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Sample records for developing samarium ams

  1. The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

    2008-10-13

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  2. Sparkle/AM1 Parameters for the Modeling of Samarium(III) and Promethium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2006-01-01

    The Sparkle/AM1 model is extended to samarium(III) and promethium(III) complexes. A set of 15 structures of high crystallographic quality (R factor < 0.05 Å), with ligands chosen to be representative of all samarium complexes in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database 2004, CSD, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the samarium ion, was used as a training set. In the validation procedure, we used a set of 42 other complexes, also of high crystallographic quality. The results show that this parametrization for the Sm(III) ion is similar in accuracy to the previous parametrizations for Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III). On the other hand, promethium is an artificial radioactive element with no stable isotope. So far, there are no promethium complex crystallographic structures in CSD. To circumvent this, we confirmed our previous result that RHF/STO-3G/ECP, with the MWB effective core potential (ECP), appears to be the most efficient ab initio model chemistry in terms of coordination polyhedron crystallographic geometry predictions from isolated lanthanide complex ion calculations. We thus generated a set of 15 RHF/STO-3G/ECP promethium complex structures with ligands chosen to be representative of complexes available in the CSD for all other trivalent lanthanide cations, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the lanthanide ion. For the 42 samarium(III) complexes and 15 promethium(III) complexes considered, the Sparkle/AM1 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the Ln(III) ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.07 and 0.06 Å, respectively, a level of accuracy comparable to present day ab initio/ECP geometries, while being hundreds of times faster. PMID:26626380

  3. Preparation of samarium monosulfide via samarium naphthalenide

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, O.V.; Nekrasova, T.V.; Bochkarev, M.N.

    1994-02-01

    Samarium monosulfide in a state amorphous to X-rays was prepared by the successive interaction of lithium naphthalenide with samarium diiodide and a solution of sulfur in THF in inert atmosphere or under reduced pressure under standard (normal) conditions. Samarium monosulfide was transferred to the polycrystalline state (a = 5.95 {angstrom}, NaCl-like structure) by annealing in a vacuum (<0.1 Pa) or in an inert atmosphere at 500-600{degrees}C.

  4. Development and evaluation of copper-67 and samarium-153 labeled conjugates for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Joshi, V.; Kolsky, K.; Sweet, M.; Steplewski, Z.

    1995-02-01

    The potential of utilizing receptor-specific agents such as monoclonal antibodies (MAb), and MAb-derived smaller molecules, as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors has stimulated much research activity. The success of such applications depends on many factors, especially the tumor binding properties of the antibody reagent, the efficiency of labeling and in-vivo stability of the radioconjugate and, on the careful choice of the radionuclide best suited to treat the tumor under consideration. The radiolabeled antibody technique for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), however, has experienced many limitations, and its success has not matched the expectations that were raised more than a decade ago. The problems that have been identified include: (i) degradation of antibody immunoreactivity resulting from chemical manipulations required for labeling; (ii) lack of suitable radioisotopes and methods for stable attachment of the radiolabel; (iii) in-vivo instability of the radioimmunoconjugates; (iv) excessive accumulation of activity in non-target locations; and (v) lack of radioimmunoconjugate accessibility to cells internal to a tumor mass. A careful choice of the radionuclide(s) best suited to treat the tumor under consideration is one of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunotherapy. This study evaluates copper 67 and samarium 153 for tumor radioimmunotherapy.

  5. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  6. Intercalation of graphene on iridium with samarium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    Intercalation of graphene on Ir (111) with Sm atoms is studied by methods of thermal desorption spectroscopy and thermionic emission. It is shown that adsorption of samarium at T = 300 K on graphene to concentrations of N ≤ 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 followed by heating of the substrate leads to practically complete escape of adsorbate underneath the graphene layer. At N > 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 and increasing temperature, a fraction of adsorbate remains on graphene in the form of two-dimensional "gas" and samarium islands and are desorbed in the range of temperatures of 1000-1200 K. Samarium remaining under the graphene is desorbed from the surface in the temperature range 1200-2150 K. Model conceptions for the samarium-graphene-iridium system in a wide temperature range are developed.

  7. Development of Tritium AMS for Biomedical Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dingley, K H; Chiarappa-Zucca, M L

    2002-01-01

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological research. Normally in the biological sciences, {sup 3}H is quantified by liquid scintillation counting. For the most sensitive measurements, liquid scintillation counting requires large samples and counting times of several-hours. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be-used to quantify {sup 3}H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological research community. However, before {sup 3}H AMS can be used routinely and successfully, two areas of concern needed to be addressed: (1) sample preparation methods needed to be refined and standardized, and (2) smaller and simpler AMS instrumentation needed to be developed. To address these concerns, the specific aims of this project were to: (1) characterize small dedicated {sup 3}H AMS spectrometer (2) develop routine and robust biological sample preparation methods, and (3) with the aid of our external collaborations, demonstrate the application of {sup 3}H AMS in the biomedical sciences. Towards these goals, the {sup 3}H AMS instrument was installed and optimized to enhance performance. The sample preparation methodology was established for standard materials (water and tributyrin) and biological samples. A number of biological and environmental studies which require {sup 3}H AMS were undertaken with university collaborators and our optimized analysis methods were employed to measure samples from these projects.

  8. Identification of genes controlling development of arbuscules in AM symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most vascular flowering plants have the capacity to form mutualistic symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These associations develop in the roots where the fungus delivers phosphate to the root cortical cells and receives carbon from its plant host. During the symbiosis, the fungus prol...

  9. Development of AMS procedure for measurement of 93Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenting; Collon, Philippe; Kashiv, Yoav; Bowers, Matthew; Robertson, Daniel; Schmitt, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The procedure for measuring 93Zr (t1/2 = 1.5 Ma) by AMS is currently being developed at the Nuclear Science Lab at the University of Notre Dame and we report on first experiments performed in this direction. AMS detection of 93Zr can potentially be applied to address astrophysical and environmental issues: (1) the measurement of the 92Zr(n,γ)93Zr reaction cross-section at nucleosynthesis s-process relevant temperatures, (2) the search for potential live 93Zr from a supernova in deep sea sediments, (3) hydrological and radioactive waste tracing. The measurement of 93Zr requires adequate separation from its stable isobar 93Nb. We are currently working on optimizing this separation by using the GasFilled Magnet technique with additional multiple dE measurements in a focal plane ionization chamber.

  10. Technological developments for strontium-90 determination using AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shibayama, Nao; Izumi, Daiki; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one of method used for 90Sr determination. It would enable rapid 90Sr measurements from environmental samples such as water, soil, and milk. However, routine analysis of 90Sr using AMS has not yet been achieved because of difficulties associated with isobaric separation and production of intense negative ion beams characterized by currents from hundreds of nanoamperes to several microamperes. We have developed a rapid procedure for preparing samples with optimum compositions for use with AMS, which enables production of intense Sr beam currents from an ion source. Samples of SrF2 were prepared from a standard Sr solution and agricultural soil. The time required to prepare a SrF2 sample from a soil sample was 10 h. Negative 88SrF3- ions were successfully extracted at 500 nA from mixed samples of SrF2 and PbF2. In the present work, negative ions of 90Zr, included as an impurity, were accelerated with a tandem accelerator operated at a terminal voltage of 5 MV. Ions characterized by a charge state of 6+ were channeled into a gas counter. An atomic ratio of 90Zr/88Sr of 3 × 10-8 was estimated for the soil sample. No signal was detected from the assay of PbF2, which was pressed in an aluminum cathode, for a mass number of 90. PbF2 revealed good performance in the production of negative SrF3- molecular ion beams and detection of 90Sr with a gas counter.

  11. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3). PMID:24528570

  12. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Zhou, Xinlin; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-02-01

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).

  13. Removal of the samarium isobaric interference from promethium mass analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1988-02-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used to eliminate isobaric interference when determining the isotopic abundances of an element. In this application, RIMS is applied to the determination of promethium with the removal of samarium interference. In particular, promethium-147 is separated form samarium-147 and samarium-152.

  14. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    SciTech Connect

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  15. Increasing Scientific Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide through AMS Professional Development Diversity Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing students' earth science literacy, especially those at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), is a primary goal of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Through the NSF-supported AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies Diversity workshops for Historically Black College and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions, AMS has brought meteorology and oceanography courses to more students. These workshops trained and mentored faculty implementing AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies. Of the 145 institutions that have participated in the AMS Weather Studies Diversity Project, reaching over 13,000 students, it was the first meteorology course offered for more than two-thirds of the institutions. As a result of the AMS Ocean Studies Diversity Project, 75 institutions have offered the course to more than 3000 students. About 50 MSIs implemented both the Weather and Ocean courses, improving the Earth Science curriculum on their campuses. With the support of NSF and NASA, and a partnership with Second Nature, the organizing entity behind the American College and University President's Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), the newest professional development workshop, AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project will recruit MSI faculty members through the vast network of Second Nature's more than 670 signatories. These workshops will begin in early summer 2012. An innovative approach to studying climate science, AMS Climate Studies explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. In addition, faculty and students learn about basic climate modeling through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model. Following the flow of energy in a clear, simplified model from space to

  16. Dielectric investigations of polycrystalline samarium bismuth ferrite ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Palaimiene, E.; Macutkevic, J.; Banys, J.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-01-05

    Results of broadband dielectric investigations of samarium doped bismuth ferrite ceramics are presented in wide temperature range (20–800 K). At temperatures higher than 400 K, the dielectric properties of samarium bismuth ferrite ceramics are governed by Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and electrical conductivity. The DC conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with samarium concentration. In samarium doped bismuth ferrite, the ferroelectric phase transition temperature decreases with samarium concentration and finally no ferroelectric order is observed at x = 0.2. At lower temperatures, the dielectric properties of ferroelectric samarium doped bismuth ferrite are governed by ferroelectric domains dynamics. Ceramics with x = 0.2 exhibit the relaxor-like behaviour.

  17. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, Phillip R.

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  18. Who Am I? The Ethnic Identity Development of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    During the past 20 years, much has been written on the ethnic/racial identity development of adults. Recently, attention toward adolescents' ethnic identity development has increased; to explicate this new research, a model of ethnic identity development proposed by Phinney (1989) is explored here. The model classifies adolescents into one of four…

  19. FunBlocks. A Modular Framework for AmI System Development

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios. PMID:23112599

  20. FunBlocks. A modular framework for AmI system development.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios. PMID:23112599

  1. Tripyrrolidinophosphoric acid triamide as an activator in samarium diiodide reductions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Chriss E; Ramsey, Jeremy D; Sampsell, David G; Butler, Julie A; Cecchini, Michael R

    2010-11-19

    The electrochemical and spectrophotometric characterization of the complex formed from samarium diiodide and 4 equiv of tripyrrolidinophosphoric acid triamide (TPPA) is presented. Kinetic studies indicate that the SmI(2)/TPPA complex possesses reactivity greater than the complex formed between samarium diiodide and 4 equiv of HMPA. Examples of the use of SmI(2)/TPPA in synthesis are presented. PMID:20979412

  2. Development of a fraction collector for coupling gas chromatography with an AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenbach, Andreas; Uhl, T.; Hain, A.; Scharf, A.; Kritzler, K.; Kretschmer, W.

    2008-05-01

    It has been shown that microscale 14C measurements are possible by using a gas handling system and a gas ion source [T. Uhl, W. Kretschmer, W. Luppold, A. Scharf, AMS measurements from microgram to milligram, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. (2005) 474 (240th ed.), T. Uhl, W. Luppold, A. Rottenbach, A. Scharf, K. Kritzler, W. Kretschmer, Development of an automatic gas handling system for microscale AMS (14C) measurements, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. (2007) 303 (259th ed.)]. In Erlangen a gas handling system was especially developed for environmental and biomedical investigations. For the separation of the compound of interest a standard gas chromatograph (GC) is used. To minimize the sample contamination and sample loss we have designed a fraction collector that connects a GC and an elemental analyzer (EA) directly. The selected compound is combusted in the EA and the resulting CO2 is then transferred into the gas handling system for AMS measurements. From the beginning of GC preparation up to the AMS measurement the sample is in a closed line. All operations are fully automated, so no manual operations are necessary. This guarantees high cleanness and maximum sample yield. Preliminary measurements are done using modern and old ethyl alcohol (from fermentation and of petrochemical origin, respectively). The results are consistent with their expected values although cross contamination and background signal increased as the sample mass was decreased.

  3. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R

    2015-07-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612

  4. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  5. Development of an AMS method to study oceanic circulation characteristics using cosmogenic 39Ar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collon, P.H.; Bichler, M.; Caggiano, J.; Cecil, L.D.; El, Masri Y.; Golser, R.; Jiang, C.L.; Heinz, A.; Henderson, D.; Kutschera, W.; Lehmann, B.E.; Leleux, P.; Loosli, H.H.; Pardo, R.C.; Paul, M.; Rehm, K.E.; Schlosser, P.; Scott, R.H.; Smethie, W.M., Jr.; Vondrasek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Initial experiments at the ATLAS facility [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 92 (1994) 241] resulted in a clear detection of cosmogenic 39Ar signal at the natural level. The present paper summarizes the recent developments of 39Ar AMS measurements at ATLAS: the use of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) positive ion source equipped with a special quartz liner to reduce 39K background, the development of a gas handling system for small volume argon samples, the acceleration of 39Ar8+ ions to 232 MeV, and the final separation of 39Ar from 39K in a gas-filled spectrograph. The first successful AMS measurements of 39Ar in ocean water samples from the Southern Atlantic ventilation experiment (SAVE) are reported. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Properties of samarium nitride: First principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Panwar, Y. S.; Pataiya, J.; Makode, C.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-01

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of samarium nitride at ambient and high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. The phase transition pressure for this compound was found to be 6.0 GPa and it is transform from NaCl to CsCl-type structure. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B0), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in SmN compound. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  7. Decoupling of paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic AMS development during the experimental chemical compaction of illite shale powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruijn, Rolf H. C.; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Hirt, Ann M.; Benson, Philip M.

    2013-03-01

    Inclination shallowing of detrital remanent magnetization in sedimentary strata has solely been constrained for the mechanical processes associated with mud deposition and shallow compaction of clay-rich sediment, even though a significant part of mud diagenesis involves chemical compaction. Here we report, for the first time, on the laboratory simulation of magnetic assemblage development in a chemically compacting illite shale powder of natural origin. The experimental procedure comprised three compaction stages that, when combined, simulate the diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of illite mud. First, the full extent of load-sensitive mechanical compaction is simulated by room temperature dry axial compression. Subsequently, temperature controlled chemical compaction is initiated by exposing the sample in two stages to amphibolite or granulite facies conditions (temperature is 490 to 750°C and confining pressure is 170 or 300 MPa) both in the absence (confining pressure only) and presence of a deformation stress field (axial compression or confined torsion). Thermodynamic equilibrium in the last two compaction stages was not reached, but illite and mica dehydroxylation initiated, thus providing a wet environment. Magnetic properties were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy (AMS) in both high- and low-applied field. Acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), stepwise three-component thermal de-magnetization of IRM and first-order reversal curves were used to characterize the remanence-bearing minerals. During the chemical compaction experiments ferrimagnetic iron-sulphides formed after reduction of magnetite and detrital pyrite in a low sulphur fugacity environment. The degree of low-field AMS is unaffected by porosity reduction from 15 to ˜1 per cent, regardless of operating conditions and compaction history. High-field paramagnetic AMS increases with compaction for all employed stress regimes and conditions, and is

  8. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  9. Superconductivity in the ferromagnetic semiconductor samarium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, E.-M.; Granville, S.; Engel, A.; Chong, S. V.; Governale, M.; Zülicke, U.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Trodahl, H. J.; Natali, F.; Vézian, S.; Ruck, B. J.

    2016-07-01

    Conventional wisdom expects that making semiconductors ferromagnetic requires doping with magnetic ions and that superconductivity cannot coexist with magnetism. However, recent concerted efforts exploring new classes of materials have established that intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors exist and that certain types of strongly correlated metals can be ferromagnetic and superconducting at the same time. Here we show that the trifecta of semiconducting behavior, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity can be achieved in a single material. Samarium nitride (SmN) is a well-characterized intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor, hosting strongly spin-ordered 4 f electrons below a Curie temperature of 27 K. We have now observed that it also hosts a superconducting phase below 4 K when doped to electron concentrations above 1021cm-3 . The large exchange splitting of the conduction band in SmN favors equal-spin triplet pairing with p -wave symmetry. Significantly, superconductivity is enhanced in superlattices of gadolinium nitride (GdN) and SmN. An analysis of the robustness of such a superconducting phase against disorder leads to the conclusion that the 4 f bands are crucial for superconductivity, making SmN a heavy-fermion-type superconductor.

  10. Samarium-145 and its use as a radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Ralph G.; Laster, Brenda H.; Packer, Samuel

    1989-09-05

    The present invention covers a new radiation source, samarium-145, with radiation energies slightly above those of I-125 and a half-life of 340 days. The samarium-145 source is produced by neutron irradiation of SM-144. This new source is useful as the implanted radiation source in photon activation therapy of malignant tumors to activate the stable I-127 contained in the IdUrd accumulated in the tumor, causing radiation sensitization and Auger cascades that irreperably damage the tumor cells. This new source is also useful as a brachytherapy source.

  11. Samarium-145 and its use as a radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Ralph G.; Laster, Brenda H.; Packer, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    The present invention covers a new radiation source, samarium-145, with radiation energies slightly above those of I-125 and a half-life of 340 days. The samarium-145 source is produced by neutron irradiation of SM-144. This new source is useful as the implanted radiation source in photon activation therapy of malignant tumors to activate the stable I-127 contained in the IdUrd accumulated in the tumor, causing radiation sensitization and Auger cascades that irreperably damage the tumor cells. This new source is also useful as a brachytherapy source.

  12. Conventional and Explosive Pulsed Power Development at Texas A&m University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, B.; Faleski, T.; Hamilton, I.; Rock, J.; Parish, T.

    2004-11-01

    A new capability for performing conventional and explosive pulsed power programs is being developed at Texas A&M University (TAMU), through the Texas Engineering Experiment Station of the TAMU System. The primary machine being installed in this facility is a low inductance, ~460 kJ, 60 kV capacitor bank. Flexibility to support different loads is being designed into this system, as is the ability to disconnect experiments from the laboratory machine for testing at the explosive pulsed power test site. Initial experiments will be conducted using a plasma focus as the load, with this low inductance, high-current capacitor bank as a driver. We expect to realize peak currents of 3 to 4 MA in the plasma focus. Potential applications include pulsed neutron source studies, intense X-ray production development for possible commercial applications, and high-energy-density plasma science investigations. Other potential loads for this capacitor bank include magnetohydrodynamic plasma accelerators and systems that may be of interest to magnetized fusion energy experiments. The proposed site for the explosive pulsed power facility on the TAMU Riverside Campus has been experimentally qualified. We anticipate that with a fully developed facility that incorporates blast, shrapnel, and acoustic mitigation measures, experiments containing 22.7 kg of explosive will be reasonable. Presently, parts are available to assemble a power source for potential explosive generator development and application shots.

  13. Discovery of samarium, europium, gadolinium, and terbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Progress in Development of Dense Plasma Focus Pinch for AmBe Radiological Source Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabella, Steve; Povilus, Alex; Schmidt, Andrea; Ellsworth, Jennifer; Link, Anthony; Sears, Jason; Higginson, Drew; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun accelerator that can produce intense, high energy ion beams (multiple MeV). These ion beams could be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Using a 2kJ DPF with a helium gas fill, alpha particles are accelerated into a beryllium target in order to generate a neutron spectrum similar to an AmBe source. We report on initial observations of neutron yields for this system and efforts to optimize and improve repeatability of pinch performance. In particular, incorporating results from newly-developed kinetic LSP simulations, we demonstrated higher neutron yields by adjusting the geometry of the anode electrode. In addition, we present preliminary measurements for energy distributions of ions accelerated by the pinch. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work supported by US DOE/NA-22 Office of Non-proliferation Research and Development.

  15. Patterns of Young Children's Development: An International Comparison of Development as Assessed by Who Am I?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lemos. Molly

    2002-01-01

    There has, in recent years, been a reemergence of interest in the early years and a renewed emphasis on the importance of early education programs to ensure that all children start school ready to learn. At the same time, the move toward evidence-based policy development has led to the need to demonstrate the effectiveness of early education…

  16. Equilibrium distribution of samarium and europium between fluoride salt melts and liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of samarium and europium from a melt of a molar composition 73LiF-27BeF2 into liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent at a temperature of 600-610°C was studied. The equilibrium distribution coefficients of samarium and europium were measured. In the metal fluoride salt melt under study, the valence of samarium and europium was shown to be equal to two.

  17. Oral administration of synthetic retinoid Am80 inhibits the development of type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Miwako, Ishido; Shudo, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic retinoid Am80 is a potent modulator of the immune system. Am80 is effective in various experimentally induced autoimmune disorders. The purpose of this study is to confirm its effect on non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Am80 was orally administered in feed to 6 NOD mice per group at a dose of 0 (control), 0.1 (low) or 1 (high) mg/kg/d for 19 weeks. During the experiment period, the high urine glucose levels were observed in 33% mice of the control and low Am80 groups, whereas any mouse in the high Am80 group did not show abnormal urine glucose level. Histological examination showed that the average score of insulitis severity in the low Am80 group was similar to that in the control; however in the high Am80 group, the score was significantly reduced compared to that in the control group. Similarly, the severity of lymphocyte infiltration in the submandibular glands showed a tendency to decrease in the high Am80 group, but not in the low Am80 group, compared to the control. These data strongly suggest that the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice can be inhibited by oral administration of Am80. PMID:19122301

  18. AmI in good care? Developing design principles for ambient intelligent domotics for elderly.

    PubMed

    Meulendijk, Michiel; Van De Wijngaert, Lidwien; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Leenstra, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    The combination of ambient intelligence (AmI) and domotics has the potential to respond to elderly people's desire to live independent from extensive forms of care. Their slow adoption of technological aids shows reluctance, though. This article investigates their motivations to adopt ambient intelligent domotics, and proposes design principles specifically based on their preferences and experiences. Respondents appeared to be more acceptive of tangible problems they expected with AmI domotics than intangible ones. In addition, their opinions seemed to be profoundly influenced by the way they perceived their psychological quality of life, while their physical conditions did not seem to have noticeable impacts. PMID:21291298

  19. Separation of spin and orbital magnetizations in a samarium film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunault, A.; Soriano, S.; Gourieux, T.; Detlefs, C.; Dufour, C.; Dumesnil, K.

    2004-05-01

    The L/ S ratio of samarium has been determined by X-ray magnetic scattering from a thick epitaxial film, via the azimuthal dependence of the scattered intensity. This new method allows a direct determination of L/ S in antiferromagnetic systems where charge scattering is not negligible at the position of the magnetic signal. The Russell-Saunders predictions fall within the accuracy of our results.

  20. Development of an 241Am applicator for intracavitary irradiation of gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Peschel, R E; Park, C H; Fischer, J J

    1988-05-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am that emit primarily 60 keV photons produce relative dose distributions in water comparable to those from 137Cs or 226Ra sources and can produce dose rates of up to 100 cGy/hr at 1 cm in water. Also, 241Am gamma rays can be effectively shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials (HVL is 1/8th mm of lead) placed on the applicator or inside some body cavities (for example, hypaque in bladder, barium sulphate in rectum). These properties of 241Am sources open a new approach to optimizing intracavitary irradiation of various cancers by allowing a reduction in dose and volume of irradiated critical organs or by increasing tumor doses. The relative ease with which highly effective shielding is achievable with 241Am sources would allow the design and fabrication of partially shielded applicators which can produce asymmetric dose distributions to allow unidirectional irradiation of localized lesions. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a gynecological applicator containing 241Am sources are presented. The applicator consists of a 2, 3, or 4 segment vaginal plaque (loaded with 2 and 5 Ci 241Am sources) and a tandem made up of a single 8 Ci 241Am source. Dose rates at 2 cm from the plaques are 42.0, 47.4, 58.3 and 56.7 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5, and 5-4-4-5 Ci plaques, respectively. The 5-4-5 Ci plaque in combination with the 8 Ci tandem produces dose rates of 60.0 and 22.8 cGy/hr to points A and B, respectively. Surface dose rates on the plaque applicators are 143, 124, 142 and 132 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5 and 5-4-4-5 Ci applicators, respectively. The shielding effect of a 0.5 mm thick lead foil on one side of the 5-4-5 Ci applicator is found to be a factor of 16.8; for example, the dose rate at 2 cm from the unshielded side is 42.0 cGy/hr compared to a dose rate of 2.5 cGy/hr at 2 cm from the shielded side. Initial clinical experience with this applicator in the treatment of recurrent gynecological lesions is also presented

  1. Non-scaled analogue modelling of AMS development during viscous flow: A simulation on diapir-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratinová, Zuzana; Závada, Prokop; Hrouda, František; Schulmann, Karel

    2006-05-01

    Development of magnetic fabric within a diapirically ascending columnar body was investigated using non-scaled analogue model made of plaster of Paris containing small amount of fine-grained homogeneously mixed magnetite. The apparatus for the modelling consists of a manual squeezer with calibrated spring and a Perspex container. Set of weak coloured layers at the bottom of the container was forced to intrude overlying fine-grained sand through a hole in a board attached to the squeezer. The development of AMS fabric is correlated with complex flow pattern indicated by coloured and originally horizontal plaster layers. Strongly constrictional and vertical fabric in the base and in the lower domain of the diapir resulting from convergent and upwards flows is overprinted by subhorizontal oblate fabrics due to vertical flattening and initial divergent flow in the apical parts. The measured AMS fabrics are compared with natural examples of magmatic stocks and dykes.

  2. Chrome-free Samarium-based Protective Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Legan; Cui, Xiufang; Yang, Yuyun; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Qiang; Jin, Guo

    The microstructure of chrome-free samarium-based conversion coating on magnesium alloy was investigated and the corrosion resistance was evaluated as well. The micro-morphology, transverse section, crystal structure and composition of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the morphology of samarium conversion coating is of crack-mud structure. Tiny cracks distribute in the compact coating deposited by samarium oxides. XRD, EDS and XPS results characterize that the coating is made of amorphous and trivalent-samarium oxides. The potentiodynamic polarization curve, EIS and OCP indicate that the samarium conversion coating can improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  3. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries. PMID:26633229

  4. Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of alpha particles by using a 241Am source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a particles emitted from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.

  5. Recent developments of the 1 MV AMS facility at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scognamiglio, G.; Chamizo, E.; López-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Müller, A. M.; Padilla, S.; Santos, F. J.; López-Lora, M.; Vivo-Vilches, C.; García-León, M.

    2016-05-01

    The Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) hosts a 1 MV accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) apparatus since September 2005. In order to improve its overall performance, several updates have been made on the existing facility during the last 10 years of operation. In this paper, two modifications conducted in 2015 will be described. To increase the transmission of the ions through the accelerator, the stripping gas on the 1 MV CNA machine was changed from Ar to He. The measured maximum transmission for almost every isotope results to be higher, especially for heavy masses: for instance, in the case of uranium in the 3+ charge state, the transmission increased from 11% with Ar gas to about 38% with He gas. The second advance consisted of the substitution of the existing gas ionization chamber with a new one provided by ETH Zurich. The ETH detector features with its miniaturized design and is optimized for low energy AMS (i.e. very low electronic noise and efficient charge collection). As the electronic noise is the most important contribution to the resolution for light ions, the total energy resolution has been reduced by 15% in the case of 10Be, allowing a better discrimination against its isobar, 10B. For the heaviest radionuclides where the quality of the spectra is determined by the charge carrier production in the gas, the resolution for 2.7 MeV uranium ions was improved by 30%, probably due to a more efficient charge collection.

  6. Ionization of Samarium by Chemical Releases in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Caton, R.; Miller, D.; Groves, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The release of Samarium vapor into the upper atmosphere was studied using during the Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) rocket launches in May 2009. The Naval Research Laboratory supported these experiments with 3-D photochemical modeling of the artificial plasma cloud including (1) reactions with atomic oxygen, (2) photo excitation, (3) photoionization, (4) dissociative recombination, and (5) ion and neutral diffusion. NRL provided the experimental diagnostic instrument on the rocket which was a dual frequency radio beacon on the rocket to measure changes in total electron content. The AFRL provided ground based diagnostics of incoherent scatter radar and optical spectroscopy and imagery. The NRL Chemical Release Model (CRM) has over 600 excited states of atomic Samarium neutrals, atomic ions, along with Samarium Oxide Ions and electrons. Diffusive transport of neutrals in cylindrical geometry and ions along magnetic field lines is computed along with the reactive flow to predict the concentrations of Sm, Sm-Ion, Sm0, and SmO Ion. Comparison of the CRM with observations demonstrates that Sm release into the upper atmosphere initially produces enhanced electron densities and SmO-Ions. The diatomic ions recombine with electrons to yield neutral Sm and O. Only the photo ionization of Sm yields a stable atomic ion that does not substantially recombine. The MOSC releases in sunlight yielded long duration ion clouds that can be replicated with the CRM. The CRM predicts that Sm releases in darkness would not produce long duration plasma clouds because of the lack of photo excitation and photoionization.

  7. Joint solubility of samarium and dysprosium in solid magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlin, L. L.; Dobatkina, T. V.; Lukyanova, E. A.; Korolkova, I. G.; Tarytina, I. E.

    2016-03-01

    The phase compositions of solid Mg-Sm-Dy alloys corresponding to the magnesium-corner region of the phase diagram are studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy, electrical resistivity measurements, and electron microprobe analysis. The obtained results allowed us to determine the joint solubility of samarium and dysprosium in solid magnesium at 500, 400, and 300°C; it decreases with decreasing temperature. The magnesium solid solution is found to be in equilibrium only with the Mg41Sm5 and Mg24Dy5 compounds, which are in equilibrium with the magnesium solid solution in the binary Mg-Sm and Mg-Dy systems.

  8. Samarium Diiodide-Mediated Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ellery, Shelby P.; Chen, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI2) has found increasing applications in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C–C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI2 in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in complex molecule construction and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed. PMID:19714695

  9. Chelating Ligand-Mediated Hydrothermal Synthesis of Samarium Orthovanadate with Decavanadate as Vanadium Source

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Wenli

    2013-01-01

    A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA-) mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO4) nanocrystals with decavanadate (K6V10O28·9H2O) as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO4 products. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. PMID:24068882

  10. Development of forging and heat treating practices for AMS 5737 for use at liquid helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Greenlee, M.

    1981-08-10

    To achieve a combination of high yield-strength (sigma y), plane-strain fracture-toughness (K/sub IC/) and resistance to galling when turned against austenitic stainless steels in highly-loaded threaded turnbuckles in the M.F.T.F.-B (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), AMS 5737 (Fe-15Cr-25Ni-1Mo-V-Ti-Al-B), a heat-treatable Fe-base superalloy that is slightly-ferromagnetic under high magnetic fields at 4K, was chosen for large (approx. 340 kg) forged turn buckles. This report describes the forging and heat-treatment optimization program that resulted in good sigma y and K/sub IC/ over the 4 to 300K range of service-temperatures and the verification tests run on a pre-production forging and actual production parts.

  11. Molecular structure, photophysical and thermal properties of samarium (III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Udai P.

    2008-03-01

    Some 8-coordinated samarium (III) complexes ( 1- 4) having bipy (2,2'-bipyridine), terpy (2,2':6',2″-terpyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline) and tp [hydrotris (pyrazol-1-yl) borate] as supporting ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized by different techniques including X-ray crystallography. The X-ray studies demonstrated that the complexes 1, 2 and 4 crystallized in triclinic space group P1¯ with cell dimensions a = 8.5640(2) Å, b = 8.8696(2) Å, c = 15.8608(4) Å for 1; a = 7.2113(9) Å, b = 11.0737(14) Å, c = 13.6289(18) Å for 2; a = 12.440(3) Å, b = 12.874(3) Å, c = 17.822(4) Å for 4, whereas the complex 3 crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c with cell dimensions a = 9.472(3) Å, b = 17.092(5) Å, c = 14.516(5) Å. The IR study suggested that the azide is coordinated in 1, 3-bridging mode in complex 4. The photophysical properties of above complexes have been studied with ultraviolet absorption and emission spectral studies. Thermogravimetric analyses suggested that all these complexes undergo the complete decomposition to form the thermally stable samarium oxide (Sm 2O 3).

  12. Characterization of A-site deficient samarium doped barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, M.; Rout, S. K.; Woo, W. S.; Ahn, C. W.; Kim, I. W.

    2013-02-01

    Ba1-xSm2x/3TiO3 (0.00≤x≤0.10, in a step of 0.02) ceramics have been prepared through solid state reaction route. Structural studies (XRD, FTIR, Raman) suggested a tetragonal symmetry of all the prepared ceramics and a decrease in tetragonality with increase in Sm content. Rietveld refinement technique has been employed to investigate the details of crystal structure and was found to be tetragonal at room temperature with space group P4mm. Photoluminescence study confirmed formation of shallow defects. The prepared materials are found to show photoemission in the violet, blue and green zone. Optical band gap values calculated from UV-visual diffuse reflectance spectra showed a decreasing trend in band gap values with increase in samarium concentration. Disk shaped pellets were prepared using PVA as binder. Scanning electron microscopy showed a drastic decrease in grain size on doping than undoped barium titanate. A regular increase in the grain size with increase in Sm content in the doped compositions is observed. Dielectric studies were performed over a wide temperature range from 15 K to 600 K at different frequencies. Normal ferroelectric character was obtained for all the compositions. A gradual decrease in the Curie temperature was noticed with increase in samarium content. P∼E hysteresis loops showed a domain pinning effect which increased successively resulting in a decrease in the values of remnant polarization and coercive fields.

  13. Contamination of YBCO bulk superconductors by samarium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volochova, D.; Jurek, K.; Radusovska, M.; Piovarci, S.; Antal, V.; Kovac, J.; Jirsa, M.; Diko, P.

    2014-01-01

    Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO, Y-123) single-grain bulk superconductors with a nominal composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3Ox and 1 wt% CeO2 addition were prepared by the optimized Top-Seeded Melt-Growth process. Small single-crystalline pieces cut from the SmBa2Cu3Oy (Sm-123) bulk were used for seeding of epitaxial growth. Wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) confirmed that prepared samples contain besides samarium from the seed also ytterbium from the substrate. The influence of maximum melting temperature, Tmax and dwell time on the contamination of the bulk samples was studied. Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) barriers against samarium diffusion from the seed to melted sample were tested. Using a NdBa2Cu3Oz (Nd-123) seed and a combination of Y2O3 and Yb2O3 substrate led to a high critical temperature (Tc(50%) = 91.54 K) of prepared sample.

  14. The effect of synthetic retinoid, Am80, on T helper cell development and antibody production in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Aya; Watanabe, Kaori; Kaneko, Kayoko; Murakami, Yousuke; Ishido, Miwako; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Nanki, Toshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Retinoids are known to promote T helper (Th)2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation, and suppress Th1 and Th17 in vitro. Am80, a synthetic retinoid, is reported to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The aims of this study are to determine the effects of Am80 on CIA in detail, and on Th development and antibody (Ab) production in vivo. Murine CIA was induced by immunization with bovine type II collagen (CII) at days 1 and 22. Treatment with Am80 from day 1 to 35 significantly lowered clinical arthritis score, suppressed cellular infiltration and bone destruction in the joint, decreased interleukin (IL)-17 and increased interferon (IFN)-gamma production by CII-stimulated splenocytes, and decreased proportion of Foxp3(+) splenic CD4 T cells and serum anti-CII Ab levels. Thus, Am80 inhibited Th17 and Treg and enhanced Th1 differentiation in vivo. In contrast, Am80 applied from day 15 to 35 did not alter arthritis score, IL-17 or IFN-gamma production by CII-stimulated splenocytes, but decreased the proportion of Foxp3(+) splenic CD4 T cells and serum anti-CII Ab levels. Am80 exhibits inhibitory effects on CIA and might regulate both Th development and Ab production in vivo. Decreased Th17 by treatment with Am80 might be responsible for the attenuation of arthritis. PMID:20039185

  15. Efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, J. D.; Badaro, R.; Thakur, C. P.; Wasunna, K. M.; Behbehani, K.; Davidson, R.; Kuzoe, F.; Pang, L.; Weerasuriya, K.; Bryceson, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study to determine the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for treating visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in several developing countries where the disease is endemic (Brazil, India, and Kenya). At each study site, sequential cohorts of 10 patients each were treated with AmBisome at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1.day-1 (2 MKD). The first cohort received regimen 1:2 MKD on days 1-6 and day 10 (total dose: 14 mg/kg). If the efficacy with this regimen was satisfactory, a second cohort received regimen 2:2 MKD on days 1-4 and 10 (total dose: 10 mg/kg); and a third cohort received regimen 3:2 MKD on days 1, 5, and 10 (total dose: 6 mg/kg). In India, regimens 1, 2, and 3 (which were studied concurrently) each cured 100% of 10 patients. In Kenya, regimen 1 cured all 10 patients, regimen 2 cured 90% of 10 patients, but regimen 3 cured only 20% of 5 patients. In Brazil, regimen 1 was only partially curative: 5 of 13 patients (62%). Therefore, 15 patients were administered regimen 4 (2 MKD for 10 consecutive days; total dose, 20 mg/kg) and 13 patients were cured (83%). These results suggest that for the treatment of kala-azar the following doses of AmBisome should be administered: in India and Kenya, 2 mg/kg on days 1-4 and day 10; and in Brazil, 2 mg/kg on days 1-10. PMID:9615494

  16. Samarium-146 in the early solar system - Evidence from neodymiun in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Shimamura, T.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    A carbon-chromite fraction from the Allende C3V chondrite shows strikingly large isotopic enrichments of neodymium-142 (0.47 percent) and neodymium-143 (36 percent). Both apparently formed by alpha decay of samarium-146 and samarium-147 (half-lives 1.03 x 10 to the 8th and 1.06 x 10 to the 11th years), but the isotopic enrichment was greatly magnified by recoil of residual nuclei into a carbon film surounding the samarium-bearing grains. These data provide an improved estimate of the original abundance of extinct samarium-146 in the early solar system, Sm-146/Sm-144 = (4.5 + or - 0.5) x 10 to the -3rd, higher than predicted by some models of p-process nucleosynthesis. It may be possible to use this isotopic pair as a chronometer of the early solar system.

  17. Resonance ionization mass spectrometric study of the promethium/samarium isobaric pair

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Samarium daughters are problematic in isotope ratio measurements of promethium because they are isobaric. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry was utilized to circumvent this problem. An ionization selectivity factor of at least 1000:1 has been measured for promethium over samarium at 584.6 nm. Resonance ionization spectra have been recorded for both elements over the 528-560 and 580-614 nm wavelength ranges.

