banke in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. This poster features a subset of this work that was completed through undergraduate student internships funded by the Joan and James Leitzel Center at the University of New Hampshire. This subset of work focused on the creation a 3D model of the study site. Two aspects of the creation of this model involved the completion of a topographic ground survey and the 3D digital mapping of the site itself. The ground survey was completed with the use of standard surveying techniques and tools and the 3D digital mapping was completed with the use of ArcScene, a software which is part of the ArcGIS suite. This work was completed in conjunction with a larger study funded by the National Geographic Society to better understand how sea level rise and the effects of storm surges are putting the historic structures at Strawbery Banke at risk.

  3. A national model for participative management and policy development.

    PubMed

    Valentine, N M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the virtual application of an innovative administrative model that addresses national nursing policy issues in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Using a constituency center model of organization, nurse and interdisciplinary experts in the areas of clinical, education, administration, research and informatics are drawn from throughout the country to manage projects that meet the specifications of the national nursing service strategic plan. The impetus for the development of the model, examples products developed and areas of interest explored to date, and an evaluation of the first 18 months of experience are discussed. PMID:8945258

  4. Building an Understanding of Democratization in a Developing Nation: A Success Story in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lee P., Jr.

    This document is an exercise for teachers who are seeking to increase student understanding of the rise and expansion of democracy in new or emerging nations. The exercise complements the National Education Goals for Student Achievement and Citizenship. By design, the exercise challenges students to plan and to conduct (based on the timeless…

  5. Developing National Cancer Registration in Developing Countries – Case Study of the Nigerian National System of Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Jedy-Agba, Elima E.; Oga, Emmanuel A.; Odutola, Michael; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Popoola, Abiodun; Achara, Peter; Afolayan, Enoch; Banjo, Adekunbiola Aina Fehintola; Ekanem, Ima-Obong; Erinomo, Olagoke; Ezeome, Emmanuel; Igbinoba, Festus; Obiorah, Christopher; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi; Omonisi, Abidemi; Osime, Clement; Ukah, Cornelius; Osinubi, Patience; Hassan, Ramatu; Blattner, William; Dakum, Patrick; Adebamowo, Clement A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological transition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has given rise to a concomitant increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases including cancers. Worldwide, cancer registries have been shown to be critical for the determination of cancer burden, conduct of research, and in the planning and implementation of cancer control measures. Cancer registration though vital is often neglected in SSA owing to competing demands for resources for healthcare. We report the implementation of a system for representative nation-wide cancer registration in Nigeria – the Nigerian National System of Cancer Registries (NSCR). The NSCR coordinates the activities of cancer registries in Nigeria, strengthens existing registries, establishes new registries, complies and analyses data, and makes these freely available to researchers and policy makers. We highlight the key challenges encountered in implementing this strategy and how they were overcome. This report serves as a guide for other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) wishing to expand cancer registration coverage in their countries and highlights the training, mentoring, scientific and logistic support, and advocacy that are crucial to sustaining cancer registration programs in LMIC. PMID:26284233

  6. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Philip J.; Stewart, Grant. S.; Smith, Anna; Eaton, Charlotte; Taylor, Alexander J.; Guy, Chloe; Eringyte, Ieva; Fooks, Peggy; Last, James I.; Horsley, Robert; Oliver, Antony W.; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Stankovic, Tatjana; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N), with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2), and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids). Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele. PMID:26990772

  7. The rise and fall of an oil company. [Economic development, expansion, diversification, and stagnation of oil companies and the causes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.M.

    1991-03-01

    A tremendous amount of oil and gas reserves has been found. These reserves were discovered when geologists were in key positions. Exploration oriented leaders are not in key positions today. As with all living organisms, oil companies are governed by a life cycle which includes birth, adolescence, maturity, old age, and death. The life cycle of a company is characterized by its CEO/management team. During the birth of an oil company, a geologist and/or entrepreneur (leader) who has a desire to succeed is in charge. There are few tangible assets and the mortality rate is high. In the adolescence stage, the leader is willing to take high risks and is very receptive to new ideas. The discovery of company-making reserves are most likely to occur during this stage. During maturity, the key officer is usually an engineer who develops the newly found reserves. He has the desire to quantify exploration ventures in unrealistic, precise terms. Old age usually has a CPA as manager who prefers to take cash flow and transfer it to other businesses (diversification). The sale of properties starts in this stage. The last stage is death and the key officer is either a lawyer or a banker. The legal entanglement will start that inevitably plagues the cash-rich, asset-rich oil company. There is no residual expertise conducting exploration activity. We now have the liquidation of remaining assets and the company goes through mergers or sale.

  8. HMO development in an academic medical center: the rise and fall of a prepaid health program in New York city.

    PubMed

    Bosch, S J; Deuschle, K W

    1993-08-01

    Through a documented case study the authors identify the critical factors that impede the introduction of prepaid medical care as part of education and practice within a prestigious and well established academic medical center. The inherent conflicts between individual fee-for-service practice and population-based prepaid practice and the resistance to innovations in medical care organization as they surfaced in that center, are presented. The need for a clear understanding of the complexities of HMO development and of an appreciation for the importance of a planning process in which all interested parties are involved, is emphasized. A clear commitment by policy makers, administrators and providers is highlighted as fundamental for the implementation of a system where practitioners are motivated to assume responsibility for the comprehensive care of a defined population that prepays for their services. The rewards as well as the difficulties for institutionalizing commitment to this form of health care delivery and impacting on medical education are discussed. PMID:8408749

  9. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. Methods We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. Results This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Conclusions Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available. PMID:24716473

  10. National Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Development: Development of an Indicator-Based Reporting Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…

  11. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  12. Infectious Diseases in a Global Economy - Consequences for Developing Nations

