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Sample records for development evolution des

  1. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  2. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  3. Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, Murali; Munir, Muhammad; Parthiban, AravindhBabu R; Banyard, Ashley C; Bao, Jingyue; Wang, Zhiliang; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Ayelet, Gelagay; El Harrak, Mehdi; Mahapatra, Mana; Libeau, Geneviève; Batten, Carrie; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity. PMID:25418782

  4. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a wholly new…

  5. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  6. On the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps development is more than just morphogenesis. We now recognize that the conceptus expresses epigenetic marks that heritably affect it phenotypically, indicating that the offspring are to some degree genetically autonomous, and that ontogeny and phylogeny may coordinately determine the fate of such marks. This scenario mechanistically links ecology, ontogeny and phylogeny together as an integrated mechanism for evolution for the first time. As a functional example, the Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) signaling duplicated during the Phanerozoic water-land transition. The PTHrP signaling pathway was critical for the evolution of the skeleton, skin barrier, and lung function, based on experimental evidence, inferring that physiologic stress can profoundly affect adaptation through internal selection, giving seminal insights to how and why vertebrates were able to evolve from water to land. By viewing evolution from its inception in unicellular organisms, driven by competition between pro- and eukaryotes, the emergence of complex biologic traits from the unicellular cell membrane offers a novel way of thinking about the process of evolution from its beginnings, rather than from its consequences as is traditionally done. And by focusing on the epistatic balancing mechanisms for calcium and lipid homeostasis, the evolution of unicellular organisms, driven by competition between pro- and eukaryotes, gave rise to the emergence of complex biologic traits derived from the unicellular plasma lemma, offering a unique way of thinking about the process of evolution. By exploiting the cellular-molecular mechanisms of lung evolution as ontogeny and phylogeny, the sequence of events for the evolution of the skin, kidney and skeleton become more transparent. This novel approach to the evolution question offers equally novel insights to the primacy of the unicellular state, hologenomics and even a priori bioethical decisions. PMID:25729239

  7. Biocatalyst development by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    Biocatalysis has emerged as a great addition to traditional chemical processes for production of bulk chemicals and pharmaceuticals. To overcome the limitations of naturally occurring enzymes, directed evolution has become the most important tool for improving critical traits of biocatalysts such as thermostability, activity, selectivity, and tolerance towards organic solvents for industrial applications. Recent advances in mutant library creation and high-throughput screening have greatly facilitated the engineering of novel and improved biocatalysts. This review provides an update of the recent developments in the use of directed evolution to engineer biocatalysts for practical applications. PMID:22310212

  8. Biocatalyst Development by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Biocatalysis has emerged as a great addition to traditional chemical processes for production of bulk chemicals and pharmaceuticals. To overcome the limitations of naturally occurring enzymes, directed evolution has become the most important tool for improving critical traits of biocatalysts such as thermostability, activity, selectivity, and tolerance towards organic solvents for industrial applications. Recent advances in mutant library creation and high-throughput screening have greatly facilitated the engineering of novel and improved biocatalysts. This review provides an update of the recent developments in the use of directed evolution to engineer biocatalysts for practical applications. PMID:22310212

  9. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

  10. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  11. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  12. Play in Evolution and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary…

  13. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H) in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

    2016-01-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H), the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246) was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC′ β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV. PMID:27035347

  14. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H) in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongxiang; Yuan, Ruyi; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

    2016-01-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H), the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246) was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC' β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV. PMID:27035347

  15. Tracking Concept Development through Semiotic Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research focused on a case study aiming to monitor emergent knowledge in a discourse group by tracking the development of the concept "goal." The analysis, based on "Semiotic Evolution" methodology facilitates the description of interactions between personal perceptions in the group discourse, illustrating the…

  16. Heterochronic genes in plant evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Geuten, Koen; Coenen, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of morphology includes evolutionary shifts of developmental processes in space or in time. Heterochronic evolution is defined as a temporal shift. The concept of heterochrony has been very rewarding to investigators of both animal and plant developmental evolution, because it has strong explanatory power when trying to understand morphological diversity. While for animals, extensive literature on heterochrony developed along with the field of evolution of development, in plants the concept has been applied less often and is less elaborately developed. Yet novel genetic findings highlight heterochrony as a developmental and evolutionary process in plants. Similar to what has been found for the worm Caenorhabditis, a heterochronic gene pathway controlling developmental timing has been elucidated in flowering plants. Two antagonistic microRNA’s miR156 and miR172 target two gene families of transcription factors, SQUAMOSA PROMOTOR BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE and APETALA2-like, respectively. Here, we propose that this finding now allows the molecular investigation of cases of heterochronic evolution in plants. We illustrate this point by examining microRNA expression patterns in the Antirrhinum majus incomposita and choripetala heterochronic mutants. Some of the more beautiful putative cases of heterochronic evolution can be found outside flowering plants, but little is known about the extent of conservation of this flowering plant pathway in other land plants. We show that the expression of an APETALA2-like gene decreases with age in a fern species. This contributes to the idea that ferns share some heterochronic gene functions with flowering plants. PMID:24093023

  17. Polyphase evolution of the Chaîne des Matheux frontal thrust (Haiti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Richard; Ellouz-Zimmermann, Nadine; Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Hamon, Youri; Deschamps, Remy; Battani, Anne; Leroy, Sylvie; Momplaisir, Roberte

    2016-04-01

    The NW - SE trending Haitian fold-and-thrust belt (HFTB) is located in the western part of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. It covers the suture between the Cretaceous Caribbean island arc in the north and the Late Cretaceous thickened oceanic crust in the south. The HFTB is bounded to the north and south by the left-lateral Septentrional (SFZ) and Enriquillo-Plantain Garden (EPGFZ) fault zones, respectively. Compressional deformation on the HFTB commenced as early as Eocene times. It was followed by transpressional deformation from the early Miocene onwards, with in sequence progressive stacking of thrust sheets towards the SW. Seismicity at the junction between the HFTB and the EPGFZ is recorded by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake. Surface mapping did not reveal a rupture, as the main activity occurred on the steep NNW dipping oblique transpressional Léogâne fault, while aftershocks documented motion on a shallow SW dipping thrust segment. The structural style of deformation of the HFTB, either the stacking of thrust sheets on basement heterogeneities or basement-involved thrusting, has not been studied in detail. Also lacking are conceptual models addressing the amount of convergence between the northern and southern domains, and describing how convergence was accommodated. To address these problems we conducted a detailed fieldwork on the southernmost thrust sheet, known as the Chaîne des Matheux front. Using stratigraphy, geological mapping, cross sections, kinematic fault slip data, analysis of mineralizations and fluid inclusions, and geochemical analysis of fluid seeps, we decipher the evolution of this anticlinal structure. Stratigraphic data reveal stable Eocene platform sedimentation over the whole region, which preceded deepening of the basin throughout Oligocene and early Miocene times. A diachronous evolution is evident from the middle Miocene onwards. The NE flank displays a shallowing upwards trend and clastic sedimentation, while the

  18. New Frontiers in Language Evolution and Development.

    PubMed

    Oller, D Kimbrough; Dale, Rick; Griebel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and its focus on research in language evolution with emphasis on theory as well as computational and robotic modeling. A key theme is based on the growth of evolutionary developmental biology or evo-devo. The Special Issue consists of 13 articles organized in two sections: A) Theoretical foundations and B) Modeling and simulation studies. All the papers are interdisciplinary in nature, encompassing work in biological and linguistic foundations for the study of language evolution as well as a variety of computational and robotic modeling efforts shedding light on how language may be developed and may have evolved. PMID:27120154

  19. Inflorescences: concepts, function, development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kirchoff, Bruce K.; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflorescences are complex structures with many functions. At anthesis they present the flowers in ways that allow for the transfer of pollen and optimization of the plant's reproductive success. During flower and fruit development they provide nutrients to the developing flowers and fruits. At fruit maturity they support the fruits prior to dispersal, and facilitate effective fruit and seed dispersal. From a structural point of view, inflorescences have played important roles in systematic and phylogenetic studies. As functional units they facilitate reproduction, and are largely shaped by natural selection. Scope The papers in this Special Issue bridge the gap between structural and functional approaches to inflorescence evolution. They include a literature review of inflorescence function, an experimental study of inflorescences as essential contributors to the display of flowers, and two papers that present new methods and concepts for understanding inflorescence diversity and for dealing with terminological problems. The transient model of inflorescence development is evaluated in an ontogenetic study, and partially supported. Four papers present morphological and ontogenetic studies of inflorescence development in monophyletic groups, and two of these evaluate the usefulness of Hofmeister's Rule and inhibitory fields to predict inflorescence structure. In the final two papers, Bayesian and Monte-Carlo methods are used to elucidate inflorescence evolution in the Panicoid grasses, and a candidate gene approach is used in an attempt to understand the evolutionary genetics of inflorescence evolution in the genus Cornus (Cornaceae). Taken as a whole, the papers in this issue provide a glimpse of contemporary approaches to the study of the structure, development, and evolution of inflorescences, and suggest fruitful new directions for research. PMID:24383103

  20. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of

  1. Hétérochronies dans l'évolution des hominidés. Le développement dentaire des australopithécines «robustes»Heterochronic process in hominid evolution. The dental development in 'robust' australopithecines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V.

    2000-10-01

    Heterochrony is defined as an evolutionary modification in time and in the relative rate of development [6]. Growth (size), development (shape), and age (adult) are the three fundamental factors of ontogeny and have to be known to carry out a study on heterochronies. These three factors have been analysed in 24 Plio-Pleistocene hominid molars from Omo, Ethiopia, attributed to A. afarensis and robust australopithecines ( A. aethiopicus and A. aff. aethiopicus) . Molars were grouped into three chronological periods. The analysis suggests that morphological modifications through time are due to heterochronic process, a neoteny ( A. afarensis - robust australopithecine clade) and a time hypermorphosis ( A. aethiopicus - A. aff. aethiopicus).