  18. AMS Professional Development Courses: Arming K-12 Teachers with the Tools Needed to Increase Students' Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Nugnes, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    To better prepare tomorrow's leaders, it is of utmost importance that today's teachers are science literate. To meet that need, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program offers content-rich, professional development courses and training workshops for precollege teachers in the geosciences. During the fall and spring semesters, the AMS in partnership with NOAA, NASA, and SUNY Brockport, offers a suite of pre-college teacher development courses, DataStreme Atmosphere, DataStreme Ocean and DataStreme Earth's Climate System (ECS). These courses are delivered to small groups of K-12 teachers through Local Implementation Teams (LITs) positioned throughout the U.S. The courses use current, real-world environmental data to investigate the atmosphere, ocean, and climate system and consist of weekly online study materials, weekly mentoring, and several face-to-face meetings, all supplemented by a provided textbook and investigations manual. DataStreme ECS takes an innovative approach to studying climate science, by exploring the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addressing the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course investigates natural and human forcings and feedbacks to examine mitigation and adaptation strategies for the future. Information and data from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA are used throughout the course, including in the online and printed investigations. In addition, participants differentiate between climate, climate variability, and climate change through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model, a basic climate model that follows the flow of energy from space to Earth and back. Participants also have access to NASA's EdGCM, a research-grade Global Climate Model where they can explore various future climate scenarios in the same way that actual research scientists do. Throughout all of the courses, teachers have the opportunity to expand

  19. The LLNL AMS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Bench, G.S.; Brown, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    The AMS facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely measures the isotopes {sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 59,63}Ni, and {sup 129}I. During the past two years, over 30,000 research samples have been measured. Of these samples, approximately 30% were for {sup 14}C bioscience tracer studies, 45% were {sup 14}C samples for archaeology and the geosciences, and the other isotopes constitute the remaining 25%. During the past two years at LLNL, a significant amount of work has gone into the development of the Projectile X-ray AMS (PXAMS) technique. PXAMS uses induced characteristic x-rays to discriminate against competing atomic isobars. PXAMS has been most fully developed for {sup 63}Ni but shows promise for the measurement of several other long lived isotopes. During the past year LLNL has also conducted an {sup 129}I interlaboratory comparison exercise. Recent hardware changes at the LLNL AMS facility include the installation and testing of a new thermal emission ion source, a new multianode gas ionization detector for general AMS use, re-alignment of the vacuum tank of the first of the two magnets that make up the high energy spectrometer, and a new cryo-vacuum system for the AMS ion source. In addition, they have begun design studies and carried out tests for a new high-resolution injector and a new beamline for heavy element AMS.

  20. Luminescent solutions and powders of new samarium complexes with N,N',O,O'-chelating ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Nikolskiy, Kirill S.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Reshetova, Marina D.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques in biology and medicine are crucial tools to obtain information on structural and functional properties of living cells and organisms. To fulfill the requirements associated with application of these techniques it appears necessary to design markers with specific characteristics. Luminescent complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions with chelating ligands are of increasing importance in biomedical applications because of their millisecond luminescence lifetime, narrow emission band, high signal-to-noise ratio and minimal photodamage to biological samples. In order to extend the available emission wavelength range the luminescent samarium chelates are highly desirable. In this study the ligands with diamides of 2,2'-bipyridin-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid were used to improve photophysical characteristics of samarium complexes. We report the luminescence characteristics of samarium complexes with novel ligands. All complexes exhibited the characteristic emission of Sm (III) ion with the lines at 565, 597, 605, 645 and 654 nm, the intensity strongly depended on the ligand. Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Sm (III) complexes showed main peaks in the UV range demonstrating lanthanide coordination to the ligand. The absolute lumenescence quantum yield was measured for solutions in acetonitrile with excitation at 350 nm. The largest luminescence quantum yield was found for the samarium complex Bipy 6MePy Sm (3%) being much higher that for samarium complexes reported in the literature earlier. These results prove as well that samarium chelates are potential markers for multiparametric imaging techniques.

  1. Development of a physically-based planar inductors VHDL-AMS model for integrated power converter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammouri, Aymen; Ben Salah, Walid; Khachroumi, Sofiane; Ben Salah, Tarek; Kourda, Ferid; Morel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Design of integrated power converters needs prototype-less approaches. Specific simulations are required for investigation and validation process. Simulation relies on active and passive device models. Models of planar devices, for instance, are still not available in power simulator tools. There is, thus, a specific limitation during the simulation process of integrated power systems. The paper focuses on the development of a physically-based planar inductor model and its validation inside a power converter during transient switching. The planar inductor model remains a complex device to model, particularly when the skin, the proximity and the parasitic capacitances effects are taken into account. Heterogeneous simulation scheme, including circuit and device models, is successfully implemented in VHDL-AMS language and simulated in Simplorer platform. The mixed simulation results has been favorably tested and compared with practical measurements. It is found that the multi-domain simulation results and measurements data are in close agreement.

  2. Novel samarium/erbium and samarium/terbium codoped glass phosphor for application in warm white light-emitting-diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cosmo M.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2014-02-01

    Tunable polychromatic light emission within the low color correlated temperature range was produced using terbiumand/ or erbium-samarium co-doped PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor. The phosphors were synthesized, and their luminescence characteristics were examined under UV-blue light-emitting-diode laser excitation. Luminescence emission around 490, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Tb3+/Sm3+ and 525, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Er3+/Sm3+ co-doped phosphor was obtained and analyzed as a function of the active ions concentration, and excitation wavelength. Color tunability in the red-orange-yellow-green region was achieved combining of Tb3+, Er3+, and Sm3+ ions contents. Results suggest that the color-tunable polychromatic light emitter phosphor herein reported is a promising novel candidate for application in cold white-light LED-based illumination technology

  3. The first four years of the AMS-facility DREAMS: Status and developments for more accurate radionuclide data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugel, Georg; Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Enamorado Baez, Santiago Miguel; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenrücker, René; Merchel, Silke

    2016-03-01

    DREAMS, the DREsden AMS-facility, is performing routine accelerator mass spectrometry of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I for a wide range of applications. All DREAMS-data is normalised directly to primary standards or traceable to those via cross-calibration of secondary standards. Recent technical developments such as a low-memory ion source for 36Cl and 129I and sophisticated tuning strategies for 129I led to improved-accuracy data. Tests of ion source output have been performed with different metal binders, sample-to-binder mixing ratios, and compaction pressures in order to find optimal parameters. The highest and most stable outputs have been obtained for 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca for the following binders and mixing ratios (by weight): BeO:Nb, 1:4; Al2O3:Ag, 1:1; CaF2:Ag, 1:4. Higher beam currents generally result in reduced statistical uncertainty. Cross-contamination and long-term memory seem to be underestimated problems asking for further tests and improvements such as the development of low-level in-house-standards.

  4. XAFS study of gadolinium and samarium bisporphyrinate complexes.

    PubMed

    Agondanou, J H; Spyroulias, G A; Purans, J; Tsikalas, G; Souleau, C; Coutsolelos, A G; Bénazeth, S

    2001-11-19

    The comparative X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of gadolinium and samarium bisporphyrinate complexes represented by the formulas Gd(III)H(oep)(tpp), Gd(III)(oep)(2), Gd(III)H(tpp)(2) and Sm(III)H(oep)(tpp), Sm(III)(oep)(2), Sm(III)H(tpp)(2) is reported. The XAFS spectra are recorded on the LURE-DCI storage ring (Orsay, France) in transmission mode on the microcrystalline samples at the Gd and Sm L(3) edges. The local environment for Ln(3+) ions has been reconstructed applying one-shell and two-shell XAFS analysis procedures. The protonated and nonprotonated bisporphyrinate complexes present different XAFS features. After our analysis on the title derivatives, the gadolinium ion (at 80 K) is found to be bonded: (i) to eight nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.50 A, for Gd(III)(oep)(2) [Debye-Waller (DW) factor 0.004 A(2)]; (ii) to seven nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.49 A, for Gd(III)H(oep)(tpp) [DW factor 0.005 A(2)] and one nitrogen at long distance; and (iii) to six nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.50 A [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and two nitrogen atoms at long distance for Gd(III)H(tpp)(2). A similar coordination sphere has been detected for the corresponding Sm derivatives. So, the samarium ion (at room temperature) is bonded: (i) to eight nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.53 A, for Sm(III)(oep)(2) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)]; (ii) to seven nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.53 A, for Sm(III)H(oep)(tpp) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and one nitrogen at long distance; and (iii) to six nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.50 A, for Sm(III)H(tpp)(2) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and two nitrogen atoms at long distance. As far as concerns Ln(III)(oep)(2) complexes, the increase of Ln-N distance in the series Gd(3+) < Eu(3+) < Sm(3+) reflects an increase in the ionic radii, which are in good agreement with previously published XRD data on Eu(III)(oep)(2). Moreover, the protonated Ln(III)H(oep)(tpp) and Ln(III)H(tpp)(2) complexes possess systematically shorter distances of about 0.02 A between the XAFS and XRD data. This

  5. Development of a nanofiltration method for bone collagen 14C AMS dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudin, Mathieu; Boeckx, Pascal; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Strydonck, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of bones is usually performed on the collagen fraction. However, this collagen can contain exogenous molecules, including humic substances (HSs) and/or other soil components that may have a different age than the bone. Incomplete removal can result in biased 14C dates. Ultrafiltration of collagen, dissolved as gelatin (molecular weight (MW) ∼100,000 Dalton), has received considerable attention to obtain more reliable dates. Ultrafiltration is an effective method of removal of low-molecular weight contaminants from bone collagen but it does not remove high-molecular weight contaminants, such as cross-linked humic collagen complexes. However, comparative dating studies have raised the question whether this cleaning step itself may introduce contamination with carbon from the filters used. In this study, a nanofiltration method was developed using a ceramic filter to avoid a possible extraneous carbon contamination introduced by the filter. This method should be applicable to various protein materials e.g. collagen, silk, wool, leather and should be able to remove low-molecular and high molecular weight HSs. In this study bone collagen was hot acid hydrolyzed to amino acids and nanofiltrated. A filter with a molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 450 Dalton was chosen in order to collect the amino acids in the permeate and the HSs in the retentate. Two pilot studies were set up. Two nanofiltration types were tested in pilot study 1: dead end and cross flow filtration. Humic substance (HS)-solutions with fossil carbon and modern hydrolyzed collagen contaminated with HSs were filtrated and analyzed with spectrofluorescence to determine the HS removal. Cross flow nanofiltration showed the most efficient HS removal. A second pilot study based upon these results was set up wherein only cross flow filtration was performed. 14C measurements of the permeates of hydrolyzed modern collagen contaminated with fossil HSs demonstrate a significant but incomplete

  6. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  7. Development of a Fully Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model for the A/M Area Using Data Fusion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1996-11-18

    SRS was established in the 1950s to produce plutonium, tritium, and other nuclear materials. The purpose of this work was to obtain the distribution of the parameters that effect groundwater flow and to calibrate a model for subsequent use in the development of corrective action programs in the A/M area.

  8. Modeling the time dependent biodistribution of Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate using compartmental analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Parandoush; Foroghy, Monika; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Hakimi, Amir; Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht

    2013-01-01

    Aim The main purpose of this work was to develop a pharmacokinetic model for the bone pain palliation agent Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ([153Sm]-EDTMP) in normal rats to analyze the behavior of the complex. Background The use of compartmental analysis allows a mathematical separation of tissues and organs to determine the concentration of activity in each fraction of interest. Biodistribution studies are expensive and difficult to carry out in humans, but such data can be obtained easily in rodents. Materials and methods We have developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for scaling up activity concentration in each organ versus time. The mathematical model uses physiological parameters including organ volumes, blood flow rates, and vascular permabilities; the compartments (organs) are connected anatomically. This allows the use of scale-up techniques to predict new complex distribution in humans in each organ. Results The concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in various organs was measured at different times. The temporal behavior of biodistribution of 153Sm-EDTMP was modeled and drawn as a function of time. Conclusions The variation of pharmaceutical concentration in all organs is described with summation of 6–10 exponential terms and it approximates our experimental data with precision better than 2%. PMID:24936338

  9. Structural phase transition and electronic properties in samarium chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Pataiya, J.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure and high pressure properties of samarium monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe have been reported by using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The total energy as a function of volume is evaluated. It is found that these monochalcogenides are stable in NaCl-type structure under ambient pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B1-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B2-type) structure for these compounds. Phase transition pressures were found to be 1.7, 4.4 and 6.6 GPa, for SmS, SmSe and SmTe respectively. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B0), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed that these compounds exhibit metallic character. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and phase transition pressure are in general good agreement with available data.

  10. Force generation by orthodontic samarium-cobalt magnets.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Bonds, P W; Johnson, B E

    1992-01-01

    The use of samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets for light force application is a relatively new concept in orthodontic tooth movement. This study reports on the forces generated by these magnets. Magnets were attached to aluminum rods mounted in a universal testing machine. The magnets were initially separated by 10 mm were moved toward each other at 2.5mm/min in repulsion or attraction, depending upon the magnetic pole orientation. The magnets were also positioned initially in contact and then moved apart at a rate of 2.5mm/min, again producing repulsion or attraction, depending upon the pole orientation. The Sm-Co magnets exhibit very large forces when in close approximation but forces decrease markedly at separations greater than 2mm. The force, P, generated between magnets is determined by their separation, d, and follows the relationship P = dn. At magnet separations of 0 to 2mm, the exponent n is equal to -0.4; at separations of 2mm to 7mm, exponent n equals -2.1 for both attraction and repulsion. Thus the classic Coulomb law of magnetic force was followed only at magnet separations of greater than 2mm. Force-separation behavior and the high cost of these magnets may not justify their routine clinical use. PMID:1416238

  11. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  12. Paleotempestological chronology developed from gas ion source AMS analysis of carbonates determined through real-time Bayesian statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D. J.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roberts, M. L.; Burton, J. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Is a small quantity of high-precision ages more robust than a higher quantity of lower-precision ages for sediment core chronologies? AMS Radiocarbon ages have been available to researchers for several decades now, and precision of the technique has continued to improve. Analysis and time cost is high, though, and projects are often limited in terms of the number of dates that can be used to develop a chronology. The Gas Ion Source at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS), while providing lower-precision (uncertainty of order 100 14C y for a sample), is significantly less expensive and far less time consuming than conventional age dating and offers the unique opportunity for large amounts of ages. Here we couple two approaches, one analytical and one statistical, to investigate the utility of an age model comprised of these lower-precision ages for paleotempestology. We use a gas ion source interfaced to a gas-bench type device to generate radiocarbon dates approximately every 5 minutes while determining the order of sample analysis using the published Bayesian accumulation histories for deposits (Bacon). During two day-long sessions, several dates were obtained from carbonate shells in living position in a sediment core comprised of sapropel gel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. Samples were prepared where large shells were available, and the order of analysis was determined by the depth with the highest uncertainty according to Bacon. We present the results of these analyses as well as a prognosis for a future where such age models can be constructed from many dates that are quickly obtained relative to conventional radiocarbon dates. This technique currently is limited to carbonates, but development of a system for organic material dating is underway. We will demonstrate the extent to which sacrificing some analytical precision in favor of more dates improves age models.

  13. Lithium Bromide/Water as Additives in Dearomatizing Samarium-Ketyl (Hetero)Arene Cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chintada Nageswara; Bentz, Christoph; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    New conditions for dearomatizing samarium-ketyl (hetero)arene cyclizations are reported. In many examples of these samarium diiodide-mediated reactions, lithium bromide and water can be used as additives instead of the carcinogenic and mutagenic hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The best results were obtained for the cyclizations of N-acylated indole derivatives delivering the expected indolines in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. A new type of cyclization delivering indolyl-substituted allene derivatives is also described. The scope and limitations of the lithium bromide/water system are discussed. PMID:26368916

  14. Samarium electrodeposited acetate and oxide thin films on stainless steel substrate characterized by XPS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Myhre, Kristian; Burns, Jonathan; Meyer, Harry; Sims, Nathan; Boll, Rose

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of a samarium thin film deposited on a stainless steel substrate using molecular electrodeposition was carried out using a Thermo Scientific K-Alpha X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. We studied two types of samarium electrodeposition samples, one as-deposited and one heated to 700 °C in an air flow. Survey scans include peaks coming from the stainless steel substrate, such as Fe and Cr. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum, Sm 3d, C 1s, and O 1s narrow scans are shown. It was determined that the heating process decomposed the deposited Sm acetate to Sm2O3 using XPS.

  15. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2014-04-24

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1−x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  16. Evolution of a short route to strychnine by using the samarium-diiodide-induced cascade cyclization as a key step.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This comprehensive report accounts the development of a highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide-induced cascade reaction of substituted indolyl ketones. The complexity-generating transformation with SmI2 allows the diastereoselective generation of three stereogenic centers including one quaternary center in one step. The obtained tetra- or pentacyclic dihydroindole derivatives are structural motifs of many monoterpene indole alkaloids, and their subsequent transformations gave way to one of the shortest approaches towards strychnine (14 % overall yield in ten steps, or 10 % overall yield in eight steps). During the course of this report we discuss the influence of substituents on the cyclization step, plausible mechanistic scenarios for the SmI2 -induced cascade reaction, diastereoselective reductive amination, and regioselective dehydratization protocols towards the pentacyclic core structure of strychnos alkaloids. PMID:25877308

  17. Synthesis of Sm{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate crystals in glass by samarium atom heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chayapiwut, Nakorn; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Benino, Yasuhiko; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki . E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2005-11-15

    New glasses giving the crystallization of Sm{sup 3+}-doped Sr {sub x} Ba{sub 1-} {sub x} Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) ferroelectrics have been developed in the Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-BaO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system, and the formation of SBN crystal dots and lines by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (wavelength:1064 nm, power: 1 W) irradiations, i.e., samarium atom heat processing, has been examined. The formation of Sm{sup 3+}-doped SBN non-linear optical crystals is confirmed from X-ray diffraction analyses, micro-Raman scattering spectra, second harmonic generations, and photoluminescence spectra. Sm{sup 3+}-doped SBN crystal dots with the diameters of 20-70 {mu}m and lines with the widths of 20-40 {mu}m are written at the surface of some glasses such as 10Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.10SrO.10BaO.20Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) by Nd:YAG laser irradiations with the irradiation times of 20-70 s for the dots and with the scanning speeds of 1-5 {mu}m/s for the lines. The present study suggests that the samarium atom heat processing has a potential for the patterning of optical waveguides consisting of ferroelectric SBN crystals in glass substrates.

  18. Differentiation of cytotoxicity using target cells labelled with europium and samarium by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, H; Manzke, O; Engert, A; Hertel, M; Hippler-Altenburg, R; Diehl, V; Tesch, H

    1994-07-12

    We report the simultaneous use of europium-DTPA (Eu-DTPA) and samarium-DTPA (Sm-DTPA) in cytotoxicity experiments to analyze simultaneously LAK and NK cell lysis and to differentiate between specific target lysis and bystander killing. The target cells were either labelled with Eu-DTPA or Sm-DTPA chelates by electroporation, which permits the use of target cell lines or primary leukemic B cells (B-CLL) that cannot be labelled by the conventional dextran-sulphate method. The release of europium and samarium reaches a maximum at comparable time intervals (2-3 h). Due to the shorter counting interval within the samarium window the labelling efficiency is about ten times less efficient compared to europium. Using europium as label for the LAK target Daudi and samarium as label for the NK sensitive cell line K562 the differentiation of LAK versus NK activity can be performed in a single culture assay. Also, the killing of B cells and bystander cells by cytotoxic T cells was analyzed in a system where T cells were redirected to B cells through CD3 x CD19 bispecific antibodies. In fact, no bystander killing was noted when bispecific antibodies were used to bridge cytotoxic T cells to the B cells. This approach provides a simple non-radioactive method for evaluating cytotoxicity against two different cells in a single culture well. PMID:8034986

  19. Mechanisms of magma generation beneath hawaii and mid-ocean ridges: uranium/thorium and samarium/neodymium isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Sims, K W; Depaolo, D J; Murrell, M T; Baldridge, W S; Goldstein, S J; Clague, D A

    1995-01-27

    Measurements of uranium/thorium and samarium/neodymium isotopes and concentrations in a suite of Hawaiian basalts show that uranium/thorium fractionation varies systematically with samarium/neodymium fractionation and major-element composition; these correlations can be understood in terms of simple batch melting models with a garnet-bearing peridotite magma source and melt fractions of 0.25 to 6.5 percent. Midocean ridge basalts shows a systematic but much different relation between uranium/thorium fractionation and samarium/neodymium fractionation, which, although broadly consistent with melting of a garnet-bearing peridotite source, requires a more complex melting model. PMID:17788786

  20. Optical response and magnetic characteristic of samarium doped zinc phosphate glasses containing nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Siti Amlah M.; Sahar, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    A magnetic glass of composition 40ZnO-(58-x) P2O5-1Sm2O3-xNiO, with x=0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% is prepared by melt-quenching technique. The glass is characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The X-rays diffraction confirms the amorphous nature of the glass while the HRTEM analysis reveals the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the glass samples. High-resolution TEM reveals that the lattice spacing of nickel nanoparticles is 0.35 nm at (100) plane. Photoluminescence emission shows the existence of four peaks that correspond to the transition from the upper level of 4G5/2 to the lower level of 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2, and 6H11/2. It is observed that all peaks experience significant quenching effect with the increasing concentration of nickel nanoparticles, suggesting a strong energy transfer from excited samarium ions to the nickel ions. The glass magnetization and susceptibility at 12 kOe at room temperature are found to be in the range of (3.87±0.17×10-2-7.19±0.39×10-2) emu/g and (3.24±0.16×10-6-5.99±0.29×10-6) emu/Oe g respectively. The obtained hysteresis curve indicates that the glass samples are paramagnetic materials. The studied glass can be further used towards the development of magneto-optical functional glass.

  1. Development of spent fuel reprocessing process based on selective sulfurization: Study on the Pu, Np and Am sulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirishima, Akira; Amano, Yuuki; Nihei, Toshifumi; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2010-03-01

    For the recovery of fissile materials from spent nuclear fuel, we have proposed a novel reprocessing process based on selective sulfurization of fission products (FPs). The key concept of this process is utilization of unique chemical property of carbon disulfide (CS2), i.e., it works as a reductant for U3O8 but works as a sulfurizing agent for minor actinides and lanthanides. Sulfurized FPs and minor actinides (MA) are highly soluble to dilute nitric acid while UO2 and PuO2 are hardly soluble, therefore, FPs and MA can be removed from Uranium and Plutonium matrix by selective dissolution. As a feasibility study of this new concept, the sulfurization behaviours of U, Pu, Np, Am and Eu are investigated in this paper by the thermodynamical calculation, phase analysis of chemical analogue elements and tracer experiments.

  2. Organic aerosol components derived from 25 AMS datasets across Europe using a newly developed ME-2 based source apportionment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Canonaco, F.; Lanz, V. A.; Äijälä, M.; Allan, J. D.; Carbone, S.; Capes, G.; Dall'Osto, M.; Day, D. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Di Marco, C. F.; Ehn, M.; Eriksson, A.; Freney, E.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Hillamo, R.; Jimenez, J.-L.; Junninen, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kortelainen, A.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Mensah, A. A.; Mohr, C.; Nemitz, E.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Petäjä, T.; Poulain, L.; Saarikoski, S.; Sellegri, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Tiitta, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2013-09-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) represent one of the major constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) and comprise a huge variety of compounds emitted by different sources. Three intensive measurement field campaigns to investigate the aerosol chemical composition all over Europe were carried out within the framework of EUCAARI and the intensive campaigns of EMEP during 2008 (May-June and September-October) and 2009 (February-March). In this paper we focus on the identification of the main organic aerosol sources and we propose a standardized methodology to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multilinear engine (ME-2) on Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data. Our source apportionment procedure is tested and applied on 25 datasets accounting for urban, rural, remote and high altitude sites and therefore it is likely suitable for the treatment of AMS-related ambient datasets. For most of the sites, four organic components are retrieved, improving significantly previous source apportionment results where only a separation in primary and secondary OA sources was possible. Our solutions include two primary OA sources, i.e. hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and biomass burning OA (BBOA) and two secondary OA components, i.e. semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). For specific sites cooking-related (COA) and marine-related sources (MSA) are also separated. Finally, our work provides a large overview of organic aerosol sources in Europe and an interesting set of highly time resolved data for modeling evaluation purposes.

  3. Measurement of the triboluminescent properties for europium and samarium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Kamala N.; Fontenot, Ross S.; Surabhi, Raja; Hollerman, William A.; Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Alapati, Teja R.

    2014-11-01

    Triboluminescence (TL) is the emission of cold light that is created when materials are fractured. Europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) is one of the brightest triboluminescent materials that exist. In 2010, efforts began to introduce additives to the synthesis to increase the triboluminescent yield of EuD4TEA. To date, this research has increased the overall emission yield of EuD4TEA by nearly two fold. This paper explores the effects of adding samarium to EuD4TEA. The effects of this additive on the decay time and photoluminescent emission spectra are reported. In addition, the effects of europium on samarium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium are also determined. The effects of europium on the decay time and photoluminescent emission spectra are also reported. Results will show that both additives have an adverse effect on the triboluminescent emission yield. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Medium Resolution Spectra of Solar Illuminated Sounding Rocket Samarium Vapor Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Miller, D.; Caton, R.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Samarium spectra in the visible wavelengths (400-900 nm) are presented from the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) sounding rocket launches of 2014 May 01 and 09. The two releases occurred in twilight at the ground, but with distinctly different solar elevation angles. Resonance-fluorescence spectral lines are identified throughout this wavelength range, and are attributed to Sm, Sm+, SmO and SmO+. Even given the wide spectral range of the instrument, the spectral resolution throughout the range was 1.5 nm or better. The time variation of spectral line intensity from various neutral and ionized atomic and molecular products are compared with a time dependent model of the samarium release, yielding estimates of photoionization rates, autoionization rates (reaction with O to form SmO+), and relative populations of energy levels giving rise to the spectra.

  5. Juno II (AM-14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Juno II (AM-14) on the launch pad just prior to launch, March 3, 1959. The payload of AM-14 was Pioneer IV, America's first successful lunar mission. The Juno II was a modification of Jupiter ballistic missile

  6. Adverse Events in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Treated With Samarium Sm 153 Lexidronam for Osseous Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Paravati, Anthony J.; Russo, Andrea L.; Aitken, Candice

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and the effect of pre- and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and/or chemotherapy on myelosuppression in patients who received samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of 139 patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam between November 1997 and February 2008. New-onset adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam were reported. The effect of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam on platelet and peripheral white blood cell counts and the duration of myelosuppression after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam plus EBRT and/or chemotherapy were calculated. Differences in the prevalence of adverse events among patients with varying treatment histories were evaluated with the Pearson chi-square test. Results: Hematologic follow-up was available for 103 patients. Chemotherapy and/or EBRT had no effect on the magnitude or duration of myelosuppression. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were acute lower extremity edema (n = 27) and acute and transient neuropathy (n = 29). Patients treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had a higher prevalence of lower extremity edema (9 of 18 [50%]) than those who were not treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (18 of 85 [21.2%]) (p = 0.01, chi-square test). No adverse events were correlated with EBRT. Conclusions: Our observation of new-onset, acute and transient edema and neuropathy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and of a relationship between edema and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam chemotherapy suggests the need for re-examination of patients in past series or for a prospective investigation with nonhematologic adverse events as a primary endpoint.

  7. Low energy AMS of americium and curium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Marcus; Dai, Xiongxin; Lachner, Johannes; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analyses. While analyses of U and Pu isotopes have already become routine at the ETH Zurich 0.5 MV AMS system "Tandy", there is an increasing demand for highly sensitive analyses of the higher actinides such as Am and Cm for bioassay applications and beyond. In order to extend the actinide capabilities of the compact ETH Zurich AMS system and to develop new, more sensitive bioassay routines, a pilot study was carried out. The aim was to investigate and document the performance and the potential background of Am and Cm analyses with low energy AMS. Our results show that 241Am and Cm isotopes can be determined relative to a 243Am tracer if samples and AMS standards are prepared identically with regard to the matrix elements, in which the sample is dispersed. In this first test, detection limits for Cm and Am isotopes are all in the sub-femtogram range and even below 100 ag for Cm isotopes. In a systematic background study in the mass range of the Cm isotopes, two formerly unknown metastable triply charged Th molecules were found on amu(244) and amu(248). The presence of such a background is not a principal problem for AMS if the stripper pressure is increased accordingly. Based on our first results, we conclude that ultra-trace analyses of Am and Cm isotopes for bioassay are very well possible with low energy AMS.

  8. AMS beyond 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1993-12-28

    The occasion of this conference, the Sixth International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, falls sixteen years after the remarkable triple simultaneous discovery of this powerful isotopic measurement. In the interval since the Fifth Conference in Paris in 1991, new facilities of both large and small size have become fully operational, achieving impressive gains in both measurement throughput and precision. The purpose of this short review is to extrapolate from recent gains and experience and to project the status of the field beyond the coming millennial date. AMS achieved instant application in archaeology and the geosciences and its early growth was stimulated by the excitement caused by the early results. The ability to obtain an accurate radiocarbon date with a sample one thousand times smaller than possible with scintillation or gas counting, the ability to trace {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in sea water with a similar thousand fold shrinkage in sample size, and the wide utility of {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 129}I as tracers and chronometers of erosion, hydrology and paleoclimate were sufficient to drive the partial conversion of existing accelerators and the construction of new dedicated ones. These applications remain the core of the present field and continue to justify its growth. The past few years, however, have seen developments in new fields. Biomedicine, chemical kinetics, materials science, forensic dosimetry, and arms control/counter proliferation have been explored. These applications have varying promise and will influence development of AMS programs in new ways in the future.

  9. Intercalated samarium as an agent enabling the intercalation of oxygen under a monolayer graphene film on iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2016-06-01

    Using thermal desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermionic methods, it is shown that oxygen does not intercalate under a graphene monolayer grown correctly on iridium, at least at temperatures of T = 300-400 K and exposures below 12000 L. However, if the graphene film on iridium is preliminary intercalated with samarium atoms (up to coverage of θSm = 0.2-0.45), the penetration of oxygen atoms under the graphene film is observed. The oxygen atoms in the intercalated state are chemically bonded to samarium atoms and remain under graphene up to high temperatures (~2150 K).

  10. X-ray spectrum in the range (6-12) A emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Louzon, Einat; Henis, Zohar; Levi, Izhak; Hurvitz, Gilad; Ehrlich, Yosi; Fraenkel, Moshe; Maman, Shlomo; Mandelbaum, Pinchas

    2009-05-15

    A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium (6-12 A) is presented, using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic considerations. Resonance 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p-4d, 3d-4p, and 3p-4s transitions in Ni samarium ions and in neighboring ionization states (from Mn to Zn ions) were identified. The experiment results show changes in the fine details of the plasma spectrum for different laser intensities.

  11. Demonstration of enhanced K-edge angiography utilizing a samarium x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2006-08-01

    The samarium-target x-ray tube is useful in order to perform cone-beam K-edge angiography because K-series characteristic x-rays from the samarium target are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast media. This generator consists of the following components: a constant high-voltage power supply, a filament power supply, a turbomolecular pump, and an x-ray tube. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode which is connected to the turbomolecular pump and consists of the following major devices: a samarium target, a tungsten hairpin cathode (filament), a focusing (Wehnelt) electrode, a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window 0.25 mm in thickness, and a stainless-steel tube body. In the x-ray tube, the positive high voltage is applied to the anode (target) electrode, and the cathode is connected to the tube body (ground potential). In this experiment, the tube voltage applied was from 50 to 70 kV, and the tube current was regulated to within 0.10 mA by the filament temperature. The exposure time is controlled in order to obtain optimum x-ray intensity. The electron beams from the cathode are converged to the target by the focusing electrode, and bremsstrahlung x-rays were absorbed using a 50-µm-thick tungsten filter. The x-ray intensity was 1.04 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the x-ray source with a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 0.10 mA, and angiography was performed using a computed radiography system and iodine-based microspheres 15 µm in diameter. In angiography of non-living animals, we observed fine blood vessels of approximately 100 µm with high contrasts.

  12. A novel and efficient samarium iodide-mediated synthesis of neoflavonoids (4-arycloumarins)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ryohke, Hirosi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ito, Keiichi

    1995-12-31

    Bioactive 4-arylcoumarins (4-aryl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-ones) have been recently isolated from the plants belonging to the families like Leguminosae, Guttiferae, and Compositae, some of which are still used as the traditional folk medicine. Despite many methods reported so far, there appears to be of limited success or of no success in some cases (II{sub b-g}) and, therefore, a simpler and more reliable one remains to be highly desired. Thus, a new and sterling protocol is now presented for the synthesis of neoflavonoids, which involves the intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction via a one electron transfer process with samarium diiodide as a key step.

  13. AMS Data Analysis Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.

    2015-04-20

    This presentation discusses standard techniques and processes used for radiation mapping (RM) via an AMS, Aerial Measurement System. The advantages and shortcomings of standard AMS-based RM are presented, along with some suggested areas for improvement. Issues touched on include what gets counted, data quality, background correction, data processing, altitude correction, isotope extraction, contouring, and time shift.

  14. A Distorted Circadian Clock Causes Early Flowering and Temperature-Dependent Variation in Spike Development in the Eps-3Am Mutant of Einkorn Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gawroński, Piotr; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Himmelbach, Axel; Poursarebani, Naser; Kilian, Benjamin; Stein, Nils; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Gill, Bikram S.; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Viable circadian clocks help organisms to synchronize their development with daily and seasonal changes, thereby providing both evolutionary fitness and advantage from an agricultural perspective. A high-resolution mapping approach combined with mutant analysis revealed a cereal ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LUX ARRHYTHMO/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (LUX/PCL1) as a promising candidate for the earliness per se 3 (Eps-3Am) locus in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Using delayed fluorescence measurements it was shown that Eps-3Am containing einkorn wheat accession KT3-5 had a distorted circadian clock. The hypothesis was subsequently confirmed by performing a time course study on central and output circadian clock genes, which showed arrhythmic transcript patterns in KT3-5 under constant ambient conditions, i.e., constant light and temperature. It was also demonstrated that variation in spikelet number between wild-type and mutants is sensitive to temperature, becoming negligible at 25°. These observations lead us to propose that the distorted clock is causative for both early flowering and variation in spike size and spikelet number, and that having a dysfunctional LUX could have neutral, or even positive, effects in warmer climates. To test the latter hypothesis we ascertained sequence variation of LUX in a range of wheat germplasm. We observed a higher variation in the LUX sequence among accessions coming from the warmer climate and a unique in-frame mutation in early-flowering Chinese T. turgidum cultivar ‘Tsing Hua no. 559.’ Our results emphasize the importance of the circadian clock in temperate cereals as a promising target for adaptation to new environments. PMID:24443443

  15. Ultimate intrinsic-coercivity samarium-cobalt magnet: An Earth-based feasibility study for space-shuttle missions. [containerless melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.; Chang, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for containerless melting and solidification of the samarium-cobalt alloy without excessive oxidation were developed. The rationale for extending these experiments in a weightless environment is also discussed. The effect of oxygen content from 0.15 to 0.63 weight percent and grain size in the range of 2 to 10 micrometers has been examined on arc-plasma-sprayed SmCo5 magnets. Contrary to expectations, the larger grain sizes tended to improve the coercivities. This was attributed to an increase in homogeneity resulting from higher temperature treatments used to produce larger grain size. No significant differences in coercivity were observed on the basis of oxygen content in the range examined. It is expected that more meaningful data on the relationship between oxygen content and coercivity will be seen when the oxygen content can be lowered to less than 0.1 weight percent.

  16. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 05: The Development of Quality Assurance Methods for Trajectory based Cranial SRS Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B; Duzenli, C; Gete, E; Teke, T

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate non-planar linac beam trajectories defined by the dynamic motion of the gantry, couch, jaws, collimator and MLCs. This was conducted on the Varian TrueBeam linac by taking advantage of the linac's advanced control features in a non-clinical mode (termed developers mode). In this work, we present quality assurance methods that we have developed to test for the positional and temporal accuracy of the linac's moving components. The first QA method focuses on the coordination of couch and gantry. For this test, we developed a cylindrical phantom which has a film insert. Using this phantom we delivered a plan with dynamic motion of the couch and gantry. We found the mean absolute deviation of the entrance position from its expected value to be 0.5mm, with a standard deviation of 0.5mm. This was within the tolerances set by the machine's mechanical accuracy and the setup accuracy of the phantom. We also present an altered picket fence test which has added dynamic and simultaneous rotations of the couch and the collimator. While the test was shown to be sensitive enough to discern errors 1° and greater, we were unable to identify any errors in the coordination of the linacs collimator and couch. When operating under normal conditions, the Varian TrueBeam linac was able to pass both tests and is within tolerances acceptable for complex trajectory based treatments.

  17. Integrating Assessment and Research Strategies on a Large Development and Research Project: Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists (KaAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany A.

    Combining assessment and research components on a large development and research project is a complex task. There are many descriptions of how either assessment or research should be conducted, but detailed examples illustrating integration of such strategies in complex projects are scarce. This paper provides definitions of assessment,…

  18. "I Am a Pibidiana": Societal Relations as the Locus of Sustained Development in a Teacher Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Kadri, Michele Salles; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers point to the theory-practice gap between university training and their school-based work. Coteaching in conjunction with cogenerative dialoguing as a means of teacher induction has been shown to overcome this gap. In this paper, we articulate teacher development in the praxis-centered (coteaching/cogenerative dialoguing) setting of…

  19. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors. PMID:24924181

  20. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Samarium Doped Lanthanum Magnesium Nitrate. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Polytechnic Inst.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic nuclear polarization of hydrogen nuclei by the solid effect in single crystals of samarium doped lanthanum magnesium nitrate (Sm:LMN) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The equations of evolution governing the dynamic nuclear polarization by the solid effect were derived in detail using the spin temperature theory and the complete expression for the steady state enhancement of the nuclear polarization was calculated. Experimental enhancements of the proton polarization were obtained for eight crystals at 9.2 GHz and liquid helium temperatures. The samarium concentration ranged from 0.1 percent to 1.1 percent as determined by X-ray fluorescence. A peak enhancement of 181 was measured for a 1.1 percent Sm:LMN crystal at 3.0 K. The maximum enhancements extrapolated with the theory using the experimental data for peak enhancement versus microwave power and correcting for leakage, agree with the ideal enhancement (240 in this experiment) within experimental error for three of the crystals.

  1. Electrical properties of samarium cobaltite nanoparticles synthesized using Sol–Gel autocombustion route

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyamoorthy, B.; Md Gazzali, P.M.; Murugesan, C.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The structural evolution and its electrical properties of samarium cobaltite nanograins are discussed. • Optimization of SmCoO{sub 3} nanograins is achieved by post sintering as-prepared gel at 800 °C. • The impedance spectra indicate the semiconducting behavior SmCoO{sub 3} nanograins. - Abstract: Nanograins of SmCoO{sub 3} are prepared by citric acid assisted Sol–Gel autocombustion route. The characterizations of crystal structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of SmCoO{sub 3} powder are done using XRD, HRSEM, FTIR and BDS. The structural evolution of SmCoO{sub 3} upon increasing the annealing temperature is followed using XRD and FTIR analyses. The powder sample contains polycrystalline grains with average size equal to 35 nm and orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pbnm space group. The vibrational bands observed in FTIR spectrum at 545 cm{sup −1} and 439 cm{sup −1} correspond to Co-O stretching modes in cobaltite system. HRSEM images of the sample show the formation of hexagonal shaped grains of samarium cobaltite. The AC electrical conductivity of 4.914 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 295 K is measured for SmCoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The impedance spectra bring out the semiconducting behavior of the material.

  2. Application of a Boson Expansion formalism based on the Random Phase Approximation to samarium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Boson Expansion Theory of Kishimoto and Tamura has proved to be very successful in describing quadrupole collective motions in even-even nuclei. This theory, however, involves a complicated transformation from the Tamm-Dancoff phonons to the phonons of the random Phase Approximation. In this thesis a Boson Expansion formalism, derived directly from the Random Phase Approximation and set forth by Pedracchi and Tamura, is used to derive the boson forms of the nuclear Hamiltonian and the electromagnetic transition operator. Detailed discussions of the formalism of Pedrocchi and Tamura and its extension needed to perform realistic calculations are presented. The technique used to deriving the boson forms and the formulae used in the calculations are also given a thorough treatment to demonstrate the simplicity of this approach. Finally, the theory is tested by applying it to calculate the energy levels and some electromagnetic properties of the Samarium isotopes. The results show that the present theory is capable of describing the range of behavior from a vibrational to a rotational character of the Samarium isotopes as well as the previous theory.

  3. Writing of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines at the surface of glass by samarium atom heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Benino, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Komatsu, T.; Sato, R.