    PubMed Central

    Peter, McDonald AM

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war the world economy has become dominated by Western [largely US] interests. In this period there have developed several pandemics or epidemics of infectious diseases that have affected most nations. HIV, SARS, Avian Influenza, Hepatitis-C, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, drug-resistant TB, viral zoonoses, are specific examples that will be discussed in terms of their genesis, economic impact and consequences for ways of life in the range of economies – developed, developing and under developed countries. The burden falls most on the underdeveloped countries who are least able to mount the resources to combat the consequences of these global infections. The capability to diagnose, prevent, treat and manage is largely in the hands of commercial interests that are anchored into international trade agreements. This circumstance contrasts with the situation that existed for vaccine development and distribution in the early parts of 20th century. Most countries established “public good” institutions that developed vaccines for public health purposes [diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pneumococcal antisera are examples]. In this 21st century the international capability for developing vaccines is largely in the hands of industry. Thus the developing countries need support of UN or similar global organizations to underwrite product development that suits their needs. The process of product development, safety and efficacy assessment will be presented in a manner that indicates the crucial and essential role of developing nations – and why they should receive fair recognition for their contributions.

  13. Impact Evaluation of National Writing Project Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Alix; Woodworth, Katrina; McCaffrey, Teresa; Park, Christina J.; Wang, Haiwen

    2014-01-01

    Improving teacher effectiveness is a key strategy to ensure student readiness for college and careers and to address achievement gaps and persistent low performance. In response to the new Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS-ELA) the National Writing Project (NWP) created a professional development (PD) program to support…

  14. The Development of National Standards for Adult Educators in Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Justin; Richardson, Brent H.

    2012-01-01

    Since gaining independence from South Africa in 1990, Namibia has placed considerable emphasis on education, including adult learning. As a means of improving the quality of adult learning, the Namibian Ministry of Education commissioned the development of national standards in 2010 to express competency requirements for adult educators.…

  15. National and Rural Housing Policy. Historical Development and Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William J.; And Others

    This report traces the historical development of federal housing policy that has promoted a 40% decline in substandard housing and a 20% increase in homeownership over the past 50 years. It presents emerging national and rural housing policy concerns: the proper role of federal, state, and local governments in the mortgage credit and insurance…

  16. Yet Sun Heywa: Developing a First Nations Art Website.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Bill; Dalton, Robert

    The University of Victoria Maltwood Museum and Art Gallery (British Columbia) recently acquired a collection of 2,000 limited edition silkscreen prints that documents the development of the Aboriginal print medium from the 1950s to the present. Master artists from all six major linguistic and cultural First Nations coastal groups of British…

  17. Standardized Evaluation for Multi-National Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, W. Timothy

    This paper takes the position that standardized evaluation formats and procedures for multi-national development programs are not only desirable but possible in diverse settings. The key is the localization of standard systems, which involves not only the technical manipulation of items and scales, but also the contextual interpretation of…

  18. National Human Resource Development: A Multi-Level Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash Krishnan; Ke, Jie; Al-Emadi, Mohammed A. S.; Coningham, Beatriz; Conser, Jessica; Cornachione, Edgar; Devassy, Seeja Mary; Dhirani, Khalil

    2007-01-01

    Although there are have been some studies on National Human Resource Development and HRD practices in certain countries, literature shows that we have just scratched the surface in terms of the number of countries we know about. This exploratory study reviews research associated with HRD policies and practices in Brazil, China, India, Italy,…

  19. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  20. Great Expectations: Teacher Learning in a National Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Makopoulou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of a national continuing professional development (CPD) programme for teachers in England. Data showed that the localised implementation, opportunities for interactive learning, and "collective participation" were positive factors. Research participants reported difficulties, however, in "cascading"…

  1. National Energy Education Development (NEED) [Resources Local Participation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    National Energy Education Development (NEED) is concerned with the dissemination of energy education information, the way children learn best, and the type of citizens students will become. Cooperative learning, where students take responsibility for their own learning and that of others in their group, class, school, and their community, is…

  2. Music Education as a Panacea for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunrinade, D. O. A

    2015-01-01

    This paper appraises music as an essential part of Nigerian culture and its implication for national development. It discussed music as important aspect of culture and the rationale for the inclusion of the subject in Nigerian schools at all levels of education. It also explicates music education available in the community as well. The music…

  3. Design and development of linked data from the National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

  4. International Space Station: National Laboratory Education Concept Development Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program has brought together 16 spacefaring nations in an effort to build a permanent base for human explorers in low-Earth orbit, the first stop past Earth in humanity's path into space. The ISS is a remarkably capable spacecraft, by significant margins the largest and most complex space vehicle ever built. Planned for completion in 2010, the ISS will provide a home for laboratories equipped with a wide array of resources to develop and test the technologies needed for future generations of space exploration. The resources of the only permanent base in space clearly have the potential to find application in areas beyond the research required to enable future exploration missions. In response to Congressional direction in the 2005 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Authorization Act, NASA has begun to examine the value of these unique capabilities to other national priorities, particularly education. In early 2006, NASA invited education experts from other Federal agencies to participate in a Task Force charged with developing concepts for using the ISS for educational purposes. Senior representatives from the education offices of the Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation agreed to take part in the Task Force and have graciously contributed their time and energy to produce a plan that lays out a conceptual framework for potential utilization of the ISS for educational activities sponsored by Federal agencies as well as other future users.

  5. The National Launch System Advanced Development Program: A brief overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battenburg, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    A broad-based Advanced Development Program is being conducted to modernize the technological base and support the systems design of the National Launch System. While the principal concentration of efforts has been in propulsion, significant work is being accomplished in all of the disciplinary areas associated with space launch. Tasks are selected that offer reduced costs, increased reliability, and enhanced operability with anticipated task completion times which are consistent with NLS development.