  2. Transcriptional Enhancers in Animal Development and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory DNAs serve as templates to bring weakly interacting transcription factors into close proximity so they can work synergistically to switch genes on and off in time and space. Most of these regulatory DNAs are enhancers that can work over long distances — a million base pairs or more in mammals — to control gene expression. Critical enhancers are sometimes even found within the introns of neighboring genes. This review summarizes well-defined examples of enhancers controlling key processes in animal development. Potential mechanisms of transcriptional synergy are discussed with regard to enhancer structure and contemporary ChIP-sequencing assays, whereby just a small fraction of the observed binding sites represent bona fide regulatory DNAs. Finally, there is a discussion of how enhancer evolution can produce novelty in animal morphology and of the prospects for reconstructing transitions in animal evolution by introducing derived enhancers in basal ancestors. PMID:20833320

  3. Haeckel's ABC of evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Keuck, Gerhard

    2002-11-01

    One of the central, unresolved controversies in biology concerns the distribution of primitive versus advanced characters at different stages of vertebrate development. This controversy has major implications for evolutionary developmental biology and phylogenetics. Ernst Haeckel addressed the issue with his Biogenetic Law, and his embryo drawings functioned as supporting data. We re-examine Haeckel's work and its significance for modern efforts to develop a rigorous comparative framework for developmental studies. Haeckel's comparative embryology was evolutionary but non-quantitative. It was based on developmental sequences, and treated heterochrony as a sequence change. It is not always clear whether he believed in recapitulation of single characters or entire stages. The Biogenetic Law is supported by several recent studies -- if applied to single characters only. Haeckel's important but overlooked alphabetical analogy of evolution and development is an advance on von Baer. Haeckel recognized the evolutionary diversity in early embryonic stages, in line with modern thinking. He did not necessarily advocate the strict form of recapitulation and terminal addition commonly attributed to him. Haeckel's much-criticized embryo drawings are important as phylogenetic hypotheses, teaching aids, and evidence for evolution. While some criticisms of the drawings are legitimate, others are more tendentious. In opposition to Haeckel and his embryo drawings, Wilhelm His made major advances towards developing a quantitative comparative embryology based on morphometrics. Unfortunately His's work in this area is largely forgotten. Despite his obvious flaws, Haeckel can be seen as the father of a sequence-based phylogenetic embryology. PMID:12475051

  4. Development and Evolution of the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Jan H.; Hansen, David V.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2013-01-01

    The size and surface area of the mammalian brain are thought to be critical determinants of intellectual ability. Recent studies show that development of the gyrated human neocortex involves a lineage of neural stem and transit-amplifying cells that forms the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ), a proliferative region outside the ventricular epithelium. We discuss how proliferation of cells within the OSVZ expands the neocortex by increasing neuron number and modifying the trajectory of migrating neurons. Relating these features to other mammalian species and known molecular regulators of the mouse neocortex suggests how this developmental process could have emerged in evolution. PMID:21729779

  5. Nematode model systems in evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; Bumbarger, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in all areas of modern biology. Using the knowledge about C. elegans as a baseline, nematodes are now intensively studied in evolution and development. Evolutionary developmental biology or for short, 'evo-devo' has been developed as a new research discipline during the last two decades to investigate how changes in developmental processes and mechanisms result in the modification of morphological structures and phenotypic novelty. In this article, we review the concepts that make nematode evo-devo a successful approach to evolutionary biology. We introduce selected model systems for nematode evo-devo and provide a detailed discussion of four selected case studies. The most striking finding of nematode evo-devo is the magnitude of developmental variation in the context of a conserved body plan. Detailed investigation of early embryogenesis, gonad formation, vulva development, and sex determination revealed that molecular mechanisms evolve rapidly, often in the context of a conserved body plan. These studies highlight the importance of developmental systems drift and neutrality in evolution. PMID:23801489

  6. Development, regeneration, and evolution of feathers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Foley, John; Tang, Pin-Chi; Li, Ang; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    The feather is a complex ectodermal organ with hierarchical branching patterns. It provides functions in endothermy, communication, and flight. Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. In addition, feathers are an excellent model for morphogenesis studies because of their accessibility, and their distinct patterns can be used to assay the roles of specific molecular pathways. Here we review the progress in aspects of development, regeneration, and evolution during the past three decades. We cover the development of feather buds in chicken embryos, regenerative cycling of feather follicle stem cells, formation of barb branching patterns, emergence of intrafeather pigmentation patterns, interplay of hormones and feather growth, and the genetic identification of several feather variants. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs redefines the relationship between feathers and birds. Inspiration from biomaterials and flight research further fuels biomimetic potential of feathers as a multidisciplinary research focal point. PMID:25387232

  7. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  8. Downtown Elementary School (DES): The Unique School That Juxtaposes Both Magnet and Professional Development School (PDS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenuma, Sidonia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the operation of magnet and professional development school (PDS) programs in a real life situation using an ethnographic study of Downtown Elementary School (DES--a pseudonym) that simultaneously operates as a PDS and a magnet school. The author spent almost three years at DES, located in the Southern…

  9. The Evolution and Development of Neural Superposition

    PubMed Central

    Agi, Egemen; Langen, Marion; Altschuler, Steven J.; Wu, Lani F.; Zimmermann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Visual systems have a rich history as model systems for the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying neuronal connectivity. The compound eyes of insects consist of up to thousands of small unit eyes that are connected by photoreceptor axons to set up a visual map in the brain. The photoreceptor axon terminals thereby represent neighboring points seen in the environment in neighboring synaptic units in the brain. Neural superposition is a special case of such a wiring principle, where photoreceptors from different unit eyes that receive the same input converge upon the same synaptic units in the brain. This wiring principle is remarkable, because each photoreceptor in a single unit eye receives different input and each individual axon, among thousands others in the brain, must be sorted together with those few axons that have the same input. Key aspects of neural superposition have been described as early as 1907. Since then neuroscientists, evolutionary and developmental biologists have been fascinated by how such a complicated wiring principle could evolve, how it is genetically encoded, and how it is developmentally realized. In this review article, we will discuss current ideas about the evolutionary origin and developmental program of neural superposition. Our goal is to identify in what way the special case of neural superposition can help us answer more general questions about the evolution and development of genetically “hard-wired” synaptic connectivity in the brain. PMID:24912630

  10. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  11. L'Evolution des Galaxies Infrarouges: des observations cosmologiques avec ISO à une modélisation de l'infrarouge moyen au submillimétrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at 170 microns with the Infrared Space Observatory, whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modellisation of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3.89 square degrees in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at (sigma = 45 mJy). I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4 sigma) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4% at 170 microns. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developped a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 microns and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at 2.0 1011 solar luminosities. Redshift distributions are in agreement with

  12. Development of chimeric laccases by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Isabel; Vicente, Ana Isabel; Mate, Diana M; Alcalde, Miguel; Camarero, Susana

    2012-12-01

    DNA recombination methods are useful tools to generate diversity in directed evolution protein engineering studies. We have designed an array of chimeric laccases with high-redox potential by in vitro and in vivo DNA recombination of two fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and PM1 basidiomycete), which were previously tailored by laboratory evolution for functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The laccase fusion genes (including the evolved α-factor prepro-leaders for secretion in yeast) were subjected to a round of family shuffling to construct chimeric libraries and the best laccase hybrids were identified in dual high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Using this approach, we identified chimeras with up to six crossover events in the whole sequence, and we obtained active hybrid laccases with combined characteristics in terms of pH activity and thermostability. PMID:22729887

  13. Quantifying the impact of development on phenotypic variation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Sears, Karen E

    2014-12-01

    A primary goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the factors that shape phenotypic evolution. According to the theory of natural selection, phenotypic evolution occurs through the differential survival and reproduction of individuals whose traits are selectively advantageous relative to other individuals in the population. This implies that evolution by natural selection is contingent upon the distribution and magnitude of phenotypic variation among individuals, which are in turn the products of developmental processes. Development therefore has the potential to affect the trajectory and rate of phenotypic evolution. Recent research in diverse systems (e.g., mammalian teeth, cichlid skulls, butterfly wings, and marsupial limbs) supports the hypothesis that development biases phenotypic variation and evolution, but suggests that these biases might be system-specific. PMID:25393554

  14. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  15. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C.; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  16. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  17. MCPH1: a window into brain development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Jeremy N.; Journiac, Nathalie; Arai, Yoko; Nardelli, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    The development of the mammalian cerebral cortex involves a series of mechanisms: from patterning, progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, to neuronal migration. Many factors influence the development of the cerebral cortex to its normal size and neuronal composition. Of these, the mechanisms that influence the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are of particular interest, as they may have the greatest consequence on brain size, not only during development but also in evolution. In this context, causative genes of human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, such as ASPM and MCPH1, are attractive candidates, as many of them show positive selection during primate evolution. MCPH1 causes microcephaly in mice and humans and is involved in a diverse array of molecular functions beyond brain development, including DNA repair and chromosome condensation. Positive selection of MCPH1 in the primate lineage has led to much insight and discussion of its role in brain size evolution. In this review, we will present an overview of MCPH1 from these multiple angles, and whilst its specific role in brain size regulation during development and evolution remain elusive, the pieces of the puzzle will be discussed with the aim of putting together the full picture of this fascinating gene. PMID:25870538

  18. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution. PMID:23580903

  19. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of ...

  20. The Evolution, Development, and Future of Affirmative Action in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James Edward

    This thesis discusses the evolution, development, and future of affirmative action in government. Executive Order 11246 formally created affirmative action in 1965 as a remedy for underuse of minorities and women in the workplace and classroom. Many private businesses believe government organizations promote diversity and social equity. Many local…

  1. Faculty Development in Medicine: A Field in Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeff, Kelley M.; Stratos, Georgette A.; Mount, Jane F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of faculty development in medicine. Of note, improving teaching in medical education is not a new concept. At a minimum, it was seriously discussed by pioneers like George Miller and Steve Abrahamson as early as the 1950s [Simpson & Bland (2002). Stephen Abrahamson, PhD, ScD, educationist: A stranger in a kind…

  2. Phenotypic Models of Evolution and Development: Geometry as Destiny

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Paul; Siggia, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative models of development that consider all relevant genes typically are difficult to fit to embryonic data alone and have many redundant parameters. Computational evolution supplies models of phenotype with relatively few variables and parameters that allows the patterning dynamics to be reduced to a geometrical picture for how the state of a cell moves. The clock and wavefront model, that defines the phenotype of somitogenesis, can be represented as a sequence of two discrete dynamical transitions (bifurcations). The expression-time to space map for Hox genes and the posterior dominance rule are phenotypes that naturally follow from computational evolution without considering the genetics of Hox regulation. PMID:23026724

  3. [Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Wenzhao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn't quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment. PMID:27335306

  4. Modeling the connection between development and evolution: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Mjolsness, E.; Reinitz, J.; Garrett, C.D.; Sharp, D.H.