    2005-06-15

    Some glasses such as 21.25Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.63.75MoO{sub 3}.15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol %) giving the formation of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals through conventional crystallization in an electric furnace and through continuous-wave Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (wavelength: 1064 nm) irradiation (samarium atom heat processing) have been developed. It is proposed from x-ray diffraction analyses, micro-Raman-scattering spectra, and second-harmonic generation measurements that the crystal structure of Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} formed by the crystallization is the {beta}{sup '}-phase structure with an orthorhombic (noncentrosymmetric) symmetry. The lines consisting of nonlinear optical {beta}{sup '}-Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are written at the surface of glasses by YAG laser irradiation (laser power: P=0.4 W, laser scanning speed: S=1-10 {mu}m/s), and, in particular, homogeneous crystal lines are formed at the laser scanning speed of 1 {mu}m/s. Refractive index changes (not crystallization) are also induced by YAG laser irradiation of P=0.4 W and a high laser scanning speed of S=25 {mu}m/s. The crystallization mechanism in the laser-irradiated region has been proposed. The present study demonstrates that the samarium atom heat processing is a technique for the writing of rare earth containing optical nonlinear/ferroelectric crystal lines in glass.

  4. Unexpected Efficiency of a Luminescent Samarium(III) Complex for Combined Visible and Near-Infrared Biphotonic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Thy; Grichine, Alexei; Brasselet, Sophie; Duperray, Alain; Andraud, Chantal; Maury, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    An original samarium(III) complex based on a triazacyclononane platform functionalized with a charge-transfer antenna chromophore exhibited optimized brightness and was successfully used as an emissive species for two-photon microscopy experiments in both the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. PMID:26489885

  5. AMS in Phytonutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Dueker, S R; Buchholz, B A

    2003-08-26

    As public interest in phytonutrition continues to increase, the result will be an augmented demand for extensive phytochemical research. The fact that foods are inherently phytochemically complex dictates a need to apply scientific techniques, which can detect synergistic interaction among the many active principles and adjuvant substances in the plant, and furthermore, modify the activities of these components. As illustrated by the experiments discussed in this presentation, the advantages of AMS are unique and extensive. These advantages are best summarized by Dr. John Vogel, an originator of biological AMS experimentation: ''AMS brings (at least) three advantages to biochemical tracing: high sensitivity for finding low probability events or for use of physiologic-sized doses; small sample sizes for painless biopsies or highly specific biochemical separations; and reduction of overall radioisotope exposures, inventories, and waste streams.'' AMS opens the door to increased phytochemical tracing in humans to obtain biochemical data concerning human health at dietary relevant levels of exposure. AMS, thus, obviates the need for uncertain extrapolations from animal models, which express marginal relevance to human metabolism. The unparalleled capabilities and benefits of AMS will undoubtedly establish this particular MS technique as an important analytical tool in phytochemical research.

  6. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  7. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Leinweber, G.; Burke, J.A.; Knox, H.D.; Drindak, N.J.; Mesh, D.W.; Haines, W.T.; Ballad, R.V.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Werner, C.J.; Trbovich, M.J.; Barry, D.P.; Sato, T.

    2002-09-15

    The purpose of the present work is to measure the neutron cross sections of samarium accurately. The most significant isotope is {sup 149}Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a {sup 235}U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics.Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-m flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2.The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple-scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility.Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral (RI) calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture RI to include the strong 0.1-eV resonance in {sup 149}Sm, present measurements agree within estimated uncertainties with ENDF

  8. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    SciTech Connect

    G. Leinweber; J.A. Burke; H.D. Knox; N.J. Drindak; D.W. Mesh; W.T. Haines; R.V. Ballad; R.C. Block; R.E. Slovacek; C.J. Werner; M.J. Trbovich; D.P. Barry; T. Sato

    2001-07-16

    The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is {sup 149}Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a {sup 235}U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in {sup 149}Sm, present measurements agree within estimated

  9. The electrodeposition of high performance ferromagnetic cobalt-samarium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jen-Chieh

    Co-Sm permanent magnets, such as SMCo5 and Sm2Co 17, are well known for their high coercivity and energy product. More recently, Co-Sm thin films have been studied for the interest in high density recording media and MEMS applications. These films have been prepared by sputtering, evaporation and plasma spraying. However, high manufacturing costs of these processes have limited usage of Co-Sm thin films for consumer electronic devices. Development of an aqueous electrodeposition continuous process for Co-Sm thin films would provide substantial reduction in manufacturing costs. Initially the Hull cell was used as a screening device to study the dependence of plating variables on Co-Sm electrodeposition from aqueous solution. Systematic parametric studies of DC and PC electrodeposition by parallel electrodes have been performed to study the effects of operating conditions and solution compositions on deposit composition, structure and properties. Relationships between deposit characteristics and magnetic behavior were developed. Alloy composition appeared strongly dependent on operating conditions and solution components. Addition of glycine suppressed the deposition of hydroxides/oxides and enabled the co-deposition of Sm and Co. High Sm content (32at%) Co-Sm alloys have been obtained from a bath consisting of 1M Sm sulfamate, 0.05M Co sulfate and 0.15M glycine by DC electrodeposition satisfying the stoichiometric compositions of intermetallic Co-Sm alloys of Sm2 Co17 (10.5at%) and SmCo5 (16.7at%). Therefore, CoSm alloys of sufficient Sm content for Sm Co magnets have been achieved by electrodeposition. PC is superior than DC electrodeposition for metallic deposits can be obtained at room temperature without the appearance of hydroxides. The structures of electrodeposited Co-Sm crystallites were dominated by hcp phases. Crystalline properties of deposits strongly depend on Sm deposit content. Increased Sm content changed deposits from crystalline to non

  10. Neutron Activated Samarium-153 Microparticles for Transarterial Radioembolization of Liver Tumour with Post-Procedure Imaging Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hashikin, Nurul Ab. Aziz; Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Chung, Lip-Yong; Dahalan, Rehir; Perkins, Alan Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Samarium-153 (153Sm) styrene divinylbenzene microparticles were developed as a surrogate for Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in liver radioembolization therapy. Unlike the pure beta emitter 90Y, 153Sm possess both therapeutic beta and diagnostic gamma radiations, making it possible for post-procedure imaging following therapy. Methods The microparticles were prepared using commercially available cation exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120 H+ (620–830 μm), which were reduced to 20–40 μm via ball mill grinding and sieve separation. The microparticles were labelled with 152Sm via ion exchange process with 152SmCl3, prior to neutron activation to produce radioactive 153Sm through 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. Therapeutic activity of 3 GBq was referred based on the recommended activity used in 90Y-microspheres therapy. The samples were irradiated in 1.494 x 1012 n.cm-2.s-1 neutron flux for 6 h to achieve the nominal activity of 3.1 GBq.g-1. Physicochemical characterisation of the microparticles, gamma spectrometry, and in vitro radiolabelling studies were carried out to study the performance and stability of the microparticles. Results Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the Amberlite IR-120 resins showed unaffected functional groups, following size reduction of the beads. However, as shown by the electron microscope, the microparticles were irregular in shape. The radioactivity achieved after 6 h neutron activation was 3.104 ± 0.029 GBq. The specific activity per microparticle was 53.855 ± 0.503 Bq. Gamma spectrometry and elemental analysis showed no radioactive impurities in the samples. Radiolabelling efficiencies of 153Sm-Amberlite in distilled water and blood plasma over 48 h were excellent and higher than 95%. Conclusion The laboratory work revealed that the 153Sm-Amberlite microparticles demonstrated superior characteristics for potential use in hepatic radioembolization. PMID:26382059

  11. The Use of Ureates as Activators for Samarium Diiodide.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Chriss E; Ramsey, Jeremy D; McAtee, Christopher C; Mauck, Joseph R; Hale, Erin M; Cumens, Justin A

    2016-07-15

    A novel mode of SmI2 activation has been developed using ureates as reaction promoters. Several ureates formed by treatment of the corresponding ureas with n-BuLi have been shown to activate SmI2 to a substantial extent toward the reduction of 1-chlorodecane. Complexes formed from SmI2 and various ureates have been shown to be useful for the reduction of a variety of organohalides, including substrates of low reactivity such as aryl fluorides. Because of ease of synthesis and low molecular weight, the conjugate base of triethylurea (TEU(-)) was of primary focus. Visible spectroscopy and reactivity data are consistent with the hypothesis that the same complex is being formed when SmI2 is combined with either 2 or 4 equiv of TEU(-), in spite of the greater reactivity of SmI2/4 TEU(-) with some alkyl halides. We propose that the active reductant is an N,O chelate formed between SmI2 and 2 equiv of TEU(-). PMID:27322641

  12. Strychnine as Target, Samarium Diiodide as Tool: A Personal Story.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Strychnine stands out from the group of classical natural products as one of the first complex compounds to be isolated in pure form and an extreme challenge to be structurally characterized. It has played a central role in natural product total syntheses and the surge in the development of innovative synthetic methods for many decades. Recently, we have accomplished one of the shortest formal total syntheses of strychnine (in ten steps and 14% overall yield or even shorter in eight steps and 10% overall yield). The evolution of a productive synthetic strategy, as well as the synthetic challenges tackled, are described here in detail, including examples of related transformations. The successful synthetic strategy was inspired by the premise that the core structure could be derived from simple aromatic indole precursors by a reductive SmI2 -induced ketyl-aryl coupling. Other key reactions included a diastereoselective reduction and a regioselective elimination protocol. Altogether one of the shortest syntheses of iso-strychnine and hence of strychnine was established. PMID:26223366

  13. The 23 to 300 C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The influence of temperature on knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperature in demagnetization resistent permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm2Co17 type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300 C. Using the knee point to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, such plots are shown to provide an effective overview of the useable regions in the space of temperature-induction swing parameters. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature, reaching a peak in the interval 200 to 300 C.

  14. A doxorubicin delivery system: Samarium/mesoporous bioactive glass/alginate composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiang; Su, Yanli; Chen, Dongya; Zhong, Wenxing

    2016-10-01

    Samarium (Sm) incorporated mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) microspheres have been prepared using the method of alginate cross-linking with Ca(2+) ions. The in vitro bioactivities of Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres were studied by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods. The results indicated that the Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres have a faster apatite formation rate on the surface. To investigate their delivery properties further, doxorubicin (DOX) was selected as a model drug. The results showed that the Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres exhibit sustained DOX delivery, and their release mechanism is controlled by Fickian diffusion according the Higuchi model. In addition, the delivery of DOX from Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres can be dominated by changing the doping concentration of Sm and the values of pH microenvironment. These all revealed that this material is a promising candidate for the therapy of bone cancer. PMID:27287115

  15. One-step chemical synthesis of samarium telluride thin films and their supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, V. S.; Lokhande, A. C.; Gaikwad, N. S.; Lokhande, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The letter reports synthesis of samarium telluride (Sm2Te3) thin films through a one-step chemical route. The formation of Sm2Te3 is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The surface morphological study is carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement techniques. The film shows barley-like microstructure with an average length of barley of about 5 μm and diameter of about 300 nm. The Sm2Te3 film surface exhibits lyophilic nature with contact angle of 21.3° for propylene carbonate electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry results revealed specific capacitance of 207 F g-1 with power density of 14.18 kW kg-1 in LiClO4-propylene carbonate electrolyte.

  16. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-01

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment. PMID:24892188

  17. Intercomparison study on (152)Eu gamma ray and (36)Cl AMS measurements for development of the new Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02).

    PubMed

    Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Straume, T; Komura, K; Rühm, W; Nolte, E; Huber, T; Nagashima, Y; Seki, R; Sasa, K; Sueki, K; Fukushima, H; Egbert, S D; Imanaka, T

    2008-07-01

    In the process of developing a new dosimetry system for atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (DS02), an intercomparison study between (152)Eu and (36)Cl measurements was proposed, to reconcile the discrepancy previously observed in the Hiroshima data between measurements and calculations of thermal neutron activation products. Nine granite samples, exposed to the atomic-bomb radiation in Hiroshima within 1,200 m of the hypocenter, as well as mixed standard solutions containing known amounts of europium and chlorine that were neutron-activated by a (252)Cf source, were used for the intercomparison. Gamma-ray spectrometry for (152)Eu was carried out with ultra low-background Ge detectors at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory, Kanazawa University, while three laboratories participated in the (36)Cl measurement using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS): The Technical University of Munich, Germany, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA and the University of Tsukuba, Japan. Measured values for the mixed standard solutions showed good agreement among the participant laboratories. They also agreed well with activation calculations, using the neutron fluences monitored during the (252)Cf irradiation, and the corresponding activation cross-sections taken from the JENDL-3.3 library. The measured-to-calculated ratios obtained were 1.02 for (152)Eu and 0.91-1.02 for (36)Cl, respectively. Similarly, the results of the granite intercomparison indicated good agreement with the DS02 calculation for these samples. An average measured-to-calculated ratio of 0.98 was obtained for all granite intercomparison measurements. The so-called neutron discrepancy that was previously observed and that which included increasing measured-to-calculated ratios for thermal neutron activation products for increasing distances beyond 1,000 m from the hypocenter was not seen in the results of the intercomparison study. The previously claimed discrepancy could be explained by

  18. The Schoolma'am.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Frances R.

    In the 1930s and reprinted in 1974, approximately 85 percent of the teachers in U.S. public schools were women--"schoolma'ams." This book provides a portrait of women teachers of that era, as well as a comprehensive overview of their lives, their careers, the conditions under which they taught in rural and urban schools, and the educational…

  19. High-temperature studies of the magnetic susceptibility of samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm compound

    SciTech Connect

    Uporova, N. S.; Uporov, S. A.; Sidorov, V. E.

    2012-02-15

    The magnetic susceptibility of metallic samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been experimentally studied by the Faraday method in the temperature range of 300-1800 K. It has been shown that the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility of Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm in a crystalline state can be described in the framework of Van Vleck paramagnetism theory taking into account variable valence and the contribution from the conduction electrons. Using this theoretical interpretation of the data, the effective valence of samarium in the metallic state and in the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been estimated as a function of the temperature.

  20. SCADA -- AM/FM interface: Platforms, technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Efficient utility operations is enhanced by close interoperation between automated mapping/facility management (AM/FM) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Important benefits of such integration are improvements in service quality and reduced maintenance costs. Development of an AM/FM -- SCADA interface to provide automatic database and display generation for SCADA through AM/FM functions is continuing by Valmet Automation. To minimize or eliminate vendor-dependence, the AM/FM-SCADA interface is compliant with the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) utility communication architecture (UCA). The utility industry is changing at an unprecedented rate. To remain a leader, or even to keep pace, utilities must be flexible and innovative. Competition forces companies to become more streamlined and efficient. These forces make the requirements for automation go beyond simple SCADA. Among several developing trends in the industry is the emergence of AM/FM. Collectively, these trends indicate the need to increase efficiency in the design, operation and maintenance of the transmission and distribution system. To accomplish its mission, SCADA and AM/FM must be a highly integrated system to provide timely information to its users. Open systems, the client-server paradigm and better information integration tools facilitate meeting these needs. UCA specification provides the technological glue, to achieve application integration between heterogeneous systems.

  1. AMS and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, Walter

    2010-04-01

    This paper attempts to draw a connection between information that can be gained from measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the study of climate change on earth. The power of AMS to help in this endeavor is demonstrated by many contributions to these proceedings. Just like in archaeology, we are entering a phase of an 'integrated approach' to understand the various components of climate change. Even though some basic understanding emerged, we are still largely in a situation of a phenomenological description of climate change. Collecting more data is therefore of paramount interest. Based on a recent suggestion of 'geo-engineering' to take out CO 2 from the atmosphere, this radical step will also be briefly discussed.

  2. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  3. Delirium Research: Where Am I?

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Delirium Research Where Am I? Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents ... to do. Read More "Delirium Research" Articles Where Am I? / Digging Into the Mysteries of Delirium / The ...

  4. AMS 13 - Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-10-01

    As a result of significant improvements over the last years of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique, not only numerous new dedicated facilities were installed during recent years, but also an increasing number of applications emerged. Among these newly installed accelerators, some are used by private companies mainly for biomedical applications, confirming a trend at work for 30 years of the transfer of this technology from the academic world to the commercial world.

  5. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki; Hanaki, Tatsumi

    2015-10-01

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 (14C) mainly for 14C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA's research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of 14C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 (10Be) and aluminum-26 (26Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The 10Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the 26Al-AMS system.

  6. Photoluminescence of samarium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dong Jin; Sekino, Tohru; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Hayashi, Asuka; Kusunose, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2011-10-15

    Samarium (Sm)-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized by low-temperature soft chemical processing. X-ray powder diffraction analyses of the synthesized Sm-doped and non-doped TNTs show a broad peak near 2{theta}=10{sup o}, which is typical of TNTs. The binding energy of Sm {sup 3}d{sub 5/2} for 10 mol% Sm-doped TNT (1088.3 eV) was chemically shifted from that of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1087.5 eV), showing that Sm existed in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Sm-doped TNTs clearly exhibited red fluorescence, corresponding to the doped Sm{sup 3+} ion in the TNT lattice. The Sm-doped TNT excitation spectrum exhibited a broad curve, which was similar to the UV-vis optical absorption spectrum. Thus, it was considered that the photoluminescence emission of Sm{sup 3+}-doped TNT with UV-light irradiation was caused by the energy transfer from the TNT matrix via the band-to-band excitation of TiO{sub 2} to the Sm{sup 3+} ion. - Graphical Abstract: Samarium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) having a nanotubular structure were synthesized by soft chemical route. It was revealed that the energy associated by the band-to-band excitation of TNT matrix transferred to the doped Sm{sup 3+} ions in the lattice, resulting in emission of strong and visible red fluorescence. Highlights: > Sm-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes synthesized by low-temperature soft chemical processing. > Sm{sup 3+} substitutes Ti{sup 4+} ions in the nanotube lattice. > Clear fluorescent emission due to the f-f transition at the Sm{sup 3+} in a crystal field environment. > Band-to-band excitation of TiO{sub 2} and followed energy transfer to Sm{sup 3+} causes the luminescence.

  7. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. These quasistatic demagnetization data were obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature.

  8. Ligand field and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters of samarium doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Sahar, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    We report the samarium ions (Sm3+) contents dependent ligand field and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) of zinc tellurite glass. The amorphous nature of the melt-quench synthesized glasses is confirmed using XRD. The lower energy region of the absorption spectra is used to calculate JO intensity parameters and the UV edge is exploited to determine the Nephelauxetic ratio, bonding, and Racah parameters. The Nephelauxetic ratio and Racah parameter is reduced and the bonding parameter is enhanced with the increase of Sm3+ concentration. The enhancement in covalency is found to increase the non-bridging oxygen and crystal field strength by delocalizing more d-shell electrons. Furthermore, Nephelauxetic function revealed an increase due to the reduction of localized d-electrons that is aroused from the overlap of d-orbital and ligand orbital. The JO intensity parameters displayed the Ω4>Ω6>Ω2 trend. Increase in Ω2 and decrease in Ω2 and Ω2 with the increase of Sm3+ concentration indicated an increase in the Smsbnd O covalency and coordination in the asymmetry of the prepared glasses. The large vale of spectroscopic quality factor (greater than unity) makes the proposed glass system prospective for various optical devices fabrication.

  9. Uranyl sensitization of samarium (III) luminescence in a two-dimensional coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Knope, Karah E.; de Lill, Daniel T.; Rowland, Clare E.; Cantos, Paula M.; de Bettencourt-Dias, Ana; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2012-01-02

    Heterometallic carboxyphosphonates UO₂2+/Ln3+ have been prepared from the hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate, lanthanide nitrate (Ln = Sm, Tb, Er, Yb), and phosphonoacetic acid (H₃PPA). Compound 1, (UO₂)₂(PPA)(HPPA)₂Sm(H₂O)·2H₂O (1) adopts a two-dimensional structure in which the UO₂2+ metal ions bind exclusively to the phosphonate moiety, whereas the Ln3+ ions are coordinated by both phosphonate and carboxylate functionalities. Luminescence studies of 1 show very bright visible and near-IR samarium(III)-centered emission upon direct excitation of the uranyl moiety. The Sm3+ emissive state exhibits a double-exponential decay with lifetimes of 67.2 ± 6.5 and 9.0 ± 1.3 μs as measured at 594 nm, after excitation at both 365 and 420 nm. No emission is observed in the region typical of the uranyl cation, indicating that all energy is either transferred to the Sm3+ center or lost to nonradiative processes. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure, and luminescent behavior of 1, as well as those of the isostructural terbium, erbium, and ytterbium analogues.

  10. X-ray Induced Luminescence Spectroscopy of Samarium Doped Barium Sulfate Prepared by Sintering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumeda, T.; Maeda, K.; Shirano, Y.; Fujiwara, K.; Sakai, K.; Ikari, T.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray induced luminescence (XL) properties of phosphor materials made of samarium doped barium sulfate have been investigated. The samples were prepared by sintering method heated at 900-1250 °C for 3 hours in air from the mixture of BaSO4 and Sm2O3. The concentration of Sm were prepared from 0.01-6 at.%. In as-prepared sample, the Sm3+ was detected by photoluminescence (PL). The PL intensity is maximum about 2 at.% with Sm, and then starts decreasing. The PL intensity showed concentration quenching. The XL observed Sm2+ and Sm3+ ions. The XL was shown from the sample sintered up to 1200 °C. The XL intensity increased with Sm concentration up to 1 at.%. The intensity was almost constant larger than 1 at.% Sm. These concentration dependences is different since the X-ray energy absorbed to the host material at once, and the energy transferred to both Sm3+ and Sm2+ ions. Sm doped BaSO4 is found a host for XL phosphor materials.

  11. Structural studies of lithium boro tellurite glasses doped with praseodymium and samarium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Damas, Pedro; Coelho, João; Hungerford, Graham; Hussain, N. Sooraj

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: [TeO{sub 4}] trigonal bipyramid structural unit, which is formed by two unequivalent pair of oxygen atoms: two equatorial oxygens (O{sub eq}) and two axial oxygens (O{sub ax}). Highlights: ► Pr{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped LBT glasses have been prepared and characterized. ► LBT glasses present normal surfaces without metallic clusters. ► Raman spectra revealed the network modifying behaviour of dopant ions. -- Abstract: This paper reports the preparation and structural studies of praseodymium and samarium (0.5, 2 and 4 mol%) oxide doped lithium boro tellurite glasses. These materials were prepared by the quenching technique in a ceramic crucible at 950 °C. Structural characterization was performed by Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Results from Raman analysis are in good agreement with those reported in the literature, revealing a normal glass structure for the host material. Understanding on how the glasses internal structure changed when the doping concentration increases was also assessed.

  12. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  13. Photoinduced hydroxyl radical and photocatalytic activity of samarium-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qi; Si, Zhichun; Zhang, Jiang; Xiao, Chong; Tan, Xiaoke

    2008-01-15

    Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline has been prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and also UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). These Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) samples were tested for methylene blue (MB) decomposition and *OH radical formation. The analysis of *OH radical formation on the sample surface under UV irradiation was performed by fluorescence technique with using terephthalic acid, which readily reacted with *OH radical to produce highly fluorescent product, 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid. It was observed that the presence of Sm(3+) ion as a dopant significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for MB degradation under UV light irradiation because both the larger specific surface area and the greater the formation rate of *OH radical were simultaneously obtained for Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline. The adsorption experimental demonstrated that Sm(3+)-TiO(2) had a higher MB adsorption capacity than undoped TiO(2) and the adsorption capacity of MB increased with the increase of samarium ion content. The results also indicated that the greater the formation rate of *OH radical was, the higher photocatalytic activity was achieved. In this study, the optimum amount of Sm(3+) doping was 0.5 mol%, at which the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes could be effectively inhibited, the highest formation rate of *OH radicals was, and thereby the highest photocatalytic activity was achieved. PMID:17540502

  14. FD-MS studies of samarium-based oligomerization of ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Greaves, J.; DeCoster, D.M.; Evans, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) samarium complexes such as (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm, [(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm({mu}-H)]{sub 2} and (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(THF){sub 2} can be used to catalyze polymerization of ethylene without a co-catalyst such as trialkyaluminum compounds or methylalumoxanes as required in the Ziegler-Natta systems. The polyethylene produced is insoluble and therefore of high molecular weight (>150,000 daltons). It is difficult to understand the basic steps in the polymerization processes and the influence that reaction conditions have on the process and the products because of the rapid polymerization rate of the reaction. In addition, while analysis of the molecular characteristics would assist in this understanding, the high molecular weight and insolubility of the product renders it particularly difficult to analyze. However, in the presence of hydrogen the molecular is limited by hydrogenolysis. The resulting ethylene oligomers have molecular weights in approximately the 300-1000 dalton range and thus are amenable to characterization by FD-MS.

  15. Wideband Power Amplifier Modeling Incorporating Carrier Frequency Dependent AM/AM and AM/PM Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacenko, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we present a complex baseband model for a wideband power amplifier that incorporates carrier frequency dependent amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) (i.e., AM/AM and AM/PM) characteristics in the design process. The structure used to implement the amplifier model is a Wiener system which accounts for memory effects caused by the frequency selective nature of the amplifier, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by gain compression and saturation. By utilizing piecewise polynomial nonlinearities in the structure, it is shown how to construct the Wiener model to exactly accommodate all given AM/AM and AM/PM measurement constraints. Simulation results using data from a 50 W 32-way Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) are provided, highlighting the differences in degradation incurred for a wideband input signal as compared with a narrowband input.

  16. Multi-nuclide AMS system at the University of Tsukuba

    SciTech Connect

    Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2010-05-12

    A multi-nuclide AMS system on the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba AMS system) can measure environmental levels of long-lived radioisotopes of {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I by employing a molecular pilot beam. AMS is an ultrasensitive technique for the study of long-lived radioisotopes, and stable isotopes at very low abundances. The high terminal voltage has an advantage in the detection of heavy radioisotopes. Much progress has been made in the development of new AMS techniques. For example, a standard deviation of the fluctuation for the {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio is +- 2%, and the effective detection limit is better than 1x10{sup -15}. In recent years, the main research field of the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has shifted to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) research from nuclear physics. This report presents an overview of the Tsukuba AMS system.

  17. Effect of samarium and iron substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Randeep; Kaur, Anumeet; Singh, Anupinder; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-05-01

    Samarium and Iron doped barium zirconate titanate (SF-BZT) ceramics with general formula (SmFeO3)x - (BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3)1-x (x = 0, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23) were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-Ray Diffraction revealed the proper phase formation and the profile matching with constant scale factor confirmed phase change from tetragonal to pseudo cubic with increase in samarium and iron content. The SEM micrographs show proper grain growth in samples. The magnetic data confirmed the presence of ferromagnetic character in the SF-BZT solid solutions.

  18. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI `C` and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process.

  19. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as a long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. This quasistatic demagnetization data was obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature. The 2nd quadrant M-H curve knee point is used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization due to an excessive bucking field for a given flux density swing at temperature. Such safe operating area plots are shown to differentiate the high temperature capabilities of the samples from different sources. For most of the samples, their 2nd quadrant M-H loop squareness increased with temperature, reaching a peak or a plateau above 250 C.

  20. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1992-08-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as a long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. This quasistatic demagnetization data was obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature. The 2nd quadrant M-H curve knee point is used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization due to an excessive bucking field for a given flux density swing at temperature. Such safe operating area plots are shown to differentiate the high temperature capabilities of the samples from different sources. For most of the samples, their 2nd quadrant M-H loop squareness increased with temperature, reaching a peak or a plateau above 250 C.

  1. Temperature-induced valence transition and associated lattice collapse in samarium fulleride.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidis, J; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Margadonna, Serena; Prassides, Kosmas; Fitch, Andrew N

    2003-10-01

    The different degrees of freedom of a given system are usually independent of each other but can in some materials be strongly coupled, giving rise to phase equilibria sensitively susceptible to external perturbations. Such systems often exhibit unusual physical properties that are difficult to treat theoretically, as exemplified by strongly correlated electron systems such as intermediate-valence rare-earth heavy fermions and Kondo insulators, colossal magnetoresistive manganites and high-transition temperature (high-T(c)) copper oxide superconductors. Metal fulleride salts-metal intercalation compounds of C60--and materials based on rare-earth metals also exhibit strong electronic correlations. Rare-earth fullerides thus constitute a particularly intriguing system--they contain highly correlated cation (rare-earth) and anion (C60) sublattices. Here we show, using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements, that cooling the rare-earth fulleride Sm2.75C60 induces an isosymmetric phase transition near 32 K, accompanied by a dramatic isotropic volume increase and a samarium valence transition from (2 + epsilon) + to nearly 2 +. The negative thermal expansion--heating from 4.2 to 32 K leads to contraction rather than expansion--occurs at a rate about 40 times larger than in ternary metal oxides typically exhibiting such behaviour. We attribute the large negative thermal expansion, unprecedented in fullerene or other molecular systems, to a quasi-continuous valence transition from Sm(2+) towards the smaller Sm((2+epsilon)+), analogous to the valence or configuration transitions encountered in intermediate-valence Kondo insulators like SmS (ref. 3). PMID:14534581

  2. Transport properties near the metal to insulator transition in samarium substituted (Bi,Pb)-2212 system

    SciTech Connect

    Shabna, R.; Sarun, P. M.; Vinu, S.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2009-06-01

    The electrical transport properties of insulating and superconducting samples of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2-x}Sm{sub x}Ca{sub 1.1}Cu{sub 2.1}O{sub 8+d}elta system is studied across the metal to insulator transition (MIT) region by varying the x values from 0.5 to 1.0 in steps of 0.1. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), and electrical resistivity measurements have been employed for the characterization of all samples. The x-ray and EDAX analyses indicate that samarium (Sm) atoms are incorporated into the crystalline structure of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d}elta[(Bi,Pb)-2212]. Samples with x<=0.6 undergo superconducting transitions while those with 0.7<=x<=1.0 exhibit semiconducting behavior. The MIT is observed at 0.6

  3. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C.; Edgar, A.; Varoy, C.; Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D.; Sammynaiken, R.; Kasap, S. O.

    2014-02-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm3+) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405 nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm3+-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm3+-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm2+ to Sm3+ reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm2+ to Sm3+ reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  4. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C. Kasap, S. O.; Edgar, A.; Varoy, C.; Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D.; Sammynaiken, R.

    2014-02-14

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405 nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  5. Application of TOS/AMS to TDRS E and F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) and the study of an Apogee and Maneuvering Stage (AMS) to be used in conjunction with the TOS are presented. A definition of the TOS/AMS configuration is provided along with a detailed design analysis including layout drawings, component definition, performance, sts and spacecraft interface definition, schedules, cost estimates, and specifications documents.

  6. Beam optics of the AmPS extraction line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    1991-01-01

    The beam optics of the AmPS (Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher) are described. Definitions are outlined, and the beam elements and parameters are given. Developments relating to the electrostatic septum, chicane, beam transformer and bending through 90 degrees are described. The performance of the AmPS and beam diagnostics are discussed.

  7. Why Am I So Sad?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Am I So Sad? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Am I So Sad? ... Do Kids Feel Sad About? Are Sad Feelings Normal? How Can You Deal With Sad Feelings? en español ¿Por qué ...

  8. Development of a method for fast and automatic radiocarbon measurement of aerosol samples by online coupling of an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, G.; Zhang, Y. L.; Agrios, K.; Szidat, S.

    2015-10-01

    A fast and automatic method for radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples is presented. This type of analysis requires high number of sample measurements of low carbon masses, but accepts precisions lower than for carbon dating analysis. The method is based on online Trapping CO2 and coupling an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS by means of a gas interface. It gives similar results to a previously validated reference method for the same set of samples. This method is fast and automatic and typically provides uncertainties of 1.5-5% for representative aerosol samples. It proves to be robust and reliable and allows for overnight and unattended measurements. A constant and cross contamination correction is included, which indicates a constant contamination of 1.4 ± 0.2 μg C with 70 ± 7 pMC and a cross contamination of (0.2 ± 0.1)% from the previous sample. A Real-time online coupling version of the method was also investigated. It shows promising results for standard materials with slightly higher uncertainties than the Trapping online approach.

  9. 'Who am I?'.

    PubMed

    Schellinski, Kristina

    2014-04-01

    The dreams and existential questions of those, who came into being in order to replace a dead person, pivot around a central cry: 'Who am I?' If conceived, born or designated as a replacement child, such an individual may suffer-even as an adult-from a rarely recognized unconscious confusion of identity, compounded by grief and survivors' guilt. From before the child is born, the archetypal forces of death and life are joined in a fateful constellation; the soul of the replacement child bears the shadow of death from the very beginning of life. Hope for the replacement child lies in an emergence of true self as soul recreates original life. Analysis can help the replacement child experience a 'rebirth into true life', not as 'the one who returned', but as a psychologically newborn individual; the path of individuation countering the replacement child's identification with the dead. Jungian analysis offers unique concepts for understanding and healing the replacement child; C.G. Jung himself was born after two stillborn babies and an infant that lived only five days. PMID:24673274

  10. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of ceramic seeds with samarium-153 and holmium-166 for brachytherapy proposal.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eduardo S; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2010-12-01

    Ceramic seeds were synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Sm:Ca and Si:Ho:Ca. One set of seeds was irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 and submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), K(0) method, to determine mass percentage concentration of natural samarium and holmium in the seed as well as to determine all existing radionuclides and their activities. Attention was paid to discrimination of Si-31, Ca-40, Ca-45, Ca-47, Ca-49, Sm-145, Sm-155, Sm-153 and Ho-166. A second sample was submitted to atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) also to determine samarium and holmium concentrations in weight. A third sample was submitted to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to qualitatively determine chemical composition. The measured activity was due to Sm-153 and Ho-166 with a well-characterized gamma spectrum. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that there is no discrepancy in seed composition. The maximum ranges in the water of beta particles from Sm-153 and Ho-166 decay were evaluated, as well as the dose rate and total dose delivered within the volume delimited by the range of the beta particles. The results are relevant for investigation of the viability of producing Sm-153 and Ho-166 radioactive seeds for use in brachytherapy. PMID:20685128

  11. Influence of samarium filter on the performance of Nd:YAG, Cr:Nd:GSGG, and Er:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Metz, Bodo

    1989-10-01

    Since solid state laser, especially Nd:YAG laser, find more and more applications in the medical and industrial field, methods to improve the efficiencies of these systems are under discussion again. Among these, cavities and flow-tubes made of so called "fluorescence-converting" materials face some special attraction. They can be used without a major redesign or reconstruction of the laser head, just replacing the corresponding parts. In our work the performance of Samarium doped glass is evaluated, which has absorption bands in the UV spectral region and fluorescence bands in the visible region, close by or at the absorption bands of Nd:YAG laser crystals. In this way unused or even harmfull UV radiation could be transferred and should intensify the pumping. By measuring the relevant spectra of flashlamps and arclamps with and without the Samarium doped filter glass in a laser cavity we try to clarify this process. We examine the thermal lensing of the different laser rods (Nd:YAG, Cr:Nd:GSGG and Er:YAG) under both conditions and determine the output power or energy for different pump powers or energies respectively.

  12. Complexation of uranium(VI) and samarium(III) with oxydiacetic acid: temperature effect and coordination modes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Linfeng; Garnov, Alexander Yu; Jiang, Jun; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Bismondo, Arturo

    2003-06-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) and samarium(III) with oxydiacetate (ODA) in 1.05 mol kg(-1) NaClO(4) is studied at variable temperatures (25-70 degrees C). Three U(VI)/ODA complexes (UO(2)L, UO(2)L(2)(2-), and UO(2)HL(2)(-)) and three Sm(III)/ODA complexes (SmL(j)((3-2)(j)+) with j = 1, 2, 3) are identified in this temperature range. The formation constants and the molar enthalpies of complexation are determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. The complexation of uranium(VI) and samarium(III) with oxydiacetate becomes more endothermic at higher temperatures. However, the complexes become stronger due to increasingly more positive entropy of complexation at higher temperatures that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy of complexation. The values of the heat capacity of complexation (Delta C(p) degrees in J K(-1) mol(-1)) are 95 +/- 6, 297 +/- 14, and 162 +/- 19 for UO(2)L, UO(2)L(2)(2-), and UO(2)HL(2)(-), and 142 +/- 6, 198 +/- 14, and 157 +/- 19 for SmL(+), SmL(2)(-), and SmL(3)(3-), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, in conjunction with the structural information from spectroscopy, help to identify the coordination modes in the uranium oxydiacetate complexes. The effect of temperature on the thermodynamics of the complexation is discussed in terms of the electrostatic model and the change in the solvent structure. PMID:12767209

  13. Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2008-03-01

    We have derived isotopic fractions of europium (Eu), samarium (Sm), and neodymium (Nd) in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new very high resolution (R~120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoudé spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7 m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which models s-process nucleosynthesis in the physical conditions expected in a low-mass, thermally-pulsing star on the AGB, and the classical method, which assumes that s-process nucleosynthesis can be approximated by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. These two approaches predict the relative contributions to the Solar System n-capture abundances from the s- and r-processes and, by extension, the relative contributions of these two process to material in metal-poor stars. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the classical method and is consistent with both an r-process and s-process origin by the stellar model. Our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with a predominantly r-process origin by both methods, and our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 196944 is consistent with a pure s-process origin by both methods as well. Our Nd isotopic fractions in both stars are consistent with either r-process and s-process origins by both methods. The Eu and Sm isotopic fraction estimates argue for an r-process origin for the rare-earth elements in HD 175305 and an s-process origin for them in HD 196944, in excellent agreement with previous studies of the elemental abundance distributions in these stars. This study for the

  14. AMS/DOE Graduate Fellowship

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2011-06-15

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Fellowship Program was established in 1991. To date, AMS has awarded over 150 Fellowships. This five year DOE award provided for one Fellowship a year for five years. The objective of this program is to provide enough funding to a student so as to allow the student to focus solely on coursework requirements, thus allowing them to begin their research at an earlier date.

  15. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... direction of the COTP and shall assist in the development, review, and update of the AMS Plan for their area of responsibility. For the purposes of this subchapter, Port Security Committees that...

  16. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direction of the COTP and shall assist in the development, review, and update of the AMS Plan for their area of responsibility. For the purposes of this subchapter, Port Security Committees that...

  17. Application of Faith Development Theory for Understanding Students' Transformational Learning as a Result of Bonfire at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Brent Russell

    2012-01-01

    Considerable attention by scholars for the last two decades has focused on issues of spirituality and higher education. Literature in the field of college student affairs suggest that, in order promote the development of the whole student, practitioners in the field should consider adopting theories of faith and spiritual development. This study…

  18. Coproportionation thermodynamics of homoligand solvates of samarium(III) and Yttrium(III) nitrates with neutral organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    The heats of coproportionation of homoligand solvates of samarium(III) and yttrium(III) nitrates with neutral organophosphorus compounds (tri-n-butyl phosphate, diisooctyl methylphosphonate, and diisoamyl methylphosphonate) in hexane at 298.15 K have been determined calorimetrically. The enthalpies of coproportionation are virtually independent of the nature and concentration of solvates of rare earth metal(III) nitrates in hexane and of the nature of neutral organophosphorus compound and amount to -1.1{plus_minus}0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. The Gibbs free energy of coproportionation is -5.43 kJ mol{sup -1}, and the entropy is 14.5{plus_minus}0.7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}.

  19. TEM-characterization of magnetic samarium- and cobalt-rich-nanocrystals formed in hexagonal SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Lichte, Hannes; Lenk, Andreas; Gemming, Thomas; Pasold, Gunnar; Witthuhn, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    Using analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques, nanocrystals embedded in 4H-SiC are studied which formed after high dose samarium (Sm), cobalt (Co), and Sm-and-Co-ion implantations and annealing. SmSi 2, Sm 5C 2, Co 2Si and SmCo-rich nanocrystals have been identified in terms of their crystallography, shape, strain, size, and orientation relationship to the matrix. It is shown, moreover, that cluster creations of foreign atoms (nanocrystals) and of vacancies (voids) are connected and their sizes increase with implantation dose. Carbon onions surrounding the nanocrystals have been found and this carbon excess has been interpreted as a consequence of preferred formation of foreign atom-silicide nanocrystals. For the case of Co implanted 4H-SiC, Lorentz microscopy has been applied revealing both non-magnetic and single-domain ferromagnetic nanocrystals.