  6. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  7. IQs Predict Differences in the Technological Development of Nations from 1000 BC through 2000 AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    National IQs and measures of technological development given by Comin, Easterly and Gong (2010) are presented for 133 nations for the year 1000 BC, for 134 nations for 0 AD, for 120 nations for 1500 AD and for 133 nations for 2000 AD. It is shown that national IQs are significantly correlated with national differences in technological development…

  8. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-06-03

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  9. Acronical Risings and Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  10. 77 FR 61574 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... notice sets forth the schedule of a forthcoming meeting of the DoC NOAA National Climate Assessment and... the National Climate Assessment Web site for additional information at...

  11. 77 FR 56191 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... notice sets forth the schedule of a forthcoming meeting of the DoC NOAA National Climate Assessment and... the National Climate Assessment Web site for additional information at...

  12. Development of a fast traveling-wave beam chopper for the National Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.S.; Jason, A.J.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Power, J.

    1997-10-01

    High current and severe restrictions on beam losses, below 1 nA/m, in the designed linac for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) require clean and fast--with the rise time from 2% to 98% less than 2.5 ns to accommodate a 402.5-MHz beam structure--beam chopping in its front end, at the beam energy 2.5 MeV. The R and D program includes both modification of the existing LANSCE coax-plate chopper to reduce parasitic coupling between adjacent plates, and development of new traveling-wave deflecting structures, in particular, based on a meander line. Using analytical methods and three-dimensional time-domain computer simulations the authors study transient effects in such structures to choose an optimal chopper design.

  13. The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.

    PubMed

    Egan, M L; Bendick M

    1986-01-01

    Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not

  14. The National Biomedical Communications Network as a Developing Structure *

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ruth M.

    1971-01-01

    The National Biomedical Communications Network has evolved both from a set of conceptual recommendations over the last twelve years and an accumulation of needs manifesting themselves in the requests of members of the medical community. With a short history of three years this network and its developing structure have exhibited most of the stresses of technology interfacing with customer groups, and of a structure attempting to build itself upon many existing fragmentary unconnected segments of a potentially viable resourcesharing capability. In addition to addressing these topics, the paper treats a design appropriate to any network devoted to information transfer in a special interest user community. It discusses fundamentals of network design, highlighting that network structure most appropriate to a national information network. Examples are given of cost analyses of information services and certain conjectures are offered concerning the roles of national networks. PMID:5542912

  15. Development and Validation of National Phenology Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Rosemartin, A.; Crimmins, T. M.; Gerst, K.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database (NPDb) maintained by USA-NPN contains almost 6 million in-situ observation records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2015. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and natural resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology and regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity. Customizable downloads of raw or summarized data, freely available from www.usanpn.org, are accompanied by metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, published protocols, version/change control, documentation of QA/QC, and links to publications that use historical or contemporary data held in the NPDb. The National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products (e.g., quality-controlled raw or summarized status data) and tools (e.g., a new visualization tool released in 2015) to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation outlines a workflow for the development and validation of spatially gridded phenology products, drawing on recent work related to the Spring Indices now included in two national Indicator systems. In addition, we discuss how we engage observers to collect in-situ data to validate model predictions. Preliminary analyses indicate high fidelity between historical in-situ and modeled observations on a national scale, but with considerable variability at the regional scale. Regions with strong differences between expected and observed data are identified and will be the focus of in-situ data collection campaigns using USA-NPN's Nature's Notebook on-line user interface (www.nn.usanpn.org).

  16. Pellet fueling development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; Combs, S.K.; Lunsford, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A pellet injector development program has been under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1976 with the goals of developing D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ pellet fuel injectors capable of reliable repetitive fueling of reactors and of continued experimentation on contemporary plasma devices. The development has focused primarily on two types of injectors that show promise. One of these injectors is the centrifuge-type injector, which accelerates pellets in a high speed rotating track. The other is the gas or pneumatic gun, which accelerates pellets in a gun barrel using compressed helium of H/sub 2/ gas.

  17. Development of the N1-P2 auditory evoked response to amplitude rise time and rate of formant transition of speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Allen L; Shahin, Antoine J

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the development of weighting strategies for acoustic cues by examining the morphology of the N1-P2 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to changes in amplitude rise time (ART) and rate of formant transition (RFT) of consonant-vowel (CV) pairs in 4-6-year olds and adults. In the AEP session, individuals listened passively to the CVs /ba/, /wa/, and a /ba/ with a superimposed slower-rising /wa/ envelope (/ba/(wa)). In the behavioral session, individuals listened to the same stimuli and judged whether they heard a /ba/ or /wa/. We hypothesized that a developmental shift in weighting strategies should be reflected in a change in the morphology of the N1-P2 AEP. In 6-year olds and adults, the N1-P2 amplitude at the vertex reflected a change in RFT but not in ART. In contrast, in the 4-5-year olds, the vertex N1-P2 did not show specificity to changes in ART or RFT. In all groups, the N1-P2 amplitude at channel C4 (right hemisphere) reflected a change in ART but not in RFT. Behaviorally, 6-year olds and adults predominately utilized RFT cues (classified /ba/(wa) as /ba/) during phonetic judgments, as opposed to 4-5-year olds which utilized both cues equally. Our findings suggest that both ART and RFT are encoded in the auditory cortex, but an N1-P2 shift toward the vertex following age 4-5 indicates a shift toward an adult-like weighting strategy, such that, to utilize RFT to a greater extent. PMID:23570734

  18. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  19. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  20. 76 FR 17626 - National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Announcement of Time Change and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... FR 4562, March 2, 2011) for background information on the meeting. The full details of the meeting... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory... Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory...