    1993-07-29

    In this paper we outline a model which incorporates development processes into an evolutionary frame work. The model consists of three sectors describing development, genetics, and the selective environment. The formulation of models governing each sector uses dynamical grammars to describe processes in which state variables evolve in a quantitative fashion, and the number and type of participating biological entities can change. This program has previously been elaborated for development. Its extension to the other sectors of the model is discussed here and forms the basis for further approximations. A specific implementation of these ideas is described for an idealized model of the evolution of a multicellular organism. While this model doe not describe an actual biological system, it illustrates the interplay of development and evolution. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of this idealized model are presented.

  5. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  6. The diversity, development and evolution of polyclad flatworm larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polyclad flatworms offer an excellent system with which to explore the evolution of larval structures and the ecological and developmental mechanisms driving flatworm and marine invertebrate life history evolution. Although the most common mode of development in polyclads might be direct development (where the embryo develops directly into a form resembling the young adult), there are many species that develop indirectly, through a planktonic phase with transient larval features, before settling to the sea floor. In this review, I introduce polyclad life history strategies, larval diversity and larval anatomical features (presenting previously unpublished micrographs of a diversity of polyclad larvae). I summarize what is known about polyclad larval development during the planktonic phase and the transition to the benthic juvenile. Finally, I discuss evolutionary and developmental scenarios on the origin of polyclad larval characters. The most prominent characters that are found exclusively in the larval stages are lobes that protrude from the body and a ciliary band, or ciliary tufts, at the peripheral margins of the lobes. Larvae with 4–8 and 10 lobes have been described, with most indirect developing species hatching with 8 lobes. A ventral sucker develops in late stage larvae, and I put forward the hypothesis that this is an organ for larval settlement for species belonging to the Cotylea. Historically, the biphasic life cycle of polyclads was thought to be a shared primitive feature of marine invertebrates, with similarities in larval features among phyla resulting from evolutionary conservation. However, our current understanding of animal phylogeny suggests that indirect development in polyclads has evolved independently of similar life cycles found in parasitic flatworms and some other spiralian taxa, and that morphological similarities between the larvae of polyclads and other spiralians are likely a result of convergent evolution. PMID:24602223

  7. New frontiers in the evolution of fin development.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renata; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno

    2014-11-01

    The locomotory appendages of vertebrates have undergone significant changes during evolution, which likely promoted a wide range of adaptive strategies. These appendages first evolved as unpaired finfolds in the dorsal midline of early chordates, more than 500 million years ago. Later on, during vertebrates' radiation, two sets of locomotory appendages emerged, developing from both sides of the latero-ventral body wall. The morphology of these paired fins in fishes at different phylogenetic positions suggests an evolutionary tendency for increasing elaboration of the endoskeleton and concomitant reduction of the distal dermoskeleton. This evolutionary process culminated with the origin of limbs in the lineages leading to tetrapods. The developmental programs responsible for the evolution of vertebrate appendages have been a major topic for evolutionary developmental biology recently. Gene expression comparisons performed in chordates explored how these mechanisms were transferred from a midline to latero-ventral position. On another front, gene function assays have begun to test classical hypotheses concerning the transition from fish fins to tetrapod limbs. In this review, we highlight these recent findings on the evolution of vertebrate fin development. First, we discuss new perspectives on the transition from midline to paired appendages focus on (i) origin and molecular regionalization of the lateral plate mesoderm and (ii) novel ectodermic competency zones for fin induction. Next, we review recent work exploring how tetrapod limbs evolved from fish fins, considering (i) molecular and structural changes in the distal ectoderm of fins and (ii) modulation of 5'HoxD transcription during fin endoskeleton development. PMID:24677573

  8. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  9. Development vs. behavior: a role for neural adaptation in evolution?

    PubMed

    Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of sensory organ patterning in the lateral line system of fish. Based on recent studies of how this system develops in zebrafish, and on comparative analyses between zebrafish and tuna, we argue that the evolution of lateral line patterns is mostly determined by variations in the underlying developmental processes, independent of any selective pressure. Yet the development of major developmental innovations is so directly linked to their exploitation that it is hard not to think of them as selected for, i.e., adaptive. We propose that adaptation resides mostly in how the nervous system adjusts to new morphologies to make them functional, i.e., that species are neurally adapted to whatever morphology is provided to them by their own developmental program. We show that recent data on behavioral differences between cave forms (blind) and surface forms (eyed) of the mexican fish Astyanax fasciatus support this view, and we propose that this species might provide a unique opportunity to assess the nature of adaptation and of selection in animal evolution. PMID:27389980

  10. Development and evolution of the unique cetacean dentition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhengui; Bajpai, Sunil; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Thewissen, JGM

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary success of mammals is rooted in their high metabolic rate. A high metabolic rate is sustainable thanks to efficient food processing and that in turn is facilitated by precise occlusion of the teeth and the acquisition of rhythmic mastication. These major evolutionary innovations characterize most members of the Class Mammalia. Cetaceans are one of the few groups of mammals in which precise occlusion has been secondarily lost. Most toothed whales have an increased number of simple crowned teeth that are similar along the tooth row. Evolution toward these specializations began immediately after the time cetaceans transitioned from terrestrial-to-marine environments. The fossil record documents the critical aspects of occlusal evolution of cetaceans, and allows us to pinpoint the evolutionary timing of the macroevolutionary events leading to their unusual dental morphology among mammals. The developmental controls of tooth differentiation and tooth number have been studied in a few mammalian clades, but nothing is known about how these controls differ between cetaceans and mammals that retain functional occlusion. Here we show that pigs, a cetacean relative with regionalized tooth morphology and complex tooth crowns, retain the typical mammalian gene expression patterns that control early tooth differentiation, expressing Bmp4 in the rostral (mesial, anterior) domain of the jaw, and Fgf8 caudally (distal, posterior). By contrast, dolphins have lost these regional differences in dental morphology and the Bmp4 domain is extended into the caudal region of the developing jaw. We hypothesize that the functional constraints underlying mammalian occlusion have been released in cetaceans, facilitating changes in the genetic control of early dental development. Such major developmental changes drive morphological evolution and are correlated with major shifts in diet and food processing during cetacean evolution. PMID:23638359

  11. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, Andrew R. G.; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Langdale, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants), the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives) represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26594222

  12. Aquilegia: a new model for plant development, ecology, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    The lower eudicot genus Aquilegia holds enormous potential for investigating aspects of development, ecology, and evolution that are otherwise unrepresented among existing model systems. Its evolutionary history is of particular interest because it represents a phylogenetic midpoint between models such as Arabidopsis and Oryza but, at the same time, has experienced a recent adaptive radiation within the genus. To take advantage of these features, a collaborative group has developed a number of genetic and genomic resources for Aquilegia that have facilitated the study of its distinct morphology. This work has demonstrated that although the petaloid sepals of Aquilegia do not depend on B-class genes for their identity, these loci do control development of the petals, stamens, and novel staminodium. Overall, Aquilegia stands as a key example of the potential utility and speed of developing new genetic model systems. PMID:19575583

  13. Morphological evolution in sea urchin development: hybrids provide insights into the pace of evolution.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Voltzow, Janice

    2004-04-01

    Hybridisations between related species with divergent ontogenies can provide insights into the bases for evolutionary change in development. One example of such hybridisations involves sea urchin species that exhibit either standard larval (pluteal) stages or those that develop directly from embryo to adult without an intervening feeding larval stage. In such crosses, pluteal features were found to be restored in fertilisations of the eggs of some direct developing sea urchins (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) with the sperm of closely (Heliocidaris tuberculata) and distantly (Pseudoboletia maculata) related species with feeding larvae. Such results can be argued to support the punctuated equilibrium model-conservation in pluteal regulatory systems and a comparatively rapid switch to direct development in evolution.1,2 Generation of hybrids between distantly related direct developers may, however, indicate evolutionary convergence. The 'rescue' of pluteal features by paternal genomes may require maternal factors from H. erythrogramma because the larva of this species has pluteal features. In contrast, pluteal features were not restored in hybridisations with the eggs of Holopneustes purpurescens, which lacks pluteal features. How much of pluteal development can be lost before it cannot be rescued in such crosses? The answer awaits hybridisations among indirect and direct developing sea urchins differing in developmental phenotype, in parallel with investigations of the genetic programs involved. PMID:15057932

  14. [Evolution and Development Trend of Lung Cancer Surgical Incision].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Chen, Chang; Jiang, Gening

    2016-06-20

    Minimally invasive, safe and tumor-free are the main principles of the choice of surgical incision in lung cancer surgery. In recent years, with the advances in minimally invasive techniques, single-port video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), robot-assisted thoracoscopic (RATS), suboxiphoid single-port VATS, simultaneous bilateral VATS pulmonary resection, are emerging approaches, single-port VATS has become one of the most exciting new developments in minimally invasive thoracic surgery in recent years. This paper reviews the evolution and trends of surgical incision in lung cancer surgery. PMID:27335293

  15. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  16. Of mice and genes: evolution of vertebrate brain development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this review the current understanding of genetic and molecular evolution of development, in particular the formation of the major axis of bilateral animals, is critically evaluated, and the early pattern formation in the hindbrain is related as much as possible to these processes. On the genetic level it is proposed that the exuberant multiplication of regulatory genes compared to that of structural genes relates to the increased flexibility of early vertebrate development. In comparisons to fruit flies, many conserved genes are found to be expressed very differently, while many others seem to reflect a comparable pattern and thus suggest a conservation of function. Even genes with a largely conserved pattern of expression may change the level at which they are expressed and the mechanisms by which they are regulated in their expression. Evolution and development of hindbrain motoneurons is reviewed, and it is concluded that both comparative data as well as more recent experimental data suggest a limited importance for the rhombomeres. Clearly, many cell fate-specifying processes work below the level of rhombomeres or in the absence of rhombomeres. It is suggested that more comparative developmental data are needed to establish firmly the relationship between homeobox genes and rhombomere specification in vertebrates other than a few model species.