  20. Effect of acute/subchronic samarium exposure on the concentration, motility, and morphology of sperm in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D Y; Shen, X Y; Xu, X L; Ruan, Q; Hu, S S; Chen, Y Y; Wang, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Male ICR mice were orally administered samarium nitrate [Sm(NO3)3] to investigate its effects on sperm concentration and sperm quality. After acute exposure to ≥2880.00 mg/kg Sm(NO3)3 via intragastric gavage, sperm motility and acrosome integrity were decreased, and the sperm malformation percentage was increased (P < 0.05). After subchronic exposure to ≥500.00 mg/L Sm(NO3)3 administered via drinking water for 90 days, relative gonad weight, sperm concentration, and sperm quality significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Sperm malformation also increased after subchronic exposure to Sm, which was found to be the most sensitive index. Sperm head malformation accounted for the largest proportion of all types of sperm malformations evaluated. Of the six different subtypes of head malformation, irregular shape accounted for the largest proportion. PMID:27420955

  1. Status report on the Erlangen AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.; Luppold, W.; Rottenbach, A.; Kritzler, K.; Ohneiser, A.; Kretschmer, W.

    2007-06-01

    The Erlangen AMS facility has been in routine operation since 1995. We present the current status of the facility and recent developments in our laboratory. The main focuses of our research are further improvement and automation of the sample preparation, the development of new sample preparation techniques like the dating of iron artefacts, and the development of an efficient automated gas feeding system for a gas ion source for the measurement of microgram samples for, e.g. environmental or future biomedical applications. The current background level and the long term stability of the facility are presented and discussed.

  2. AM noise impact on low level phase noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Cibiel, Gilles; Régis, Myrianne; Tournier, Eric; Llopis, Oliver

    2002-06-01

    The influence of the source AM noise in microwave residual phase noise experiments is investigated. The noise floor degradation problem, caused by the parasitic detection of this type of noise by an unperfectly balanced mixer, is solved thanks to a refinement of the quadrature condition. The parasitic noise contribution attributable to the AM to PM (phase modulation) conversion occurring in the device under test is minimized through the development of a dedicated microwave source featuring an AM noise level as low as -170 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from a 3.5 GHz carrier. PMID:12075970

  3. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  4. Interaction of oxygen with samarium on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film grown on Ni{sub 3}Al(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Dingling; Xu, Qian E-mail: jfzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Han, Yong; Ye, Yifan; Pan, Haibin; Zhu, Junfa E-mail: jfzhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-03-07

    The interaction between oxygen and samarium (Sm) on the well-ordered thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film grown on Ni{sub 3}Al(111) has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. At Sm coverage higher than one monolayer, exposure of oxygen to the Sm films at room temperature leads to the formation of both samarium peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) states and regular samarium oxide (O{sup 2−}) states. By contrast, when exposing O{sub 2} to Sm film less than one monolayer on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no O{sub 2}{sup 2−} can be observed. Upon heating to higher temperatures, these metastable O{sub 2}{sup 2−} states dissociate, supplying active O atoms which can diffuse through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film to further oxidize the underlying Ni{sub 3}Al(111) substrate, leading to the significant increase of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film thickness. Therefore, it can be concluded that Sm, presumably in its peroxide form, acts as a catalyst for the further oxidation of the Ni{sub 3}Al substrate by supplying the active oxygen species at elevated temperatures.

  5. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min. PMID:25682738

  6. Activation of Ene-Diamido Samarium Methoxide with Hydrosilane for Selectively Catalytic Hydrosilylation of Alkenes and Polymerization of Styrene: an Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhao, Chaoyue; Liu, Jinxi; Huang, Hanmin; Wang, Fengxin; Xu, Xiufang; Cui, Chunming

    2016-09-01

    Samarium methoxide incorporating the ene-diamido ligand L(DME)Sm(μ-OMe)2Sm(DME)L (1; L = [DipNC(Me)C(Me)NDip](2-), Dip = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, and DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) has been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 catalyzed the syndiospecific polymerization of styrene upon activation with phenylsilane and regioselective hydrosilylation of styrenes and nonactivated terminal alkenes. Unprecedented regioselectivity (>99.0%) for both types of alkenes has been achieved with the formation of Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov products in high yields, respectively, whereas the polymerization of styrene resulted in the formation of syndiotactic silyl-capped oligostyrenes. The kinetic experiments and density functional theory calculations strongly support a samarium hydride intermediate generated by σ-bond metathesis of the Sm-OMe bond in 1 with PhSiH3. In addition, the observed regioselectvity for hydrosilylation and polymerization is consistent with the calculated energy profiles, which suggests that the bulky ene-diamido ligand and samarium hydride intermediate have important roles for regio- and stereoselectivity. PMID:27547859

  7. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  8. Astroparticle Physiscs with AMS02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incagli, Marco

    2010-03-01

    AMS02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) is the second version of a typical particle physics detector which will be installed, starting from summer 2010, on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the spectrum of charged cosmic rays in the region 1 GeV-1 TeV, with a high capability of identifying and measuring energy and direction of photons. Thanks to the large acceptance, to the long flight duration (at least 3 years) and to the state of the art of the techniques for particle identification, AMS has the possibility of achieving the highest sensitivity in the search of WIMP Dark Matter in this energy domain, through the contemporary measuremnt of the absolute and relative spectra of electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, photons and, eventually, antideuterons. The AMS02 experiment is also able to verify the existence of antimatter in the universe through the measurement of the ratio antihelium/helium at the 10-9 level. AMS02 will measure also with high precision the nuclei spectra up to iron, providing relevant informations on the theories of transport and diffusion of cosmic rays.

  9. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs of…

  10. “I Am Very, Very Proud of Myself”: Improving Youth Activity Levels Using Self-Determination Theory in Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Judy B.

    2013-01-01

    Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention. PMID:24350215

  11. SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.M. PROKHOROV: Formation and development dynamics of femtosecond laser microplasma in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, Nikolai S.; Garnov, Sergei V.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Lozovoi, V. I.; Malyutin, A. A.; Shchelev, M. Ya; Yatskovskii, I. S.

    2006-07-01

    We report our experimental investigations of the formation and development dynamics of laser plasma produced in gas microvolumes (microplasma) upon multiple ionisation by tightly focused (to a spot 2—3 μm in diameter) high-intensity (up to ≈1017 W cm-2) femtosecond pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser (τp ⋍ 130 fs, λ = 800 nm). Precision interferometric measurements (with a spatial resolution of ≈1.5 μm) were made of the spatiotemporal distribution of the refractive index and electron density in the microplasmas of the air and helium immediately during the action of the exciting femtosecond laser pulse and at the initial stage of free plasma expansion. The microplasma formation was shown to occur as a result of almost complete (up to bare nuclei) ionisation of the initial gas. For the first time the spectral continuum and the dynamics of spectral line formation in the UV and visible spectral ranges were investigated with a picosecond time resolution for the femtosecond laser-produced microplasmas of the air, N2, Ar, and He at normal conditions. For the first time the generation of the second (even) laser radiation harmonic was recorded in a femtosecond subcritical-density plasma of gases.

  12. Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica de Centro América (AHOPCA): a model for sustainable development in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald D; Antillón Klussmann, Federico; Baez, Fulgencio; Bonilla, Miguel; Moreno, Belgica; Navarrete, Marta; Nieves, Rosa; Peña, Armando; Conter, Valentino; De Alarcón, Pedro; Howard, Scott C; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Biondi, Andrea; Velez, George; Tognoni, Gianni; Cavalli, Franco; Masera, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Bridging the survival gap for children with cancer, between those (the great majority) in low and middle income countries (LMIC) and their economically advantaged counterparts, is a challenge that has been addressed by twinning institutions in high income countries with centers in LMIC. The long-established partnership between a Central American consortium--Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica de Centro América (AHOPCA)--and institutions in Europe and North America provides a striking example of such a twinning program. The demonstrable success of this endeavor offers a model for improving the health outcomes of children with cancer worldwide. As this remarkable enterprise celebrates its 15th anniversary, it is appropriate to reflect on its origin, subsequent growth and development, and the lessons it provides for others embarking on or already engaged in similar journeys. Many challenges have been encountered and not all yet overcome. Commitment to the endeavor, collaboration in its achievements and determination to overcome obstacles collectively are the hallmarks that stamp AHOPCA as a particularly successful partnership in advancing pediatric oncology in the developing world. PMID:24376230

  13. Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g∙m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g∙m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  14. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Evelyn M; Vieira, David J; Moody, Walter A; Slemmons, Alice K

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Dares, C. J.; Lapides, A. M.; Mincher, B. J.; Meyer, T. J.

    2015-11-05

    A high surface area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand has been applied to the oxidation of trivalent americium to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode are used, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 M acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides, for the first time, a method for accessing the higher oxidation states of Am in non-complexing media for developing the coordination chemistries of Am(V) and Am(VI) and, more importantly, for separation of americium from nuclear waste streams.

  16. Radio emission from AM Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastian, T. S.; Dulk, G. A.; Chanmugam, G.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the quiescent microwave emission of the magnetic cataclysmic variable AM Herculis are presented. The emission, which declined from a mean value of 0.58 mJy at 4.9 GHz to about 0.3 mJy, in rough coincidence with the entry of AM Herculis into an optical low state (mid-1983), is explained in terms of optically thick gyrosynchrotron emission. It is noted that the observation of a coherent outburst at 4.9 GHz, interpreted as the result of a cyclotron maser on the red dwarf secondary, indicates that the secondary is magnetized. Possible implications are briefly explored. Comparisons between this system and other stellar continuum radio sources are made.

  17. The use of AMS to the biomedical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) began making AMS measurements in 1989. Biomedical experiments were originally limited by sample preparation techniques, but we expect the number of biomedical samples to increase five-fold. While many of the detailed techniques for making biomedical measurements resemble those used in other fields, biological tracer experiments differ substantially from the observational approaches of earth science investigators. The role of xenobiotius in initiating mutations in cells is of particular interest. One measure of the damage caused to the genetic material is obtained by counting the number of adducts formed by a chemical agent at a given dose. AMS allows direct measurement of the number of adducts through stoichiometric quantification of the {sup 14}C label attached to the DNA after exposure to a labelled carcinogen. Other isotopes of interest include tritium, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 79}SE, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 26}Al and {sup 129}I. Our experiments with low dose environmental carcinogens reflect the protocols which will become a common part of biomedical AMS. In biomedical experiments, the researcher defines the carbon to be analyzed through dissection and/or chemical purification; thus the sample is merely'' combusted and graphitized at the AMS facility. However, since biomedical samples can have a {sup 14}C range of five orders of magnitude, preparation of graphite required construction of a special manifold to prevent cross-contamination. Additionally, a strain of {sup 14}C-depleted C57BL/6 mice is being developed to further reduce background in biomedical experiments. AMS has a bright and diverse future in radioisotope tracing. Such work requires a dedicated amalgamation of AMS scientists and biomedical researchers who will redesign experimental protocols to maximize the AMS technique and minimize the danger of catastrophic contamination. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Definitions § 1221.201 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Definitions § 1221.201 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Definitions § 1221.201 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda Definitions § 1221.201 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  12. Content-Based Networking: DTN, AMS, Sharednet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A detailed viewgraph presentation on DTN, AMS, and Sharednet content-based networking is shown. The contents include: 1) DARPA Content-Based Networking Summary of Requirements; 2) Concept; 3) Key Features of AMS; 4) Overview of Sharednet; 5) SharedNet Deployment History; 6) SharedNet AMS DTN; 7) Detailed Structure; and 8) Bottom line.

  13. Anion sensing and interfering behaviors of electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensors with nitrogen plasma-treated samarium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu-Ren; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Chan, Ya-Ting

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we demonstrate a samarium oxide (Sm2O3) electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensor with nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment for anion sensing and interfering characterization. Chloride (Cl-), nitrite (NO2-), and nitrate (NO3-) ions were detected, and the sensitivity was about 49.75 mV/pCl, 53.8 mV/pNO2, and 56.19 mV/pNO3, respectively. Ion sensitivity was enhanced with the increase in ionic radius of the target ion. Titration was performed to analyze the interference of anions. To assess interferences from these ions (Cl-, NO2-, and NO3-), selectivity coefficients obtained by fixed interference method (FIM) measurements were presented. In result, the coefficients indicate that the interference can be ignored. Furthermore, characteristics of drift demonstrates that the sample exhibits long-term stability for significantly lower drift of chloride, nitrite, and nitrate ions, respectively. The Sm2O3 EIS sensor with nitrogen PIII treatment exhibits superior anion sensitivity, selectivity, and stability; therefore, this sensor is suitable for future biosensing applications.

  14. Samarium-153 therapy for prostate cancer: the evaluation of urine activity, staff exposure and dose rate from patients.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Yasemin; Gumuser, Gul; Sayit, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of Samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acid ((153)Sm-EDTMP) in urine and to calculate the dose rate of its retention in the body as a function of time and the dose received by the skin of laboratory staff's finger. Urine samples were collected from 11 patients after intravenous injection of (153)Sm-EDTMP. The measurements of dose rate were performed. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used for absorbed dose measurements. Effective half-lives that were calculated from urine sample measurements were found as 7.1±3 h within the first 24 h. Whole body dose rates before collecting urine of patients were 60.0 ± 15.7 µSv h(-1) for within 1 h following (153)Sm-EDTMP administration. The highest finger radiation dose is to the right-hand thumb (3.8 ± 2 mGy). The results of the study imply that patients who recieved (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy should be kept a minumum of 8 h in an isolated room at hospital and that one staff should give therapy at most two patients per week. PMID:25063786

  15. A SnO2-samarium doped ceria additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Baolong; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-02-01

    The role of a SnO2-samarium doped ceria (SDC) additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite electrolyte and lithiated NiO-SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite cathode is investigated and compared with a NiO-SDC extra anode layer. Catalytic grown carbon fiber mixed with (Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 is used as a fuel. At 750 °C, the maximum power outputs of 192 and 143 mW cm-2 are obtained by the cells with SnO2-SDC and NiO-SDC layers, respectively. In the SnO2-SDC layer, the reduction of SnO2 and the oxidation of Sn happen simultaneously during the cell operation, and the Sn/SnO2 redox cycle provides an additional route for fuel conversion. The formation of an insulating dense interlayer between the anode and electrolyte layers, which usually happens in DCFCs with metal anodes, is avoided in the cell with the SnO2-SDC layer, and the stability of the cell is improved consequently.

  16. Reduction of the low-temperature bulk gap in the topological Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride under high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgast, Steven; Eo, Yun Suk; Sun, Kai; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary

    The mixed-valent insulator samarium hexaboride exhibits a narrow bandgap at low temperatures, formed by strong-correlation interactions between itinerant d electrons and f states localized to the Sm ions, and surface states accessible to transport below about 2 K. Spectroscopic measurements of the bandgap suggest a gap size of 15-20 meV, but transport measurements of thermally-activated carriers suggest the Fermi energy is about 3 meV below the conduction band edge. Here, we study the activated transport gap in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T between 1.5 K and 4 K. The magnetoresistance of the surface states, which has only very weak temperature dependence, is distinct from that of the bulk states, which exhibit thermally-activated behavior. The activation energy shrinks by 50% at fields up to 60 T. Data up to 93 T suggest that the transport gap continues to close, but is only fully-closed at even higher fields. We compare the measured reduction to theoretically-expected behavior due to Zeeman shifts of the Sm ion f-state transition energies. Meanwhile, the surface state shows no hints of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which places constraints on any 2D surface carrier's mobility. Performed in part at the NHMFL (NSF CA DMR-1157490 and the State of Florida), and the LNF (NNIN, supported by NSF). Supported by NSF Grant Nos. DMR-1006500, DMR-1441965, and DMR-0801253.

  17. 47 CFR 1.10004 - What am I allowed to do if I am approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What am I allowed to do if I am approved? 1.10004 Section 1.10004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE International Bureau Filing System § 1.10004 What am I allowed to do if I am approved? If you are approved...

  18. 47 CFR 1.10004 - What am I allowed to do if I am approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What am I allowed to do if I am approved? 1.10004 Section 1.10004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE International Bureau Filing System § 1.10004 What am I allowed to do if I am approved? If you are approved...

  19. The Radiolysis of AmVI Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of bismuthate-produced AmVI by 60Co gamma-rays was measured using post-irradiation UV/Vis spectroscopy. The reduction of AmVI by radiolysis was rapid, producing AmV as the sole product. Relatively low absorbed doses in the ~0.3 kGy range quantitatively reduced a solution of 2.5 x 10-4 M AmVI. The addition of bismuthate to samples during irradiation did not appear to protect AmVI from radiolytic reduction during these experiments. It was also shown here that AmV is very stable toward radiation. The quantitative reduction of the AmVI concentration here corresponds to 1.4 hours of exposure to a process solution, however the actual americium concentrations will be higher and the expected contact times short when using centrifugal contactors. Thus, the reduction rate found in these initial experiments may not be excessive.

  20. A simulation study of linear RF ion guides for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.

    2015-02-01

    The use of radiofrequency multipoles and particularly the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) controlled gas cell to facilitate on-line isobar separations for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is being explored experimentally and theoretically in a preliminary way at present. These new methods have the potential to extend greatly the analytical scope of AMS. However, there are many technical challenges to adapt an RF gas cell isobar separating device and still maintain stable and high transmission for routine AMS using the high current Cs+ sputter ion sources developed for nuclear physics and adapted to the detection of rare radioactive isotopes for AMS. An overview of linear RF ion guide properties is therefore needed to assist in the conceptualization of their efficient additions into AMS. In this work the intrinsic properties of linear RF ion guides, which are relevant to the generation of the RF induced ion energy distributions and for the evaluation of the ion transmissions in vacuum, are systematically studied using SIMION 8.1. These properties are compared among radiofrequency quadrupole, hexapole and octupole ion guides, so that their usefulness for AMS applications can be evaluated and compared. By simulation it is found that to prepare a typical RF captured AMS ion beam to within a safe range of ion energies prior to the onset of gas interactions, a higher multipole is more suitable for the first RF field receptor, while a quadrupole operated with q2 ∼ 0.5 is more suited as the final ion guide for concentrating the energy-cooled ions near axis.

  1. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  2. The theoretical basis and clinical methodology for stereotactic interstitial brain tumor irradiation using iododeoxyuridine as a radiation sensitizer and samarium-145 as a brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Kanellitsas, C.; Clendenon, N.R. ); Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G. )

    1989-01-01

    High grade astrocytomas have proven resistant to all conventional therapy. A technique to produce radiation enhancement during interstitial brain tumor irradiation by using a radiation sensitizer (IdUrd) and by stimulation of Auger electron cascades through absorption of low energy photons in iodine (Photon activation) is described. Clinical studies using IdUrd, {sup 192}Ir as a brachytherapy source, and external radiation have produced promising results. Substituting samarium-145 for {sup 192}Ir in this protocol is expected to produce enhanced results. 15 refs.

  3. On the possibility of reduction of Ac{sup 3+} to Ac{sup 2+} in Aqueous-ethanolic solutions of bivalent samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Veleshko, I.E.; Kamenskaya, A.N.

    1995-07-01

    In view of contradictory data on the existence of Ac{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions, the possibility of actinium reduction was examined in aqueous-ethanolic solutions in which bivalent f-elements are more stable than in aqueous media. In the presence of bivalent samarium (E{sub Sm}{sup 0}3+/Sm 2+=-1.5 V) Ac(III) is not reduced to Ac(II). These results disagree with the previously published data on the radiopolarographic generation of Ac(II) in aqueous solutions.

  4. Phase I Trial of Vertebral Intracavitary Cement and Samarium (VICS): Novel Technique for Treatment of Painful Vertebral Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ashamalla, Hani; Cardoso, Erico; Macedon, Mark; Guirguis, Adel; Weng Lijun; Ali, Shamsah; Mokhtar, Bahaa; Ashamalla, Michael; Panigrahi, Nokul

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty is an effective procedure to alleviate pain in vertebral metastases. However, it has no proven anticancer activity. Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is used for palliative treatment of bone metastases. A standard dose of 1 mCi/kg is administrated intravenously. The present study was conducted to determine the feasibility of intravertebral administration of {sup 153}Sm with kyphoplasty. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 procedures were performed in 26 patients. Of these 26 patients, 7 underwent procedures performed at two vertebral levels. The mean age of the cohort was 64 years (range, 33-86). The kyphoplasty procedure was performed using a known protocol; 1-4 mCi of {sup 153}Sm was admixed with the bone cement and administered under tight radiation safety measures. Serial nuclear body scans were obtained. Pain assessment was evaluated using a visual analog pain score. Results: All patients tolerated the procedure well. No procedure-related morbidities were noted. No significant change had occurred in the blood counts at 1 month after the procedure. One case was not technically satisfactory. Nuclear scans revealed clear radiotracer uptake in the other 32 vertebrae injected. Except for the first patient, no radiation leakage was encountered. The mean pain score using the visual analog scale improved from 8.6 before to 2.8 after the procedure (p < .0001). Follow-up bone scans demonstrated a 43% decrease in the tracer uptake. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the combination of intravertebral administration of {sup 153}Sm and kyphoplasty is well tolerated with adequate pain control. No hematologic adverse effects were found. A reduction of the bone scan tracer uptake was observed in the injected vertebrae. Longer follow-up is needed to study the antineoplastic effect of the procedure.

  5. Determination of rare earth impurities in high purity samarium oxide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after extraction chromatographic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinquan; Liu, Jinglei; Yi, Yong; Liu, Yonglin; Li, Xiang; Su, Yaqin; Lin, Ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the determination of trace of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) as impurities in high purity samarium oxide (Sm2O3) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was described. Analytes, such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Lu and Y were measured without Sm matrix separation because of no interference problems occurring that could affect the analysis of these elements. On the other hand, analytes, such as Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb were carried out after Sm matrix being eliminated completely by means of 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen-ethylhexy phosphonate (EHEHP) extraction chromatographic separation. The inherent problem associated with matrix-induced suppression was effectively compensated with spiking In as internal standard element and the mass spectra isobaric interferences of atomic and molecular ions arose from Sm matrix had been overcome after the removal of Sm matrix. The limits of quantitations (LOQ) for 14 REEs impurities were from 0.01 to 0.07 [mu]g g-1 together with the recoveries of spiking sample of 14 REEs were found to be in the range of 85-110% and the proposed method precision was less than 5%. A synthetic standard Sm2O3 sample with well-known 14 REEs concentrations was prepared and analysed in order to prove the accuracy and precision of the proposed method together with another high purity Sm2O3 was also measured using ICP-MS. The methodology had been found to be suitable for the determination of trace of 14 REEs in 99.999-99.9999% high purity Sm2O3.

  6. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles in samarium doped magnesium tellurite glass: Effect on the characteristic of bonding and local structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, N. M.; Sahar, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Samarium doped magnesium tellurite glass with and without silver nanoparticles is prepared using melt quenching technique. All glasses are amorphous in nature. The existence of silver nanoparticles in a glass matrix with an average size of 16.94 nm has been confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The UV-vis spectra are complemented with Judd-Ofelt calculation to get the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. It has also been used to calculate nephelauxetic ratio, bonding parameter and Racah parameters. It is found that Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2 ,Ω4 and Ω6 increase with an increase of Ag NPs contents up to 0.2 mol% and decrease thereafter. Nephelauxetic ratio, β decreases with increasing the concentration of Ag NPs, while bonding parameter, δ increases as the concentration of Ag NPs increases. The value of Racah parameters decreases as the concentration of Ag NPs increases. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been manipulated to observe the structural modification of [TeO4] trigonal bipyramidal structural unit. In the FTIR spectrum, it is found that the structural unit of [TeO4] trigonal bipyramidal, [TeO3+1] polyhedral and/or [TeO3] trigonal pyramidal groups are located at 651-663 cm-1 and 772 cm-1, respectively. It is observed that the [TeO4] tbp wavenumber shifts to a higher wavenumber as the concentration of Ag NPs increases up to 0.2 mol% and decreases thereafter. Meanwhile, for the Raman spectra, it is found that [TeO4] tbp, [TeO3+1] polyhedral and [TeO3] tp groups are located at 646-666 cm-1, 714-741 cm-1, and 745-772 cm-1, respectively.

  7. Further study on highly sensitive AMS measurement of 53Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kejun, Dong; Hao, Hu; Xianggao, Wang; Chaoli, Li; Ming, He; Zhenyu, Li; Shaoyong, Wu; Jiancheng, Liu; Guowen, Zheng; Heng, Li; Zhigang, Chen; Guangshan, Liu; Jian, Yuan; Shan, Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy has been equipped with a ΔE-Q3D detection system for the measurements of 53Mn. While the sample material of MnO2 and the extraction ions of MnO- were used previously in AMS measurement of 53Mn with fairly good results, a method has recently been developed with the extraction of MnF- from ion source using MnF2 and MnO2 + PbF2 as sample materials. As a result, a sensitivity of 10-14 (53Mn/Mn) has been achieved. Compared with the original MnO-/MnO2 approach, the method of MnF- extraction, combined with ΔE-Q3D detection technique, demonstrated an improved sensitivity for AMS measurement of 53Mn.

  8. The AMS-02 lead-scintillating fibres Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Basara, L.; Bigongiari, G.; Bosi, F.; Brun, P.; Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Coignet, G.; Cougoulat, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J. M.; Elles, S.; Falchini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Gallucci, G.; Gherarducci, F.; Girard, L.; Giuseppe, F.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Journet, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Lepareur, V.; Li, Z. H.; Lieunard, B.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Maestro, P.; Magazzù, C.; Maire, M.; Orsini, A.; Paniccia, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Peltier, F.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Pochon, J.; Rambure, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Tang, X. W.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Tazzioli, A.; Vannini, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Zhuang, H. L.

    2013-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibres sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral shower development. It provides a high (≥106) electron/hadron discrimination with the other AMS-02 detectors [1] and good energy resolution. The calorimeter also provides a standalone photon trigger capability to AMS-02. The mechanical assembly was realized to ensure minimum weight, still supporting the intrinsically heavy calorimeter during launch. ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from GeV up to TeV. A full-scale flight-like model was tested using electrons and proton beams with energies ranging from 6 to 250 GeV.

  9. AM1* parameters for manganese and iron.

    PubMed

    Kayi, Hakan; Clark, Timothy

    2010-06-01

    We report the parameterization of AM1* for the elements manganese and iron. The basis sets for both metals contain one set each of s-, p- and d-orbitals. AM1* parameters are now available for H, C, N, O and F (which use the original AM1 parameters), Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Zr, Mo, I and Au. The performance and typical errors of AM1* are discussed for Mn and Fe, and are compared with available NDDO Hamiltonians. PMID:19937261

  10. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  11. Simple Resolution of Enantiomeric NMR Signals of α-Amino Acids by Using Samarium(III) Nitrate With L-Tartarate.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Kidani, Takahiro; Takada, Sayuri; Ofusa, Yumika

    2015-05-01

    Readily available L-tartaric acid, which is a bidentate ligand with two chiral centers forming a seven-membered chelate ring, was applied to the chiral ligand for the chiral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shift reagent of samarium(III) formed in situ. This simple method does not cause serious signal broadening in the high magnetic field. Enantiomeric (13)C and (1)H NMR signals and enantiotopic (1)H NMR signals of α-amino acids were successfully resolved at pH 8.0 and the 1:3 molar ratio of Sm(NO3)3:L-tartaric acid. It is elucidated that the enantiomeric signal resolution is attributed to the anisotropic magnetic environment for the enantiomers induced by the chiral L-tartarato samarium(III) complex rather than differences in stability of the diastereomeric substrate adducts. The present (13)C NMR signal resolution was also effective for the practical simultaneous analysis of plural kinds of DL-amino acids. PMID:25847749

  12. Determination of the variation of the fluorescence line positions of ruby, strontium tetraborate, alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Selva Vennila; Zaug, Joseph M.; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Knight, Jason W.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Clark, Simon M.

    2011-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent fluorescence line-shift of strontium tetraborate has been measured concurrently with x-ray diffraction from the pressure standards sodium chloride or gold. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift under pressure. We found a maximum pressure uncertainty of ±1.8 GPa at 25 GPa (7.2%) and 857 K when making no temperature correction. The fluorescence line-shifts for ruby, Alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet were also determined, using our strontium tetraborate calibration to determine pressure and a thermocouple to measure temperature. Fluorescence measurements were extended up to 800 K for ruby and Alexandrite. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift of samarium-doped yittrium aluminum garnet. We found a maximum uncertainty of ±2.7 GPa at 25 GPa (11.1%) and 857 K when no temperature correction was applied. We determined equations relating to the fluorescence line position from these data, which include a cross derivative term to account for the combined effect of pressure and temperature. We present a method to independently determine pressure and/or temperature from combined fluorescence line-shift measurements of a pair of optical sensors.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1580 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... develop and implement a pretreatment program as defined by 40 CFR 403.8 (for a POTW owned or operated by a... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Am I subject to this subpart? 63.1580....1580 Am I subject to this subpart? (a) You are subject to this subpart if the following are all...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1580 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... develop and implement a pretreatment program as defined by 40 CFR 403.8 (for a POTW owned or operated by a... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Am I subject to this subpart? 63.1580....1580 Am I subject to this subpart? (a) You are subject to this subpart if the following are all...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1580 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... develop and implement a pretreatment program as defined by 40 CFR 403.8 (for a POTW owned or operated by a... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Am I subject to this subpart? 63.1580....1580 Am I subject to this subpart? (a) You are subject to this subpart if the following are all...

  16. FM Stereo and AM Stereo: Government Standard-Setting vs. the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, W. A. Kelly

    The emergence of frequency modulation or FM radio signals, which arose from the desire to free broadcasting of static noise common to amplitude modulation or AM, has produced the controversial development of stereo broadcasting. The resulting enhancement of sound quality helped FM pass AM in audience shares in less than two decades. The basic…

  17. Photometry and dynamics of the minor mergers AM 1228-260 and AM 2058-381

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Jimenez, J. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Bonatto, C.; Rodrigues, I.; Krabbe, A. C.; Winge, Cláudia

    2015-08-01

    We investigate interaction effects on the dynamics and morphology of the galaxy pairs AM 2058-381 and AM 1228-260. This work is based on r' images and long-slit spectra obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini South Telescope. The luminosity ratio between the main (AM 2058A) and secondary (AM 2058B) components of the first pair is a factor of ˜ 5, while for the other pair, the main (AM 1228A) component is 20 times more luminous than the secondary (AM 1228B). The four galaxies have pseudo-bulges, with a Sérsic index n < 2. Their observed radial velocities profiles (RVPs) present several irregularities. The receding side of the RVP of AM 2058A is displaced with respect to the velocity field model, while there is a strong evidence that AM 2058B is a tumbling body, rotating along its major axis. The RVPs for AM 1228A indicate a misalignment between the kinematic and photometric major axes. The RVP for AM 1228B is quite perturbed, very likely due to the interaction with AM 1228A. NFW halo parameters for AM 2058A are similar to those of the Milky Way and M 31. The halo mass of AM 1228A is roughly 10 per cent that of AM 2058A. The mass-to-light (M/L) of AM 2058 agrees with the mean value derived for late-type spirals, while the low M/L for AM 1228A may be due to the intense star formation ongoing in this galaxy.

  18. AMS Climate Studies: Improving climate literacy through undergraduate education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P., Jr.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    In working to promote scientific literacy among the public, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has produced a suite of introductory college-level courses that engage students by investigating relevant topics in Earth science, and utilizing the most current, real-world environmental data. The newest of these courses, AMS Climate Studies, is a turnkey package which will be licensed by individual colleges for local offering in online, blended, or traditional lecture/lab settings. The course will place students in a dynamic learning environment where they will investigate Earth’s climate system using real-world data. This will allow the course to keep a strong focus on the science, while still addressing many of the societal impacts that draw the attention of today’s students. In this way, the course will serve as a great primer in preparing students to become responsible, scientifically-literate participants in discussions of climate science and climate change. Developed with major support from NASA, AMS Climate Studies will encourage students to investigate the atmosphere and world ocean as components of a larger Earth system. More than 500 colleges and universities throughout the United States have already offered AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies, after which AMS Climate Studies will be modeled. The learning system will consist of a fully-integrated set of printed and online learning materials focused around a brand new, hardcover 15-chapter textbook, Climate Studies: Introduction to Climate Science and an Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities that will emphasize the use of authentic science data. The package will also include a course website providing weekly Current Climate Studies activities along with access to environmental data streams, including an impressive suite of NASA and NOAA images and products. The development and testing of AMS Climate Studies is currently nearing completion. A number of college and university

  19. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed. PMID:27464522

  20. Small scale shear zone in calcite: AMS and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxerová, Zuzana; Machek, Matěj; Kusbach, Vladimír; Racek, Martin; Silva, Pedro F.

    2016-04-01

    Two structural profiles across thin shear zone in calcite from quarry in Estremoz (Portugal) were studied to find a relationship between AMS and strain in natural rocks. The mesoscopic fabric is characterized by the change from the subhorizontal coarse-grained foliation towards the ~2cm-wide shear zone center with subvertical fine-grained foliation. In microstructure, the shear zone records dynamic recrystallization of calcite aggregate which resulted in development of porphyroclastic microstructure with increasing proportion of fine-grained recrystallized matrix towards the shear zone center. Two distinct crystallographic preferred orientations of calcite were recorded. One related with porphyroclasts, characterized by subvertical orientation of calcite axes and another associated with recrystallized matrix showing subhorizontal calcite axes orientation. The magnetic susceptibility ranges from -8e-6SI to 9e-6SI, with the average -4e-6SI. The majority of the rock mass is diamagnetic, corresponding well with the thermomagnetic curves, with local paramagnetic accumulations in form of thin bands. The AMS of the both profiles exhibits stable subvertical foliation bearing vertical lineation which is locally alternated by the medium-angle foliation. We interpret the AMS fabric pattern which is perpendicular to the mineral one as a type of inverse AMS fabric, due to high iron content in major part of calcite grains The magnetic and microstructural description of the shear zone is accompanied by numerical modeling of AMS based on CPO and different proportion of porphyroclasts, matrix and mica for purposes of deciphering the influence of present microstructural features on AMS.

  1. 47 CFR 1.10004 - What am I allowed to do if I am approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What am I allowed to do if I am approved? 1.10004 Section 1.10004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection International Bureau Filing System § 1.10004 What am I allowed to do if I...

  2. 47 CFR 1.10004 - What am I allowed to do if I am approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What am I allowed to do if I am approved? 1.10004 Section 1.10004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection International Bureau Filing System § 1.10004 What am I allowed to do if I...

  3. 47 CFR 1.10004 - What am I allowed to do if I am approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What am I allowed to do if I am approved? 1.10004 Section 1.10004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection International Bureau Filing System § 1.10004 What am I allowed to do if I...

  4. A&M. Plot plan of administration and A&M areas. Shows relationships ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Plot plan of administration and A&M areas. Shows relationships among administration buildings and to A&M building (TAN-607), railroad turntable. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2&3-ANP-U 3. Date: December 1952. INEEL index code no. 032-0100-00-693-106690 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Results from the first international AM0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.; Jenkins, P.; Brinker, D.; Scheiman, D.; Anspaugh, B.; Gomez, T.; Lisbona, E. F.; Aoyama, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Pichetto, V.; Yiqiang, Y.; Goodbody, C.

    2003-01-01

    AM0 solar cell calibration laboratories throughout the world are working together to create standard methods for AM0 calibration. In an effort to compare the results of different calibration methods, five different laboratories calibrated GaAs and Si solar cells. The results of this inter-comparison are presented herein.

  6. Beneficial uses of /sup 241/Am

    SciTech Connect

    Mangeng, C.A.; Thayer, G.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report assesses the uses of /sup 241/Am and the associated costs and supply. The study shows that /sup 241/Am-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators in the range of 1 to 5 W electrical provide the most promising use of kilogram amounts of this isotope. For medical uses, where purity is essential, irradiation of /sup 241/Am can produce 97% pure /sup 238/Pu at $21,000/g. Using a pyro-metallurgical process, /sup 241/Am could be recovered from molten salt extraction (MSE) residues at an estimated incremental cost of $83/g adjusted to reflect the disposal costs of waste products. This cost of recovery is less than the $300/g cost for disposal of the /sup 241/Am contained in the MSE residues.

  7. Effects of synthetic retinoid Am80 on iodide-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Kazuki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hoshikawa, Saeko; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yurie; Ito, Sadayoshi; Mori, Kouki

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a synthetic retinoid Am80 prevented the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in iodide-treated nonobese diabetic mice, an animal model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Am80 (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day) was orally administered in feed during the 8-week iodide treatment. While iodide ingestion effectively induced thyroiditis, Am80 administration failed to interfere with thyroiditis development and serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels regardless of the dose of the retinoid. Splenic T cell numbers, splenocyte proliferation and interferon-γ production were decreased in the Am80-treated mice. Our data suggest that Am80 is not a candidate for use in the prevention of HT. PMID:21601836

  8. Automatic Mode Switch (AMS) Causes Less Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Jorat, Mohammadvahid; Nikoo, Mohammadhossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac resynchronization devices are part of modern heart failure management. After implantation, we analyze and program devices in an attempt to ensure their success. Biventricular pacing should be 98% or more for the lowest mortality and best symptom improvement. Case Presentation: In this case series, we present a combination of far field sensing and automatic mode switching (AMS) in six patients. It is found that this combination causes ventricular sensing (VS) episodes with wide QRS and no synchronization. We turn off the AMS and alleviate the problem. Conclusions: Switching AMS off may increase biventricular pacing in some patients. PMID:26949695

  9. Computing Strategy of the AMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choutko, V.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy physics experiment operating on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The detector was installed on ISS in May 2011 and is expected to continuously take cosmic rays data through Year 2024 and beyond. The computing strategy of the AMS experiment is discussed in the paper, including software design, data processing, data reconstruction and simulation, detector performance evaluation, and data production overview. In particular, parallelization of reconstruction and simulation of AMS data is discussed in detail.

  10. Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the Stillwater complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David D.; Shirey, Steven B.; Carlson, Richard W.; Morgan, John W.; Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of magma mixing in the formation of strategic platinum-group element ore deposits is examined using isotopic data from the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Nd and Os isotopic data show that the intrusion formed from at least two distinct magmas: ultramafic (U-type) affinity magmas and anorthositic (A-type) affinity magmas. The U-type magmas formed from a lithospheric mantle source containing recycled crustal materials and the A-type magmas originated either by crustal contamination of basaltic magmas or by partial melting of basalt in the lower crust. The results also suggest that the platinum-group element ore deposits were derived from A-type magmas which were injected into the U-type magma chamber at several stages during the development of the ultramafic series.

  11. Space Station Live: First Findings from the AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    PAO Officer Kyle Herring interviews Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Project Manager Trent Martin about the first findings from the AMS. A small team from Johnson Space Center collaborates with AM...

  12. Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the stillwater complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, D.D.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Shirey, S.B.; Carlson, R.W.; Zientek, M.L.; Koski, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Isotopic data for the Stillwater Complex, Montana , which formed about 2700 Ma (million years ago), were obtained to evaluate the role of magma mixing in the formation of strategic platinum-group element (PGE) ore deposits. Neodymium and osmium isotopic data indicate that the intrusion formed from at least two geochemically distinct magmas. Ultramafic affinity (U-type) magmas had initial ??Nd of -0.8 to -3.2 and a chondritic initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???0.88, whereas anorthositic affinity (A-type) magmas had ??Nd of -0.7 to +1.7 and an initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???1.13. These data suggest that U-type magmas were derived from a lithospheric mantle source containing recycled crustal materials whereas A-type magmas originated either by crustal contamination of basaltic magmas or by partial melting of basalt in the lower crust. The Nd and Os isotopic data also suggest that Os, and probably the other PGEs in ore horizons such as the J-M Reef, was derived from A-type magmas. The Nd and Os isotopic heterogeneity observed in rocks below the J-M Reef also suggests that A-type magmas were injected into the Stillwater U-type magma chamber at several stages during the development of the Ultramafic series.