  1. 78 FR 56866 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) was established by the Secretary of... science and information pertaining to current and future impacts of climate. Time and Date: The...

  2. 78 FR 35259 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) was established by the Secretary of... science and information pertaining to current and future impacts of climate. Time And Date: The...

  3. Perioperative death in Malaysia: the transition phase from a developing nation to a developed one.

    PubMed

    Kandasami, P; Inbasegaran, K; Lim, W L

    2003-08-01

    This paper examines the surgical pathology associated with perioperative deaths in a country that is undergoing the transition from a developing to a developed nation status. The data from an ongoing nation-wide perioperative mortality study was prospectively collected for the period July 1996 to December 1997 and analyzed. The surgical pathology related to perioperative deaths in Malaysia is different from other developing and developed countries. While death from trauma and the late presentation of surgical conditions are similar to developing countries, infective gastrointestinal conditions were rarely encountered. Diseases associated with advanced age such as colorectal cancer, peptic ulcer, urological diseases and vascular conditions are beginning to emerge. As the country races towards a developed nation status, increasing life expectancy and changing life-styles are expected to influence the disease pattern. The planning of surgical facilities and manpower development must recognize the changes taking place. PMID:14750382

  4. Radioactive target and source development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Ahmad, I.; Thomas, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    An increased demand for low-level radioactive targets has created the need for a laboratory dedicated to the production of these foils. A description is given of the radioactive target produced as well as source development work being performed at the Physics Division target facility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Highlights include equipment used and the techniques employed. In addition, some examples of recent source preparation are given as well as work currently in progress.

  5. Radioactive target and source development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Ahmad, I.; Thomas, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    An increased demand for low-level radioactive targets has created the need for a laboratory dedicated to the production of these foils. A description is given of the radioactive target produced as well as source development work being performed at the Physics Division target facility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Highlights include equipment used and the techniques employed. In addition, some examples of recent source preparation are given as well as work currently in progress.

  6. National rf technology research and development program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This plan was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the Office of Fusion Energy, Division of Development and Technology, to define the technology development needs and priorities. The US rf research and development community, with a wide representation from universities, laboratories and industries, participated in many discussions, meetings and in a three-day workshop in developing the needs and priorities definition. This very active and effective involvement of the rf leaders from all of these groups was an essential feature of the activity and results in the plan representing a broad consensus from the magnetic fusion energy development community. In addition, a number of scientists from Japan and Europe participated by providing data.

  7. Cost effective development of a national test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.; Jones, V. L.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    For several years, the Marshall Space Flight Center has pursued the coordinated development of a Large Space Structures (LSS) National Test Bed for the investigation of numerous technical issues involved in the use of LSS in space. The origins of this development, the current status of the various test facilities and the plans laid down for the next five years' activities are described. Particular emphasis on the control and structural interaction issues has been paid so far; however, immediately emerging are user applications (such as the proposed pinhole occulter facility). In the immediate future, such emerging technologies as smart robots and multibody interactions will be studied. These areas are covered.

  8. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. PMID:25181944

  9. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Moore; Francine J. Rice; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme; W. David SwanK; DeLon C. Haggard; Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Steven E. Steffler; N. Pat Hallinan; Michael D. Chapple; Douglas E. Burkes

    2008-10-01

    Within the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), UMo fuel-foils are being developed in an effort to realize high density monolithic fuel plates for use in high-flux research and test reactors. Namely, targeted are reactors that are not amenable to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel conversion via utilization of high density dispersion-based fuels, i.e. 8-9 gU/cc. LEU conversion of reactors having a need for >8-9 gU/cc fuel density will only be possible by way of monolithic fuel forms. The UMo fuel foils under development afford fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. Two primary challenges have been established with respect to UMo monolithic fuel development; namely, fuel element fabrication and in-reactor fuel element performance. Both issues are being addressed concurrently at the Idaho National Laboratory. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL); including development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fabrication processes to be discussed include: UMo alloying and casting, foil fabrication via hot rolling, fuel-clad interlayer application via co-rolling and thermal spray processes, clad bonding via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB), and fuel plate finishing.

  10. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  11. Developing Nationally Competitive NASA Research Capability in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzonetti, Frank J.

    1997-01-01

    In May, 1995 West Virginia EPSCOR was awarded $150,000 to support activities to develop research capabilities in West Virginia in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These funds were used to support three projects: 1) Information Processing and the Earth Observing System, directed by Dr. Stuart Tewksbury of West Virginia University; 2) Development of Optical Materials for Atmospheric Sensing Experiments, directed by Dr. Nancy Giles of West Virginia University; and 3) Development of Doppler Global Velocimeter (DGV) for Aeronautical and Combustion Studies, directed by Dr. John Kuhlman of West Virginia University. The funding provides the means to develop capability in each of these areas. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments in each project supported under this award.

  12. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  13. Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Rostila, Mikael; Yngwe, Monica Åberg

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, health inequality has persisted or increased in states with comprehensive welfare. Methods We conducted a national registry-based repeated cohort study with a 3-year follow-up between 1990 and 2007 in Sweden. Information on all-cause mortality in all working-age Swedish men and women aged between 30 and 64 years was collected. Data were subjected to temporal trend analysis using joinpoint regression to statistically confirm the trajectories observed. Results Among men, age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 38.3% from 234.9 to 145 (per 100 000 population) over the whole period in the highest income quintile, whereas the reduction was only 18.3% (from 774.5 to 632.5) in the lowest quintile. Among women, mortality decreased by 40% (from 187.4 to 112.5) in the highest income group, but increased by 12.1% (from 280.2 to 314.2) in the poorest income group. Joinpoint regression identified that the differences in age-standardised mortality between the highest and the lowest income quintiles decreased among men by 18.85 annually between 1990 and 1994 (p trend=0.02), whereas it increased later, with a 2.88 point increase per year (p trend <0.0001). Among women, it continuously increased by 9.26/year (p trend <0.0001). In relative terms, age-adjusted mortality rate ratios showed a continuous increase in both genders. Conclusions Income-based inequalities among working-age male and female Swedes have increased since the late 1990s, whereas in absolute terms the increase was less remarkable among men. Structural and behavioural factors explaining this trend, such as the economic recession in the early 1990s, should be studied further. PMID:25143429

  14. 75 FR 35042 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The National Children's Study (NCS), Vanguard (Pilot... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health...