  17. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  18. Evolution and Development of Ventricular Septation in the Amniote Heart

    PubMed Central

    Poelmann, Robert E.; Groot, Adriana C. Gittenberger-de; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Bartelings, Margot M.; Everts, Sonja; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Jensen, Bjarke; de Bruin, Paul W.; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Vonk, Freek; van de Put, Jeanne M. M. S.; de Bakker, Merijn A.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    During cardiogenesis the epicardium, covering the surface of the myocardial tube, has been ascribed several functions essential for normal heart development of vertebrates from lampreys to mammals. We investigated a novel function of the epicardium in ventricular development in species with partial and complete septation. These species include reptiles, birds and mammals. Adult turtles, lizards and snakes have a complex ventricle with three cava, partially separated by the horizontal and vertical septa. The crocodilians, birds and mammals with origins some 100 million years apart, however, have a left and right ventricle that are completely separated, being a clear example of convergent evolution. In specific embryonic stages these species show similarities in development, prompting us to investigate the mechanisms underlying epicardial involvement. The primitive ventricle of early embryos becomes septated by folding and fusion of the anterior ventricular wall, trapping epicardium in its core. This folding septum develops as the horizontal septum in reptiles and the anterior part of the interventricular septum in the other taxa. The mechanism of folding is confirmed using DiI tattoos of the ventricular surface. Trapping of epicardium-derived cells is studied by transplanting embryonic quail pro-epicardial organ into chicken hosts. The effect of decreased epicardium involvement is studied in knock-out mice, and pro-epicardium ablated chicken, resulting in diminished and even absent septum formation. Proper folding followed by diminished ventricular fusion may explain the deep interventricular cleft observed in elephants. The vertical septum, although indistinct in most reptiles except in crocodilians and pythonidsis apparently homologous to the inlet septum. Eventually the various septal components merge to form the completely septated heart. In our attempt to discover homologies between the various septum components we aim to elucidate the evolution and development

  19. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  20. The development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, ANTHONY

    2001-01-01

    A muscularised pharynx, with skeletal support, serving the dual functions of feeding and respiration, is a fundamental vertebrate characteristic. Embryologically, the pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges that form on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches, whose development is complex. These structures are composed of a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, neural crest and mesoderm, whose development must be coordinated to generate the functional adult apparatus. In the past, most studies have emphasised the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development, but it has also become apparent that the endoderm plays a prominent role in directing arch development. Neural crest cells are not required for arch formation, their regionalisation nor to some extent their sense of identity. Furthermore, the endoderm is the major site of expression of a number of important signalling molecules, and this tissue has been shown to be responsible for promoting the formation of particular components of the arches. Thus vertebrate pharyngeal morphogenesis can now be seen to be a more complex process than was previously believed, and must result from an integration of both neural crest and endodermal patterning mechanisms. Interestingly, this also mirrors the fact that the evolutionary origin of pharyngeal segmentation predates that of the neural crest, which is an exclusively vertebrate characteristic. As such, the evolution of the vertebrate pharynx is also likely to have resulted from an integration between these 2 patterning systems. Alterations in the interplay between neural crest and endodermal patterning are also likely to be responsible for the evolutionary that occurred to the pharyngeal region during subsequent vertebrate evolution. PMID:11523815

  1. Evolution and development of interhemispheric connections in the vertebrate forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Gobius, Ilan; Richards, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal connections between the left and right sides of the brain are crucial for bilateral integration of lateralized sensory, motor, and associative functions. Throughout vertebrate species, forebrain commissures share a conserved developmental plan, a similar position relative to each other within the brain and similar patterns of connectivity. However, major events in the evolution of the vertebrate brain, such as the expansion of the telencephalon in tetrapods and the origin of the six-layered isocortex in mammals, resulted in the emergence and diversification of new commissural routes. These new interhemispheric connections include the pallial commissure, which appeared in the ancestors of tetrapods and connects the left and right sides of the medial pallium (hippocampus in mammals), and the corpus callosum, which is exclusive to eutherian (placental) mammals and connects both isocortical hemispheres. A comparative analysis of commissural systems in vertebrates reveals that the emergence of new commissural routes may have involved co-option of developmental mechanisms and anatomical substrates of preexistent commissural pathways. One of the embryonic regions of interest for studying these processes is the commissural plate, a portion of the early telencephalic midline that provides molecular specification and a cellular scaffold for the development of commissural axons. Further investigations into these embryonic processes in carefully selected species will provide insights not only into the mechanisms driving commissural evolution, but also regarding more general biological problems such as the role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary change. PMID:25071525

  2. Evolution of modular conidiophore development in the aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Harris, Steven D

    2012-12-01

    Conidiophores are reproductive structures that enable filamentous fungi to produce and disseminate large numbers of asexual spores. The diversity in conidiophore morphology is sufficiently large to serve as a basis for fungal systematics. Aspergillus and Penicillium species are members of the family Trichocomaceae that form conidiophores with characteristic architecture. Whereas the Penicillium conidiophore appears to be a modified branched hyphal structure, the Aspergillus conidiophore is seemingly more complex and includes additional cell types. Here, it is proposed that the "aspergillioid" conidiophore may have evolved from a "penicillioid" ancestor via changes in expression of key regulators of the cell cycle and the GTPase Cdc42. Because the transcriptional regulatory network that controls conidiophore development in Aspergillus is well characterized, further study of how this network links to regulators of the cell cycle and Cdc42 should provide fundamental insight into the evolution of developmental morphogenesis in fungi (i.e., fungal evo-devo). PMID:23230831

  3. The many lives of SHH in limb development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rios, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The SHH signaling pathway is essential for proper formation of the limb skeleton, as is required for the survival and expansion of distal chondrogenic progenitor cells. At the same time, SHH is important to specify digit identities along the anterior-posterior axis. Upon gain or loss of activity of the SHH pathway, bones are gained, lost or malformed, and such deregulation underlies the aetiology of various human congenital limb defects. Likewise, accumulating evidence suggests that evolutionary tampering with SHH signaling underlies the morphological diversification of the tetrapod appendicular skeleton. This review summarizes the roles of the SHH pathway in the context of limb development and evolution and incorporates recent evidence into a mechanistic view of how the positioning of digit condensations is integrated with the specification of distinct bone morphologies. PMID:26762695

  4. The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Clare V. H.; Modrell, Melinda S.; Gillis, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

  5. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  6. Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Gillian S; Rodriguez, Alina

    2015-08-01

    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p<.001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children. PMID:25966841

  7. The temporal dynamics of vertebrate limb development, teratogenesis and evolution.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Rolf

    2010-08-01

    Recent genetic and functional analysis of vertebrate limb development begins to reveal how the functions of particular genes and regulatory hierarchies can drastically change over time. The temporal and spatial interplay of the two instructive signalling centres are part of a larger signalling system that orchestrates limb bud morphogenesis in a rather self-regulatory manner. It appears that mesenchymal cells are specified early and subsequently, the progenitors for the different skeletal elements are expanded and determined progressively during outgrowth. Mutations and teratogens that disrupt distal progression of limb development most often cause death of the early-specified progenitors rather than altering their fates. The proliferative expansion and distal progression of paired appendage development was one of the main driving forces behind the transition from fin to limb buds during paired appendage evolution. Finally, the adaptive diversification or loss of modern tetrapod limbs in particular phyla or species appear to be a consequence of evolutionary tampering with the regulatory systems that control distal progression of limb development. PMID:20537528

  8. Medical policy development for human spaceflight at NASA: an evolution.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R

    2011-11-01

    Codification of medical policy for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) did not occur until 1977. Policy development was based on NASA's human spaceflight efforts from 1958, and the need to support the operational aspects of the upcoming Space Shuttle Program as well as other future activities. In 1958, the Space Task Group (STG), a part of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), became the focal point for astronaut selection, medical support, and instrumentation development in support of Project Mercury. NACA transitioned into NASA in 1958. The STG moved to Houston, TX, in 1961 and became the Manned Spacecraft Center. During these early years, medical support for astronaut selection and healthcare was provided through arrangements with the U.S. military, specifically the United States Air Force, which had the largest group of subject matter experts in aerospace medicine. Through most of the 1960s, the military worked very closely with NASA in developing the foundations of bioastronautics and space medicine. This work was complemented by select individuals from outside the government. From 1958 to 1977, there was no standard approach to medical policy formulation within NASA. During this time, it was individualized and subjected to political pressures. This manuscript documents the evolution of medical policy in the NASA, and provides a historical account of the individuals, processes, and needs to develop policy. PMID:22097646

  9. Bridging the gaps: evolution and development of perianth fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jinshun; Preston, Jill C

    2015-10-01

    One of the most striking innovations in flower development is the congenital or postgenital union of petals (sympetaly) which has enabled dramatic specialization in flower structure and possibly accelerated speciation rates. Sympetalous flowers exhibit extraordinary variation in development, including the degree and timing of fusion, and fusion with other floral organs. Different axes of corolla tube complexity can be disentangled at the developmental level, with most variation being explained by differences in coordinated growth between interconnected and lobed regions of neighboring petal primordia, and between lower and upper portions of the corolla tube, defined by the stamen insertion boundary. Genetically, inter- and intra-specific variation in the degree of petal fusion is controlled by various inputs from genes that affect organ boundary and lateral growth, signaling between different cell types, and production of the cuticle. It is thus hypothesized that the evolution and diversification of fused petals, at least within the megadiverse Asteridae clade of core eudicots, have occurred through the modification of a conserved genetic pathway previously involved in free petal development. PMID:26094556