  13. Sonocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 92 using sonochemically prepared samarium doped zinc oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Saadi, Shabnam; Vahid, Behrouz; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong-Ki

    2016-03-01

    Pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized applying a simple sonochemical method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques which confirmed the successful synthesis of the doped sonocatalyst. The sonocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 92 (AB92), a model azo dye, was more than that with sonolysis alone. The 6% Sm-doped ZnO nanoparticles had a band gap of 2.8 eV and demonstrated the highest activity. The degradation efficiency (DE%) of sonolysis and sonocatalysis with undoped ZnO and 6% Sm-doped ZnO was 45.73%, 63.9%, and 90.10%, after 150 min of treatment, respectively. Sonocatalytic degradation of AB92 is enhanced with increasing the dopant amount and catalyst dosage and with decreasing the initial AB29 concentration. DE% declines with the addition of radical scavengers such as chloride, carbonate, sulfate, and tert-butanol. However, the addition of enhancers including potassium periodates, peroxydisulfate, and hydrogen peroxide improves DE% by producing more free radicals. The results show adequate reusability of the doped sonocatalyst. Degradation intermediates were recognized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using nonlinear regression analysis, an empirical kinetic model was developed to estimate the pseudo-first-order constants (kapp) as a function of the main operational parameters, including the initial dye concentration, sonocatalyst dosage, and ultrasonic power. PMID:26584981

  14. Dosimetry and toxicity of Samarium-153-EDTMP administered for bone pain due to skeletal metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Bayouth, J.E.; Macey, D.J.; Kasi, L.P.

    1994-01-01

    Palliation of bone pain in patients with cancer metastatic to bone is being evaluated in several cancer centers by the administration of the bone-seeking phosphonate ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) chelated with the beta particle-emitting radionuclide {sup 153}Sm. In this study {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP was intravenously injected into 19 patients over a 1-min period. Patients received up to four injections of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) or 37 MBq (1.0mCi) per kilogram of body weight. Skeletal retention was calculated from urinary excretion. No uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in nonskeletal tissues was observed in whole-body gamma camera images. The mean skeletal uptake for all patients was 54% {plus_minus} 16% of the injected dose (%ID). This resulted in the bone marrow receiving 89 cGy/GBq {plus_minus} 27 cGy/GBq (3.28 cGy/mCi {plus_minus} 0.99 cGy/mCi), with calculated marrow doses ranging from 27 cGy to 338 cGy. For each patient, the estimated radiation absorbed dose to the marrow was correlated to the percent decrease in platelet number, ranging from 7.4% to 78.9%. Since the deviation of uptake between the four injections for a given patient (7.6% ID) was less than the deviation for all patients (16% ID), the initial dose may be used to estimate the skeletal uptake for the remaining doses. These radiation dose estimates permit patients at risk to be identified prior to reaching myelotoxicity and develop dose-response models. Thirteen patients (68%) reported significant pain relief from this radionuclide therapy. Bone pain appears to be alleviated by {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP with limited red marrow doses and no toxic effects in other organs. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 figs.

  15. Challenge of COPD: Am I at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Am I at Risk? Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... or the American Lung Association's COPD information section. COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Program The COPD Learn ...

  16. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

  17. Space Station Live: Installing the AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    PAO Officer Kyle Herring interviews NASA astronaut Mike Fincke about his contribution during STS-134, the shuttle mission that installed the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) in May 2011. As a miss...

  18. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  19. Interfacing AM/FM with distribution SCADA

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This article examines an upgrade to Union Electric's (UE's) distribution SCADA system by interfacing it with UE's automated mapping and facility management (AM/FM) system to give dispatchers a way to relate facility outages geographically with a real-time monitoring system. The topics of the article are the original SCADA system, the AM/FM system, and the new SCADA system, the man-machine and machine-machine interface, and further applications.

  20. Spectra of optical parameters in bulk and film amorphous alloys of the Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} system containing samarium (Sm) impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Djalilov, N. Z.; Damirov, G. M.

    2011-09-15

    Reflectance spectra of bulk and film amorphous alloys of the Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} system containing samarium (Sm) impurities are studied in the energy range of 1-6 eV. Spectral dependences of optical constants and derivatives of optical dielectric functions are calculated by the Kramers-Kronig method. Changes in spectra of optical parameters depending on the content of impurities introduced into Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} and conditions of their preparation are explained based on the cluster model. According to the latter, changes in the electron density of states depends on changes in atomic configurations in clusters, i.e., short-range order changes.

  1. Dispersion of the refractive index of a samarium-doped Se{sup 95}Te{sup 5} chalcogenide glassy semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Atayeva, S. U. Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Isayev, A. I.

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum of a Se{sup 95}Te{sup 5} chalcogenide glassy semiconductor doped with samarium (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 at %) is studied; the Swanepoel method and the single-oscillator model are used to determine the oscillator energy E{sup 0}, dispersion energy E{sup d}, optical width of the band gap E{sup g}, and linear (n) and nonlinear (n{sup 2}) refractive indices. The changes in the values of these parameters as a result of doping are attributed to modification of the local structure and to a change in the concentration of defect states.

  2. Magnetic and microstructural properties of sputter-deposited amorphous cobalt-samarium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yukiko

    The correlation between, the magnetic and the structural properties of co-sputtered Co1-xSmx thin films at ambient temperature is investigated. The large in-plane magnetic anisotropy and coercivity in amorphous Co1-xSmx thin films are due to structural anisotropy induced by the internal stress developed during the non-equilibrium film growth. The cusp shaped underlayer micro-roughness is found to control the coercivity by providing domain wall pinning sites at the underlayer/Co1-xSmx interface. The importance of controlling the microstructural properties of magnetic thin films has been recognized in order to obtain ultra-high density recording. In particular, small, magnetically-decoupled grain structures are required to reduce the medium noise. The grain size must be continuously reduced to achieve higher storage densities. Of prime concern is the fact that as the size of magnetic switching unit becomes too close to the superparamagnetic limit, the magnetic orientation in the medium easily randomizes even at ambient temperature. In order to push the magnetic switching unit size beyond the superparamagnetic, particle size of conventional Co-based alloys, new material system with high uniaxial anisotropy energy and high saturation magnetization are required for future ultra-high longitudinal recording density media. The intermetallic compounds Co5Sm and Co17Sm2 are known to exhibit magnetic anisotropies exceeding 20--100 times that observed in CoCrX-type conventional alloys. However, the formation of intermetallic phases requires high temperatures near 1300 K for processing which is not compatible with the fabrication of magnetic thin films for information storage. Therefore, a central part of this work was to ascertain whether similar properties to the intermetallic phases could be achieved in sputtered CoSm thin films. Co1-xSmx thin films were grown onto AlMg, Glass disk, and (100) Si substrates by co-sputtering from elemental targets at ambient temperature. This

  3. Coupled AGC-Costas loops with AM/PM conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Costas loops are invariably designed in conjunction with an automatic gain control (AGC) loop for stabilizing performance. In such systems an inherent coupling between the AGC and Costas loops develops, complicating the standard phase referencing analysis. This coupling is further emphasized if the gain control amplifier introduces an AM/PM conversion, which causes power variations to enter the Costas loop as phase variations. In this paper the coupling effect between AGC and Costas loops is developed, leading to a pair of joint, interconnected dynamical tracking loops. Some degree of solution is attainable by assuming a first order AGC loop, and resorting to quasi-stationary analysis for evaluating the phase referencing generation. Results with and without AM/PM are presented, and illustrate how an improper AGC may in fact degrade the phase referencing from the expected performance.

  4. The use of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite for knee synovectomy in haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Calegaro, J U M; Machado, J; Furtado, R G; de Almeida, J S C; de Vasconcelos, A V P; de Barboza, M F; de Paula, A P

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of beta energy of 153-samarium (153Sm) (0.8 MeV) is not only appropriate for synovectomy of median articulations but is possible to improve the radiobiological effect using increased activities. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite (153Sm-HA) in knees of haemophilic patients. Thirty-one patients – 36 knees, 30 males, were divided into two groups without coinjection of corticosteroid: A – 14 patients (17 knees) treated with intra-articular dose of 185 MBq of 153Sm-HA, average age 23 years; B – 17 patients (19 knees) with 740 MBq of 153Sm-HA, average age 21.3 years. The evaluation before and after 1 year of synovectomy used the following criteria: reduction in the number of haemarthroses and use of the coagulation factor and improvement in articular motility. Adverse-effects occurrence was considered too. Early and late scintigraphic studies were performed after synoviorthesis and no joint immobilization was recommended. The reduction in haemarthrosis and use of coagulation factor were: group 1 – 31.3% and 25%; group 2 – 81.5% and 79% with P < 0.001 respectively; no significant improvement in knees motility was noted for both groups. Four cases of mild reactional synovitis were observed in each group. The scintigraphic control showed homogenous distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals with no articular escape; the material was considered safe by its permanence in the articulation. We have significant improvement in the synovectomy of haemophilic knees with 740 MBq of 153Sm-HA; the less penetration of its beta radiation was compensated by the increased biological effect with the higher used activity. PMID:24330418

  5. A&M. Aerial view of turntable and A&M building (TAN607). Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Aerial view of turntable and A&M building (TAN-607). Pool, hot shop, cold shop, and machine shop are completed. Track leading to left edge of view goes to the IET. Ancient lake shoreline and berm beyond A&M building. Camera facing east. Administrative buildings beyond berm. Date: November 24, 1954. INEEL negative no. 13205 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. [Development and transition of magnetic attachments--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Hirata, M

    1997-12-01

    In the 1950 s, a new method of using magnets for the retainers of removable partial dentures (RPDs) was developed. It utilized magnetic attractive force instead of mechanical friction. However, the magnets used in those days were Alnico, Ferrite and/or Pt-Cobalt magnets and their retentive force was not strong enough to stabilize the dentures. Therefore, they gradually went out of use. In the middle of the 1970 s, Samarium Cobalt magnets, which have strong magnetic characteristics, were developed and introduced into dental field. In 1976, Sasaki first applied the samarium cobalt magnets to the retainers of PPDs. While in 1981, Mizutani, et al. first used well-fitted ferromagnetic alloy and the magnet for the purpose of stabilizing the RPD. Since then, many researchers have developed devices such as the magnetic retainer and the closed field magnetic attachment placed on the market in 1992. Now, as for the popular retainer of RPD, one can easily use a smaller yet stronger magnetic attachment which uses Neodium rather than Samarium Cobalt magnet. PMID:9483897

  7. 24 CFR 103.30 - How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? 103.30 Section 103.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? (a) You can file a claim by mail...

  8. 24 CFR 103.30 - How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? 103.30 Section 103.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? (a) You can file a claim by mail...

  9. 24 CFR 103.30 - How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? 103.30 Section 103.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? (a) You can file a claim by mail...

  10. 24 CFR 103.30 - How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? 103.30 Section 103.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? (a) You can file a claim by mail...

  11. 24 CFR 103.30 - How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? 103.30 Section 103.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... How should I bring a claim that I am the victim of discrimination? (a) You can file a claim by mail...

  12. Actualizacion Matematica, AM-2 (Modernizing Mathematics, AM-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Parot, Jean Jacques

    This document presents a series of exercises designed to help elementary school children develop skills in mathematics and logic. By means of stories, games, questions, and illustrations, the first set of exercises presents the idea of number systems with bases other than 10. Similar means are used to explain the concept of exponents and to teach…

  13. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  14. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  15. 47 CFR 73.128 - AM stereophonic broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM stereophonic broadcasting. 73.128 Section 73.128 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.128 AM stereophonic broadcasting. (a) An Am broadcast station may, without specific authority from...

  16. 47 CFR 73.128 - AM stereophonic broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM stereophonic broadcasting. 73.128 Section 73.128 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.128 AM stereophonic broadcasting. (a) An Am broadcast station may, without specific authority from...

  17. Determination of the242 m Am nuclear moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekk, K.; Göring, S.; Kälber, W.; Meisel, G.; Rebel, H.; Sameh, A. Ali

    1988-09-01

    The hyperfine structure of Am atoms was investigated in an atomic beam by laser spectroscopy. The observed splittings were evaluated with respect to the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of242 m Am. The results are: μ I (242 m Am)=+0.97(5)nm, Q(242 m Am)=+6.5(2.0)b.

  18. 47 CFR 1.30003 - Installations on an AM antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installations on an AM antenna. 1.30003 Section... Random Selection Disturbance of AM Broadcast Station Antenna Patterns § 1.30003 Installations on an AM antenna. (a) Installations on a nondirectional AM tower. When antennas are installed on a...

  19. 47 CFR 73.14 - AM broadcast definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM broadcast definitions. 73.14 Section 73.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.14 AM broadcast definitions. AM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 535 to 1705 kHz....

  20. 47 CFR 73.14 - AM broadcast definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM broadcast definitions. 73.14 Section 73.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.14 AM broadcast definitions. AM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 535 to 1705 kHz....

  1. 47 CFR 73.14 - AM broadcast definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM broadcast definitions. 73.14 Section 73.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.14 AM broadcast definitions. AM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 535 to 1705 kHz....

  2. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission...

  3. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission...

  4. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission...

  5. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission...

  6. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... with the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis and Broadcast Transmission...

  7. Magnetic fabric of selected loess/paleosol sections as studied by AMS, anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Hrouda, F.; Jezek, J.

    2015-12-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequencies can be studied through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which can be above all employed in the investigation of the dynamics of the eolian deposition including the changes in paleowind directions. In addition, it can be used in the indication of the post-depositional magnetic fabric re-working, or in tracing the magnetic fabric changes during pedogenesis. Recently developed techniques using anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used and their differences. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. In three loess/paleosol sequences investigated in the Czech Republic, the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess formation. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The degree of AMS of the whole rock is low due to compensation effects of SP and SSD particles, whose grain anisotropies are anti-coaxial. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful

  8. Elementary "Who Am I" Riddles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, R. Aldrin; Lakshmi, R.; Chitra, H.; Devi, Nandini

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that simple riddles can be used effectively to make students interact in science class. Proposed teaching methods require the student to provide answers to riddles in order to develop the discussion about a given topic. Presents sample riddles related to elements and their compounds. (WRM)

  9. Am80 induces neuronal differentiation in a human neuroblastoma NH-12 cell line.

    PubMed

    Shiohira, Hideo; Kitaoka, Akira; Shirasawa, Hiromi; Enjoji, Munechika; Nakashima, Manabu

    2010-09-01

    Retinoids including natural vitamin A, its derivatives and synthetic compounds work as transcription factors through the retinoic acid receptors (RAR, RXR). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a family of retinoids, is an internal ligand of RAR and well known as a useful differentiation inducer to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ATRA therapy is now established as an initial treatment for APL. Recently, to improve therapeutic potency and reduce adverse effects of ATRA, a novel synthetic selective agonist for RARalpha and beta, Am80, was developed and applied to APL treatment. In this study, we tested whether Am80 was capable of inducing neuronal differentiation in a human neuroblastoma cell line, NH-12 and compared the differentiation effects between Am80 and ATRA. Morphological studies demonstrated that Am80 induced more potent neurite outgrowth and also proved lesser cell toxicity than ATRA. Am80 up-regulated the expression of tropomyosin-related kinase B as well as ATRA. Moreover, Am80 increased the expression of the neuronal marker, growth-associated protein 43. These findings suggest that Am80 induces neuronal differentiation to a greater extent than ATRA and thus may help establishing therapeutic strategies against neuronal degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:20664956

  10. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance.

  11. Direct coupling of a laser ablation cell to an AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacker, L.; Münsterer, C.; Hattendorf, B.; Christl, M.; Günther, D.; Synal, H.-A.

    2013-01-01

    In rare cases, cleaned samples can be directly inserted into a negative ion source of an AMS and still meet the requirements for long-term and stable measurements. We present the coupling of a laser ablation system to the gas ion source of an AMS system (MICADAS, ETH Zurich) for direct and continuous CO2 introduction. Solid carbonate samples like stalagmites or corals are suitable sample materials, which can be ablated and decomposed continuously using a pulsed laser focused onto the surface of a solid sample, which is placed in an airtight ablation cell. CO2 formed during the ablation of a CaCO3 sample is continually flushed with He into the gas ion source. The production rate of CO2 can be adjusted via the laser pulse repetition rate (1-20 Hz), the crater diameter (1-150 μm) and the energy density applied (0.2-3 mJ/pulse) of the laser (frequency quintupled Nd:YAG at 213 nm with 5 ns pulse duration). In our first test, measurements of one sample with known age were replicated within one sigma. Blanks showed 5% contamination of modern carbon of yet unknown origin. In order to develop LA-AMS into a routine sampling tool the ablation cell geometry and settings of the gas ion source have to be further optimized.

  12. Reprocessing of 10B-contaminated 10Be AMS targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. J.; Pedro, J. B.; Smith, A. M.; Child, D. P.; Fink, D.

    2013-01-01

    10Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an increasingly important tool in studies ranging from exposure age dating and palaeo-geomagnetism to the impact of solar variability on the Earth’s climate. High levels of boron in BeO AMS targets can adversely impact the quality of 10Be measurements through interference from the isobar 10B. Numerous methods in chemical sample preparation and AMS measurement have been employed in order to reduce the impact of excessive boron rates. We present details of a method developed to chemically reprocess a set of forty boron-contaminated BeO targets derived from modern Antarctic ice. Previously, the excessive boron levels in these samples, as measured in an argon-filled absorber cell preceding the ionisation detector, had precluded routine AMS measurement. The procedure involved removing the BeO + Nb mixture from the target holders and dissolving the BeO in hot concentrated H2SO4. The solution was then heated with HF to remove the boron as volatile BF3 before re-precipitating as Be(OH)2 and calcining to BeO. This was again mixed with niobium and pressed into fresh target holders. Following reprocessing, the samples gave boron rates reduced by 10-100×, which were sufficiently low and similar to previous successful batches of ice core, snow and associated blank samples, thus allowing a successful 10Be measurement in the absence of any boron correction. Overall recovery of the BeO for this process averaged 40%. Extensive testing of relevant processing equipment and reagents failed to determine the source of the boron. As a precautionary measure, a similar H2SO4 + HF step has been subsequently added to the standard ice processing method.

  13. Determination of the (241)Am activity in real contaminated slag.

    PubMed

    Burda, O; Arnold, D; Wershofen, H

    2016-03-01

    One of the main tasks of the EMRP IND04 MetroMetal project "Ionising Radiation Metrology for the Metallurgical Industry" was to develop sets of reference sources in various matrices such as cast steel, slag and fume dust for the calibration of the gamma spectrometric detector prototypes developed in the frame of the project. This work is focused on the characterisation of real contaminated slag material with (241)Am using the transmission measurements in combination with Monte-Carlo simulations. The method and the results are presented and discussed. PMID:26688357

  14. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false AMS. 65.105 Section 65.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  20. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false AMS. 65.105 Section 65.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  1. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false AMS. 65.105 Section 65.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  2. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false AMS. 65.105 Section 65.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  3. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false AMS. 65.105 Section 65.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  4. The corrosion performance of magnesium alloy AM-SC1 in automotive engine block applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guangling; Stjohn, David; Bettles, Colleen; Dunlop, Gordon

    2005-05-01

    The magnesium alloy AM-SC1 has been developed as a creep-resistant automotive engine block material. This paper outlines its corrosion performance under laboratory test conditions, considering corrosion on both the external and internal surfaces. This study found that AM-SC1 has a corrosion performance comparable to AZ91 when subjected to an aggressive salt-spray environment or in galvanic-coupling environments. This article further demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of a commercially available engine coolant, the internal corrosion of AM-SC1 can be maintained at a tolerable level. In addition, internal corrosion resistance can be significantly improved by the addition of fluorides to the coolant solution. It is concluded that AM-SC1 can be successfully used in an engine environment provided that some simple corrosion-prevention strategies are adopted.

  5. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  6. Behavior of 241Am in fast reactor systems - a safeguards perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Lafleur, Adrienne M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced fuel-cycle developments around the world currently under development are exploring the possibility of disposing of {sup 241}Am from spent fuel recycle processes by burning this material in fast reactors. For safeguards practitioners, this approach could potentially complicate both fresh- and spent-fuel safeguards measurements. The increased ({alpha},n) production in oxide fuels from the {sup 241}Am increases the uncertainty in coincidence assay of Pu in MOX assemblies and will require additional information to make use of totals-based neutron assay of these assemblies. We have studied the behavior of {sup 241}Am-bearing MOX fuel in the fast reactor system and the effect on neutron and gamma-ray source-terms for safeguards measurements. In this paper, we will present the results of simulations of the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a fast breeder reactor system. Because of the increased use of MOX fuel in thermal reactors and advances in fuel-cycle designs aimed at americium disposal in fast reactors, we have undertaken a brief study of the behavior of americium in these systems to better understand the safeguards impacts of these new approaches. In this paper we will examine the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a variety of nuclear systems to provide insight into the safeguards implications of proposed Am disposition schemes.

  7. Investigation of the 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamara, A.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Patronis, N.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am reaction cross section has been measured at four energies, 10.0, 10.4, 10.8, and 17.1 MeV, by means of the activation technique, relative to the 27Al(n ,α )24Na reaction reference cross section. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 2H(d ,n )3He and the 3H(d ,n )4He reactions at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 accelerator laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos". The high purity 241Am targets were provided by JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium. The induced γ -ray activity of 240Am was measured with high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the mcnp code. The present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier and predictions obtained with the empire code.

  8. Development of a YAG laser system for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hatae, T.; Yatsuka, E.; Hayashi, T.; Ono, T.; Kusama, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    2012-10-15

    A prototype YAG laser system for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER has been newly developed. Performance of the laser amplifier was improved by using flow tubes made of samarium-doped glass; the small signal gain reached 20 at its maximum. As a result, an output energy of 7.66 J at 100 Hz was successfully achieved, and the performance exceeded the target performance (5 J, 100 Hz).

  9. A&M. TAN607. Elevation for secondphase expansion of A&M Building. Work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Elevation for second-phase expansion of A&M Building. Work areas south of the Carpentry Shop. High-bay shop, decontamination room at south-most end. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. Ralph M. Parsons 1299-5-ANP/GE-3-607-A 106. Date: August 1956. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-107166 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. A&M. A&M building (TAN607). Camera facing east. From left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. A&M building (TAN-607). Camera facing east. From left to right, pool section, hot shop, cold shop, and machine shop. Biparting doors to hot shop are in open position behind shroud. Four rail tracks lead to hot shop and cold shop. Date: August 20, 1954. INEEL negative no. 11706 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Complex formation of Am(III) and Am(IV) with phosphate ions in acetonitrile solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, S.A.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    The first dissociation constant of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in acetonitrile solution (K/sub 1//sup 0/ = 1.75/centered dot/10/sup /minus/13/) and the constant of formation of H(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2//sup /minus// dimers (K/sub d//sup 0/ = 8/centered dot/10/sup 2/) were determined by the method of pH-potentiometry. The complex formation of Am(III) in acetonitrile solutions containing 0.05-2.0 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was investigated by a spectrophotometric method; the stability constants of the complexes AmH/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup 2+/ (/beta//sub 1//sup III/ = 1.0/centered dot/10/sup 12/) and Am(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2//sup +/ (/beta//sub 2//sup III/ = 4.3/centered dot/10/sup 24/) were determined. The formal potentials of the couple Am/sup (IV)//Am/sup (III)/ in 0.3-1.9 M solutions of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in acetonitrile were measured, and the stability constant of the phosphate complex of tetravalent americium Am(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 3//sup +/ (/beta//sub 3//sup IV/ = 2.5/centered dot/10/sup 46/) was calculated according to the value of the shift of the potential relative to the standard.

  12. A+M Collisional Databases in ALADDIN Format

    DOE Data Explorer

    ALADDIN (A Labelled Atomic Data Interface) is a database system developed in order to provide a standard and flexible format and interface for the exchange and management of atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data of interest to fusion research. As part of the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS), introduced by the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit, the ALADDIN interface is available on-line. Twelve databases from DOE and IAEA sources are available from the CFADC website under the heading A+M Collisional Databases.

  13. 24 CFR 5.859 - When am I specifically authorized to evict other criminals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When am I specifically authorized to evict other criminals? 5.859 Section 5.859 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Preventing Crime...

  14. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Preventing Crime...

  15. Zero-Field Spin-Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies on the Enhancement of the Magnetic Properties of the SAMARIUM(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenziani, Ernest, II

    The Sm(,2)(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr,Cr)(,14.8) - type permanent magnets have been investigated by ('57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy and ('149)Sm and ('59)Co zero-field spin-echo NMR techniques. A complete set of samples, varying in complexity and heat treatment, were prepared and examined. The following findings were obtained: (1) the addition of copper serves to precipitate out iron and cobalt with the replacement of the transition metals by the copper, (2) the addition of iron causes some substitutional displacement of the cobalt with the remaining iron forming an Fe-Co phase, (3) a further removal of the free iron is accomplished by the addition of zirconium and a subsequent step anneal, (4) the second and more important role of the zirconium is known to be an increase in the coercive force. The results herein indicate that the zirconium preferentially substitutes into the 1:5 phase, replacing the samarium, and degrading the magnetic properties of the cellular boundary 1:5 phase--causing it to exert a more effective pinning of the domain walls, in agreement with experimental findings, (5) the addition of chromium with zirconium causes a preferential substitution of iron into the 4f crystal site of the 2:17 phase, thereby increasing the anisotropy and facilitating the removal of the Fe-Co phase.

  16. Crystal structure and impedance study of samarium substituted perovskite: La1-xSmxMnO3 (x = 0.1-0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Shrivastava, O. P.

    2012-03-01

    Three perovskite structured ceramic phases- La1-xSmxMnO3 (where x = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) synthesised by solid-state-reaction route crystallize in the rhombohedral symmetry (space group R-3c). The structure refinement converged to satisfactory values of the Rietveld parameters: Rp, Rwp and goodness of fit. The unit cell volume decreases slightly with increasing mole% of samarium in lanthanum manganite matrix. The M-O stretching and bending vibrations in the infrared region have been assigned. Morphology and compositional analysis have been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) of the specimens. The electrical properties have been investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 42 Hz-5 MHz at temperatures between 50° and 300 °C. Nyquist plots show the dominance of grain contribution and Debye like relaxation in the material. The compounds exhibit composition dependent Arrhenius-type of electrical conductivity.

  17. The properties of samarium-doped zinc oxide/phthalocyanine structure for optoelectronics prepared by pulsed laser deposition and organic molecular evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Marešová, E.; Fitl, P.; Vlček, J.; Bergmann, M.; Vondráček, M.; Yatskiv, R.; Bulíř, J.; Hubík, P.; Hruška, P.; Drahokoupil, J.; Abdellaoui, N.; Vrňata, M.; Lančok, J.

    2016-03-01

    Samarium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Sm)/zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin film multilayer structure was prepared by combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and organic molecular evaporation (OME). ZnO:Sm thin film was grown by PLD (Nd:YAG, λ = 266 nm, τ = 6 ns) from Sm2O3:ZnO (1 % Sm) target in oxygen ambient at pressure of 10 and 20 Pa at room temperature on fused silica and Si(100) substrates. ZnPc thin film was deposited on ZnO:Sm layer by OME. ZnO:Sm films of c-axis-oriented hexagonal wurtzite structure and α-form ZnPc were obtained. Emission of intra-4f transition in Sm3+ ions and photoluminescence enhancement of near-band-edge emission of ZnO in ZnO:Sm/ZnPc were observed. Electrical properties were not affected by Sm3+ dopant as ZnO:Sm film exhibited high electrical resistivity ~5 × 104 Ω cm.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of the divalent samarium Zintl-phases SmMg2Bi2 and SmMg2Sb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, D.; Gallagher, A.; Baumbach, R.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-11-01

    Single crystals of LnMg2Bi2 (Ln=Yb, Eu, Sm) and SmMg2Sb2 were synthesized using Mg-Bi metal and Mg-Sb metal fluxes, respectively. The crystal structures are of the CaAl2Si2 type with space group P 3 ̅m1 (#164, Z=1): SmMg2Bi2 (a=4.7745(1) Å, c=7.8490(2) Å), EuMg2Bi2 (a=4.7702(1) Å, c=7.8457(2) Å), YbMg2Bi2 (a=4.7317(2) Å, c=7.6524(3) Å), and SmMg2Sb2 (a=4.6861(1) Å, c=7.7192(2) Å). Heat capacity, electrical transport, and magnetization of all bismuth containing phases were measured. The materials behave as "poor metals" with resistivity between 2 and 10 mΩ cm. Temperature independent Van Vleck paramagnetism is observed in SmMg2Bi2 indicative of divalent samarium (Sm2+) ions.

  19. Effects of some rare earth and carbonate-based co-dopants on structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Mustafa; Khan, Zuhair S.; Mustafa, Kamal; Rana, Akmal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, samarium doped ceria (SDC) and SDC-based composite with the addition of K2CO3 were prepared by co-precipitation route and effects of pH of the solution and calcination temperature on microstructure of SDC and SDC-K2CO3, respectively, were investigated. Furthermore, experimentation was performed to investigate into the ionic conductivity of pure SDC by co-doping with yttrium i.e., YSDC, XRD and SEM studies show that the crystallite size and particle size of SDC increases with the increase in pH. The SEM images of all the samples of SDC synthesized at different pH values showed the irregular shaped and dispersed particles. SDC-K2CO3 was calcined at 600∘C, 700∘C and 800∘C for 4 h and XRD results showed that crystallite size increases while lattice strain, decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and no peaks were detected for K2CO3 as it is present in an amorphous form. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with the increase in temperature and SDC-K2CO3 shows the highest value of ionic conductivity as compared to SDC and YSDC. Chemical compatibility tests were performed between the co-doped electrolyte and lithiated NiO cathode at high temperature. It revealed that the couple could be used up to the temperature of 700∘C.

  20. A novel samarium(ii) complex bearing a dianionic bis(phenolate) cyclam ligand: synthesis, structure and electron-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Maria, Leonor; Soares, Marina; Santos, Isabel C; Sousa, Vânia R; Mora, Elsa; Marçalo, Joaquim; Luzyanin, Konstantin V

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of the hexadentate dianionic 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-based bis(phenolate) ligand, (tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam(2-), with [SmI2(thf )2] in thf resulted in the formation of the divalent samarium complex [Sm(κ(6)-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})] (1). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that after recrystallization from n-hexane/thf complex 1 has a monomeric structure and does not contain thf molecules coordinated to the Sm(II) center. However, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy of 1 evidenced the formation of thf-solvated complexes in neat thf. Reductive studies show that complex 1 can act as a single electrontransfer reagent and form well-defined Sm(III) species. The reaction of 1 with several substrates, namely, TlBPh4, pyridine N-oxide, OPPh3, SPPh3 and bipyridines, are reported. Spectroscopy studies, including NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are in agreement with the formation of cationic Sm(III) species, monochalcogenide bridged Sm(III) complexes and Sm(III) complexes with bipyridine radical ligand, respectively. PMID:26818107

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of magnetic samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide at the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongliang; Lai, Hong; Yao, Shuhua

    2012-08-01

    Preparation of samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide (Sm/MTiO2) coated magnetite (Fe3O4) photocatalysts (Sm/MTiO2/Fe3O4) and their activities under visible light were reported. The catalysts with Sm/MTiO2 shell and a Fe3O4 core were prepared by coating photoactive Sm/MTiO2 onto a magnetic Fe3O4 core through the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OBu)4, TBT) with precursors of Sm(NO3)3 and TBT in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The effect of Sm ion content on the photocatalytic activity was studied. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts under visible light were estimated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB, 50 mg/L) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the prepared photocatalyst was activated by visible light and used as effective catalyst in photooxidation reactions. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of the prepared photocatalyst was also confirmed. Moreover, Sm/MTiO2 was tightly bound to Fe3O4 and could be easily recovered from the medium by a simple magnetic process. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  2. Recent results from the AMS-02 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. Precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons and electrons are presented in this document, based on 41×109 events collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  3. Heat capacities and thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Akinori; Ichise, Kenichi; Arai, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    The thermal diffusivity of AmO 2 was measured from 473 to 773 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 473 and 1373 K using a laser flash method. The enthalpy increment of AmO 2 was measured from 335 to 1081 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 335 and 1086 K using drop calorimetry. The heat capacities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were derived from the enthalpy increment measurements. The thermal conductivity was determined from the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density. The heat capacities of AmO 2 was found larger than that of AmO 1.5. The thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were found to decrease with increasing temperature in the investigated temperature range. The thermal conductivity of AmO 1.5 with A -type hexagonal structure was smaller than that of AmO 2 with C-type fluorite structure but larger than that of sub-stoichiometric AmO 1.73.

  4. The new LLNL AMS sample changer

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Norman, P.J.; Garibaldi, J.L.; Hornady, R.S.

    1993-09-07

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL has installed a new 64 position AMS sample changer on our spectrometer. This new sample changer has the capability of being controlled manually by an operator or automatically by the AMS data acquisition computer. Automatic control of the sample changer by the data acquisition system is a necessary step towards unattended AMS operation in our laboratory. The sample changer uses a fiber optic shaft encoder for rough rotational indexing of the sample wheel and a series of sequenced pneumatic cylinders for final mechanical indexing of the wheel and insertion and retraction of samples. Transit time from sample to sample varies from 4 s to 19 s, depending on distance moved. Final sample location can be set to within 50 microns on the x and y axis and within 100 microns in the z axis. Changing sample wheels on the new sample changer is also easier and faster than was possible on our previous sample changer and does not require the use of any tools.

  5. Bowen fluorescence in AM Herculis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits B. S.

    1991-01-01

    The study relates the observations of the Bowen fluorescence lines in AM Her and EF Eri, two AM Her systems. The implications of source variability and the checks performed in order to verify the accuracy of the data are reviewed. The line ratios for H I and He II are shown to deviate considerably from those expected; in this light, the H I and He II emission in AM Her is analyzed in detail. This approach makes it possible to put limits on line and continuum optical depths as well as temperatures. These limits along with the observed Bowen emission are used to construct a picture of the emission-line regions in the two sources, producing the values for the size, density, and temperature of a region. The derived value of the size is found to be significantly less than the size of the Roche lobe of the white dwarf, while the large range of densities is attributed to the exponential temperature dependence in the expression used for density.

  6. AMICA, an astro-mapper for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, Alessandro; Trampus, Paolo; Battiston, Roberto; Gargiulo, Corrado

    2006-07-01

    The alpha magnetic spectrograph (AMS) is a composite particle detector to be accommodated on the International Space Station (ISS). AMS is mainly devoted to galactic, charged cosmic rays studies, antimatter and dark matter searches. Besides the main, classical physics goals, capabilities in the field of GeV and multi-GeV gamma astrophysics have been established and are under investigation by a number of groups. Due to the unsteadiness of the ISS platform, a star-mapper device is required in order to fully exploit the intrinsic arc-min angular resolution provided by the silicon tracker. A star-mapper is conceptually an imaging, optical instrument able to autonomously recognize a stellar field and to calculate its own orientation with respect to an inertial reference frame. AMICA (Astro Mapper for Instruments Check of Attitude) on AMS is responsible for providing real-time information that is going to be used off-line for compensating the large uncertainties in the ISS flight attitude and the structural degrees of freedom. In this paper, we describe in detail the AMICA sub-system, the accommodation/integration issues and the in-flight alignment procedure adopting identified galactic (Pulsars) and extra-galactic (AGNs) sources.

  7. Progress in AMS measurement of U isotope ratios in nanogram U samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kejun; He, Ming; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhong; Li, Lili; Zhao, Yonggang; Wang, Xianggao; Shen, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoming; Pang, Fangfang; Xu, Yongning; Zhao, Qingzhang; Dou, Liang; Yang, Xuran; Wu, Shaoyong; Lin, Deyu; Li, Kangning; You, Qubo; Bao, Yiwen; Hu, Yueming; Xia, Qingliang; Yin, Xinyi; Jiang, Shan

    2015-10-01

    The determination of uranium isotopic composition in ultra-trace U samples is very important in different fields, especially for the nuclear forensics. A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique has been developed for the measurement of uranium isotopic ratios in ng level uranium samples at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). Recently, the method was further optimized and developed by using a series of blank and standard samples. The results show that the 236U at the femtogram level can be determined in nanogram U samples by the newly developed AMS technique at CIAE. The experimental setup, performances and results will be detailed in this contribution.

  8. Toward a Facies Model for AMS Fabrics in Deposits from Pyroclastic Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ort, M. H.; Newkirk, T.; Vilas, J. F.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in deposits from pyroclastic density currents have been made for 30 years. Early studies sought to find vent locations, but later studies have also used AMS to interpret flow and depositional processes. These studies show that AMS fabrics reflect shear directions at the base of the depositional regime and thoughtful interpretations of the directions, coupled with good observations of the deposits, can lead to a better understanding of depositional and flow processes in the currents. Here, we compare the AMS fabrics and deposit characteristics of deposits of dense and dilute pyroclastic density currents in order to develop an AMS facies model for such deposits. Deposits from individual phreatomagmatic density currents produced in the NE Hopi Buttes volcanic field, NE Arizona, can be traced from the maar edge laterally for 1.5 km or more. This allows the depositional facies to be described and sampled for AMS. The most proximal facies, consisting of tuff breccias, is characterized by a disorganized AMS fabric, marked by some grouping of the AMS axes but a very weak foliation. By about 350 m from the maar rim and extending out over a kilometer, a well lineated and foliated fabric develops in the stratified to sand-wave-bearing lapilli-tuffs, reflecting the shear within the well-developed current. At distances over a km from the vent, where the deposits are plane-parallel tuffs, a girdled fabric develops, with overlapping K1 and K2 axes. This likely reflects weak shearing within the slowing flow. At Caviahue caldera, Neuquen, Argentina, lateral sampling of ignimbrites from within the caldera and on a SE transect to ~25 km from the caldera rim, reveals systematic changes in the AMS fabric, with less obvious changes in the sedimentary characteristics. Intracaldera ignimbrites are rheomorphic and very densely welded, and their AMS fabrics are very strongly foliated but with a weak lineation. Moving out from the

  9. Think Big: Leadership Projects for AMS and Montessori Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2014-01-01

    The American Montessori Society's (AMS) 2014 Living Legacy recipient, John Chattin-McNichols, delivered the keynote address at the Annual Conference in Dallas, TX, on March 27, 2014, In his speech, he described three overall highlights of AMS: (1) AMS is now a world-leading organization; (2) It must become a learning organization; and (3)…

  10. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  11. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  12. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  13. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  14. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  15. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  16. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  17. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  18. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  19. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  20. Counting alveolar macrophages (AM) from expectorate samples of exposed workers as a test for lung irritation from occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gullvag, B.; Mylius, E.; Nilsen, A.

    1985-05-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) have a natural function in the human body in keeping the lung tissue sterile and in dealing with any foreign material contaminating the airways. AM increase in number when the lungs are exposed to inhaled particles or gases. These investigations have shown that the number of AM changes in relation to the quantity and the type of compounds inhaled, and that this change can be measured by differential counting of the total number of free lung cells, or of AM alone in samples recovered by lung lavage. A method had been developed by which AM are counted in expectorate samples from exposed workers. A primary aluminum reduction plant was chosen, because the kind and degree of chemical pollution of the working atmosphere had already been relatively well investigated.

  1. Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.

  2. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct...

  3. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct...

  4. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct...

  5. Rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 12.7-mm (1/2-in.) dia was determined in five-ball fatigue testers. The 10% life with the warm headed AMS 5900 balls was equivalent to that of AMS 5749 and over eight times that of AISI M-50. The AMS balls fabricated by cold heading had small surface cracks which initiated fatigue spalls where these cracks were crossed by running tracks. The cold-headed AMS 5900 balls had a 10% fatigue life an order of magnitude less than that of the warm headed balls even when failures on the cold headed balls at visible surface cracks were omitted.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of Am/Cm melter feed preparation process upset recovery flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    2000-01-20

    This document summarizes the results from the development of flowsheets to recover from credible processing errors specified in TTR 99-MNSS/SE-006. The proposed flowsheets were developed in laboratory scale equipment and will be utilized with minor modifications for full scale demonstrations in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility.