  15. The development of national standards for adult educators in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Justin; Richardson, Brent H.

    2012-06-01

    Since gaining independence from South Africa in 1990, Namibia has placed considerable emphasis on education, including adult learning. As a means of improving the quality of adult learning, the Namibian Ministry of Education commissioned the development of national standards in 2010 to express competency requirements for adult educators. Particular attention was paid to the views of adult learners who participated through thirty focus groups. The participatory process revealed that the work of an adult educator is more complex and demanding than had previously been appreciated. The required competencies were categorised under four headings: (1) Knowledge as an adult educator, (2) Practice as an adult educator, (3) Relationships as an adult educator and (4) Ethics and professionalism as an adult educator. The Namibia Qualifications Authority, acting under its legislative mandate of setting occupational standards for occupations, jobs, posts and positions, approved the national standards in 2011.

  16. Development of an analysis capability for the National Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, D.; Nelson, R.

    1997-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to examine the Department of Transportation`s (DOT) National Transportation System (NTS) initiative, to document what has been learned, and to outline a National Transportation Network Analysis Capability (NTNAC) based on a ``TRANSIMS-like`` approach. This study was conducted over a two month period at the end of FY1997. The scope of the effort was carefully defined to accommodate the short time horizon and to provide focus to a very large analytical problem. The objectives were to: (1) define the NTS and the NTS problem; (2) identify problem characteristics; (3) describe an analytical solution based on the TRANSIMS approach; (4) identify data requirements and availability; (5) develop criteria for a scenario to be used in a prototype demonstration; and (6) select a scenario for the prototype demonstration.

  17. Development of a National Digital Geospatial Data Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federal Geographic Data Committee

    1995-01-01

    This proposal of a data framework to organize and enhance the activities of the geospatial data community to meet needs for basic themes of data was developed in response to a request in Executive Order 12906, Coordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 1994). The request stated: in consultation with State, local, and tribal governments and within 9 months of the date of this order, the FGDC shall submit a plan and schedule to OMB [U.S. Office of Management and Budget] for completing the initial implementation of a national digital geospatial data framework ("framework") by January 2000 and for establishing a process of ongoing data maintenance. The framework shall include geospatial data that are significant, in the determination of the FGDC, to a broad variety of users within any geographic area or nationwide. At a minimum, the plan shall address how the initial transportation, hydrology, and boundary elements of the framework might be completed by January 1998 in order to support the decennial census of 2000. The proposal was developed by representatives of local, regional, State, and Federal agencies under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The individuals are listed in the appendix of this report. This Framework Working Group identified the purpose and goals for the framework; identified incentives for participation; defined the information content; developed preliminary technical, operational, and business contexts; specified the institutional roles needed; and developed a strategy for a phased implementation of the framework.Members of the working group presented the concepts of the framework for discussion at several national and regional public meetings. The draft of the report also was provided for public, written review. These discussions and reviews were the source of many improvements to the report.The FGDC approved the report for

  18. The national science agenda as a ritual of modern nation-statehood: The consequences of national "Science for National Development" projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drori, Gili S.

    This study is a comparative investigation of the ways by which the globalization of modern science affects the characteristics of different nation-states. Whereas much research and policy discussion focuses on science as an instrumental, or technical, system with immediate consequences for national conditions, such as economic development, science should also be regarded as a general cultural framework, which is highly institutionalized at the global level. As such, the institutionalization of science at both the global and national levels affects a wide variety of national properties. Following this line of reasoning, this dissertation study employs cross-national and longitudinal data and multiple-indicator methods to show national-level consequences of scientific expansion on the processes of rationalization and modernization of social and political life. It appears that the cross-national expansion of science practice results in, or is associated with, a variety of measures of (a) the standardization of civil and governmental procedures and (b) the expansion of the political rights and political engagement. I conclude from these empirical findings that scientization encourages (a) greater general societal rationalization and (b) expanded notions of social actorhood and agency. This evidence demonstrates how the globalization of science alters local conditions, both civil and political, by supporting the institutionalization of bureaucratic practices and participatory politics. Thus, the expansion of science--clearly affected by global processes--carries a general secularized faith in a rationalized world and in human agency. In this sense, the practice of science is a national ritual, whose social role is as a legitimacy-providing institution, rather then a technically functional institution. On a broader level, the study emphasizes the relations between globalization processes and the sovereignty of the nation-state. I conclude that science carries modernist

  19. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  20. The development of the intramural research program at the National Institutes of Health after World War II.