  10. Evolution of external genitalia: insights from reptilian development.

    PubMed

    Gredler, Marissa L; Larkins, Christine E; Leal, Francisca; Lewis, A Kelsey; Herrera, Ana M; Perriton, Claire L; Sanger, Thomas J; Cohn, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    External genitalia are found in each of the major clades of amniotes. The phallus is an intromittent organ that functions to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract for internal fertilization. The cellular and molecular genetic mechanisms of external genital development have begun to be elucidated from studies of the mouse genital tubercle, an embryonic appendage adjacent to the cloaca that is the precursor of the penis and clitoris. Progress in this area has improved our understanding of genitourinary malformations, which are among the most common birth defects in humans, and created new opportunities for comparative studies of other taxa. External genitalia evolve rapidly, which has led to a striking diversity of anatomical forms. Within the past year, studies of external genital development in non-mammalian amniotes, including birds, lizards, snakes, alligators, and turtles, have begun to shed light on the molecular and morphogenetic mechanisms underlying the diversification of phallus morphology. Here, we review recent progress in the comparative developmental biology of external genitalia and discuss the implications of this work for understanding external genital evolution. We address the question of the deep homology (shared common ancestry) of genital structures and of developmental mechanisms, and identify new areas of investigation that can be pursued by taking a comparative approach to studying development of the external genitalia. We propose an evolutionary interpretation of hypospadias, a congenital malformation of the urethra, and discuss how investigations of non-mammalian species can provide novel perspectives on human pathologies. PMID:25115961

  11. Evolution of paradigms of child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mohs, E

    1985-01-01

    In 1982 Costa Rica had an infant mortality of 18 per 1000 live births and a life expectancy at birth of 76 years for women and 72 years for men. In the evolution of infant health in Costa Rica two paradigms were identified. One developed in the decades before 1970 and the other during the 1970s. The necessity of conceptualizing a third new paradigm compatible with health needs of the present and the immediate future is recognized. The first or "malnutrition paradigm" was orthodox in its derivation; it identified the lack of food as the underlying base for the major health problems and placed its emphasis on institutional medicine. The paradigm was influenced by foreign schools of nutrition and pediatrics and led to the development of an infrastructure for the delivery of medical services and the programs for food distribution. The "infectious disease paradigm" recognized infectious diseases as the main determinants of morbidity, mortality and malnutrition in childhood. The strategies derived from such a revolutionary paradigm aimed at the control and eradication of infectious diseases, and they resulted in a rapid improvement of child nutrition and health. However, the infectious disease paradigm does not seem to reduce infant mortality below the present level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4047963

  12. Subglacial extensional fracture development and implications for Alpine Valley evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2014-01-01

    stresses induced through exhumation and tectonic processes play a key role in the topographic evolution of alpine valleys. Using a finite difference model combining the effects of tectonics, erosion, and long-term bedrock strength, we assess the development of near-surface in situ stresses and predict bedrock behavior in response to glacial erosion in an Alpine Valley (the Matter Valley, southern Switzerland). Initial stresses are derived from the regional tectonic history, which is characterized by ongoing transtensional or extensional strain throughout exhumation of the brittle crust. We find that bedrock stresses beneath glacial ice in an initial V-shaped topography are sufficient to induce localized extensional fracturing in a zone extending laterally 600 m from the valley axis. The limit of this zone is reflected in the landscape today by a valley "shoulder," separating linear upper mountain slopes from the deep U-shaped inner valley. We propose that this extensional fracture development enhanced glacial quarrying between the valley shoulder and axis and identify a positive feedback where enhanced quarrying promoted valley incision, which in turn increased in situ stress concentrations near the valley floor, assisting erosion and further driving rapid U-shaped valley development. During interglacial periods, these stresses were relieved through brittle strain or topographic modification, and without significant erosion to reach more highly stressed bedrock, subsequent glaciation caused a reduction in differential stress and suppressed extensional fracturing. A combination of stress relief during interglacial periods, and increased ice accumulation rates in highly incised valleys, will reduce the likelihood of repeat enhanced erosion events.

  13. The integumentary skeleton of tetrapods: origin, evolution, and development

    PubMed Central

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Although often overlooked, the integument of many tetrapods is reinforced by a morphologically and structurally diverse assemblage of skeletal elements. These elements are widely understood to be derivatives of the once all-encompassing dermal skeleton of stem-gnathostomes but most details of their evolution and development remain confused and uncertain. Herein we re-evaluate the tetrapod integumentary skeleton by integrating comparative developmental and tissue structure data. Three types of tetrapod integumentary elements are recognized: (1) osteoderms, common to representatives of most major taxonomic lineages; (2) dermal scales, unique to gymnophionans; and (3) the lamina calcarea, an enigmatic tissue found only in some anurans. As presently understood, all are derivatives of the ancestral cosmoid scale and all originate from scleroblastic neural crest cells. Osteoderms are plesiomorphic for tetrapods but demonstrate considerable lineage-specific variability in size, shape, and tissue structure and composition. While metaplastic ossification often plays a role in osteoderm development, it is not the exclusive mode of skeletogenesis. All osteoderms share a common origin within the dermis (at or adjacent to the stratum superficiale) and are composed primarily (but not exclusively) of osseous tissue. These data support the notion that all osteoderms are derivatives of a neural crest-derived osteogenic cell population (with possible matrix contributions from the overlying epidermis) and share a deep homology associated with the skeletogenic competence of the dermis. Gymnophionan dermal scales are structurally similar to the elasmoid scales of most teleosts and are not comparable with osteoderms. Whereas details of development are lacking, it is hypothesized that dermal scales are derivatives of an odontogenic neural crest cell population and that skeletogenesis is comparable with the formation of elasmoid scales. Little is known about the lamina calcarea. It is

  14. Development and evolution of the helicoidal plane of dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Smith, B H

    1986-01-01

    The helicoidal plane of dental occlusion is a composite feature involving axial inclination of teeth and effects of dental attrition. Recent studies disagree on its distribution and significance in hominoid primates. The distribution, development, and functional basis of the helicoidal plane are investigated here, based on quantitative analysis of dental morphology and attrition in 667 human and 60 chimpanzee dentitions. Helicoidal planes are nearly universal in the human and chimpanzee dentitions studied. Increasing axial inclination of molars from M1 to M3 is primarily responsible for the helicoidal plane, although attrition acts to increase its expression. In hominoids, increased molar axial tilt appears to be associated with facial shortening and dental reduction. Population and species comparisons suggest a functional relationship with cranial structure. Progressive axial tilt of molars producing a helicoidal plane is found consistently in mammals with cheek teeth positioned partly under the cranium, as in hominids, pongids, some cebids, macropodids, ursids, and sciurids. Facial shortening is an important trend in hominid evolution and axial inclination of molars might be expected to show progressive change from Australopithecus afarensis to recent Homo sapiens. PMID:3080898

  15. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  16. Variation in salamanders: an essay on genomes, development, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Brockes, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration is studied in a few model species of salamanders, but the ten families of salamanders show considerable variation, and this has implications for our understanding of salamander biology. The most recent classification of the families identifies the cryptobranchoidea as the basal group which diverged in the early Jurassic. Variation in the sizes of genomes is particularly obvious, and reflects a major contribution from transposable elements which is already present in the basal group.Limb development has been a focus for evodevo studies, in part because of the variable property of pre-axial dominance which distinguishes salamanders from other tetrapods. This is thought to reflect the selective pressures that operate on a free-living aquatic larva, and might also be relevant for the evolution of limb regeneration. Recent fossil evidence suggests that both pre-axial dominance and limb regeneration were present 300 million years ago in larval temnospondyl amphibians that lived in mountain lakes. A satisfying account of regeneration in salamanders may need to address all these different aspects in the future. PMID:25740473

  17. Constraints imposed by cosmic evolution towards the development of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.

    1988-01-01

    The probability of terrestrial-type life emerging in any other place of the universe will depend on the constraints imposed by cosmic evolution on that particular place. A systematic examination of cosmic constraints, which must have provided the necessary and sufficient conditions for the origin and evolution of life on earth, shows that they are concerned with the nature of the central star, the planetary system, and the specific life-bearing planet, as well as with the chemical and biological evolution processes involved. These constraints or universal requirements for life are briefly described.

  18. The plant vascular system: evolution, development and functions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, William J; Groover, Andrew; Lichtenberger, Raffael; Furuta, Kaori; Yadav, Shri-Ram; Helariutta, Ykä; He, Xin-Qiang; Fukuda, Hiroo; Kang, Julie; Brady, Siobhan M; Patrick, John W; Sperry, John; Yoshida, Akiko; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Grusak, Michael A; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made in terms of our understanding of the developmental and physiological programs involved in the formation and function of the plant vascular system. In this review, we first examine the evolutionary events that gave rise to the tracheophytes, followed by analysis of the genetic and hormonal networks that cooperate to orchestrate vascular development in the gymnosperms and angiosperms. The two essential functions performed by the vascular system, namely the delivery of resources (water, essential mineral nutrients, sugars and amino acids) to the various plant organs and provision of mechanical support are next discussed. Here, we focus on critical questions relating to structural and physiological properties controlling the delivery of material through the xylem and phloem. Recent discoveries into the role of the vascular system as an effective long-distance communication system are next assessed in terms of the coordination of developmental, physiological and defense-related processes, at the whole-plant level. A concerted effort has been made to integrate all these new findings into a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art in the area of plant vascular biology. Finally, areas important for future research are highlighted in terms of their likely contribution both to basic knowledge and applications to primary industry. PMID:23462277

  19. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10): A patient-reported psychosocial survey for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Mohile, Supriya G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    In light of recent health care reforms, we have provided an illustrative example of new opportunities available for psychologists to develop patient-reported measures related to health care quality. Patient engagement in health care decision making has been increasingly acknowledged as a vital component of quality cancer care. We developed the 10-item Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10), a patient-reported measure of engagement in decision making in cancer care that assesses patients' awareness of their diagnosis, sense of empowerment and involvement, and level of information seeking and planning. The National Institutes of Health's ResearchMatch recruitment tool was used to facilitate Internet-mediated data collection from 376 patients with cancer. DES-10 scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (α = .80), and the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure fit the data well. The reliability and factor structure were supported across subgroups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Higher DES-10 scores were associated with better health-related quality of life (r = .31). In concurrent validity analyses controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life, higher DES-10 scores were associated with higher scores on quality-of-care indices, including greater awareness of one's treatments, greater preferences for shared decision making, and clearer preferences about end-of-life care. A mini-measure, the DES-3, also performed well psychometrically. In conclusion, DES-10 and DES-3 scores showed evidence of reliability and validity, and these brief patient-reported measures can be used by researchers, clinicians, nonprofits, hospitals, insurers, and policymakers interested in evaluating and improving the quality of cancer care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537003

  1. Research and Development for Technology Evolution Potential Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changqing; Cao, Shukun; Wang, Yuzeng; Ai, Changsheng; Ze, Xiangbo

    Technology forecasting is a powerful weapon for many enterprises to gain an animate future. Evolutionary potential radar plot is a necessary step of some valuable methods to help the technology managers with right technical strategy. A software system for Technology Evolution Potential Forecasting (TEPF) with automatic radar plot drawing is introduced in this paper. The framework of the system and the date structure describing the concrete evolution pattern are illustrated in details. And the algorithm for radar plot drawing is researched. It is proved that the TEPF system is an effective tool during the technology strategy analyzing process with a referenced case study.