  7. How to convert biological carbon into graphite for AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Getachew, G; Kim, S; Burri, B J; Kelly, P B; Haack, K W; Ognibene, T J; Buchholz, B A; Vogel, J S; Modrow, J; Clifford, A J

    2006-07-27

    Isotope tracer studies, particularly radiocarbon measurements, play a key role in biological, nutritional, and environmental research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is now the most sensitive detection method for radiocarbon, but AMS is not widely used in kinetic studies of humans. Part of the reason is the expense, but costs would decrease if AMS were used more widely. One component in the cost is sample preparation for AMS. Biological and environmental samples are commonly reduced to graphite before they are analyzed by AMS. Improvements and mechanization of this multi-step procedure is slowed by a lack of organized educational materials for AMS sample preparation that would allow new investigators to work with the technique without a substantial outlay of time and effort. We present a detailed sample preparation protocol for graphitizing biological samples for AMS and include examples of nutrition studies that have used this procedure.

  8. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Am-241

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    For many years NASA has used the decay of Pu-238 (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTG's have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency (-5% efficiency) and the scarcity of Plutoinium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14 earth days) isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 watts with 2 GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (-30% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a 4-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of Americium 241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling convertor based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from 1 O's of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a replacement for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about 1/5 while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 watts electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot end and

  9. Future of the NOSAMS Tandetron AMS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reden, Karl F.

    2010-04-01

    The NOSAMS 3 MV Tandetron AMS system will soon reach its 20th anniversary of operation. A critical review of all aspects of the system is necessary to assess the analytical, economical and operational factors that enter into the consideration of either an upgrade or a replacement of the instrument. Recent in-house experience with the design and construction of a large-acceptance 14C AMS system gives us a benchmark with which to compare the expected outcome of an upgrade. The present ion analysis efficiency of our Tandetron system is roughly 1%, well below the 4% value of our new system. This affects the lower limit of analyzable sample size, speed of analysis, exposure to systematic errors, and the upper limit of achievable single-sample counting statistics. At first glance it may seem obvious that a replacement (even at higher cost) would be preferable to an upgrade. However, it will be shown that there are good reasons to consider the latter. One of the most compelling is the fact that the Tandetron is a state-of-the-art and superior high-current accelerator design with minimal signs of aging and very low-maintenance. Ion beam modeling calculations show that the main transmission limitation of the instrument is caused by the design of our injector, a four-magnet "Recombinator", making it difficult to perform reliable AMS with negative currents exceeding 80 μA. To be acceptable, an upgrade should bring the Tandetron to at least 3% ion efficiency by replacing the injector with a properly matched high-transmission device.

  10. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  11. The Orbital Period of AM Canum Venaticorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David A.; Skillman, David R.; Kemp, Jonathan; Patterson, Joseph; Vanmunster, Tonny; Fried, Robert E.; Retter, Alon

    1998-02-01

    We report the discovery of a strictly periodic signal at 1028.7325+/-0.0004 s in the light curve of the cataclysmic variable AM Canum Venaticorum. This brings to an end the long search for the true binary period of this important star, which represents the latest known stage of binary star evolution. It provides a more secure and quantitative basis for testing theories of binary evolution. And it provides strong evidence in favor of the ``permanent superhump'' interpretation of this star and other cataclysmic variables of extreme mass ratio.

  12. Biomedical applications of AMS at ANU

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Day, J.P.; King, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies utilising {sup 26}Al have constituted the bulk of the biomedical AMS program at the ANU`s 14UD accelerator. Projects underway or completed include: the dependence on chemical form of aluminum uptake from the gut; the partitioning of Al among the various components of cells and blood; and uptake of Al by Alzheimer`s patients. In addition, capabilities for measuring {sup 32}Si, {sup 41}Ca and plutonium in a biomedical context have been established during the past year. Results of the {sup 26}Al studies and an outline of the methodology for the other isotopes will be presented and discussed.

  13. The AMS experiment: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, B.; AMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment operates since May 2011 on board of the International Space Station to search for primordial anti-matter, to study the light anti-matter components in the Cosmic Rays (CR) and to perform a precision study of the CR composition and energy spectrum. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument up to now thanks to its large acceptance and the long exposure time. In this contribution we will discuss the most recent results, reviewing the instrument design and performances as well as the data analysis procedures enabling their achievement.

  14. A new AMS facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chopra, S.; Pattanaik, J. K.; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Joshi, R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-10-01

    Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), a national facility of government of India, is having a 15UD Pelletron accelerator for multidisciplinary ion beam based research programs. Recently, a new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility has been developed after incorporating many changes in the existing 15UD Pelletron accelerator. A clean chemistry laboratory for 10Be and 26Al with all the modern facilities has also been developed for the chemical processing of samples. 10Be measurements on sediment samples, inter laboratory comparison results and 26Al measurements on standard samples are presented in this paper. In addition to the 10Be and 26Al AMS facilities, a new 14C AMS facility based on a dedicated 500 kV tandem ion accelerator with two cesium sputter ion sources, is also being setup at IUAC.

  15. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M; Sen, A; Parach, A; Kalantari, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  16. Impact of AMS-02 Measurements on Reducing GCR Model Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, T. C.; O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Norbury, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle design, shield optimization, mission planning, and astronaut risk assessment, the exposure from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant and complex problem both in low Earth orbit and in deep space. To address this problem, various computational tools have been developed to quantify the exposure and risk in a wide range of scenarios. Generally, the tool used to describe the ambient GCR environment provides the input into subsequent computational tools and is therefore a critical component of end-to-end procedures. Over the past few years, several researchers have independently and very carefully compared some of the widely used GCR models to more rigorously characterize model differences and quantify uncertainties. All of the GCR models studied rely heavily on calibrating to available near-Earth measurements of GCR particle energy spectra, typically over restricted energy regions and short time periods. In this work, we first review recent sensitivity studies quantifying the ions and energies in the ambient GCR environment of greatest importance to exposure quantities behind shielding. Currently available measurements used to calibrate and validate GCR models are also summarized within this context. It is shown that the AMS-II measurements will fill a critically important gap in the measurement database. The emergence of AMS-II measurements also provides a unique opportunity to validate existing models against measurements that were not used to calibrate free parameters in the empirical descriptions. Discussion is given regarding rigorous approaches to implement the independent validation efforts, followed by recalibration of empirical parameters.

  17. Texas A&M vortex type phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Frederick

    2000-01-01

    Phase separation is required for regenerative biological and chemical process systems as well as thermal transport and rejection systems. Liquid and gas management requirements for future spacecraft will demand small, passive systems able to operate over wide ranges of inlet qualities. Conservation and recycling of air and water is a necessary part of the construction and operation of the International Space Station as well as future long duration space missions. Space systems are sensitive to volume, mass, and power. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to recycle wastewater with minimal power consumption. Regenerative life support systems currently being investigated require phase separation to separate the liquid from the gas produced. The microgravity phase separator designed and fabricated at Texas A&M University relies on centripetal driven buoyancy forces to form a gas-liquid vortex within a fixed, right-circular cylinder. Two-phase flow is injected tangentially along the inner wall of this cylinder producing a radial acceleration gradient. The gradient produced from the intrinsic momentum of the injected mixture results in a rotating flow that drives the buoyancy process by the production of a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Texas A&M has flown several KC-135 flights with separator. These flights have included scaling studies, stability and transient investigations, and tests for inventory instrumentation. Among the hardware tested have been passive devices for separating mixed vapor/liquid streams into single-phase streams of vapor only and liquid only. .

  18. Synthetic retinoid AM80 inhibits Th17 cells and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Klemann, Christian; Raveney, Benjamin J E; Klemann, Anna K; Ozawa, Tomoko; von Hörsten, Stephan; Shudo, Koichi; Oki, Shinji; Yamamura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis. It has recently been demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid can suppress Th17 differentiation and promote the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via retinoic acid receptor signals. Here, we investigated the effects of AM80, a synthetic retinoid with enhanced biological properties to all-trans retinoic acid, on Th17 differentiation and function and evaluated its therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. AM80 treatment was more effective than all-trans retinoic acid in inhibiting Th17 differentiation in vitro. Oral administration of AM80 was protective for the early development of EAE and the down-modulation of Th17 differentiation and effector functions in vivo. Moreover, AM80 inhibited interleukin-17 production by splenic memory T cells, in vitro-differentiated Th17 cells, and central nervous system-infiltrating effector T cells. Accordingly, AM80 was effective when administered therapeutically after the onset of EAE. Continuous AM80 treatment, however, was ineffective at inhibiting late EAE symptoms despite the maintained suppression of RORgammat and interleukin-17 expression levels by central nervous system-infiltrating T cells. We reveal that continuous AM80 treatment also led to the suppression of interleukin-10 production by a distinct T cell subset that expressed both Foxp3 and RORgammat. These findings suggest that retinoid signaling regulates both inflammatory Th17 cells and Th17-like regulatory cells. PMID:19389933

  19. Synthetic Retinoid AM80 Inhibits Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Klemann, Christian; Raveney, Benjamin J.E.; Klemann, Anna K.; Ozawa, Tomoko; von Hörsten, Stephan; Shudo, Koichi; Oki, Shinji; Yamamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis. It has recently been demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid can suppress Th17 differentiation and promote the generation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via retinoic acid receptor signals. Here, we investigated the effects of AM80, a synthetic retinoid with enhanced biological properties to all-trans retinoic acid, on Th17 differentiation and function and evaluated its therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. AM80 treatment was more effective than all-trans retinoic acid in inhibiting Th17 differentiation in vitro. Oral administration of AM80 was protective for the early development of EAE and the down-modulation of Th17 differentiation and effector functions in vivo. Moreover, AM80 inhibited interleukin-17 production by splenic memory T cells, in vitro-differentiated Th17 cells, and central nervous system-infiltrating effector T cells. Accordingly, AM80 was effective when administered therapeutically after the onset of EAE. Continuous AM80 treatment, however, was ineffective at inhibiting late EAE symptoms despite the maintained suppression of RORγt and interleukin-17 expression levels by central nervous system-infiltrating T cells. We reveal that continuous AM80 treatment also led to the suppression of interleukin-10 production by a distinct T cell subset that expressed both Foxp3 and RORγt. These findings suggest that retinoid signaling regulates both inflammatory Th17 cells and Th17-like regulatory cells. PMID:19389933

  20. Anti-adult T-cell leukemia effects of a novel synthetic retinoid, Am80 (Tamibarotene).

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Tetsuro; Okudaira, Taeko; Ishikawa, Chie; Nakama, Shinji; Sawada, Shigeki; Tomita, Mariko; Uchihara, Jun-nosuke; Taira, Naoya; Masuda, Masato; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Ohshiro, Kazuiku; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Mori, Naoki

    2008-11-01

    Clinical trials for treatment of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) have shown satisfactory therapeutic responses, although efficacies were limited. Recently, many synthetic retinoids have been developed and among them, a novel synthetic retinoid, Am80 (Tamibarotene) is an RARalpha- and RARbeta-specific retinoid expected to overcome ATRA resistance. The present study examined the inhibitory effects of Am80 on HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines and ATL cells. Am80 had negligible growth inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but marked growth inhibition of both HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines and ATL cells. Am80 arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis in HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines. It inhibited also the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB-DNA binding, in conjunction with reduction of expression of proteins involved in the G1/S cell cycle transition and apoptosis. Am80 also inhibited the expression of JunD, resulting in suppression of AP-1-DNA binding. Furthermore, severe combined immunodeficient mice with tumors induced by subcutaneous inoculation of HTLV-I-infected T cells, responded to Am80 treatment with partial regression of tumors and no side-effects. These findings demonstrate that Am80 is a potential inhibitor of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and is a potentially useful therapeutic agent against ATL. PMID:18771528

  1. Comprehensive molecular characterization of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 adapted for 1-butanol tolerance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Bo; Yang, Yi -Ming; Beck, David A. C.; Wang, Qian -Wen; Chen, Wen -Jing; Yang, Jing; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Yang, Song

    2016-04-11

    In this study, the toxicity of alcohols is one of the major roadblocks of biological fermentation for biofuels production. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium, has been engineered to generate 1-butanol from cheap carbon feedstocks through a synthetic metabolic pathway. However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. Only a few studies have reported the general stress response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress. Therefore, it is highly desirable to obtain a strain with ameliorated 1-butanol tolerance and elucidate the molecular mechanism of 1-butnaol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1 formore » future strain improvement. In this work, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to isolate mutants with 1-butanol tolerance up to 0.5 %. The evolved strains, BHBT3 and BHBT5, demonstrated increased growth rates and higher survival rates with the existence of 1-butanol. Whole genome sequencing revealed a SNP mutation at kefB in BHBT5, which was confirmed to be responsible for increasing 1-butanol tolerance through an allelic exchange experiment. Global metabolomic analysis further discovered that the pools of multiple key metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, and disaccharides, were increased in BHBT5 in response to 1-butanol stress. Additionally, the carotenoid synthesis pathway was significantly down-regulated in BHBT5. In conclusion, we successfully screened mutants resistant to 1-butanol and provided insights into the molecular mechanism of 1-butanol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1. This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future.« less

  2. ORFEUS and EUVE observations of AM herculis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C.W.; Paerels, F.B.S.; Raymond, J.C.

    1995-04-06

    Far-UV spectra of AM Her in a high optical state were obtained in 1993 September with the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) spectrometer aboard the ORFEUS telescope. The UCB spectrometer has a spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 3000 and covers the 390-1170 {Angstrom} bandpass, but interstellar absorption leaves no detectable -flux below the Lyman limit. Spectra of AM Her were acquired during the intervals 04:19:40-04:36:26 UT on September 16 and 08:34:03-09:09:06 UT on September 17 of 1993. The corresponding magnetic phases are 0.75-0.84 and 0.88-1.07 according to the linear polarization ephemeris of S. Tapia. The main spectral features are the 0 VI doublet, C III {lambda}977, and He II {lambda}1085 (Balmer {gamma}). The bright C III {lambda}1176 multiplet, which is detected by IUE, is at the very end of the spectrum. At the full spectral resolution of the instrument, the 0 VI doublet shows broad and narrow components similar to that of the optical emission lines. The intensity ratio of the narrow component of the 0 VI doublet is {approximately} 1.3:1, much closer to the optically thick limit of 1:1 than the optically thin ratio of 2:1.

  3. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  4. Internal gastargets in AmPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaan, A. P.; Postma, O.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Doets, M.; Kraan, M.

    1997-05-01

    Internal gas targets in AmPS A.P. Kaan, O. Postma, J.F.J. van den Brand, E. van Leeuwen, M. Doets, M. Kra= an National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics; Kruislaan 409; 1098 SJ Amsterdam; Holland In the Amsterdam Puls Stretcher/storage ring AmPS(1 GeV electrons), we designed a set-up in order to accommodate a gas target with a density of 1016 mol/cm2. The storage cell needed for this purpose is a aluminium tube with a length of 40 cm, a diameter of 15 mm and a wall thickness of 25 =B5m. Three sets of conductance limiters on both sides of the target, combined with dry turbopumps are designed to be used as differential pumping stations. These limiters cause discontinuities in the beam path and must therefor be retractable and radio frequency compatible in both positions. Low =B5 materials must be used because of the depolarisation effects of changing magnetic fields. The calculations show that the flow resistance's are sufficient to reduce the load of the getter pumps to a level with which the lifetime of the pump elements remain acceptable. The design of the mechanics and the vacuum system will be explained. Recent results from the measurements after installation in combination with the influence on the lifetime on the beam will be presented

  5. Decay counting in the age of AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, James R.

    1987-11-01

    Up to the advent of AMS, all the accomplishments of 14C dating, and the studies of 10Be and other long-lived radionuclides, were made by low-level decay counting, the technique pioneered by W.F. Libby. It will hardly be news to people at this conference that, while much was accomplished in the three decades when counting prevailed, the world has now changed decisively. I will try to give an account of where low-level counting was "before the revolution," and of what its usefulness is today. There are still some remarkable examples of its application, the best being the neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, and its potential successors. Some cosmogenic nuclides, whose half-lives are less than 10 3 yr, are still best measured by decay; this will continue unless the overall ion yield of AMS systems rises markedly from present levels. One long-lived nuclide, 53Mn, is still best measured by neutron activation as 312-day 54Mn, but this may not continue.

  6. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10−5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  7. AMS of an Analogue Non-Scale Model Simulating Diapiric Pluton Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrouda, F.; Kratinova, Z.; Zavada, P.; Schulmann, K.

    2004-12-01

    Development of magnetic fabric within a pluton during its diapiric ascent was investigated using an analogue non-scale model of plaster of Paris containing small amount of fine-grained (less than 0.09 mm) homogeneously mixed magnetite, with resulting bulk susceptibility being in the order of 10-3 [SI]. The apparatus for this modelling consists of a manual squeezer with calibrated spring and a perspex container. Stratified coloured to visualize internal flow geometries, weak plaster layer at the bottom of the container was forced to intrude overlying fine-grained (>0.017mm) sand through a hole in a board attached to the squeezer. A retarding compound was admixed into the plaster to postpone the solidification of plaster. After solidifying the model, small oriented cylindrical specimens (7 mm in diameter and 6 mm in height) were drilled and their anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured with the KLY-4S Kappabridge. The magnetic fabric in the margins of the vertical column of the diapir is characterized by high degree of AMS (P'=1.26-1.30), neutral to oblate AMS ellipsoid (T=0.2-0.6) and vertical magnetic lineations and foliations. In the vent area, the degree of AMS is also high, but the AMS ellipsoid being strongly prolate (T= -1 to -0.8) with vertical magnetic lineations. In the interior of the plug above the vent zone, abrupt transition into horizontal lineations and foliations take place and the low degree of AMS (P'=1.05-1.10) marks the area where strongly prolate magnetic fabric is being gradually changed into the magnetic fabric characterized by neutral to oblate AMS ellipsoid. This type of magnetic fabric extends to the apical part of the body. In the extrusive portions of the diapir, oblate magnetic fabric increases in anisotropy (T=0.8-1, P'=1.26-1.29), while the front of the radial extrusion shows horizontal lineations parallel to the margin and neutral AMS ellipsoids (T=0.2-0.6,P'=1.23-1.26). This changeover of fabric thus indicates

  8. A new AMS facility based on a Cockcroft-Walton type 1 MV tandetron at IFIN-HH Magurele, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.; Ghita, D. G.; Calinescu, C. I.; Petre, A.; Mosu, D. V.; Klein, M.

    2014-01-01

    A 1 MV AMS machine was recently installed in the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering IFIN-HH, Bucharest Romania. It is the second AMS facility at IFIN-HH having the goal not only to continue but mainly to enlarge the research area of this highly sensitive analyzing method. The multi-element AMS was developed by HVEE to measure 14C, 10Be, and 26Al, and 129I. The results of an acceptance test are presented and demonstrate that this machine is capable of routine 14C age dating and of measurements of other radioisotopes in terms of accuracy and precision as well as a low background level.

  9. Progress in AMS measurements at the LLNL spectrometer. [Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Davis, J.C.; Roberts, M.L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.; Proctor, I.D.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Berno, A.J.; Hornady, R.S.

    1991-06-01

    The AMS measurement program at LLNL began in earnest in late 1989, and has initially concentrated on {sup 14}C measurements for biomedical and geoscience applications. We have now begun measurements on {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl, are presently testing the spectrometer performance for {sup 26}Al and {sup 3}H, and will begin tests on {sup 7}Be, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 129}I within the next few months. Our laboratory has a strong biomedical AMS program of {sup 14}C tracer measurements involving large numbers of samples (sometimes hundreds in a single experiment) at {sup 14}C concentrations which are typically .5--5 times Modern, but are occasionally highly enriched. The sample preparation techniques required for high throughput and low cross-contamination for this work are discussed elsewhere. Similar demands are placed on the AMS measurement system, and in particular on the ion source. Modifications to our GIC 846 ion source, described below, allow us to run biomedical and geoscience or archaeological samples in the same source wheel with no adverse effects. The source has a capacity for 60 samples (about 45 unknown) in a single wheel and provides currents of 30--60{mu}A of C{sup {minus}} from hydrogen-reduced graphite. These currents and sample capacity provide high throughput for both biomedical and other measurements: the AMS system can be started up, tuned, and a wheel of carbon samples measured to 1--1.5% in under a day; and 2 biomedical wheels can be measured per day without difficulty. We report on the present status of the Lawrence Livermore AMS spectrometer, including sample throughput and progress towards routine 1% measurement capability for {sup 14}C, first results on other isotopes, and experience with a multi-sample high intensity ion source. 5 refs.

  10. DELLA proteins regulate expression of a subset of AM symbiosis-induced genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Park, Hee-Jin; Harrison, Maria J

    2016-04-01

    The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus. (1) The association develops in the roots and requires substantial remodeling of the root cortical cells where branched fungal hyphae, called arbuscules, are housed in a new membrane-bound apoplastic compartment. (2) Nutrient exchange between the symbionts occurs over this interface and its development and maintenance is critical for symbiosis. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development. (3) Furthermore, constitutive overexpression of a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) is sufficient to induce transcripts of several AM symbiosis-induced genes, even in the absence of the fungal symbiont. (4) Here we further extend this approach and identify AM symbiosis genes that respond transcriptionally to constitutive expression of a dominant DELLA protein and also genes that do respond to this treatment. Additionally, we demonstrate that DELLAs interact with REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULE DEVELOPMENT 1 (RAD1) which further extends our knowledge of GRAS factor complexes that have the potential to regulate gene expression during AM symbiosis. PMID:26984507

  11. Twelve years of follow up of cases with old 241Am internal contamination.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Vrba, Tomás; Becková, Vera; Pospísilová, Helena

    2010-10-01

    A group of workers internally contaminated with Am have been followed for about 12 years. The source of contamination was AmO2 powder used for production of AmBe neutron sources and other applications. The production of some radionuclide sources included chemical treatment of the original material, which transformed the americium into the nitrate, but mostly powder metallurgy was used for production of sources for smoke detectors. In vivo measurement of the workers was performed with two LEGe detectors placed near the head of the measured person. Calibration was performed with four different physical skull phantoms of different origin and a voxel phantom with Monte Carlo simulation, which was developed to fit the head sizes of individual persons. Samples of urine and feces were analyzed by means of radiochemical separation followed by alpha-spectrometry. Separation of 241Am from mineralized excreta was performed by combined anion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques. As a tracer, 243Am was used. When the measured data (83 data on skeletal activity, activity in 389 bioassay samples) were compared with International Commission on Radiological Protection's and Leggett's biokinetic models of americium, it was found that in most cases, after more than 15 y since the intake, the excretion rate was lower (or skeletal activity higher) than predicted. On the other hand, the ratio of excreted activity in urine and feces agrees well with model predictions. PMID:20838090

  12. Evaluation of Am-Li neutron spectra data for active well type neutron multiplicity measurements of uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Croft, Stephen; Lousteau, Angela; Peerani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material is an important and challenging task for the international community. One particular safeguards technique commonly used for uranium assay is active neutron correlation counting. This technique involves irradiating unused uranium with (α, n) neutrons from an Am-Li source and recording the resultant neutron pulse signal which includes induced fission neutrons. Although this non-destructive technique is widely employed in safeguards applications, the neutron energy spectra from an Am-Li sources is not well known. Several measurements over the past few decades have been made to characterize this spectrum; however, little work has been done comparing the measured and theoretical spectra of various Am-Li sources to each other. This paper examines fourteen different Am-Li spectra, focusing on how these spectra affect simulated neutron multiplicity results using the code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Two measurement and simulation campaigns were completed using Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) detectors and uranium standards of varying enrichment. The results of this work indicate that for standard AWCC measurements, the fourteen Am-Li spectra produce similar doubles and triples count rates. The singles count rates varied by as much as 20% between the different spectra, although they are usually not used in quantitative analysis, being dominated by scattering which is highly dependent on item placement.

  13. The 80 kV electrostatic wire septum for AmPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinden, A.; Bijleveld, J. H. M.; Rookhuizen, H. Boer; Bruinsma, P. J. T.; Heine, E.; Lassing, P.; Prins, E.

    The characteristics of the wire septum for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) are summarized. In the extraction process of the AmPS the extracted beam is intercepted from the circulating beam by the 1 m long electrostatic wire septum. For a bending angle of 4.4 mrad, the maximum anode voltage is 80 kV. The system developed consists of a wire spacing of 0.65 mm between tungsten wires of 50 micrometers diameter. Stainless steel spring wires, bent in a half cylindrical carrier, stretch the septum wires two by two. Prototype tests were successful up to an anode voltage of 120 kV.

  14. Preparation and characterization of (Pu, U, Np, Am, simulated FP) O2-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, K.; Kato, M.; Uno, H.; Hanari, A.; Tamura, T.; Sugata, H.; Sunaoshi, T.; Kono, S.

    2005-02-01

    The development of low decontaminated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which contains minor actinoides (MA) and fission products (FP), is in progress to established Advanced Fast Reactor (FR) Fuel Cycle system. This paper describes the study on the sintering characteristics and the physical properties of MOX fuel containing Am, Np, and simulated FP. MOX powder containing Am, Np and simulated FP were sintered at high temperature in various oxygen partial pressure. From the result of ceramography, it is found that the grain growth rate of the pellets sintered in high oxygen partial pressure is high. From the result of EPMA analysis (Pu, Am, Ln) oxide was observed in the pellets. The melting points of the pellets with oxygen to metal (O/M) ratio of 1.95 are higher than those with O/M ratio of 1.98. This tendency is similar to that of MOX fuel containing about 30% Pu.

  15. How are we doing? AMS survey reveals member satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Penn, Casey L

    2008-06-01

    Members expressed overall satisfaction with their AMS membership and agreed that, through their membership, they benefit from a collective voice and a stronger influence where health issues are concerned. How do you rate your Arkansas Medical Society? The Society always wants to hear comments and suggestions from its members. Call AMS at 224-8967 or come by and visit the AMS staff at 10 Corporate Hill Drive in Little Rock. PMID:18564464

  16. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

    2013-03-01

    A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  17. The accretion halo in AM Herculis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilleos, N.; Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Wu, Kinwah

    1992-01-01

    Previous phase-resolved spectropolarimetric observations of the AM Herculis systems V834 Centauri (E1405-451) and EF Eridani have shown broad, Zeeman-shifted absorption features during the bright phases. These features are thought to be nonphotospheric in origin, and to arise from a cool 'halo' of unshocked gas surrounding the accretion shock on the surface of the white dwarf primary. Preliminary models for the accretion halo region are presented and these models are used to perform a more detailed analysis of the relevant data for these two systems than has previously been done. To explain the observed halo Zeeman features, geometries which are consistent with the presence of linearly extended cyclotron emission regions are required. Such regions have previously been deduced from different considerations by other investigators. The estimated masses for the accretion halo are comparable to the mass of the cyclotron emission region.

  18. Biological AMS at Uppsala University: Status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2010-04-01

    In January 2007 a new research program was initiated at Uppsala University focusing on the biological applications of AMS. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron Tandem accelerator to study biological samples. With Microdosing applications in mind, a variety of measurements have been performed on human blood, plasma and urine that have been labeled with a 14C-labeled pharmaceutical drug covering a concentration range, spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by studying small sample amounts and low concentrations, we have demonstrated sensitivity in the hundred zeptomole range for a small pharmaceutical substance in human blood. Another application of interest, based on the enhanced 14C activity from the cold war bomb-peak, is dating of DNA molecules providing fundamental data for the regenerative medicine and stem cell research community. We show data on a sensitive carrier method for measuring the isotopic ratio of small biological sample in the few μgC range.

  19. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Terminating Tenancy § 5.860 When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? The lease must provide... to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...

  20. Resonant Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry: An Alternative to AMS?

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Klaus; Trautmann, N.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2001-02-15

    Resonant laser ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has developed into a versatile experimental method particularly concerning applications for highly selective ultratrace analaysis. Apart from providing nearly complete isobaric suspression and high overall efficiency, the possibolility for combining optical isotpic selectivity with that of hte mass spectrometer leads to remarkable specifications. The widespread analytical potential and applicability of different techniques based on resonant laser ionization is demonstrated in investigations on stable and radioactive ultratrace isotopes with the focus on applications which require high selectivity, concerning, e.g., the noble gas isotopes, 81,85KR, PU isotopes, 89,90SR, 99Tc and 41Ca. Selective ultratrace determination of these radioisotopes proved access to a variety of fundamental research problems in environmental sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, archaeology, and biomedicine, which previously were often an exclusive domain for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS).

  1. "Why I Am Not a Painter": Developing an Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I connect John Dewey's notion that growth occurs through interaction with a diverse community to contemporary discussions of inclusive education. I highlight the importance of materials that offer different access points, the chance for students to listen to one another, and the teacher's openness to each child's potential. Though I…

  2. Development of diamond-lanthanide metal oxide affinity composites for the selective capture of endogenous serum phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Dilshad; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Development of affinity materials for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides has attracted attention during the last decade. In this work, diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide composites have been fabricated via the hydrothermal method. The composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analyses confirm the size and composition of the nanocomposites. They have been applied to selectively capture phosphorylated peptides from standard proteins (β-casein and BSA). Selectivity is calculated as 1:3000 and 1:1500 while sensitivity down to 1 and 20 fmol for diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide nanocomposites, respectively. Enrichment efficiency has also been evaluated for non-fat milk digest where 18 phosphopeptides are enriched. Total of 213 and 187 phosphopeptides are captured from tryptic digest of HeLa cells extracted proteins by diamond-lanthanum oxide and diamond-samarium oxide, respectively. Finally, human serum, without any pre-treatment, is applied and nanocomposites capture the endogenous serum phosphopeptides. PMID:26758594

  3. 241Am and 243Am charge distributions from muonic x-ray spectroscopy and the quadrupole moment of the 240Am fission isomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. W.; Shera, E. B.; Hoehn, M. V.; Naumann, R. A.; Zumbro, J. D.; Bemis, C. E.

    1985-10-01

    The muonic K, L, and M X-ray spectra from 241Am and 243Am have been investigated. Analysis of these spectra yields intrinsic nuclear quadrupole moments [Q0241 = 12.16(15) e b and Q0243 = 12.10(17) e b] and Barrett radii. By combining these results with those from a previous optical isotope-shift study, the intrinsic quadrupole moment for the fission isomer 240fAm is deduced [Q0240f = 29.0(1.3) e b].

  4. Am phases in the matrix of a U–Pu–Zr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.; O’Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ζ-(U, Pu) and the Zr content in δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 is lower than that in δ-UZr2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.

  5. Evaluation of the Eberline AMS-3A and AMS-4 Beta continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    Eberline AMS-3A-1 and AMS-4 beta continuous air monitors were tested against the criteria set forth in the ANSI Standards N42.18, Specification and Performance of On-site Instrumentation for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Effluents, and ANSI N42.17B, Performance Specification for Health Physics Instrumentation - Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation. ANSI N42.18 does not, in general, specify testing procedures for demonstrating compliance with the criteria set forth in the standard; therefore, wherever possible, the testing procedures given in ANSI N42.17B were adopted. In all cases, the more restrictive acceptance criteria and/or the more demanding test conditions of the two standards were used.

  6. Measurement of the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n){sup 240}Am reaction in the giant dipole resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, A. P.; Howell, C. R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Hammond, S. L.; Huibregtse, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-11-15

    The photodisintegration cross section of the radioactive nucleus {sup 241}Am has been obtained using activation techniques and monoenergetic {gamma}-ray beams from the HI{gamma}S facility. The induced activity of {sup 240}Am produced via the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n) reaction was measured in the energy interval from 9 to 16 MeV utilizing high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The experimental data for the {sup 241}Am({gamma},n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region are compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  7. Pulmonary administration of Am80 regenerates collapsed alveoli.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hitomi; Horiguchi, Michiko; Ozawa, Chihiro; Akita, Tomomi; Hirota, Keiji; Shudo, Koichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Makino, Kimiko; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2014-12-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, which causes widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. Nevertheless, there is no effective drug therapy that regenerates lung tissue or prevents the progression of COPD and clinical management of patients remains mostly supportive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Am80 is useful as a novel pulmonary emphysema therapeutic drug. In this study, we treated the human alveolar epithelial stem cells with Am80 to clarify the differentiation-inducing mechanism and administrated Am80 transpulmonarily into elastase-induced COPD model mice to evaluate the effect of Am80 on pulmonary emphysema. First, we accordingly investigated whether Am80 had a differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells, Am80 induced differentiation of human alveolar epithelial stem cells to alveolar type I and II cells dose dependently, and the proportion of differentiated into type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells as a result of treatment with 10 μM of Am80 for 7 days was approximately 20%. Second, we attempted to identify the major factor involved in the differentiation-inducing effect of human alveolar epithelial stem cells induced by Am80 using microarray analysis. In a microarray analysis, WNT1, lectin, SLIT, chordin, ck12, ck11, and neurexin3 showed the largest variation in the Am80-treated group compared with the controls. In quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay, Am80 resulted in significant reduction in the WNT1 expression ratio whereas increase in the neurexin3 expression ratio. We evaluated the repairs effect for collapsed alveoli by Am80 of pulmonary administration. In untreated and Am80-treated mice the average CT value at 2 days was, respectively, -506 and -439 and there was a significant difference. Likewise, the assessment of the distance between alveolar walls, Lm, confirmed that there was a significant difference between control (68.0±3.8 μm) and

  8. A Phase I Trial of Samarium-153-Lexidronam Complex for Treatment of Clinically Nonmetastatic High-Risk Prostate Cancer: First Report of a Completed Study

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Trabulsi, Edouard; Intenzo, Charles; Lavarino, Jorosali; Xu Yihuan; Chervoneva, Inna

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: We completed a Phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose of samarium-153 EDTMP ({sup 153}Sm) with hormonal therapy (HT) and radiation therapy (RT) in high-risk clinically nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: High-risk M0 prostate cancer patients (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, Gleason score >7, or >T3) were eligible for this prospective trial of dose-escalated radioactive {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (.25-2.0 mCi/kg) as primary or postoperative therapy. After 1 month of HT, we administered {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP followed by 4 more months of HT, 46.8 Gy to the pelvic region and 23.4 Gy to the prostate target (TD = 70.2 Gy). The primary endpoint was Grade III toxicity or higher by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Twenty-nine patients enrolled (median prostate-specific antigen = 8.2 ng/mL, 27/29 (93%) T stage {>=}T2b, 24/29 (83%) had Gleason >7) and received {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (.25 mCi/kg, 4 patients; 0.5 mCi/kg, 4 patients; 0.75 mCi/kg, 6 patients; 1.0 mCi/kg, 6 patients; 1.5 mCi/kg, 5 patients; 2.0mCi/kg, 4 patients). Twenty-eight patients underwent all planned therapy without delays (1 patient required surgery before the start of RT). With a median follow-up time of 23 months, there were 2 patients (7 %) experiencing Grade III hematologic toxicity. There were no other Grade III or IV side effects. Conclusions: Our trial demonstrates that 2 mCi/kg {sup 153}Sm -EDTMP with HT and RT was safe and feasible in men with high-risk M0 prostate cancer. A Phase II study to test this treatment is currently underway by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.

  9. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  10. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  11. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles W.; Keys, Denney J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wannemacher, Hari E.; Vaidyanathan, Harry

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of die tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18,202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 18

  12. Status of the Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer Instrument for EOS-AM1 and Its Application to Remote Sensing of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J.; Abdou, W. A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Maronchik, J. V.; Paradise, S. R.; West, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument is being developed at JPL for the EOS AM1 spacecraft, scheduled for launch in June 1998. The development status and strategy for observing atmospheric aerosols are described.

  13. 30 CFR 203.80 - When can I get royalty relief if I am not eligible for royalty relief under other sections in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development and Expansion Projects § 203.80 When can I get royalty relief if I am not eligible for royalty... water leases and development and expansion projects, we must agree that your lease or project has two...

  14. Recovery of Am-Cm from high-activity waste concentrate by in-canyon-tank precipitation as oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W; Burney, G A; Wilson, T W; McKibben, J M

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Laboratory and Savannah River Plant have been separating actinides for more than 25 years. Work continues to upgrade processes and to initiate new processes. This report summarizes work on a precipitation process to separate kg amounts of Am and Cm from hundreds of kilograms of NaNO/sub 3/ and Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The developed process includes formic acid denitration of the Am-Cm bearing streams for acid adjustment; oxalate precipitation of the Am-Cm; and Mn/sup +2/ catalyzed oxidation of oxalate in both the decanted supernate and the precipitated actinides. The new process generates one fourth the radioactive waste as the solvent extraction process which it replaced, and produces a cleaner feed solution for downstream processing to separate the Am and Cm before conversion to their respective oxides.

  15. Determination of 241Am in Urine Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ge; Saunders, David; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of 241Am in urine at low levels is important for assessment of individuals’ or populations’ accidental, environmental, or terrorism-related internal contamination, but no convenient, precise method has been established to rapidly determine these low levels. Here we report a new analytical method to measure 241Am as developed and validated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by means of the selective retention of Am from urine directly on DGA resin, followed by SF-ICP-MS detection. The method provides rapid results with a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 0.22 pg/L (0.028 Bq/L), which is lower than 1/3 of the C/P CDG for 241Am at 5 days post-exposure. The results obtained by this method closely agree with CDC values as measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting, and with National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Certified Reference Materials (CRM) target values. PMID:27375308

  16. Frequency-dependent AMS of rocks: A tool for the investigation of the fabric of ultrafine magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrouda, František; Ježek, Josef

    2014-08-01

    In some geological processes, new very fine-grained magnetic minerals may originate. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is traditionally interpreted in terms of the presence of viscous superparamagnetic (SP) particles in addition to stable single domain (SSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetic particles. In addition, the fabric of these grains can be investigated through the frequency-dependent AMS. Through standard AMS measurement at different frequencies, one can evaluate the contribution of SP particles to the whole-rock AMS; appropriate methods were developed. Various rocks, soils and ceramics, showing frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, were investigated. Measurable changes of AMS with operating frequency were revealed and attempts are made of their fabric interpretation.

  17. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement?...

  18. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement?...

  19. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement?...

  20. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement?...

  1. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement?...

  2. 47 CFR 1.571 - Processing AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing AM broadcast station applications. 1.571 Section 1.571 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.571 Processing AM broadcast...

  3. Some Validation Data for the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Per

    1978-01-01

    A Norwegian version of the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS) was administered to Oslo sixth-graders, along with verbal, numeric, test anxiety, and lie/defensiveness tests. Results showed the relationships to academic performance predicted by achievement theory. Even when related to the personality scales, the AMS showed promising qualities.…

  4. 50 CFR 648.201 - AMs and harvest controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 AMs and harvest controls. (a) AMs. (1) Management area closure. If NMFS..., transferring, or landing >2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per trip in such an area, and from landing herring more than once per calendar day, except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this...

  5. On-farm Production and Utilization of AM Fungus Inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum can make the benefits to crop growth and yield of inoculation with AM fungi available to more farmers by reducing costs. This article details the step by step procedure and management decisions that are needed for the on-farm product...

  6. Plant uptake and transport of /sup 241/Am

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Mueller, R.T. Sr.; soufi, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    We conducted several experiments with /sup 241/Am to obtain a more complete understanding of how this transuranium element is absorbed and transported in plants. In a plant species (Tamarix pentandra Pall.) that has salt glands in the leaves excreting NaCl and other ions, /sup 241/Am was not pumped through these glands. Cyanide, which forms complexes with any metals, when applied to a calcareous soil, greatly increased the transport of /sup 241/Am into stems and leaves of bush bean plants. Radioactive cyanide (/sup 14/C) was also transported to leaves and stems. When radish was grown in both calcareous and noncalcareous soils, /sup 241/Am appeared to be fixed on the peel so firmly that it was resistant to removal by HNO/sub 3/ washing. The chelating agent DTPA induced increased transport of /sup 241/Am to leaves and into the fleshy roots of the radish.