    PubMed

    Park, Buhm Soon

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the rise of the National Institutes of Health after World War II from the perspective of intramural scientists working at the NIH's main campus in Bethesda. Several postwar social circumstances-the local research tradition, the wartime experience of civilian scientists, the doctor draft, and anti-nepotism rules in academia-affected the recruitment of research-oriented scientists into the NIH. These historically contingent factors were no less important than the larger political, legislative context for the development of the NIH intramural program as a prominent research institution. PMID:12878809

  1. National RF Test Facility as a multipurpose development tool

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Berry, L.A.; Blue, C.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Loring, C.M. Jr.; Moeller, F.A.; Ponte, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Additions and modifications to the National RF Test Facility design have been made that (1) focus its use for technology development for future large systems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), (2) expand its applicability to technology development in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) at 60 GHz, (3) provide a facility for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) 60-GHz ring physics studies, and (4) permit engineering studies of steady-state plasma systems, including superconducting magnet performance, vacuum vessel heat flux removal, and microwave protection. The facility will continue to function as a test bed for generic technology developments for ICRF and the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF). The upgraded facility is also suitable for mirror halo physics experiments.

  2. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  3. 77 FR 9666 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will... purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  4. NAOJ's activities on Astronomy for Development: Aiding Astronomy Education in Developing Nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Yoshida, F.

    2015-03-01

    We summarize NAOJ's efforts to promote astronomy in developing nations. The Office of International Relations, collaborations with the Office of Public Outreach at NAOJ and with the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA), has engaged children, students and educators about astronomy development in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, we introduce ``You are Galileo!`` project, which is a very well received astronomy education program for children. We also report on a continuing effort by the Japanese Government in support of astronomy programs in the developing nations.

  5. Property rights and genetic engineering: developing nations at risk.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    Eighty percent of (commercial) genetically engineered seeds (GES) are designed only to resist herbicides. Letting farmers use more chemicals, they cut labor costs. But developing nations say GES cause food shortages, unemployment, resistant weeds, and extinction of native cultivars when "volunteers" drift nearby. While GES patents are reasonable, this paper argues many patent policies are not. The paper surveys GE technology, outlines John Locke's classic account of property rights, and argues that current patent policies must be revised to take account of Lockean ethical constraints. After answering a key objection, it provides concrete suggestions for implementing its ethical conclusions. PMID:15727008

  6. Numerical System Solver Developed for the National Cycle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Cycle Program (NCP), a powerful new numerical solver has been developed to support the simulation of aeropropulsion systems. This software uses a hierarchical object-oriented design. It can provide steady-state and time-dependent solutions to nonlinear and even discontinuous problems typically encountered when aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems are simulated. It also can handle constrained solutions, in which one or more factors may limit the behavior of the engine system. Timedependent simulation capabilities include adaptive time-stepping and synchronization with digital control elements. The NCP solver is playing an important role in making the NCP a flexible, powerful, and reliable simulation package.

  7. Understanding parenting in Manitoba First nations: implications for program development.

    PubMed

    Eni, Rachel; Rowe, Gladys

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study introduced the "Manitoba First Nation Strengthening Families Maternal Child Health Pilot Project" program and evaluation methodologies. The study provided a knowledge base for programmers, evaluators, and communities to develop relevant health promotion, prevention, and intervention programming to assist in meeting health needs of pregnant women and young families. Sixty-five open-ended, semistructured interviews were completed in 13 communities. Data analysis was through grounded theory. Three major themes emerged from the data: interpersonal support and relationships; socioeconomic factors; and community initiatives. Complex structural, historical events compromise parenting; capacity and resilience are supported through informal and formal health and social supports. PMID:21633214

  8. Renewable energy technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1994-03-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earths present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing many of these technologies over the last two decades. This paper describes innovative solar, wind and geothermal energy systems and components that Sandia is helping to bring to the marketplace. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are conducted in partnership with non-federal government entities. A number of these partners are from New Mexico.

  9. Renewable energy technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, P. C.

    1994-02-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earth's present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing many of these technologies over the last two decades. This paper describes innovative solar, wind and geothermal energy systems and components that Sandia is helping to bring to the marketplace. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are conducted in partnership with non-federal government entities. A number of these partners are from New Mexico.

  10. Coverage of Developed and Developing Nations in American Wire Services to Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony

    A study was conducted to contrast the news coverage of developed and developing nations, and of the United States specifically, as transmitted to Asia by the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI). A total of 556 AP reports and 453 UPI reports drawn from a 6-week period were coded for more than 100 variables and 47 topics. The…

  11. Exploring National Human Resource Development: A Case of China Management Development in a Transitioning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Greg G.

    2006-01-01

    To advance an emerging frontier in human resource development (HRD) research, national HRD (NHRD), this study explored the subject by focusing on a key area of HRD, management development (MD) in the China context. Taking a system and holistic perspective, the study identified three critical challenges facing Chinese managers and China MD in the…

  12. Fidelity of test development process within a national science grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfield, Teresa E.

    In 2002, a math-science partnership (MSP) program was initiated by a national science grant. The purpose of the MSP program was to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of promising partnerships among institutions of higher education, K-12 schools and school systems, as well as other important stakeholders. One of the funded projects included a teacher-scientist collaborative that instituted a professional development system to prepare teachers to use inquiry-based instructional modules. The MSP program mandated evaluations of its funded projects. One of the teacher-scientist collaborative project's outcomes specifically focused on teacher and student science content and process skills. In order to provide annual evidence of progress and to measure the impact of the project's efforts, and because no appropriate science tests were available to measure improvements in content knowledge of participating teachers and their students, the project contracted for the development of science tests. This dissertation focused on the process of test development within an evaluation and examined planned (i.e., expected) and actual (i.e., observed) test development, specifically concentrating on the factors that affected the actual test development process. Planned test development was defined as the process of creating tests according to the well-established test development procedures recommended by the AERA/APA/NCME 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Actual test development was defined as the process of creating tests as it actually took place. Because case study provides an in-depth, longitudinal examination of an event (i.e., case) in a naturalistic setting, it was selected as the appropriate methodology to examine the difference between planned and actual test development. The case (or unit of analysis) was the test development task, a task that was bounded by the context in which it occurred---and over which this researcher had