  2. The impact of stellar evolution on planetary system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The connection between stellar evolution and planet formation is investigated. Particular attention is given to the problem posed by the fact that the formation of Jupiter occurred before the formation of Mars and that the formation of the solid core of Saturn was completed before the dissipation of the gas in the nebula. Several possible solutions to this problem are suggested.

  3. Origine et developpement des industries de la langue (Origin and Development of Language Utilities). Publication K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Homme, Marie-Claude

    The evolution of "language utilities," a concept confined largely to the francophone world and relating to the uses of language in computer science and the use of computer science for languages, is chronicled. The language utilities are of three types: (1) tools for language development, primarily dictionary databases and related tools; (2) tools…

  4. Thinking outside the Cortex: Social Motivation in the Evolution and Development of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syal, Supriya; Finlay, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Alteration of the organization of social and motivational neuroanatomical circuitry must have been an essential step in the evolution of human language. Development of vocal communication across species, particularly birdsong, and new research on the neural organization and evolution of social and motivational circuitry, together suggest that…

  5. Development of the carapacial ridge: implications for the evolution of genetic networks in turtle shell development.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Jacqueline E

    2008-01-01

    Paleontologists and neontologists have long looked to development to understand the homologies of the dermal bones that form the "armor" of turtles, crocodiles, armadillos, and other vertebrates. This study shows molecular evidence supporting a dermomyotomal identity for the mesenchyme of the turtle carapacial ridge. The mesenchyme of the carapace primordium expresses Pax3, Twist1, Dermo1, En1, Sim1, and Gremlin at early stages and before overt ossification expresses Pax1. A hypothesis is proposed that this mesenchyme forms dermal bone in the turtle carapace. A comparison of regulatory gene expression in the primordia of the turtle carapace, the vertebrate limb, and the vertebral column implies the exaptation of key genetic networks in the development of the turtle shell. This work establishes a new role for this mesodermal compartment and highlights the importance of changes in genetic regulation in the evolution of morphology. PMID:18184355

  6. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape.

    PubMed

    Lemanis, Robert; Korn, Dieter; Zachow, Stefan; Rybacki, Erik; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth. PMID:26963712

  7. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape

    PubMed Central

    Lemanis, Robert; Korn, Dieter; Zachow, Stefan; Rybacki, Erik; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth. PMID:26963712

  8. Formation et Evolution des Structures dans le Milieu interstellaire. Une Approche théorique, numérique et observationnelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2000-11-01

    Le milieu interstellaire, au sein duquel se forme les étoiles,présente d'importants contrastes de densités. Ces structures se forment sous l'action couplée de processus magnétohydrodynamiques, thermiques et chimiques. La première partie de cette thèse est un travail théorique et numérique sur la condensation induite dynamiquement de gaz chaud et diffus en une phase froide et condensée. Nous montrons, tout d'aborddans le cas hydrodynamique, puis MHD, comment, dans un milieu thermiquement bistable, une fluctuation de vitesse typiquement transonique conduit, si elle est d'amplitude suffisante et dure un temps assez long, à la formationd'une structure stable. L'influence de divers paramètres -amplitude et échelle spatiale caractéristique de la perturbation, pression initiale, configuration du champ magnétique- sur la condensationest étudiée numériquement et analytiquement. Des spectres synthétiques sont calculés et qualitativement comparés aux spectres observationnels. La seconde partie de la thèse porte sur l'étudeobservationnelle des phases les plus condensées du milieu interstellaire détectées en absorption sur le fond infrarouge galactique par le satellite ISO. Nous effectuons tout d'abordune extraction systématique de ces objets à partir d'une analyse multi-échelle des données ISOGAL.L'étude du rapport des contrastes à 7 et 15 um permet de mesurer le rapport de l'extinction interstellaire, peu connue dans cette région du spectre, à ces deux longueurs d'onde. Des estimations d'opacité de quelques objets sont égalementdéduites des données en infrarouge. Des observations complémentaires spectroscopiques et bolométriques dans le domaineradio ont été effectuées et permettent une analyse plus détaillée des paramètres physico-chimiques de ces nuages.

  9. Development and evolution of the muscles of the pelvic fin.

    PubMed

    Cole, Nicholas J; Hall, Thomas E; Don, Emily K; Berger, Silke; Boisvert, Catherine A; Neyt, Christine; Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2011-10-01

    Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition. PMID:21990962

  10. Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the Pelvic Fin

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nicholas J.; Hall, Thomas E.; Don, Emily K.; Berger, Silke; Boisvert, Catherine A.; Neyt, Christine; Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Gurevich, David B.; Currie, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition. PMID:21990962

  11. Individual Development and Evolution: Experiential Canalization of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we contrast evolutionary and psychobiological models of individual development to address the idea that individual development occurring in prototypically risky and unsupportive environments can be understood as adaptation. We question traditional evolutionary explanations of individual development, calling on the principle of…

  12. Overdeepening development in a glacial landscape evolution model with quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, S. V.; Egholm, D. L.; Brædstrup, C. F.; Iverson, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified when considering bed abrasion, where rock debris transported in the basal ice drives erosion. However, the relation is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Field observations indicate that the principal mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying, which emphasize the importance of a better way of implementing erosion by quarrying in glacial landscape evolution models. Iverson (2012) introduced a new model for subglacial erosion by quarrying that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form in the lee of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is too high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness, which is neglected in previous quarrying models. Sliding rate, effective pressure, and average bedslope are the primary factors influencing the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. The influence of the effective pressure leads naturally to overdeepenings. However, in contrast to previously used erosion models

  13. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  14. Representations of Cooperative Interactions and Their Development in Preschoolers (Representation des composantes de la cooperation au prescolaire dans des situations ludiques libres).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Catherine

    Six groups of children 2- to 4-years-old were videotaped and interviewed during five 30-minute free play sessions for the purpose of investigating the evolution of children's conceptions of the process of cooperation. Children's answers were organized into six themes, each of which described some aspect of cooperative activity. For each theme,…

  15. Vers une approche globale de l'évolution des HominidésTowards an all-round approach to Hominid evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaline, Jean

    1998-03-01

    Two models of diversification of the common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and men can be proposed on the basis of the distribution of chromosomal rearrangements in extant species and reconsideration of the role played by climate. The small genetic divergence between chimpanzees and humans is greatly amplified at the morphological level, thus constituting the 'human paradox'. This paradox is resolved by the economical and flexible evolutionary mechanism of mutations in regulator genes and the heterochronies they control, which are the true internal clocks of evolution. Changes in cranial morphology are quantified and used to analyse and explain the steps in the transition from great ape to human morphology. By comparison at the various stages of development, it is suggested that from great apes to modern man numerous heterochronies have occured during ontogeny (hypermorphosis, hypomorphosis and post-displacements).

  16. Thinking outside the cortex: social motivation in the evolution and development of language.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Finlay, Barbara L

    2011-03-01

    Alteration of the organization of social and motivational neuroanatomical circuitry must have been an essential step in the evolution of human language. Development of vocal communication across species, particularly birdsong, and new research on the neural organization and evolution of social and motivational circuitry, together suggest that human language is the result of an obligatory link of a powerful cortico-striatal learning system, and subcortical socio-motivational circuitry. PMID:22213910

  17. Developments in Our Understanding of Lunar Crustal Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet-Fisher, J. F.; Joy, K. H.

    2016-05-01

    Our recent understanding of lunar crustal formation has developed through the combination of analytical advances, and the increased availability of anorthositic material sampled as clasts within meteorite regolith breccias.

  18. Perestroika in pharma: evolution or revolution in drug development?

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2010-01-01

    New-drug approvals have remained roughly constant since 1950, while the cost of drug development has soared. It seems likely that a more modular approach to drug discovery and development will evolve, deriving some features from the not-for-profit sector. For this to occur, we must address the deficit in human capital with expertise in both translational medicine and therapeutics and also in regulatory science; utilize regulatory reform to incentivize innovation and the expansion of the precompetitive space; and develop an informatics infrastructure that permits the global, secure, and compliant sharing of heterogeneous data across academic and industry sectors. These developments, likely prompted by the perception of crisis rather than opportunity, will require linked initiatives among academia, the pharmaceutical industry, the US National Institutes of Health, and the US Food and Drug Administration, along with a more adventurous role for venture capital. A failure to respond threatens the United States' lead in biomedical science and in the development and regulation of novel therapeutics. PMID:20687177

  19. Photovoltaic power conditioners: Development, evolution, and the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bower, W.

    1994-07-01

    Market-place acceptance of utility-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems and their accelerated installation into residential and commercial applications are heavily dependent upon the ability of their power conditioning subsystems (PCS) to meet high reliability, low cost, and high performance goals. Many PCS development efforts have taken place over the last 15 years, and those efforts have resulted in substantial PCS hardware improvements. These improvements, however, have generally fallen short of meeting many reliability, cost and performance goals. Continuously evolving semiconductor technology developments, coupled with expanded market opportunities for power processing, offer a significant promise of improving PCS reliability, cost and performance, as they are integrated into future PCS designs. This paper revisits past and present development efforts in PCS design, identifies the evolutionary improvements and describes the new opportunities for PCS designs. The new opportunities are arising from the increased availability and capability of semiconductor switching components, smart power devices, and power integrated circuits (PICS).