  7. Biochemical paths in humans and cells: Frontiers of AMS bioanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Palmblad, N. M.; Ognibene, T.; Kabir, M. M.; Buchholz, B. A.; Bench, G.

    2007-06-01

    The publication rate of 3H and 14C use in biomedical research decreased by a factor of three since 1990 when the first applications of AMS in biomedicine were published. Against this decrease, the high sensitivity of AMS for these isotopes in small isolated samples has made significant contributions. New smaller spectrometers and increased commercial availability of AMS have solved some of the issues surrounding availability and cost, but improved quantitation in non-isotopic methods now compete with some early uses of AMS. We review the strength of AMS for quantifying rare biochemical events and chemical passages through individual people or cells and consider these as the frontiers of quantitation leading to profitable science unavailable to other techniques.

  8. Fully automated measurement of field-dependent AMS using MFK1-FA Kappabridge equipped with 3D rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, Martin; Studynka, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Low-field magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic and diamagnetic minerals is field-independent by definition being also field-independent in pure magnetite. On the other hand, in pyrrhotite, hematite and high-Ti titanomagnetite it may be clearly field-dependent. Consequently, the field-dependent AMS enables the magnetic fabric of the latter group of minerals to be separated from the whole-rock AMS. The methods for the determination of the field-dependent AMS consist of separate measurements of each specimen in several fields within the Rayleigh Law range and subsequent processing in which the field-independent and field-dependent AMS components are calculated. The disadvantage of this technique is that each specimen must be measured several times, which is relatively laborious and time consuming. Recently, a new 3D rotator was developed for the MFK1-FA Kappabridge, which rotates the specimen simultaneously about two axes with different velocities. The measurement is fully automated in such a way that, once the specimen is inserted into the rotator, it requires no additional manipulation to measure the full AMS tensor. Consequently, the 3D rotator enables to measure the AMS tensors in the pre-set field intensities without any operator interference. Whole procedure is controlled by newly developed Safyr5 software; once the measurements are finished, the acquired data are immediately processed and can be visualized in a standard way.

  9. Methods and applications of HPLC-AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dueker, Stephen R.; Lin, Yumei; Clifford, Andrew J.; Vogel, John S.

    2000-10-01

    Pharmacokinetics of physiologic doses of nutrients, pesticides, and herbicides can easily be traced in humans using a 14C-labeled compound. Basic kinetics can be monitored in blood or urine by measuring the elevation in the 14C content above the control predose tissue and converting to equivalents of the parent compound. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an excellent method for the chemical separation of complex mixtures whose profiles afford estimation of biochemical pathways of metabolism. Compounds elute from the HPLC systems with characteristic retention times and can be collected in fractions that can then be graphitized for AMS measurement. Unknowns are tentatively identified by co-elution with known standards and chemical tests that reveal functional groupings. Metabolites are quantified with the 14C signal. Thoroughly accounting for the carbon inventory in the LC solvents, ion-pairing agents, samples, and carriers adds some complexity to the analysis. In most cases the total carbon inventory is dominated by carrier. Baseline background and stability need to be carefully monitored. Limits of quantitation near 10 amol of 14C per HPLC fraction are typically achieved. Baselines are maintained by limiting injected 14C activity <0.17 Bq (4.5 pCi) on the HPLC column.

  10. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2010-04-01

    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  11. Climate Literacy: Progress in AMS Climate Studies Undergraduate Course in Meteorology Program at Jackson State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide and increasing involvement of under-represented groups The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project Workshop participation is on a first-come, first-serve basis as determined by the date-of-receipt of the License Order Form. To grow AMS Diversity Programs to their fullest extent, institutions are encouraged to nominate course instructors who did not previously attend Diversity Project workshops. Until three months before the workshop, two-thirds of the workshop positions would be reserved for institutions new to AMS Diversity Projects. The AMS five day course implementation workshop was held in Washington, DC, during May 24-29, 2012. It covered essential course topics in climate science and global climate change, and strategies for course implementation. Talks would feature climate science and sustainability experts from Federal agencies and area research institutions, such as NASA, NOAA, University of Maryland, Howard University, George Mason University, and other Washington, DC, area institutions. The workshop would also include visits to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2014. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places

  12. Seals Research at Texas A/M University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M has been providing experimental data and computational codes for the design seals for many years. The program began with the development of a Halon based seal test rig. This facility provided information about the effective stiffness and damping in whirling seals. The Halon effectively simulated cryogenic fluids. Another test facility was developed (using air as the working fluid) where the stiffness and damping matrices can be determined. This data was used to develop bulk flow models of the seal's effect upon rotating machinery; in conjunction with this research, a bulk flow model for calculation of performance and rotordynamic coefficients of annular pressure seals of arbitrary non-uniform clearance for barotropic fluids such as LH2, LOX, LN2, and CH4 was developed. This program is very efficient (fast) and converges for very large eccentricities. Currently, work is being performed on a bulk flow analysis of the effects of the impeller-shroud interaction upon the stability of pumps. The data was used along with data from other researchers to develop an empirical leakage prediction code for MSFC. Presently, the flow field inside labyrinth and annular seals are being studied in detail. An advanced 3-D Doppler anemometer system is being used to measure the mean velocity and entire Reynolds stress tensor distribution throughout the seals. Concentric and statically eccentric seals were studied; presently, whirling seals are being studied. The data obtained are providing valuable information about the flow phenomena occurring inside the seals, as well as a data base for comparison with numerical predictions and for turbulence model development. A finite difference computer code was developed for solving the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equation inside labyrinth seals. A multi-scale k-epsilon turbulence model is currently being evaluated. A new seal geometry was designed and patented using a computer code. A large scale, 2

  13. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  14. AM(VI) PARTITIONING STUDIES: FY14 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J Mincher

    2014-10-01

    The use of higher oxidation states of americium in partitioning from the lanthanides is under continued investigation by the sigma team. This is based on the hypothesis that Am(VI) can be produced and remain stable in irradiated first cycle raffinate solution long enough to perform solvent extraction for separations. The stability of Am(VI) to autoreduction was measured using millimolar americium concentrations in a 1-cm cell with a Cary 6000 UV/Vis spectrophotometer for data acquisition. At millimolar americium concentrations, Am(VI) is stable enough against its own autoreduction for separations purposes. A second major accomplishment during FY14 was the hot test. Americium oxidation and extraction was performed using a centrifugal contactor-based test bed consisting of an extraction stage and two stripping stages. Sixty-three percent americium extraction was obtained in one extraction stage, in agreement with batch contacts. Promising electrochemical oxidation results have also been obtained, using terpyridine ligand derivatized electrodes for binding of Am(III). Approximately 50 % of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(V) over the course of 1 hour. It is believed that this is the first demonstration of the electrolytic oxidation of americium in a non-complexing solution. Finally, an initial investigation of Am(VI) extraction using diethylhexylbutyramide (DEHBA) was performed.

  15. AM251 induces apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in A375 human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Romanini, Antonella; Pellegrino, Mario; Adinolfi, Barbara; Podestà, Adriano; Costa, Barbara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Martini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Nieri, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Human cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant type of cancer. AM251 is a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist with off-target antitumor activity against pancreatic and colon cancer cells. The current study aimed to characterize the in-vitro antimelanoma activity of AM251. The BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cell line, A375, was used as an in-vitro model system. Characterization tools included a cell viability assay, nuclear morphology assessment, gene expression, western blot, flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD double staining, cell cycle analyses, and measurements of changes in intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations. AM251 exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against A375 human melanoma cells with potency comparable with that observed for cisplatin without significant changes in the human dermal fibroblasts viability. AM251, at a concentration that approximates the IC50, downregulated genes encoding antiapoptotic proteins (BCL2 and survivin) and increased transcription levels of proapoptotic BAX, induced alteration of Annexin V reactivity, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation in the cell nuclei, and G2/M phase arrest.AM251 also induced a 40% increase in the basal cAMP levels, but it did not affect intracellular calcium concentrations. The involvement of GPR55, TRPA1, and COX-2 in the AM251 mechanism of action was excluded. The combination of AM251 with celecoxib produced a synergistic antitumor activity, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence of a proapoptotic effect and G2/M cell cycle arrest of AM251 on A375 cells. This compound may be a potential prototype for the development of promising diarylpyrazole derivatives to be evaluated in human cutaneous melanoma. PMID:25974027

  16. Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

    1996-02-29

    Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the

  17. High resolution measurements of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, C.; Semkova, V.; Bouland, O.; Dessagne, P.; Fernandez, A.; Gunsing, F.; Nästren, C.; Noguère, G.; Ottmar, H.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Romain, P.; Rudolf, G.; Somers, J.; Wastin, F.

    2010-06-01

    Measurements of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section have been performed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Geel in the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission (EC) JRC and French laboratories from CNRS and the Commissariat à L’Energie Atomique (CEA) Cadarache. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed by JRC Karlsruhe into suitable Am241O2 samples embedded in Al2O3 matrices specifically designed for these measurements. The irradiations were carried out at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section was determined relative to the Al27(n,α)Na24 standard cross section. The measurements were performed in four sessions, using quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the H2(d,n)He3 and the H3(d,n)He4 reactions. The induced activity was measured by standard γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector. Below 15 MeV, the present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier. Above 15 MeV, these measurements allowed the experimental investigation of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section for the first time. The present data are in good agreement with predictions obtained with the talys code that uses an optical and fission model developed at CEA.

  18. Study on the kinetics and mechanism of Am(III) with TODGA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wen-bin; Ye, Guo-an; Li, Feng-feng; Li, Hui-rong

    2013-07-01

    The removal of minor actinides (mainly Am, Cm and Np) from the high-level waste would remarkably reduce the necessary storage time. Recently developed, a tridentate ligand, N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA), has been identified as one of the most powerful extractants being considered for the partitioning of trivalent actinides and lanthanides. In the present paper, the extraction kinetics behavior of Am(III) in TODGA/n-dodecane-HNO{sub 3} system has been studied, dependent on various parameters such as the stirring speed, the interfacial area, the extractant concentration in n-dodecane, the extracted ions concentration, the acidity of aqueous phase and the temperature. The results show that: the extraction process is controlled by diffusion mode under 130 rpm of stirring speed and by chemical reaction mode above 150 rpm. The extraction rate equation is given in the paper and the apparent extraction rate constant of Am(III) by TODGA/n-dodecane in 170 rpm and at 25 Celsius degrees is k=(24.2±3.4)*10{sup -3} mol{sup -2.18}*L{sup 2.18}*min{sup -1}*cm. The initial extraction rate of Am(III) by TODGA/n-dodecane at 170 r/min and 25 Celsius degrees increases with increasing temperature, and the apparent active energy is calculated to be E{sub a}=(25.94±0.98) kJ/mol.

  19. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materials - Construction and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-01

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  20. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  1. Search for Dark Matter with the AMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares, Carmen

    2006-11-28

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The aim of AMS is the direct detection of charged particles in the rigidity range from 0.5 GV to few TV erform high statistics studies of cosmic rays in space and search for antimatter and dark matter. The most favored candidate to conform the cold dark matter is a non-relativistic interacting, massive particle (WIMP). AMS will be able to detect simultaneously the main signatures of the annihilation of such as particle: {gamma}, e+,p-bar in an energy range never reached before.

  2. Comparative Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear AMLI-Cycle Multigrid

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaozhe; Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Xu, Jinchao

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of our paper is to provide a comprehensive convergence analysis of the nonlinear algebraic multilevel iteration (AMLI)-cycle multigrid (MG) method for symmetric positive definite problems. We show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle MG method is uniformly convergent, based on classical assumptions for approximation and smoothing properties. Furthermore, under only the assumption that the smoother is convergent, we show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle method is always better (or not worse) than the respective V-cycle MG method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jeffrey H; Seto, Todd B; Mor, Joanne; Onopa, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that 5 days of prophylactic ginkgo decreases the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during gradual ascent. This trial was designed to determine if ginkgo is an effective prophylactic agent if begun 1 day prior to rapid ascent. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 participants residing at sea level received ginkgo (60 mg TID) or placebo starting 24 h before ascending Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Subjects were transported from sea level to the summit (4205 m) over 3 hours, including 1 hour at 2835 m. The Lake Louise Self-report Questionnaire constituted the primary outcome measure at baseline, 2835 m, and after 4 h at 4205 m. AMS was defined as a Lake Louise Self-report Score (LLSR) >/= 3 with headache. Subjects who developed severe AMS were promptly transported to lower altitude for the remainder of the study. The ginkgo (n = 12) and placebo (n = 14) groups were well matched (58% vs. 50% female; median age 28 yr, range 22-53 vs. 33 yr, range 21-53; 58% vs. 57% Caucasian). Two (17%) subjects on ginkgo and nine (64%) on placebo developed severe AMS and required descent for their safety (p = 0.021); all recovered without sequelae. Median LLSR at 4205 m was significantly lower for ginkgo versus placebo (4, range 1-8 vs. 5, range 2-9, p = 0.03). Ginkgo use did not reach statistical significance for lowering incidence of AMS compared with placebo (ginkgo 7/12, 58.3% vs. placebo 13/14, 92.9%, p = 0.07). Twenty-one of 26 (81%) subjects developed AMS overall. This is the first study to demonstrate that 1 day of pretreatment with ginkgo 60 mg TID may significantly reduce the severity of AMS prior to rapid ascent from sea level to 4205 m. PMID:12006162

  4. Magnetic properties of nano-clusters lanthanum chromite powders doped with samarium and strontium ions synthesized via a novel combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, M.M.; El-Sheikh, S.M.

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline Sm{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 2+} doped LaCrO{sub 3} powders have been synthesized through a novel gel combustion synthesis using triethanol amine (TEA). The saturation magnetization of the LaCrO{sub 3} increased with an increase Sm{sup 3+} ion and it decreased with an increase in the Sr{sup 3+} ion to 0.3 at temperature 1000 {sup o}C for 2 h due to the formation of a monodispersed uniform octahedral structure as shown in the Fig. Research highlights: {yields} Single-phase orthorhombic lanthanum chromite LaCrO{sub 3} nanoclusters have been successfully synthesized through a novel gel combustion synthesis using triethanol amine (TEA). {yields} Sr{sup 2+} ions doped LaCrO{sub 3} increased the unit cell volume and the crystallite size whereas Sm{sup 3+} ions doped LaCrO{sub 3} decreased the unit cell volume and the crystallite size. {yields} The saturation magnetization of the LaCrO{sub 3} powders increased continuously with an increase in the Sm concentration and it decreased with an increase in the Sr ion up to 0.3 at annealing temperature of 1000 {sup o}C for 2 h. -- Abstract: A novel approach to synthesize a single-phase orthorhombic perovskite lanthanum chromite LaCrO{sub 3} clusters doped with Sm{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 2+} ions via gel combustion route was reported. The producing materials were synthesized using metal nitrates as oxidizers and triethanol amine (TEA), N-butyl amine (NBA) or ethylene diamine (EDA) as a fuel. The effect of the annealing temperature, type of organic fuel and the variation of the samarium and/or strontium substitution and its impact on crystal structure, crystallite size, microstructure and magnetic properties of the LaCrO{sub 3} powders formed was systematically studied. The results revealed that a well crystalline single phase of pure LaCrO{sub 3} can be achieved at annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 {sup o}C for 2 h. Moreover, each organic carrier materials exhibited a different degree of effectiveness

  5. The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhou, Dongju; Yu, Shilin; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in conventional drinking water treatment plant (C-DWTP) and advanced DWTP (ADWTP) was studied with newly maximum formation potential (MFP) process. It was demonstrated that the advanced treatment displayed greater removal efficiency towards DCAcAm formation potential (MFP) than the conventional treatment. The hydrophilic natural organic matter and natural organic matter with molecular weight <1 kDa or >10 kDa leaded to more DCAcAm formation, and the aromatic protein was inferred as one part of DCAcAm precursor. DCAcAm was found to cause delayed development and malformation to zebrafish embryos at embryonic growth stage. Compared with heart toxicity, it caused a significant neuron toxicity. It also could cause the acute DNA damage to adult zebrafish, which should be extremely cautioned. PMID:27337431

  6. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: anomalous pricing and distribution of AmBisome and emergence of an indigenous liposomal amphotericin B, FUNGISOME.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Ali, Nahid

    2016-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the severest forms of parasite borne diseases worldwide with a mortality rate second only to malaria. Treatment of VL patients with currently available chemotherapeutic agents poses problems of large scale failure, toxicity, prolonged hospitalization time, high treatment cost and drug resistance. However, most of these problems can be overcome by the use of liposomal formulations of Amphotericin B (L-AmB). Of the two L-AmBs currently available in Indian market, AmBisome is imported and FUNGISOME is indigenous. Initially AmBisome remained exorbitantly costly and therefore inaccessible to most of the VL patients. However, with the launch of FUNGISOME in India, Gilead in agreement with WHO started a donation program of AmBisome in developing countries through a slashed price of US $18 per vial. The price reduction is, however, restricted to clinical trials thus eluding majority of the VL patients. In fact, India was not included in this program and AmBisome was sold in Indian market at prices higher than the WHO proposed price of US $18 per vial. FUNGISOME, on the other hand, produced consistently good results against VL both clinically and experimentally. In the context of unavailability and price anomaly of AmBisome, successful emergence of FUNGISOME could mark it as the major L-AmB against VL. PMID:27605844

  7. Am I at Risk? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Am I at Risk? Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... or the American Lung Association's COPD information section. COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Program The COPD Learn ...

  8. Radio emission from AM Herculis-type binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanmugam, G.; Dulk, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    A VLA search for 4.9 GHz radiation from the magnetic cataclysmic variable AM Her, along with the similar EF Eri binary, has led to the discovery of AM Her radio emission having a flux density of 0.67 + or - 0.052 mJy, where 1 mJy is equal to 10 to the -29th W/sq m per Hz. Neither AM Her circular polarization nor EF Eri were detected. The AM Her data are shown to be consistent with a model in which radiation is due to geosynchrotron emission from electrons of energies of a few hundred keV, which are trapped in the magnetosphere of the white dwarf element of the cataclysmic variable.

  9. 78 FR 69629 - Revitalization of the AM Radio Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... addition to the standard general contact information, FCC Form 338 solicits minimal technical data, as well...- friendly features such as real-time data and information displays. The AM band is also subject...

  10. 66. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COOLING BUILDING, LOOKING AM DAMPERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COOLING BUILDING, LOOKING AM DAMPERS, HIGH TEMPERATURE AND LOW TEMPERATURE COOLERS. APRIL 11, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. Retinoid agonist Am80-enhanced neutrophil bactericidal activity arising from granulopoiesis in vitro and in a neutropenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wanjing; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Li, Lin; Mittal, Rahul; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shudo, Koichi; He, Qiaojun; Prasadarao, Nemani V; Wu, Lingtao

    2013-02-01

    Despite advances in the therapeutic use of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to promote granulopoiesis of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neutropenia remains one of the most serious complications of cancer chemotherapy. We discovered that retinoid agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) is more potent than G-CSF in coordinating neutrophil differentiation and immunity development. Am80-induced neutrophils (AINs) either in vitro or in neutropenic mouse model displayed strong bactericidal activities, similar to those of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) or mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (MPBNs) but markedly greater than did G-CSF–induced neutrophils (GINs). In contrast to GINs but similar to PBNs, the enhanced bacterial killing by AINs accompanied both better granule maturation and greater coexpression of CD66 antigen with the integrin β2 subunit CD18. Consistently, anti-CD18 antibody neutralized Am80-induced bactericidal activities of AINs. These studies demonstrate that Am80 is more effective than G-CSF in promoting neutrophil differentiation and bactericidal activities, probably through coordinating the functional interaction of CD66 with CD18 to enhance the development of neutrophil immunity during granulopoiesis. Our findings herein suggest a molecular rationale for developing new therapy against neutropenia using Am80 as a cost-effective treatment option. PMID:23243275

  12. Retinoid agonist Am80-enhanced neutrophil bactericidal activity arising from granulopoiesis in vitro and in a neutropenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wanjing; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Li, Lin; Mittal, Rahul; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shudo, Koichi; He, Qiaojun; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in the therapeutic use of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to promote granulopoiesis of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neutropenia remains one of the most serious complications of cancer chemotherapy. We discovered that retinoid agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) is more potent than G-CSF in coordinating neutrophil differentiation and immunity development. Am80-induced neutrophils (AINs) either in vitro or in neutropenic mouse model displayed strong bactericidal activities, similar to those of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) or mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (MPBNs) but markedly greater than did G-CSF–induced neutrophils (GINs). In contrast to GINs but similar to PBNs, the enhanced bacterial killing by AINs accompanied both better granule maturation and greater coexpression of CD66 antigen with the integrin β2 subunit CD18. Consistently, anti-CD18 antibody neutralized Am80-induced bactericidal activities of AINs. These studies demonstrate that Am80 is more effective than G-CSF in promoting neutrophil differentiation and bactericidal activities, probably through coordinating the functional interaction of CD66 with CD18 to enhance the development of neutrophil immunity during granulopoiesis. Our findings herein suggest a molecular rationale for developing new therapy against neutropenia using Am80 as a cost-effective treatment option. PMID:23243275

  13. Synthesis of Am80 (tamibarotene) prodrug candidates, congeners and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Muratake, Hideaki; Amano, Yohei; Toda, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi; Shudo, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Compound 1 (IT-M-07000) was previously reported as a candidate prodrug of Am80 (Tamibarotene; used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia), and shown to be efficiently metabolized to Am80 via β-oxidation. Here, we describe in detail the synthesis of 1, together with another tetradeuterated candidate prodrug, IT-YA-00616 (2), as well as two congeners, and several metabolic intermediates of 1 previously detected in mouse plasma. PMID:23902867

  14. Column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, M

    1942-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the column strength of extruded magnesium alloy AM-57S. Column specimens were tested with round ends and with flat ends. It was found that the compressive properties should be used in computations for column strengths rather than the tensile properties because the compressive yield strength was approximately one-half the tensile yield strength. A formula for the column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S is given.

  15. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  16. Chernobyl accident and the problem of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Drozd, I.P.; Tokarevskii, V.V.

    1995-07-01

    The accumulation and decay of {sup 241}Am formed in the reactor of the fourth block of the Chernobyl atomic energy station at the time of the accident of April 26, 1986 are analyzed. Possible pathways for {sup 241}Am uptake in man are examined. The maximum equivalent dose after 70 years is estimated for a critical population living at the edge of the exclusion zone.

  17. Strain analysis in quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility using AMS and EBSD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendraprasad Renjith, A.; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2016-04-01

    deformed quartzites that have a negative magnetic susceptibility. Since the application of AMS as a strain-intensity gauge in quartzites with mean susceptibility below 50 x 10-6 SI units has been questioned in the past (Hrouda, 1986), the present findings open up a further avenue of research that can be addressed using AMS. References: Gerik, A., Kruhl, J.H., 2009. Towards automated pattern quantification: time-efficient assessment of anisotropy of 2D patterns with AMOCADO. Computers and Geoscience 35, 1087-1097. Hrouda, F., 1986. The effect of quartz on the magnetic anisotropy of quartzite. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica 30, 39-45. Piazolo, S., Passchier, C.W., 2002. Controls on lineation development in low to medium grade shear zones: a study from the Cap de Creus peninsula, NE Spain. Journal of Structural Geology 24, 25-44. Renjith, A.R., Mamtani, M.A., Urai, J.L., 2016. Fabric analysis of quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility -- does AMS provide information of SPO or CPO of quartz? Journal of Structural Geology 82, 48-59. Tarling, D.H., Hrouda, F., 1993. The Magnetic Anisotropy of Rocks. Chapman and Hall, London, p. 217.

  18. A novel upgrade to Helsinki AMS: Fast switching of isotopes with electrostatic deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.; Tikkanen, P.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed and installed electrostatic deflectors at the injection magnet entrance and exit to enable fast switching between isotopes in AMS measurements. The fast selection of the injected isotope, stable isotope current measurements, and rare isotope detection are all performed with three synchronized real-time NI-PXI computers. With the improvements, we are able to attain a precision of better than 0.2% for the 14C/13C ratio of modern samples.

  19. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix G: GSFC HDT-AM inventory tape (GHIT-AM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.

  20. High- and low-Am RE inclusion phases in a U-Np-Pu-Am-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janney, Dawn E.; Madden, James W.; O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-03-01

    Structural, microstructural, and microchemical data were collected from rare-earth inclusions in an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with ∼3 at.% Am, 2% Np, and 9% rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd). Two RE phases with different concentrations of Am were identified. The composition of high-Am RE inclusions is ∼2-5 at.% La, 15-20% Ce, 5-10% Pr, 25-45% Nd, 1% Np, 5-10% Pu, and 10-20% Am. Some areas also have O, although this does not appear to be an essential part of the high-Am RE phase. The inclusions have a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice parameter a ∼ 0.54 nm. The composition of the only low-Am RE inclusion studied in detail is ∼35-40 at.% O, 40-45% Nd, 1-2% Zr, 4-5% La, 9-10% Ce, and 6-7% Pr. This inclusion is an oxide with a crystal structure similar to the room-temperature structure of Nd2O3. Microstructural features suggest that oxidation occurred during casting, and that early crystallization of high-temperature oxides led to formation of two distinct RE phases.

  1. High- and low-Am RE inclusion phases in a U-Np-Pu-Am-Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn E.; Madden, James W.; O'Holleran, Thomas P.; Kennedy, J. Rory

    2015-03-01

    Structural, microstructural, and microchemical data were collected from rare-earth inclusions in an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with ~3 at% Am, 2% Np, and 9% rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd). Two RE phases with different concentrations of Am were identified. The composition of high-Am RE inclusions is ~2-5 at% La, 15-20 % Ce, 5-10% Pr, 25-45% Nd, 1% Np, 5-10% Pu, and 10-20% Am. Some areas also have O, although this does not appear to be an essential part of the high-Am RE phase. The inclusions have a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice parameter a ~ 0.54 nm. The composition of the only low-Am RE inclusion studied in detail is ~~35-40 at% O, 40-45 % Nd, 1-2% Zr, 4-5% La, 9-10% Ce, and 6-7% Pr. This inclusion is an oxide with a crystal structure similar to the room-temperature structure of Nd2O3. Microstructural features suggest that oxidation occurred during casting, and that early crystallization of high-temperature oxides led to formation of two distinct RE phases.

  2. A flowsheet concept for an Am/Ln separation based on Am{sup VI} solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Law, J.D.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term radiotoxicity of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. However, a separation amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Higher oxidation states of americium have recently been used to demonstrate solvent extraction-based separations using conventional fuel cycle ligands. Here, the successful partitioning of Am{sup VI} from the bulk of lanthanides and curium using diamyl-amyl-phosphonate (DAAP) extraction is reported. Due to the instability of Am{sup VI} in the organic phase it was readily selectively stripped to a new acidic aqueous phase to provide separation from co-extracted Ce{sup IV}. The use of NaBiO{sub 3} as an oxidant to separate Am from the lanthanides and Cm by solvent extraction has been successfully demonstrated on the bench scale. Based on these results, flowsheet concepts can be designed that result in 96 % Am recovery in the presence of a few percent of the remaining Cm and the lanthanides in two extraction contacts. Preliminary results also indicate that the DAAP extractant is robust toward γ- irradiation under realistic conditions of acidity and dissolved oxygen concentration.

  3. Search for New Physics with AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chanhoon

    Today the universe consists of 4.6% of ordinary matter, 23.3% of dark matter and 72.1% of dark energy. The dark matter is generally assumed be stable, non-relativistic and only weakly interacting. But we do not know what the dark matter is made of and how it is distributed within our Galaxy. In general, the cosmic antiparticles are expected as secondary products of interactions of the primary cosmic-rays (CRs) with the interstellar medium during propagation. While the measurements of CR positrons have become more precise, the results still do not match with the pure secondary origins. AMS-02 is a large acceptance precision particle spectrometer approved for installation on the International Space Station (ISS). A key feature of AMS-02 is precise particle identification for measurements of primary cosmic ray anti-particle spectra with negligible background up to a momentum of 500 GeV/c to allow indirect searches for dark matter. To efficiently separate positrons/electrons from protons/anti-protons, AMS-02 will be equipped with a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) with 5248 straw tube proportional counters filled with a Xe/CO2 (80/20) mixture. The AMS-02 TRD was fully assembled and integrated into AMS-02 in 2007. In 2008 AMS-02 had recorded cosmic ray particles on ground to demonstrate full functionality of the device. For the AMS-02 TRD it will be shown that the detector response is as expected and the gas tightness will allow operation in space for 20 years with a gas supply of 25 kg.

  4. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.; Balaji, V.; Broccoli, A.J.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Dixon, K.W.; Donner, L.J.; Dunne, K.A.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Garner, S.T.; Gudgel, R.G.; Gordon, C.T.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhost, A.R.; Lau, N.-C.; Liang, Z.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Nath, M.J.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Soden, B.J.; Stern, W.F.; Thompson, L.A.; Wilson, R.J.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2-LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2-LM2 integration was perfor med according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2-LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2-LM 2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2-LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  5. Local structure and charge distribution in mixed uranium-americium oxides: effects of oxygen potential and Am content.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Damien; Martin, Philippe M; Jankowiak, Aurélien; Gavilan, Elisabeth; Scheinost, Andreas C; Herlet, Nathalie; Dehaudt, Philippe; Blanchart, Philippe

    2011-12-19

    Partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides (MA) is currently studied to reduce the nuclear waste inventory. In this context, the fabrication of MA bearing materials is of great interest to achieve an effective recycling of these highly radioactive elements. To ensure the in-pile behavior, nuclear oxide fuels have to respect several criteria including preservation of the fluorite structure and defined oxygen to metal ratio (O/M). In the case of Am bearing materials, such as U(1-y)Am(y)O(2±x) (y = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20), the O/M determination is quite challenging using conventional methods (TGA, XRD) because of the particular thermodynamic properties of Am. Despite the lack of experimental data in the U-Am-O system, thermodynamical models are currently developed to effectively assess the O/M ratio. In this work, the O/M ratios were calculated for various oxygen potentials using the cation molar fraction determined by XAS measurements. These results are an important addition to the experimental data available for the U-Am-O system. Moreover, XRD and XAS indicated that the fabrication of fluorite U(1-y)Am(y)O(2±x) solid solution was achieved for all Am content and oxygen potentials investigated. On the basis of the molar fraction, a description of the solid solution was proposed depending on the considered sintering conditions. Finally, the occurrence of an unexpected charge compensation mechanism was pointed out. PMID:22087707

  6. AMS-dependent and independent regulation of anther transcriptome and comparison with those affected by other Arabidopsis anther genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In flowering plants, the development of male reproductive organs is controlled precisely to achieve successful fertilization and reproduction. Despite the increasing knowledge of genes that contribute to anther development, the regulatory mechanisms controlling this process are still unclear. Results In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of early anthers of sterile mutants aborted microspores (ams) and found that 1,368 genes were differentially expressed in ams compared to wild type anthers, affecting metabolism, transportation, ubiquitination and stress response. Moreover, the lack of significant enrichment of potential AMS binding sites (E-box) in the promoters of differentially expressed genes suggests both direct and indirect regulation for AMS-dependent regulation of anther transcriptome involving other transcription factors. Combining ams transcriptome profiles with those of two other sterile mutants, spl/nzz and ems1/exs, expression of 3,058 genes were altered in at least one mutant. Our investigation of expression patterns of major transcription factor families, such as bHLH, MYB and MADS, suggested that some closely related homologs of known anther developmental genes might also have similar functions. Additionally, comparison of expression levels of genes in different organs suggested that anther-preferential genes could play important roles in anther development. Conclusion Analysis of ams anther transcriptome and its comparison with those of spl/nzz and ems1/exs anthers uncovered overlapping and distinct sets of regulated genes, including those encoding transcription factors and other proteins. These results support an expanded regulatory network for early anther development, providing a series of hypotheses for future experimentation. PMID:22336428

  7. The Effect of Porosity on Fatigue of Die Cast AM60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhuofei; Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.

    2016-07-01

    AM60 high-pressure die castings are known to contain significant porosity which can affect fatigue life. We have studied this using samples drawn from prototype AM60 shock towers by conducting strain-controlled fatigue tests accompanied by X-ray computed tomography analysis. The results show that the machined surface is the preferential location for fatigue crack development, with pores close to these surfaces serving as initiation sites. Fatigue life shows a strong inverse correlation with the size of the fatigue-crack-initiating pore. Pore shape and pore orientation also influence the response. A supplemental study on surface roughness shows that porosity is the dominant factor in fatigue. Tomography enables the link between porosity and fatigue crack initiation to be clearly identified. These data are complemented by SEM observations of the fracture surfaces which are generally flat and full of randomly oriented serration patterns but without long-range fatigue striations.

  8. The Effect of Porosity on Fatigue of Die Cast AM60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhuofei; Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.

    2016-04-01

    AM60 high-pressure die castings are known to contain significant porosity which can affect fatigue life. We have studied this using samples drawn from prototype AM60 shock towers by conducting strain-controlled fatigue tests accompanied by X-ray computed tomography analysis. The results show that the machined surface is the preferential location for fatigue crack development, with pores close to these surfaces serving as initiation sites. Fatigue life shows a strong inverse correlation with the size of the fatigue-crack-initiating pore. Pore shape and pore orientation also influence the response. A supplemental study on surface roughness shows that porosity is the dominant factor in fatigue. Tomography enables the link between porosity and fatigue crack initiation to be clearly identified. These data are complemented by SEM observations of the fracture surfaces which are generally flat and full of randomly oriented serration patterns but without long-range fatigue striations.

  9. A ground water flow model for the A/M Area of the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudoin, C.M.; Schreuder, P.J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-06-01

    In 1984 and 1985, a quasi three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed for the A/M Area (Savannah River Laboratory Complex) of the Savannah River Site to assist in the design of a groundwater recovery well network to remediate groundwater contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents. In 1986, the existing groundwater flow model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems. Since the original model was developed, additional monitoring wells have been installed, the understanding of the hydrogeologic system has improved and the horizontal and vertical extent of the contamination in the groundwater systems has been better defined. The objective of this study is to update and improve the existing A/M Area groundwater flow model by incorporating recent hydrologic information. The new model is calibrated to 1989--1990 groundwater levels and surface water flows. The model area is approximately 31 square miles and encompasses a manufacturing and processing area designated the A/M Area, a previous waste effluent disposal basin and overflow to a natural depression (Lost Lake), and several surface water features. The simulations are run on 80386-based personal computer using the public-domain groundwater flow code MODFLOW. This calibrated coarse-grid model is a base model. Specific areas of interest can be further discritized to provide more detailed and accurate water level elevations for use in particle tracking and capture analysis. The particle tracking and capture analysis are used to evaluate the groundwater contamination capture and removal capacity of proposed recovery wells.

  10. Solidification of Magnesium (AM50A) / vol%. SiCp composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Hu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composite is one of the advanced lightweight materials with high potential to be used in automotive and aircraft industries due to its low density and high specific mechanical properties. The magnesium composites can be fabricated by adding the reinforcements of fibers or/and particles. In the previous literature, extensive studies have been performed on the development of matrix grain structure of aluminum-based metal matrix composites. However, there is limited information available on the development of grain structure during the solidification of particulate-reinforced magnesium. In this work, a 5 vol.% SiCp particulate-reinforced magnesium (AM50A) matrix composite (AM50A/SiCp) was prepared by stir casting. The solidification behavior of the cast AM50A/SiCp composite was investigated by computer-based thermal analysis. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to examine the occurrence of nucleation and grain refinement involved. The results indicate that the addition of SiCp particulates leads to a finer grain structure in the composite compared with the matrix alloy. The refinement of grain structure should be attributed to both the heterogeneous nucleation and the restricted primary crystal growth.

  11. 241Am INGROWTH AND ITS EFFECT ON INTERNAL DOSE.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Generally, plutonium has been manufactured to support commercial and military applications involving heat sources, weapons, and reactor fuel. This work focuses on three typical plutonium mixtures while observing the potential of Am ingrowth and its effect on internal dose. The term "ingrowth" is used to describe Am production due solely to the decay of Pu as part of a plutonium mixture, where it is initially absent or present in a smaller quantity. Dose calculation models do not account for Am ingrowth unless the Pu quantity is specified. This work suggested that Am ingrowth be considered in bioassay analysis when there is a potential of a 10% increase to the individual's committed effective dose. It was determined that plutonium fuel mixtures, initially absent of Am, would likely exceed 10% for typical reactor grade fuel aged less than 30 y; however, heat source grade and aged weapons grade fuel would normally fall below this threshold. Although this work addresses typical plutonium mixtures following separation, it may be extended to irradiated commercial uranium fuel and is expected to be a concern in the recycling of spent fuel. PMID:27218291

  12. Space Flight Qualification Program for the AMS-2 Commercial Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, K. A.; Banks, I. S.; Breon, S. R.; Boyle, R. F.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector containing a large superfluid helium-cooled superconducting magnet. Highly sensitive detector plates inside the magnet measure a particle's speed, momentum, charge, and path. The AMS-02 experiment will study the properties and origin of cosmic particles and nuclei including antimatter and dark matter. AMS-02 will be installed on the International Space Station on Utilization Flight-4. The experiment will be run for at least three years. To extend the life of the stored cryogen and minimize temperature gradients around the magnet, four Stirling-cycle Sunpower M87N cryocoolers will be integrated with AMS-02. The cryocooler cold tip will be connected via a flexible strap to the outer vapor cooled shield of the dewar. Initial thermal analysis shows the lifetime of the experiment is increased by a factor of 2.8 with the use of the cryocooler. The AMS-02 project selected the Sunpower M87 cryocoolers and has asked NASA Goddard to qualify the cryocoolers for space flight use. This paper describes the interfaces with the cryocoolers and presents data collected during testing of the two engineering model cryocoolers. Tests include thermal performance characterization and launch vibration testing. Magnetic field compatibility testing will be presented in a separate paper at the conference.

  13. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... of AM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for AM broadcast facilities are divided into... facilities of authorized stations. A major change for an AM station authorized under this part is any...

  14. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... of AM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for AM broadcast facilities are divided into... facilities of authorized stations. A major change for an AM station authorized under this part is any...

  15. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... of AM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for AM broadcast facilities are divided into... facilities of authorized stations. A major change for an AM station authorized under this part is any...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... of AM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for AM broadcast facilities are divided into... facilities of authorized stations. A major change for an AM station authorized under this part is any...

  17. 47 CFR 73.3571 - Processing of AM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of AM broadcast station applications... of AM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for AM broadcast facilities are divided into... facilities of authorized stations. A major change for an AM station authorized under this part is any...

  18. 47 CFR 73.61 - AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM directional antenna field strength... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements. (a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point...

  19. 47 CFR 73.61 - AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM directional antenna field strength... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements. (a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point...

  20. 47 CFR 73.61 - AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM directional antenna field strength... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements. (a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point...

  1. 47 CFR 73.61 - AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM directional antenna field strength... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements. (a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point...

  2. 47 CFR 73.61 - AM directional antenna field strength measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM directional antenna field strength... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.61 AM directional antenna field strength measurements. (a) Each AM station using a directional antenna with monitoring point...

  3. Preliminary Analysis: Am-241 RHU/TEG Electric Power Source for Nanosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Cunningham, Karen; Kim, Tony; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Williams, Hugo R.