  13. National Energy Audit Tool for Multifamily Buildings Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; MacDonald, Michael; Accawi, Gina K; New, Joshua Ryan; Im, Piljae

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) enables low-income families to reduce their energy costs by providing funds to make their homes more energy efficient. In addition, the program funds Weatherization Training and Technical Assistance (T and TA) activities to support a range of program operations. These activities include measuring and documenting performance, monitoring programs, promoting advanced techniques and collaborations to further improve program effectiveness, and training, including developing tools and information resources. The T and TA plan outlines the tasks, activities, and milestones to support the weatherization network with the program implementation ramp up efforts. Weatherization of multifamily buildings has been recognized as an effective way to ramp up weatherization efforts. To support this effort, the 2009 National Weatherization T and TA plan includes the task of expanding the functionality of the Weatherization Assistant, a DOE-sponsored family of energy audit computer programs, to perform audits for large and small multifamily buildings This report describes the planning effort for a new multifamily energy audit tool for DOE's WAP. The functionality of the Weatherization Assistant is being expanded to also perform energy audits of small multifamily and large multifamily buildings. The process covers an assessment of needs that includes input from national experts during two national Web conferences. The assessment of needs is then translated into capability and performance descriptions for the proposed new multifamily energy audit, with some description of what might or should be provided in the new tool. The assessment of needs is combined with our best judgment to lay out a strategy for development of the multifamily tool that proceeds in stages, with features of an initial tool (version 1) and a more capable version 2 handled with currently available resources. Additional development in the

  14. [Health in the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Gallo, Edmundo; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates health as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, between 2012 and 2014. Health was part of the debate since the Millennium Summit and the MDGs (2000), and it also appears in the documents discussing the Post-2015 Agenda, from the Rio+20 to the Open Working Group (OWG), whose report was submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) 2014-2015, and in the Global Consultation on Health and the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons reports. The Authors concluded that the treatment of health in all these documents is uniform. They point out that the scope of the health-related SDG is very comprehensive, but its targets are conceptually fragmented and reduced. They advocate their change as to include not only the idea of social determinants of health, but also targets in the field of public health, which were not included in the proposal of the OWG. They also warn that the global and national governance systems need to be reformed and advocate more participation of the civil society, which can influence diplomacy, which, in turn, will be responsible for the agreement signed at the UNGA in 2015. PMID:26247985

  15. Obstacles to adaptation decisions in the developing world: A case study of coastal protection measures and sea-level rise in Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2014-12-01

    International aid is increasingly focused on adaptation to climate change. At recent meetings of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the developed world agreed to rapidly increase international assistance to help the developing world respond to the impacts of climate change. Here, we examine the decision-making challenges facing internationally supported climate change adaptation projects given the large uncertainty in future climate predictions, using the example of efforts to implement coastal protection measures (e.g. sea walls, mangrove planting) in Kiribati. The central equatorial Pacific country is home to the Kiribati Adaptation Project, the first national-level climate change adaptation project supported by the World Bank. Drawing on interview and document research conducted over an 8-year period, we trace the forces influencing decisions about coastal protection measures, starting from the variability and uncertainty in climate change projections, through the trade-offs between different measures, to the social, political, and economic context in which decisions are finally made. We then discuss how sub-optimal adaptation measures may be implemented despite years of planning, consultation, and technical studies. This qualitative analysis of the real-world process of climate change adaptation reveals that embracing a culturally appropriate and short-term (~20 years) planning horizon, while not ignoring the longer-term future, may reduce the influence of scientific uncertainty on decisions and provide opportunities to learn from mistakes, reassess the science, and adjust suboptimal investments.

  16. National research and development program in the energy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Scientific, technological, and economic criteria were established to clarify, in a total context, the choices open to Belgium in meeting the energy crisis and in reducing dependence on foreign sources of fuels and strategic materials. Mathematical models were developed to describe the energy supply and demand in both the industrial and residential sectors. For the period from 1982 to 1987, activities concentrate on analyzing the energy system; determining reasonable use of energy in all sectors; investigating fossil energy and the energetic vectors of substitution and biomass; automating processes for the production of solar cells and the development solar receivers and photovoltaic systems; and recycling and stockpiling strategic materials. A documentation center was established to evaluate national and international research results.

  17. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  18. Fidelity of test development process within a national science grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfield, Teresa E.

    In 2002, a math-science partnership (MSP) program was initiated by a national science grant. The purpose of the MSP program was to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of promising partnerships among institutions of higher education, K-12 schools and school systems, as well as other important stakeholders. One of the funded projects included a teacher-scientist collaborative that instituted a professional development system to prepare teachers to use inquiry-based instructional modules. The MSP program mandated evaluations of its funded projects. One of the teacher-scientist collaborative project's outcomes specifically focused on teacher and student science content and process skills. In order to provide annual evidence of progress and to measure the impact of the project's efforts, and because no appropriate science tests were available to measure improvements in content knowledge of participating teachers and their students, the project contracted for the development of science tests. This dissertation focused on the process of test development within an evaluation and examined planned (i.e., expected) and actual (i.e., observed) test development, specifically concentrating on the factors that affected the actual test development process. Planned test development was defined as the process of creating tests according to the well-established test development procedures recommended by the AERA/APA/NCME 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Actual test development was defined as the process of creating tests as it actually took place. Because case study provides an in-depth, longitudinal examination of an event (i.e., case) in a naturalistic setting, it was selected as the appropriate methodology to examine the difference between planned and actual test development. The case (or unit of analysis) was the test development task, a task that was bounded by the context in which it occurred---and over which this researcher had

  19. MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Education And Public Outreach program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Davatzes, A.; McEwen, A.