  20. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Henry, J Q; Tagawa, K; Martindale, M Q

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia. Much less is known about the development of the hemichordates compared to other deuterostomes. For the first time, cell lineage analyses have been carried out for an indirect-developing representative of the enteropneust hemichordates, Ptychodera flava. Single blastomeres were iontophoretically labeled with Dil at the 2- through 16-cell stages, and their fates followed through development to the tornaria larval stage. The early cleavage pattern of P. flava is similar to that of the direct-developing hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, as well as that displayed by indirect-developing echinoids. The 16-celled embryo contains eight animal "mesomeres," four slightly larger "macromeres," and four somewhat smaller vegetal "micromeres." The first cleavage plane was not found to bear one specific relationship relative to the larval dorsoventral axis. Although individual blastomeres generate discrete clones of cells, the appearance and exact locations of these clones are variable with respect to the embryonic dorsoventral and bilateral axes. The eight animal mesomeres generate anterior (animal) ectoderm of the larva, which includes the apical organ; however, contributions to the apical organ were found to be variable as only a subset of the animal blastomeres end up contributing to its formation and this varies from embryo to embryo. The macromeres generate posterior larval ectoderm, and the vegetal micromeres form all the internal, endomesodermal tissues. These blastomere contributions are similar to those found during development of the only other hemichordate studied, the direct-developing enteropneust, S. kowalevskii. Finally, isolated blastomeres prepared at either the two- or the four-cell stage are capable of forming normal-appearing, miniature tornaria larvae. These findings indicate that the fates of these

  1. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Q.; Tagawa, K.; Martindale, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia. Much less is known about the development of the hemichordates compared to other deuterostomes. For the first time, cell lineage analyses have been carried out for an indirect-developing representative of the enteropneust hemichordates, Ptychodera flava. Single blastomeres were iontophoretically labeled with Dil at the 2- through 16-cell stages, and their fates followed through development to the tornaria larval stage. The early cleavage pattern of P. flava is similar to that of the direct-developing hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, as well as that displayed by indirect-developing echinoids. The 16-celled embryo contains eight animal "mesomeres," four slightly larger "macromeres," and four somewhat smaller vegetal "micromeres." The first cleavage plane was not found to bear one specific relationship relative to the larval dorsoventral axis. Although individual blastomeres generate discrete clones of cells, the appearance and exact locations of these clones are variable with respect to the embryonic dorsoventral and bilateral axes. The eight animal mesomeres generate anterior (animal) ectoderm of the larva, which includes the apical organ; however, contributions to the apical organ were found to be variable as only a subset of the animal blastomeres end up contributing to its formation and this varies from embryo to embryo. The macromeres generate posterior larval ectoderm, and the vegetal micromeres form all the internal, endomesodermal tissues. These blastomere contributions are similar to those found during development of the only other hemichordate studied, the direct-developing enteropneust, S. kowalevskii. Finally, isolated blastomeres prepared at either the two- or the four-cell stage are capable of forming normal-appearing, miniature tornaria larvae. These findings indicate that the fates of these

  2. Evolution Makes More Sense in the Light of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Minelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We highlight some important conceptual issues that biologists should take into account when teaching evolutionary biology or communicating it to the public. We first present conclusions from conceptual development research on how particular human intuitions, namely design teleology and psychological essentialism, influence the understanding of…

  3. Conceptual Evolution and Policy Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Valdes-Cotera, Raul, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the status of the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai as a platform for exchange of ideas and experience in lifelong learning, UNESCO, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, the Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy and the Chinese National Commission for UNESCO joined forces to co-organise the Shanghai International…

  4. Evolution of Growth in the Development of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard; Bierschenk, Inger

    This article presents the third study of a series that has been designed to manifest consciousness and to measure developed competence. The emphasis of the main hypothesis of this experiment has been put on the students ability to adapt to the main idea of a given story and to express his comprehension verbally. The way the two students of the…

  5. The Evolution of Knowledge Networks: An Example for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesenmaier, Julie; Contractor, Noshir

    2001-01-01

    Groupware was used to survey rural development practitioners and policymakers about professional relationships, skills, and expertise. The software created an inventory of the social and knowledge capital of this community of interest but was not enough to sustain ongoing, active participation. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  6. Next generation limb development and evolution: old questions, new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Aimée

    2015-11-15

    The molecular analysis of limb bud development in vertebrates continues to fuel our understanding of the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate the patterning, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic progenitor cells. In recent years, systems biology approaches have moved our understanding of the molecular control of limb organogenesis to the next level by incorporating next generation 'omics' approaches, analyses of chromatin architecture, enhancer-promoter interactions and gene network simulations based on quantitative datasets into experimental analyses. This Review focuses on the insights these studies have given into the gene regulatory networks that govern limb development and into the fin-to-limb transition and digit reductions that occurred during the evolutionary diversification of tetrapod limbs. PMID:26577204

  7. Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

    2004-01-01

    InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

  8. SSME Electrical Harness and Cable Development and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Russ; Heflin, Johnny; Burns, Bob; Camper, Scott J.; Hill, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) electrical harness and cable system consists of the various interconnecting devices necessary for operation of complex rocket engine functions. Thirty seven harnesses incorporate unique connectors, backshell adapters, conductors, insulation, shielding, and physical barriers for a long maintenance-free life while providing the means to satisfy performance requirements and to mitigate adverse environmental influences. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the SSME electrical harness and cable designs as well as the development history and lessons learned.

  9. Evolution of animal models in cancer vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F; Juhasz, Csaba; Gibson, Heather; Veenstra, Jesse

    2015-12-16

    Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity. Although engineered mouse strains have advanced cancer immunotherapy, basic shortcomings remain. For example, multiple mouse strains have to be tested to recapitulate genetic regulation of immune tolerance in humans. Outbred domestic felines more closely parallel humans in the natural development of HER2 positive breast cancer and their varying genetic background. Electrovaccination with heterologous HER2 DNA induces robust adaptive immune responses in cats. Importantly, homologous feline HER2 DNA with a single amino acid substitution elicits unique antibodies to feline mammary tumor cells, unlocking a new vaccine principle. As an alternative approach to targeted vaccination, non-surgical tumor ablation such as cryoablation induces anti-tumor immunity via in situ immunization, particularly when combined with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As strategies for vaccination advance, non-invasive monitoring of host response becomes imperative. As an example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning following administration of tryptophan metabolism tracer [11C]-alpha-methyl-tryptophan (AMT) provides non-invasive imaging of both tumor growth and metabolic activities. Because AMT is a substrate of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that produces the immune regulatory molecule kynurenine, AMT imaging can provide

  10. The comet assay: Reflections on its development, evolution and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra P

    2016-01-01

    The study of DNA damage and its repair is critical to our understanding of human aging and cancer. This review reflects on the development of a simple technique, now known as the comet assay, to study the accumulation of DNA damage and its repair. It describes my journey into aging research and the need for a method that sensitively quantifies DNA damage on a cell-by-cell basis and on a day-by-day basis. My inspirations, obstacles and successes on the path to developing this assay and improving its reliability and sensitivity are discussed. Recent modifications, applications, and the process of standardizing the technique are also described. What was once untried and unknown has become a technique used around the world for understanding and monitoring DNA damage. The comet assay's use has grown exponentially in the new millennium, as emphasis on studying biological phenomena at the single-cell level has increased. I and others have applied the technique across cell types (including germ cells) and species (including bacteria). As it enters new realms and gains clinical relevance, the comet assay may very well illuminate human aging and its prevention. PMID:27036063

  11. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms. PMID:25018763

  12. Pharmacotherapy in the cardiac catheterization laboratory: evolution and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Thind, Guramrinder S; Parida, Raunak; Gupta, Nishant

    2014-01-01

    Many recent innovations have been made in developing new antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in the last few years, with a total of nine new antithrombotic drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration after the year 2000. This has revolutionized the medical therapy given to manage acute coronary syndrome and support cardiac catheterization. The concept of dual antiplatelet therapy has been emphasized, and clopidogrel has emerged as the most-popular second antiplatelet drug after aspirin. Newer P2Y12 inhibitors like prasugrel and ticagrelor have been extensively studied and compared to clopidogrel. The role of glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors is being redefined. Other alternatives to unfractionated heparin have become available, of which enoxaparin and bivalirudin have been studied the most. Apart from these, many more drugs with novel therapeutic targets are being studied and are currently under development. In this review, current evidence on these drugs is presented and analyzed in a way that would facilitate decision making for the clinician. For this analysis, various high-impact clinical trials, pharmacological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews were accessed through the MEDLINE database. Adopting a unique interdisciplinary approach, an attempt has been made to integrate pharmacological and clinical evidence to better understand and appreciate the pros and cons of each of these classes of drugs. PMID:25364258

  13. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms. PMID:25018763

  14. Evolution of vertebrate forebrain development: how many different mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    FOLEY, ANN C.; STERN, CLAUDIO D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 50 years and more, many models have been proposed to explain how the nervous system is initially induced and how it becomes subdivided into gross regions such as forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord. Among these models is the 2-signal model of Nieuwkoop & Nigtevecht (1954), who suggested that an initial signal (‘activation’) from the organiser both neuralises and specifies the forebrain, while later signals (‘transformation’) from the same region progressively caudalise portions of this initial territory. An opposing idea emerged from the work of Otto Mangold (1933) and other members of the Spemann laboratory: 2 or more distinct organisers, emitting different signals, were proposed to be responsible for inducing the head, trunk and tail regions. Since then, evidence has accumulated that supports one or the other model, but it has been very difficult to distinguish between them. Recently, a considerable body of work from mouse embryos has been interpreted as favouring the latter model, and as suggesting that a ‘head organiser’, required for the induction of the forebrain, is spatially separate from the classic organiser (Hensen's node). An extraembryonic tissue, the ‘anterior visceral endoderm’ (AVE), was proposed to be the source of forebrain-inducing signals. It is difficult to find tissues that are directly equivalent embryologically or functionally to the AVE in other vertebrates, which led some (e.g. Kessel, 1998) to propose that mammals have evolved a new way of patterning the head. We will present evidence from the chick embryo showing that the hypoblast is embryologically and functionally equivalent to the mouse AVE. Like the latter, the hypoblast also plays a role in head development. However, it does not act like a true organiser. It induces pre-neural and pre-forebrain markers, but only transiently. Further development of neural and forebrain phenotypes requires additional signals not provided by the hypoblast. In

  15. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary-developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  16. [Demo-economic models of development: evolution and recent trends].