    2014-01-01

    The Februay 2013 Space Works Commercial report indicates a strong increase in nano/microsatellite (1-50 kg) launch demand globally in future years. Nanosatellites (NanoSats) are small spacecraft in the 1-10 kg range, which present a simple, low-cost option for developing quickly-deployable satellites. CubeSats, a special category of NanoSats, are even being considered for interplanetary missions. However, the small dimensions of CubeSats and the limited mass of the NanoSat class in general place limits of capability on their electrical power systems (especially where typical power sources such as solar panels are considered) and stored energy reserves; restricting the power budget and overall functionality. For example, leveraging NanoSat clusters for computationally intensive problems that are solved collectively becomes more challenging with power related restrictions on communication and data-processing. Further, interplanetary missions that would take NanoSats far from the sun, make the use of solar panels less effective as a power source as their required area would become quite large. To overcome these limitations, americium 241 (Am-241) has been suggested as a low power source option. The Idaho National Laboratory, Center for Space Nuclear Research reports that: ? (Production) requires small quantities of isotope - 62.5 g of Pu-238; 250 g Am- 241 (for 5 We); Am-241 is available at around 1 kg/yr commercially; Am-241 produces 59 kev gammas which are stopped readily by tungsten so the radiation field is very low. Whereby, an Am-241 source could be placed in among the instruments and the waste heat used to heat the platform; and ? amounts of isotope are so low that launch approval may be easier, especially with tungsten encapsulation. As further reported, Am-241 has a half-life that is approximately five times greater than that of Pu- 238 and it has been determined that the neutron yield of a 241-AmO(sub 2) source is approximately an order of magnitude lower

  4. Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.

    PubMed Central

    Janarthine, S. Rylo Sona; Eganathan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.6–0.9 μm wide by 1.7–2.0 μm long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26°C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic bacterium produced 2.37 μMol/mL of indole acetic acid and siderophore as it metabolites. This strain could solubilize phosphate molecules and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was inoculated into four different plants under in vitro method to analyse its growth-promoting activity and role inside the host plants. The growth of endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants were highly significant than the uninoculated control explants. Root hairs and early root development were observed in the endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants. PMID:22811715

  5. Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.

    PubMed

    Janarthine, S Rylo Sona; Eganathan, P

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.6-0.9 μm wide by 1.7-2.0 μm long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26°C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic bacterium produced 2.37 μMol/mL of indole acetic acid and siderophore as it metabolites. This strain could solubilize phosphate molecules and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was inoculated into four different plants under in vitro method to analyse its growth-promoting activity and role inside the host plants. The growth of endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants were highly significant than the uninoculated control explants. Root hairs and early root development were observed in the endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants. PMID:22811715

  6. Escape Mutations in NS4B Render Dengue Virus Insensitive to the Antiviral Activity of the Paracetamol Metabolite AM404.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Marjakangas, Jenni M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the enormous disease burden associated with dengue virus infections, a licensed antiviral drug is lacking. Here, we show that the paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolite AM404 inhibits dengue virus replication. Moreover, we find that mutations in NS4B that were previously found to confer resistance to the antiviral compounds NITD-618 and SDM25N also render dengue virus insensitive to AM404. Our work provides further support for NS4B as a direct or indirect target for antiviral drug development. PMID:26856827

  7. Method comparison for 241Am emergency urine bioassay.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Sadi, Baki; Benkhedda, Karima; St-Amant, Nadereh; Moodie, Gerry; Ko, Raymond; Dinardo, Anthony; Kramer, Gary

    2010-10-01

    241Am is one of the high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. 241Am in urine bioassay can identify the contaminated individuals who need immediate medical intervention and decontamination. This paper compares three methods for the measurement of 241Am in urine, namely liquid scintillation counting (LSC), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry (GS), at two levels, 20 and 2 Bq l(-1). All three methods satisfied the ANSI N13.30 radio-bioassay criteria for accuracy and repeatability. ICP-MS offered the best sensitivity and fastest sample turnaround; however, the ICP-MS system used in this work may not be available in many bioassay laboratories. LSC and GS are more commonly available instruments. GS requires minimal or no sample preparation, which makes it a good candidate method. Moreover, the sample throughput can be significantly improved if the GS and LSC methods are automated. PMID:20573683

  8. Quantifying exploratory low dose compounds in humans with AMS

    PubMed Central

    Dueker, Stephen R.; Vuong, Le T.; Lohstroh, Peter N.; Giacomo, Jason A.; Vogel, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an established technology whose essentiality extends beyond simply a better detector for radiolabeled molecules. Attomole sensitivity reduces radioisotope exposures in clinical subjects to the point that no population need be excluded from clinical study. Insights in human physiochemistry are enabled by the quantitative recovery of simplified AMS processes that provide biological concentrations of all labeled metabolites and total compound related material at non-saturating levels. In this paper, we review some of the exploratory applications of AMS 14C in toxicological, nutritional, and pharmacological research. This body of research addresses the human physiochemistry of important compounds in their own right, but also serves as examples of the analytical methods and clinical practices that are available for studying low dose physiochemistry of candidate therapeutic compounds, helping to broaden the knowledge base of AMS application in pharmaceutical research. PMID:21047543

  9. Preliminary AMS measurements of 10Be at the CENTA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ješkovský, Miroslav; Steier, Peter; Priller, Alfred; Breier, Robert; Povinec, Pavel P.; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Very sensitive methods, presently mainly accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are necessary for analysis of cosmogenic 10Be in the environment. AMS is mainly limited by the stable isobar 10B, while the requirements for mass separation are the least stringent of all standard isotopes analyzed by AMS. We tested a possibility to measure 10Be using a small switching magnet as an analyzer of accelerated ions, and an ionization chamber with a silicon nitride foil stack used as a passive absorber. A detection limit of 10-12 for the 10Be/9Be isotopic ratio was obtained using this technique, which was mainly determined by scattering of 9Be+2 ions on residual gas inside the switching magnet.

  10. Joint infrared and visual monitoring of AM Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, M.; Krzeminski, W.

    1978-01-01

    Four cycles of the flux from the 3.1 hour X-ray variable AM Her have been observed simultaneously at four wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared. The data show periodic variations at all wavelengths but show systematic changes with wavelength in the relative depths and widths of the primary and secondary minima. The spectral energy distribution varies with phase, being reddest at primary minimum and bluest at the maximum. At primary minimum it is consistent with the energy distribution of an M2 V star plus a component which is flat with frequency; if an M2 V star is present, a lower limit of 100 pc can be placed on the distance to AM Her. The implications of the data on several models for AM Her are discussed.

  11. Pinpointing cosmic ray propagation with the AMS-02 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pato, Miguel; Hooper, Dan; Simet, Melanie E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov

    2010-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is scheduled to be deployed onboard the International Space Station later this year, will be capable of measuring the composition and spectra of GeV-TeV cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. In this paper, we study how the projected measurements from AMS-02 of stable secondary-to-primary and unstable ratios (such as boron-to-carbon and beryllium-10-to-beryllium-9) can constrain the models used to describe the propagation of cosmic rays throughout the Milky Way. We find that within the context of fairly simple propagation models, all of the model parameters can be determined with high precision from the projected AMS-02 data. Such measurements are less constraining in more complex scenarios, however, which allow for departures from a power-law form for the diffusion coefficient, for example, or for inhomogeneity or stochasticity in the distribution and chemical abundances of cosmic ray sources.

  12. The Politics of Who I Am Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Bianca W.

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography describes one administrator's experience with being openly queer in an urban school. This study aims to describe, through story, the process of coming out and the how the lived experiences of one administrator impact her leadership identity. This works aims to be an example of the process of leadership development through…

  13. What I Write Is Who I Am.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Miriam T.

    If individuals react to realities in the environment in accord with societal norms, instructional strategies in writing must be devised with the learner in mind. Teachers of writing must be interested in the social realities surrounding their students as well as the level of intuitive development attained by them. Opportunities should be provided…

  14. Expression of AmGR10 of the Gustatory Receptor Family in Honey Bee Is Correlated with Nursing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Paerhati, Yisilahaiti; Ishiguro, Shinichi; Ueda-Matsuo, Risa; Yang, Ping; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Ito, Kikukatsu; Maekawa, Hideaki; Tani, Hiroko; Suzuki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between the expression of a gene encoding gustatory receptor (G10) and division of labor in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Among 10 GR genes encoding proteins 15% ~ 99% amino acid identity in the honey bee, we found that AmGR10 with 99% identity is involved in nursing or brood care. Expression of AmGR10 was restricted to organs of the hypopharyngeal gland, brain, and ovary in the nurse bee phase. Members of an extended nursing caste under natural conditions continued to express this gene. RNAi knockdown of AmGR10 accelerated the transition to foraging. Our findings demonstrate that this one gene has profound effects on the division of labor associated with the development and physiology of honeybee society. PMID:26588091

  15. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi. PMID:16447071

  16. 22 CFR 208.715 - What notice does the suspending official give me if I am suspended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What notice does the suspending official give me if I am suspended? 208.715 Section 208.715 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.715 What notice does the...

  17. Battling Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through Ergonomics: A Case Study of Texas A&M's Library Provides Insights and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1995-01-01

    Current library automation practices and new technologies have forced library managers to seek some means of reducing carpal tunnel syndrome, and a case study of Texas A&M's library provides insights. Highlights include identifying and assessing the injuries, adjusting work surfaces, testing and selecting new keyboards, and developing adjustable…

  18. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  19. New Light Curves and Orbital Solution for AM Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Mary E.; Osborn, Wayne; Terrell, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    New UBVRI photometry has been obtained for the W UMa eclipsing system AM Leonis. The data have been used to derive nine times of minimum and to construct light curves. The minimum timings show that the system recently had a significant period increase. Modeling of the light curves shows AM Leo to be an overcontact system with a mass ratio of 2.51. Both Rucinski & Duerbeck's absolute magnitude calibration for W UMa stars applied to our photometry and the radial velocity curve combined with our derived parameters indicate a distance near 125 pc, larger than the 77 pc from the Hipparcos parallax.

  20. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Lachner, J.; Schulze-König, T.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40-50% are now possible.

  1. AM/FM/GIS Interface to an EMS/DMS SCADA system

    SciTech Connect

    Troung, L.T.; Chu, K.; Sheldon, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents our experiences working with customers to interface their AM/FM/GIS systems with Siemens`s SPECTRUM SCADA system. The AM/FM/GIS Interface tool that was developed eliminates duplicate manual entry effort to serve both the GIS and SCADA users. The advantage of having a single data entry source is apparent when synchronization of data between the GIS and SCADA must be maintained. Several customer experiences are cited by describing differences in their GIS data models. One customer uses the Intergraph Microstation package with attribute information embedded in Dbase IV. Another customer uses the AutoCAD package for storage of both graphics and attributes. A third customer uses a hybrid solution which consists of the ARC/INFO package for graphics, and managing the attributes directly within the Spectrum SCADA system. Based on the differences in the GIS data models, the paper highlights our experiences in using the AM/FM/GIS Interface tool to manage the bulk loading and incremental update of customer data into the SCADA system.

  2. Double-moment cloud microphysics scheme for the deep convection parameterization in the GFDL AM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belochitski, A.; Donner, L.

    2014-12-01

    A double-moment cloud microphysical scheme originally developed by Morrision and Gettelman (2008) for the stratiform clouds and later adopted for the deep convection by Song and Zhang (2011) has been implemented in to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmospheric general circulation model AM3. The scheme treats cloud drop, cloud ice, rain, and snow number concentrations and mixing ratios as diagnostic variables and incorporates processes of autoconversion, self-collection, collection between hydrometeor species, sedimentation, ice nucleation, drop activation, homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, and the Bergeron-Findeisen process. Such detailed representation of microphysical processes makes the scheme suitable for studying the interactions between aerosols and convection, as well as aerosols' indirect effects on clouds and their roles in climate change. The scheme is first tested in the single column version of the GFDL AM3 using forcing data obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurment project's Southern Great Planes site. Scheme's impact on SCM simulations is discussed. As the next step, runs of the full atmospheric GCM incorporating the new parameterization are compared to the unmodified version of GFDL AM3. Global climatological fields and their variability are contrasted with those of the original version of the GCM. Impact on cloud radiative forcing and climate sensitivity is investigated.

  3. Ultra-separation of nickel from copper metal for the measurement of 63Ni by AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, A. A.; Hainsworth, L. J.; McAninch, J. E.; Leivers, M. R.; Jones, P. R.; Proctor, I. D.; Straume, T.

    1997-03-01

    Measurements of 63Ni (t{1}/{2} = 100 yr) produced by the reaction 63Cu(n,p)63Ni could be used in the assessment of fast-neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Such measurements would add new information to help resolve the current discrepancy between measured thermal neutron activation values and those calculated with the DS86 dosimetry system. It has been estimated that the 63Ni production at 5 m from the hypocenter was (1.4 ± 0.1) × 107 atoms/g Cu. Because of its sensitivity, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is ideal for measurements at this low level. However, 63Ni has to be separated from large amounts of stable atomic isobar 63Cu (69% of pure Cu). In this study, a procedure is presented for the electrochemical separation of ultra-low amounts of Ni from Cu. The method was developed using samples of electrical Cu wire that were irradiated with fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. The wire samples were electrochemically dissolved in a solution containing 1 mg of Ni carrier. The Cu was selectively deposited on a cathode at controlled potential. Measurements of total Ni after electroseparation indicate ˜ 100% carrier recovery. To prevent Cu contamination, AMS targets were prepared by nickel carbonyl generation. The AMS results show a successful quantitative separation of ˜ 107 atoms of 63Ni from 2-20 g samples of Cu.

  4. Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mina; Im, Hyoungjune; Lee, Mihye; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Byung-Chan; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2007-08-01

    Leukemia and brain cancer patients under age 15 years, along with controls with respiratory illnesses who were matched to cases on age, sex, and year of diagnosis (1993-1999), were selected from 14 South Korean hospitals using the South Korean Medical Insurance Data System. Diagnoses were confirmed through the South Korean National Cancer Registry. Residential addresses were obtained from medical records. A newly developed prediction program incorporating a geographic information system that was modified by the results of actual measurements was used to estimate radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure from 31 amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmitters with a power of 20 kW or more. A total of 1,928 leukemia patients, 956 brain cancer patients, and 3,082 controls were analyzed. Cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for residential area, socioeconomic status, and community population density. The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR. PMID:17556764

  5. Isolating /sup 241/Am from waste solutions containing Al, Ca, Fe, and Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; King, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    About 2.4 kg of /sup 241/Am contaminated with calcium and aluminum had been recovered from low-activity waste during recycle of 11% /sup 240/Pu. A process was developed and demonstrated to purify the americium before shipment as /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/. The americium and some of the calcium were batch extracted into 50% TBP-n-paraffin from 2.2M Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ - 0.3M HNO/sub 3/ solution in a canyon tank. Pregnant solvent was scrubbed first with 2.1M Al/sup 3 +/-0.3M Li/sup +/-6.7M NO/sub 3/- and then with 7M LiNO/sub 3/ to reduce the calcium content and to displace the aluminum. Americium was then stripped from the solvent with water and concentrated by evaporation. Before precipitating the americium with oxalic acid, the nitric acid was adjusted with NH/sub 4/OH to yield a 1M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ solution. Recovery across the batch extraction step was 97.8%, while 93% of the calcium and >99% of the aluminum was rejected. Recovery across precipitation averaged >96% while producing a product which was >99.3% pure /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/. The major impurities were water, carbon, calcium, iron, and zinc.

  6. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  7. Performance testing of the 5 kW EOS AM-1 flexible solar array blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Schurig, H.H.; Kruer, M.A.; Levesque, M.N.; Gaddy, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    A GaAs/Ge flexible solar array blanket has been developed for use on the NASA/GSFC remote sensing EOS AM-1 spacecraft. This single wing array has been designed to provide a 5 kW of power after five years in a low earth polar orbit. The blanket configuration includes design features such as thin GaAs/Ge cell stacks mounted on a large flexible, hinged substrate, parallel connected solar cell strings providing high voltage output, a printed circuit harness, and a multi-layer jumper bus providing electrical continuity between the cell strings and the printed circuit harness. This work was contracted to TRW Space and Electronics Group in 1993 by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS). This paper presents the essential design of the EOS AM-1 solar array blanket, and summarizes the results of a qualification test program designed to demonstrate adequate design margins and to assess the performance of the mechanical and electrical components after exposure to a simulated mission space environment. It also reviews the complexities of performing electrical output on a 8.9 m x 5.0 m deployed solar array blanket under AM0 conditions.

  8. Real-time detection of natural objects using AM-coded spectral matching imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimachi, Akira

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes application of the amplitude-modulation (AM)-coded spectral matching imager (SMI) to real-time detection of natural objects such as human beings, animals, vegetables, or geological objects or phenomena, which are much more liable to change with time than artificial products while often exhibiting characteristic spectral functions associated with some specific activity states. The AM-SMI produces correlation between spectral functions of the object and a reference at each pixel of the correlation image sensor (CIS) in every frame, based on orthogonal amplitude modulation (AM) of each spectral channel and simultaneous demodulation of all channels on the CIS. This principle makes the SMI suitable to monitoring dynamic behavior of natural objects in real-time by looking at a particular spectral reflectance or transmittance function. A twelve-channel multispectral light source was developed with improved spatial uniformity of spectral irradiance compared to a previous one. Experimental results of spectral matching imaging of human skin and vegetable leaves are demonstrated, as well as a preliminary feasibility test of imaging a reflective object using a test color chart.

  9. Real-time detection of natural objects using AM-coded spectral matching imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimachi, Akira

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes application of the amplitude-modulation (AM)-coded spectral matching imager (SMI) to real-time detection of natural objects such as human beings, animals, vegetables, or geological objects or phenomena, which are much more liable to change with time than artificial products while often exhibiting characteristic spectral functions associated with some specific activity states. The AM-SMI produces correlation between spectral functions of the object and a reference at each pixel of the correlation image sensor (CIS) in every frame, based on orthogonal amplitude modulation (AM) of each spectral channel and simultaneous demodulation of all channels on the CIS. This principle makes the SMI suitable to monitoring dynamic behavior of natural objects in real-time by looking at a particular spectral reflectance or transmittance function. A twelve-channel multispectral light source was developed with improved spatial uniformity of spectral irradiance compared to a previous one. Experimental results of spectral matching imaging of human skin and vegetable leaves are demonstrated, as well as a preliminary feasibility test of imaging a reflective object using a test color chart.

  10. Study of nuclear reactions producing 36Cl by micro-AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luís, H.; Jesus, A. P.; Fonseca, M.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.

    2016-01-01

    36Cl is one of several short to medium lived isotopes (as compared to the earth age) whose abundances at the earlier solar system may help to clarify its formation process. There are two generally accepted possible models for the production of this radionuclide: it originated from the ejecta of a nearby supernova (where 36Cl was most probably produced in the s-process by neutron irradiation of 35Cl) and/or it was produced by in-situ irradiation of nebular dust by energetic particles (mostly, p, a, 3He -X-wind irradiation model). The objective of the present work is to measure the cross section of the 37Cl(p,d)36Cl and 35Cl(d,p)36Cl nuclear reactions, by measuring the 36Cl content of AgCl samples (previously bombarded with high energy protons and deuterons) with AMS, taking advantage of the very low detection limits of this technique for chlorine measurements. For that, the micro-AMS system of the LF1/ITN laboratory had to be optimized for chlorine measurements, as to our knowledge this type of measurements had never been performed in such a system (AMS with micro-beam). Here are presented the first results of these developments, namely the tests in terms of precision and reproducibility that were done by comparing AgCl blanks irradiated at the Portuguese National Reactor with standards produced by the dilution of the NIST SRM 4943 standard material.

  11. Characterization of a high-quality monochrome AM-LCD monitor for digital radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sandrine; Badano, Aldo; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, we present results concerning the development of advanced characterization methods and their application to the evaluation of a high-end medical imaging monitor. The display is a 20.8-inch diagonal high-resolution (2048 x 1536 pixels, 123 dpi) monochrome active-matrix liquid-crystal display (AM-LCD) based on a-Si:H TFT active-matrix, dual- domain and in-plane switching technologies. We report the luminance characteristics of the AM-LCD, its grayscale performance, and the panel deviation from the DICOM standard grayscale function. The display luminance for different gray levels under both normal and off-axis viewing directions is described, together with the resulting contrast ratio. The viewing angle dependence of the luminance and contrast ratio is also studied in terms of display compliance to DICOM's grayscale function at off- normal viewing angles. Small-spot contrast ratio performances are investigated in relation to the display technology and especially parasitic phenomena such as electronic crosstalk. We also present the effect of target size and luminance on small-spot contrast ratio results, and we report the orientation dependence of this phenomenon. In addition, we present results on reflections, spatial resolution and display noise and texture and the AM-LCD performances are compared to typical parameters obtained for medical imaging CRTs.

  12. An integrated data-analysis and database system for AMS 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Olsen, Jesper; Heinemeier, Jan

    2010-04-01

    AMSdata is the name of a combined database and data-analysis system for AMS 14C and stable-isotope work that has been developed at Aarhus University. The system (1) contains routines for data analysis of AMS and MS data, (2) allows a flexible and accurate description of sample extraction and pretreatment, also when samples are split into several fractions, and (3) keeps track of all measured, calculated and attributed data. The structure of the database is flexible and allows an unlimited number of measurement and pretreatment procedures. The AMS 14C data analysis routine is fairly advanced and flexible, and it can be easily optimized for different kinds of measuring processes. Technically, the system is based on a Microsoft SQL server and includes stored SQL procedures for the data analysis. Microsoft Office Access is used for the (graphical) user interface, and in addition Excel, Word and Origin are exploited for input and output of data, e.g. for plotting data during data analysis.

  13. Invited perspective: Why I am an optimist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burges, Stephen J.

    2011-03-01

    I address a range of topics that provide the sociopolitical-technological setting for my professional life. I discuss some influential features of post-World War II world geopolitics, landmark technological developments of that era, and the resulting follow-up technologies that have made it possible to approach various problems in hydrology and water resources. I next address societal needs that have driven developments in hydrology and water resources engineering and follow with a discussion of the modern foundations of our science and what I think are the principal issues in hydrology. I pose three community challenges that when accomplished should advance hydrologic science: data network needs for improving the water budgets at all scales, characterizing subsurface water flow paths, and the information archiving and mining needs from instruments that will generate substantially richer data detail than have been used for most hydrologic work to the present. I then discuss several hydrologic and water resource risk-based decision issues that matter to society to illustrate how such risks have been addressed successfully in the past. I conclude with a long-term community "grand challenge," the coupled modeling of the ocean-atmosphere-landform hydrologic cycle for the purpose of long-lead time hydrologic prediction.

  14. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  15. A new AMS facility in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, C.; Chávez-Lomelí, E.; Ortiz, M. E.; Huerta, A.; Andrade, E.; Barrios, E.

    2014-07-01

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system has been installed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). A sample preparation chemistry laboratory equipped with computer controlled graphitization equipment (AGEIII) has also been established. Together both facilities constitute the LEMA (Laboratorio de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores) first of its kind in Mexico. High sensitivity characterization of the concentration in a sample of 14C as well as 10Be, 26Al, 129I and Pu are now possible. Since the demand for 14C dating is far more abundant, a data analysis program was developed in the cross-platform programming language Python in order to calculate radiocarbon age. Results from installation, acceptance tests and the first results of 14C analyses of reference materials prepared in our own facility are presented.

  16. Applications of AMS {sup 14}C on Climate and Archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.

    2007-10-26

    We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with {sup 14}C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  17. Why Am I Learning Evolution? Pointers towards Enacted Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olander, Clas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores affordances in teaching evolution, especially those in which evolution is made relevant to and argued for in a grade 9 biology classroom, thus giving potential answers to the pupils' legitimate question,"'why am I learning evolution?" The aim of the paper is methodological in the sense that it explores…

  18. 50 CFR 648.163 - Bluefish Accountability Measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bluefish Accountability Measures (AMs). 648.163 Section 648.163 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic...

  19. Producing In-House Indexes at Texas A&M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinyon, William R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes three in-house indexes produced at the Texas A&M University Library to facilitate access to energy-related materials, curriculum guides and other educational materials, and reference materials. Production, as well as time and cost factors, are discussed. Recommendations for producing in-house indexes are offered. (10 references) (MES)

  20. Calculation of the compounded uncertainty of 14C AMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M.

    2013-01-01

    The correct method to calculate conventional 14C ages from the carbon isotopic ratios was summarised 35 years ago by Stuiver and Polach (1977) and is now accepted as the only method to calculate 14C ages. There is, however, no consensus regarding the treatment of AMS data, mainly of the uncertainty of the final result. The estimation and treatment of machine background, process blank, and/or in situ contamination is not uniform between laboratories, leading to differences in 14C results, mainly for older ages. As Donahue (1987) and Currie (1994), among others, mentioned, some laboratories find it important to use the scatter of several measurements as uncertainty while others prefer to use Poisson statistics. The contribution of the scatter of the standards, machine background, process blank, and in situ contamination to the uncertainty of the final 14C result is also treated in different ways. In the early years of AMS, several laboratories found it important to describe their calculation process in details. In recent years, this practise has declined. We present an overview of the calculation process for 14C AMS measurements looking at calculation practises published from the beginning of AMS until present.

  1. International coordination of A+M data efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janev, Ratko; Becker, Kurt; Clark, Robert; Lister, Graeme; Niemax, Kay

    1998-07-01

    A summary of the discussions at the ICAMDATA panel on international coordination of atomic and molecular (A+M) data efforts is presented. The status of databases and the needs for coordination of data generation, compilation and assessment efforts in the areas of spectrochemistry, low-temperature plasma applications, plasma processing of materials, lighting industry and fusion energy research are specifically addressed.

  2. Long-term photometric behaviour of outbursting AM CVn systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J.; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semidetached, ultracompact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research, Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, and Palomar Transient Factory synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almost 10 yr period. These light curves provide a much clearer picture of the outburst phenomena that these systems undergo. We characterize the photometric behaviour of most known outbursting AM CVn systems and establish a relation between their outburst properties and the systems' orbital periods. We also explore why some systems have only shown a single outburst so far and expand the previously accepted phenomenological states of AM CVn systems. We conclude that the outbursts of these systems show evolution with respect to the orbital period, which can likely be attributed to the decreasing mass transfer rate with increasing period. Finally, we consider the number of AM CVn systems that should be present in modelled synoptic surveys.

  3. 50 CFR 648.233 - Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.233 Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs). (a... dogfish on that date for the remainder of that semi-annual period by publishing notification in...

  4. 50 CFR 648.233 - Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.233 Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs). (a... quota described in § 648.232 will be harvested and shall close the EEZ to fishing for spiny dogfish...

  5. 50 CFR 648.233 - Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.233 Spiny dogfish Accountability Measures (AMs). (a... dogfish on that date for the remainder of that semi-annual period by publishing notification in...

  6. Interpretation of AMS-02 electrons and positrons data

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, M. Di; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Lineros, R. E-mail: donato@to.infn.it E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es

    2014-04-01

    We perform a combined analysis of the recent AMS-02 data on electrons, positrons, electrons plus positrons and positron fraction, in a self-consistent framework where we realize a theoretical modeling of all the astrophysical components that can contribute to the observed fluxes in the whole energy range. The primary electron contribution is modeled through the sum of an average flux from distant sources and the fluxes from the local supernova remnants in the Green catalog. The secondary electron and positron fluxes originate from interactions on the interstellar medium of primary cosmic rays, for which we derive a novel determination by using AMS-02 proton and helium data. Primary positrons and electrons from pulsar wind nebulae in the ATNF catalog are included and studied in terms of their most significant (while loosely known) properties and under different assumptions (average contribution from the whole catalog, single dominant pulsar, a few dominant pulsars). We obtain a remarkable agreement between our various modeling and the AMS-02 data for all types of analysis, demonstrating that the whole AMS-02 leptonic data admit a self-consistent interpretation in terms of astrophysical contributions.

  7. Accurate and fast DFT calculations with the AM05 functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.

    2008-03-01

    The AM05 functional [1] has the same excellent performance for solids as the hybrid density functionals tested in Paier et. al. (J. Chem. Phys 124, 154709 (2006); ibid 125, 249901 (2006)). This confirms the original finding that AM05 performs exceptionally well for solids and surfaces. While hybrid functionals are computationally expensive, preveting them from being used in large systems and/or long molecular dynamics simulations, the AM05 functional is on a regular semi-local GGA form with corresponding computational cost. The performance of AM05 is even superior to an `informed choice' between LDA and PBE. By comparing data from different electronic-structure codes we have determined that the numerical errors in this study are equal to or smaller than corresponding experimental uncertainties. Results for other systems will also be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [1] R. Armiento and A. E. Mattsson, Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005).

  8. Tagging fast neutrons from an (241)Am/(9)Be source.

    PubMed

    Scherzinger, J; Annand, J R M; Davatz, G; Fissum, K G; Gendotti, U; Hall-Wilton, R; Håkansson, E; Jebali, R; Kanaki, K; Lundin, M; Nilsson, B; Rosborge, A; Svensson, H

    2015-04-01

    Shielding, coincidence, and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to tag fast neutrons emitted from an (241)Am/(9)Be source resulting in a continuous polychromatic energy-tagged beam of neutrons with energies up to 7MeV. The measured energy structure of the beam agrees qualitatively with both previous measurements and theoretical calculations. PMID:25644080

  9. Location of vehicles using AM station broadcasting signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Imaginary hyperbolic grid patterns formed by three local AM broadcasting stations were utilized in study. Each hyperbola is defined by constant phase difference between arbitrary signals integrally related to those coming from two stations. When three stations are used, grid is formed covering area with intersecting hyperbolas.

  10. 50 CFR 648.201 - AMs and harvest controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 AMs and harvest controls. (a) AMs—(1) Herring sub-ACLs and ACL—(i..., possessing, catching, transferring, or landing more than 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per trip in the applicable area, and from landing herring more than once per calendar day, except as provided...

  11. 50 CFR 648.201 - AMs and harvest controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 AMs and harvest controls. (a) AMs—(1) Herring sub-ACLs and ACL—(i..., possessing, catching, transferring, or landing more than 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per trip in the applicable area, and from landing herring more than once per calendar day, except as provided...

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of Am and Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, N.

    1985-02-01

    A review of the present status of the analyses of the optical spectra of Am and Cm in various oxidation states is given. From these analyses, the magnetic properties of the ground states of these ions can be determined. These predicted values are compared with the various magnetic measurements available.

  13. AB273. Challenge of AMS700CXR inflatable penile prosthesis for treating patients with severe ED in China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) showed erectile tissues pathological changes include corpus cavernous fibrosis, endothelial dysfunction, arterial and/or vein disorder, neuropathy and hormon disorder et al. Currently used on demanded treating ED therapies, include oral medication using PDE5i, intra-cavernosal injection (ICI) therapy, vacuum device et al., the clinical efficacies of reached to 70% with some kinks of adverse events, however, these therapies showed no effects on sever ED with sever pathological changes in erectile tissue. Penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for ED. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcome of PPI in Chinese patients with severe erectile dysfunction (SED) from July 2000 to December 2011, 224 patients, overall satisfaction with the PPI surgery was reported by 89.0% of men and 82.5% of partners, mechanical malfunction occurred in 4 cases (2.0%) and 3 cases were re-implanted new device, and 2 cases (1.0%) developed a mild curvature of the penis. Scrotal erosion with infection occurred in 1 case with diabetes mellitus (0.5%) and required complete removal of the implanted AMS 700 CXM. After 3 years no PPI device available in China, AMS 700CXR finally approved by China SDA recently, and the quality this device is improved very much compared to AMS700CXM, and the long-term mechanical reliability studies on AMS 700CXR noted that the clinical efficacy and device service of AMS 700CXR showed significantly better than that of AMS 700 CXM, which yields excellent results in terms of cosmetic and functional outcome and therefore has a significant impact on patients' satisfaction, sex life and overall quality of life. Overall, long term reliability has been significantly improved and complication rates are low in the hands of experienced surgeons.

  14. 1,2,4-Diazaphospholide complexes of lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii): synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minggang; Wang, Lixia; Li, Pangpang; Ma, Jianping; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    A few heteroleptic, charge-separated heterobimetallic, and polymeric alkali metalate complexes of 1,2,4-diazaphospholide lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii) were simply prepared via the metathesis reaction of MCl3 (THF)m (m = 1-2) and K[3,5-R2dp] ([3,5-R2dp](-) = 3,5-di-substituent-1,2,4-diazaphospholide; R = tBu, Ph) in a varied ratio (1 : 3, 1 : 4, and 1 : 5, respectively) at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran. All the complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H}, IR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis despite their paramagnetism (excluding La(iii) complexes). The structures of the complexes were found to feature varied coordination modes. The magnetic properties of several compounds were studied by magnetic susceptibility, and the complexes presented the magnetic moments close to or lower than the theoretical values for the free ions in the trivalent oxidation states (Pr(3+), Nd(3+)). PMID:27326667

  15. The Am Gene Controlling Resistance to Alfalfa mosaic virus in Tomato Is Located in the Cluster of Dominant Resistance Genes on Chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Giuseppe; Moretti, André; Gognalons, Patrick; Lesage, Marie-Laure; Marchoux, George; Gebre-Selassie, Kashay; Caranta, Carole

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT The dominant gene Am from Lycopersicon hirsutum f. sp. glabratum PI134417 confers resistance to most strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus, including the recently identified necrotic strains. The phenotypic response includes a lack of symptom development following mechanical inoculation of leaves. To study the resistance mechanism controlled by Am, biological (back-inoculation to susceptible hosts), serological (double-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and molecular (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with specific riboprobes) methods of virus detection have been conducted on mechanically inoculated PI134417 leaves. The virus was never recovered, indicating that Am acts by an inhibition of viral accumulation during the early events of the virus life cycle. Am has been mapped genetically to the short arm of tomato chromosome 6 in the resistance hotspot, which includes the R-genes Mi and Cf-2/Cf-5 and the quantitative resistance factors Ty-1, Ol-1, and Bw-5. PMID:18944110

  16. On-farm AM fungus inoculum production: a complete how-to on-farm am fungus inoculum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are beneficial soil fungi that form a symbiosis with the majority of crop plants. The benefits to the plant include increased nutrient uptake and disease and drought resistance. This makes utilization of the symbiosis a potentially important part in ensuring the s...

  17. Bioreduction amenability testing of actinide contaminated soils. The systems: Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 238}, Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 239/40}, U

    SciTech Connect

    Korich, D.G.; Sharp, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Bioreductive processing of actinide contaminated soils can achieve extraction levels in excess of 97% for both plutonium and uranium contaminants. Reasonable reaction rates of 4 to 6 day resident times for Pu-Am have been demonstrated on 4 gram sample charges. Longer reaction times of 17 days required for uranium extraction can be improved by soil sample preconditioning and/or an increase in process reagent concentrations. The environmentally benign treatment process operates at pH 6--7, preserves the original soil matrix, and utilizes standard processing equipment. The process reagent component (inoculum SD-1 and biological growth medium PX100{trademark}) are available for utilization in an integrated system. Process techniques developed by MBX, involving graduated volume bioreactors have been proven to alleviate biological toxicity problems in treatment leachates. Bioreduction processing of actinide contaminated soils, preconditioning of soil charges, and recycling or vegetation of unacceptable tailings can be combined to provide an effective and environmentally attractive method of remediation. The soil test program was designed to determine the applicability of the MBX bioreductive technology to solubilize Pu and Am from RFP, Mound and LANL soils and uranium from Hanford and Fernald soils.

  18. A calibration phantom for direct, in vivo measurement of 241Am in the axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Rachel; Lobaugh, Megan; Spitz, Henry; Glover, Samuel; Hickman, David

    2009-09-01

    A calibration phantom was developed at the University of Cincinnati (UC) to determine detection efficiency and estimate the quantity of activity deposited in the axillary lymph nodes of a worker who had unknowingly sustained a wound contaminated with 241Am at some distant time in the past. This paper describes how the Livermore Torso Phantom was modified for calibrating direct, in vivo measurements of 241Am deposited in the axillary lymph nodes. Modifications involved milling a pair of parallel, flat bottom, cylindrical holes into the left and right shoulders (below the humeral head) of the Livermore Torso Phantom in which solid, 1.40-cm-diameter cylindrical rods were inserted. Each rod was fabricated using a muscle tissue substitute. One end of each rod contained a precisely known quantity of Am sealed in a 1-cm-diameter, 2.54-cm-deep well to simulate the axillary lymph nodes when inserted into the modified Livermore Torso Phantom. The fixed locations for the axillary lymph nodes in the phantom were determined according to the position of the Level I and the combined Level II + III axillary lymph nodes reported in the literature. Discrete calibration measurements for 241Am in the simulated axillary lymph nodes located in the right and left sides of the thorax were performed using pairs of high-resolution germanium detectors at UC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The percent efficiency for measuring the 59.5 keV photon from Am deposited in the right and left axillary lymph nodes using a pair of 3,000 mm2 detectors is 2.60 +/- 0.03 counts gamma-1 and 5.45 +/- 0.07 counts gamma-1, respectively. Activity deposited in the right and left axillary lymph nodes was found to contribute 12.5% and 19.7%, respectively, to a lung measurement and 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively, to a liver measurement. Thus, radioactive material mobilized from a wound in a finger or hand and deposited in the axillary lymph nodes has been shown to confound results of a direct, in vivo

  19. Low-Charge State AMS for High Throughput 14C Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ognibene, T.J.; Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.

    2000-06-16

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) quantifies attomole (10{sup -18}) amounts of {sup 14}C in milligram sized samples. This sensitivity is used to trace nutrients, toxins and therapeutics in humans and animals at less than {micro}g/kg doses containing 1-100 nCi of {sup 14}C. Widespread use of AMS in pharmaceutical development and biochemical science has been hampered by the size and expense of the typical spectrometer that has been developed for high precision radiocarbon dating. The precision of AMS can be relaxed for biochemical tracing, but sensitivity, accuracy and throughput are important properties that must be maintained in spectrometers designed for routine quantification. We are completing installation of a spectrometer that will maintain the high throughput of our primary spectrometer but which requires less than 20% of the floor space and of the cost. Sensitivity and throughput are kept high by using the LLNL intense cesium sputter ion source with solid graphitic samples. Resultant space-charge effects are minimized by careful modeling to find optimal ion transport in the spectrometer. A long charge-changing ''stripper gas'' volume removes molecular isobars at potentials of a few hundred kiloVolts, reducing the size of the accelerating component. Fast ion detectors count at high rates to keep a wide dynamic range for 14 C concentrations. Solid sample presentation eliminates the sample cross contamination that degrades accuracy and the effects of ''memory'' in the ion source. Automated processes are under development for conversion of liquid and solid biological samples to the preferred graphitic form for the ion source.

  20. Am stars and the influence of binarity on infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    We explore an old idea for the origin of Am star anomalies, possibly related to observations of pollution in white dwarfs (Jura & Young, ARAA, 42, 45, 2014; Gansicke, et al., Arxiv:1505.03142). It must be noted that infall of an earthlike body can explain some, but not all of the abundance anomalies of Am stars.The ingestion of earthlike material by an a star should have observable effects that are larger than for solar-type stars. We follow dynamical arguments discussed, e.g. by Debes, et al. ApJ., 747, 148, 2012), and postulate that gravitational interactions will produce an infalling stream of low angularmomentum bodies.Note that most if not all Am stars are binary. Here we investigate only whether there is an increased frequency of collisions with a close binary relative to a single star.We make quantitative estimates, using analytical 2-body solutions and restricted 3-body calculations with parameters similar to those of the eclipsing Am pair Beta Aur,or WW Aur. We use initial values for the binary similar to those which would lead to a certain collision on a (4M_sun) single star for a parabolic trajectory. All calculations begin with a distance from the center of mass along the axis of a paraboloid of revolution at 3 or 5 AU and such that a marginal collision occurs with a single star. The perpendicular area of this figure is a cross section for a collision. We sample trajectories starting within and near this cross section, for double starsystems. Based on many trials we find it about equally likely-- relative to a single star--that an incoming body will be ejected from the system than that it will collide with one of the stars. Although we have sampled only a fraction of possible parameter space, we find no basis to expect that the binarity of the Am systems makes them more likely to have ingested planetary material.Infall should probably still be considered, along with the generally accepted diffusion scenario, but it does not appear that the binarity of