    2006-12-01

    HiRISE provides an innovative education and public outreach program with a variety of formal and informal educational activities. The centerpiece of HiRISE's E/PO program is it's interactive website called HiWeb (http://marsoweb.nasa.nasa.gov/hirise and http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu). HiWeb provides an image suggestion facility where the public can submit suggestions for HiRISE images and view HiRISE images in context with other available Mars data. HiRISE EPO has developed K-14 educational materials including activity, coloring and comic books that focus on Mars geology, the image suggestion process, understanding the HiRISE camera and working with digital image data. In addition, we have developed interactive educational games including Mars crosswords, jigsaws, word searches, and flash cards to provide fun ways for students to learn more about Mars. All educational materials and games are aligned with the National Science Standards. HiRISE Clickworkers will provide online opportunities for the public to assist the team in creating geologic feature databases (gullies, boulders, craters, wind streaks, etc.) present in the HiRISE images in addition to other innovative opportunities. Web events (including web chats, casts and forums) with HiRISE team members, will help guide students and educators of HiRISE capabilities and science goals and provide support for submitting good image suggestions. Educator workshops will be held each year at or near the institution of HiRISE team members. Workshop support materials and instructions for all hands-on activities will be placed on HiWeb to facilitate sharing of information with other educators and the general public. Large-scale displays of HiRISE images will be available at several at museums and planetariums.

  20. High power diode pumped solid state laser development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Hackel, L.

    1994-03-01

    The authors recent developments in high powered diode pumped solid state lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Over the past year the authors have made continued improvements to semiconductor pump array technology which includes the development of higher average power and lower cost pump modules. They report the performance of high power AlGaAs, InGaAs, and AlGaInP arrays. They also report on improvement to the integrated micro-optics designs in conjunction with lensing duct technology which gives rise to very high performance end pumping designs for solid state lasers which have major advantages which they detail. Substantial progress on beam quality improvements to near the diffraction limit at very high power have also been made and will be reported. They also will discuss recent experiments on high power non-linear materials for q-switches, harmonic converters, and parametric oscillators. Advances in diode pumped devices at LLNL which include tunable Cr:LiSrAlF{sub 6}, mid-IR Er:YAG, holmium based lasers and other developments will also be outlined. Concepts for delivering up to 30 kilowatts of average power from a DPSSL oscillator will be described.

  1. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  2. Rising College Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ways in which parents of school-age children can offset the rising costs of college, including encouraging students to get summer and part-time jobs, putting savings toward students' education in accounts in students' names to save taxes, investigating cooperative work/education plans, and investing in mutual funds. (DB)

  3. Evaluation of marsh development processes at Fire Island National Seashore: Recent and historic perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; King, D.R.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Appleby, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose and significance of the study: Salt marshes are dynamic environments, increasing in vertical elevation and migrating, often landward, as sea level rises. With sea level rise greater than marsh elevation increase, marshes can be submerged, marsh soils become waterlogged, and plant growth becomes stressed, often resulting in conversion of vegetation-dominated marsh to mudflat or open water habitat. Given that the rate of sea level rise is expected to accelerate over the next century and that some marshes in the northeast are becoming submerged (e.g., Jamaica Bay, NY), it is important to understand the processes that control marsh development. More specifically, the objectives of this project were to quantify vertical marsh elevation change in relation to recent rates of sea-level rise and to investigate factors or processes that are most influential in controlling the development and maintenance of Fire Island salt marshes.

  4. Potential Market for Satellite Technology in Meeting Telecommunication Needs of Developing Nations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A recent study examined the potential for satellite technology to meet the telecommunication needs of developing nations. The growth of these nations depends on their attracting and holding the industrial investments of developed nations. This will not be likely with the antiquated telecommunications infrastructure typical of developing nations. On the contrary, it will require an infrastructure that is compatible with international standards. Most of the developing nations perceive this necessity and are pursuing the necessary upgrades. The rate of replacement, types of technology, services affected, and the terrestrial/satellite mix differ by each nation's priorities and gross national product (GNP).

  5. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  6. Developing a provisional and national renal disease registry for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Askarianzadeh, Mahdi; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease registry is a database that includes information about people suffering a special kind of disease. The aim of this study was to first identify and compare the National Renal Disease Registry (NRDR) characteristics in some countries with Iran; and second, develop a provisional and NRDR for Iran. Materials and Methods: Retrieval of data of the NRDR was performed by scholars responsible in related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Renal Disease charity, and data registries in the United States, United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Iran. This research was applied, and the study was descriptive-comparative. The study population consisted of the NRDR in selected countries in which data were collected by forms that were designed according to the study objectives. Sources of data were researchers, articles, books, journals, databases, websites, related documents, and people who are active in this regard, and related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and patient support charity. The researchers collected data for each country based on the study objectives and then put them in comparative tables. Data were analyzed by descriptive, comparative, and theoretical methods. Results: Most of the renal transplant teams report their own results as a single center experiences. America and Britain have a preeminent national registry of renal disease compared to other countries. Conclusion: Given that control, prevention, and treatment of chronic renal diseases incur high expenses and the disease is one of leading mortality factors in Iran and across the world and since national registry system for chronic renal diseases can provide better tools and strategies to manage and evaluate patients’ characteristics as well as risk factors which eventually leads to making better decisions. PMID:26109970

  7. 75 FR 32474 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection; Comment Request; the National Children's Study (NCS), Vanguard (Pilot... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD),...

  8. 77 FR 30294 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Children's Study SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes...

  9. 77 FR 24964 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute of Child... prospective, national longitudinal study of child health and development. In combination, these studies...

  10. 76 FR 27020 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC); Notice of Open Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... meeting of the DoC NOAA National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC). The... Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site...