    PubMed

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1983-01-01

    Among the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest was the elaboration of empirical and inductive demographic-economic models to assist in planning. 1 of the disadvantages of existing models and systems of national income accounting was that income distribution was ignored in favor of the total value of production. Demographic variables were not regarded as endogenous. By the early 1970s, the societal changes attendant on rural exodus and urban unemployment, the increasing absorption of traditional structures into the modern sector, and changes in the roles of women and young people had become obvious, and the need for new models that would reflect such changes was clear. Some macromodels designed to assist medium and long range planning were 1st elaborated in the mid 1970s; the Bachue development models were particularly promising because of their improved database. New models were developed which incorporated consumption problems based on basic needs. An increased focus on the interaction of macroeconomic variables with microsociological and demographic variables, the household and family, and employment and the labor market became necessary. The Bachue models, which had been the most successful of recent models in integrating economic and sociodemographic structures and variables, usually include 4 principal modules which cover demography and the educational system, the economy, employment, and income distribution; basic needs models include a 5th module. The Bachue models are based on a general equilibrium model subject to certain constraints, while the basic needs models are based on dynamic disequilibrium models. A major problem of the models is that technological progress is fundamentally exogenous; there is no intimate link between productivity and elevation of the educational level of the labor force. To avoid unmanageable complexity, households are reconstructed for each period on the basis of the demographic and economic data

  17. Zur Entwicklung des qualitativen Adverbs im Deutschen (On the Development of the Qualitative Adverb in German)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraschkewoff, Boris

    1974-01-01

    The contemporary German, predicate adjective and adjectival adverb are expressed by the same form. Although modern grammatical research gathers the various functions of the adjective under "indicator of kind," school practice still separates adjective and adverb. The historical development of qualitative adverbs is outlined. (Text is in German.)…

  18. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  19. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  20. The evolution of Zipf's law indicative of city development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-02-01

    Zipf's law of city-size distributions can be expressed by three types of mathematical models: one-parameter form, two-parameter form, and three-parameter form. The one-parameter and one of the two-parameter models are familiar to urban scientists. However, the three-parameter model and another type of two-parameter model have not attracted attention. This paper is devoted to exploring the conditions and scopes of application of these Zipf models. By mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis, new discoveries are made as follows. First, if the size distribution of cities in a geographical region cannot be described with the one- or two-parameter model, maybe it can be characterized by the three-parameter model with a scaling factor and a scale-translational factor. Second, all these Zipf models can be unified by hierarchical scaling laws based on cascade structure. Third, the patterns of city-size distributions seem to evolve from three-parameter mode to two-parameter mode, and then to one-parameter mode. Four-year census data of Chinese cities are employed to verify the three-parameter Zipf's law and the corresponding hierarchical structure of rank-size distributions. This study is revealing for people to understand the scientific laws of social systems and the property of urban development.

  1. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of “archaic” Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis). PMID:11805284

  2. Similar patterns of cortical expansion during human development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason; Inder, Terrie; Neil, Jeffrey; Dierker, Donna; Harwell, John; Van Essen, David

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of the human infant at term is complexly folded in a similar fashion to adult cortex but has only one third the total surface area. By comparing 12 healthy infants born at term with 12 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that postnatal cortical expansion is strikingly nonuniform: regions of lateral temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex expand nearly twice as much as other regions in the insular and medial occipital cortex. This differential postnatal expansion may reflect regional differences in the maturity of dendritic and synaptic architecture at birth and/or in the complexity of dendritic and synaptic architecture in adults. This expression may also be associated with differential sensitivity of cortical circuits to childhood experience and insults. By comparing human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex, we infer that the pattern of human evolutionary expansion is remarkably similar to the pattern of human postnatal expansion. To account for this correspondence, we hypothesize that it is beneficial for regions of recent evolutionary expansion to remain less mature at birth, perhaps to increase the influence of postnatal experience on the development of these regions or to focus prenatal resources on regions most important for early survival. PMID:20624964

  3. Evolution and development of the mammalian cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Zoltán; Kaas, Jon H.; de Carlos, Juan A.; Hevner, Robert F.; Lein, Ed; Němec, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Comparative developmental studies of the mammalian brain can identify key changes that can generate the diverse structures and functions of brains. We have studied how the neocortex of early mammals became organized into functionally distinct areas, and how the current level of cortical cellular and laminar specialization arose from the simpler premammalian cortex. We demonstrate the neocortical organization in early mammals that is most informative for an understanding of how the large, complex human brain evolved from a long line of ancestors. The radial and tangential enlargement of the cortex was driven by changes in the patterns of cortical neurogenesis, including alterations in the proportions of distinct progenitor types. Some cortical cell populations travel to the cortex through tangential migration, others migrate radially. A number of recent studies have begun to characterize the chick, mouse, human and non-human primate cortical transcriptome to help us understand how gene expression relates to the development, and to the anatomical and functional organization of the adult neocortex. Although all mammalian forms share the basic layout of cortical areas, the areal proportions and distributions are driven by distinct evolutionary pressures acting on sensory and motor experiences during the individual ontogenies. PMID:24776993

  4. Evolution post-opératoire des séquelles de tuberculose pulmonaire chez les séropositifs VIH

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Ayegnon Kouakou; Flavien, Kendja Hypolite; Raphaël, Ouédé; Démine, Blaise; Christophe, Ménéas Gueu; Marie, Ano Kounangui; Hervé, Yangni-Angaté Koffi; Yves, Tanauh

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude rapporte les aspects cliniques et évolutifs des séquelles pulmonaires tuberculeuses (SPT) opérées chez les séropositifs (VIH+). Il s'agit d'une étude prospective transversale réalisée entre Novembre 2005 et Octobre 2012. Elle a porté sur 20 patients VIH+, ayant dans leurs antécédents, une tuberculose pulmonaire (TP) traitée et déclarée guérie, et admise dans ladite période pour une chirurgie de la SPT secondaire. Une enquête sérologique VIH a été réalisée systématiquement au cours du bilan pré-opératoire. Le diagnostic pré-opératoire de la SPT, la mortalité, les complications post- opératoires (CPOP), le séjour hospitalier, le suivi à moyen terme des STP opérées ont été évalués. Les séropositifs étaient VIH1+ (n = 12; 60%), VIH1&2+ (n = 4; 20%) et VIH2+ (n = 4; 20%). La durée moyenne d’évolution des STP était de 26,22 ± 21,3 mois. Les STP étaient les pyothorax ou pleurésies enkystées (n = 16; 80%), le poumon détruit (n = 2;10%) et les dilatations de bronches (n = 2;10%). Les VIH+ ne présentaient pas d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Le séjour hospitalier moyen était 13,1 ± 10,2 jours. Le suivi total était de 82 patients-année avec une moyenne de suivi de 4,2 ± 2,3 ans (extrêmes: 1 et 7 ans). Le taux de mortalité à court et moyen terme était nul. Aucun décès post-opératoire immédiat n'a été noté. Les CPOP immédiates étaient les bullages prolongés chez 75% des immunodéprimés. Les CPOP tardives (n = 3) étaient un syndrome restrictif pulmonaire, un pyothorax persistant et une pachypleurite résiduelle restrictive. A court terme, le taux de guérison radiologique était de 80% (n = 16). PMID:24932331

  5. Orogenic development of the Adrar des Iforas (Tuareg Shield, NE Mali): new geochemical and geochronological data and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Delphine; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Buscail, Francois; Hammor, Dalila

    2016-04-01

    Laser-ablation U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and allanite from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Adrar des Iforas (Northern Mali) allow re-examining the relationships between the different crustal units constituting the western part of the Tuareg Shield, as well as the timing of magmatic and metamorphic events in the West Gondwana Orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism in the Iforas Granulitic Unit (IGU) and at In Bezzeg occurred at 1986 ± 7 Ma and 1988 ± 5 Ma respectively. This age is slightly younger, but consistent with that of the HT granulite facies event characterizing the In Ouzzal granulitic unit (IOGU), thereby substantiating the view that these units once formed a single granulitic belt of c. 800 km long. High-grade metamorphic basement units of the Kidal terrane surrounding the IGU contain Paleoproterozoic magmatic rocks crystallized between 1982 ± 8 Ma and 1966 ± 9 Ma. Inherited components in these rocks (2.1 Ga and 2.3-2.5 Ga) have ages similar to that of detrital zircons at In Bezzeg and to that of basement rocks from the IGU. This is taken as evidence that the Kidal terrane and the IGU formed a single crustal block at least until 1.9 Ga. East of the Adrar fault, the Tin Essako orthogneiss is dated at 2020 ± 5 Ma, but escaped granulite facies metamorphism. During the Neoproterozoic, the Kidal terrane underwent a long-lived continental margin magmatism. To the west, this terrane is bounded by the Tilemsi intra-oceanic island arc, for which a gneissic sub-alkali granite was dated at 716 ± 6 Ma. A synkinematic diorite extends the magmatic activity of the arc down to 643 ± 4 Ma, and, along with litterature data, indicates that the Tilemsi arc had a life span of about 90 Ma. Backward docking to the western margin of the Kidal terrane is documented by migmatites dated at 628 ± 6 Ma. Subduction related processes and the development of the Kidal active margin was responsible for the development of a back-arc basin in the Tafeliant area, with

  6. Orogenic development of the Adrar des Iforas (Tuareg Shield, NE Mali): New geochemical and geochronological data and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Delphine; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Buscail, François; Hammor, Dalila

    2016-05-01

    Laser-ablation U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and allanite from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Adrar des Iforas in Northern Mali allow re-examining the relationships between the different crustal units constituting the western part of the Tuareg Shield, as well as the timing of magmatic and metamorphic events in the West Gondwana Orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism in the Iforas Granulitic Unit (IGU) and at In Bezzeg occurred at 1986 ± 7 Ma and 1988 ± 5 Ma respectively. This age is slightly younger, but consistent with that of the HT granulite facies event characterizing the In Ouzzal granulitic unit (IOGU), thereby substantiating the view that these units once formed a single granulitic belt of c. 800 km long. High-grade metamorphic basement units of the Kidal terrane surrounding the IGU contain Paleoproterozoic magmatic rocks crystallized between 1982 ± 8 Ma and 1966 ± 9 Ma. Inherited components in these rocks (2.1 Ga and 2.3-2.5 Ga) have ages similar to that of detrital zircons at In Bezzeg and to that of basement rocks from the IGU. This is taken as evidence that the Kidal terrane and the IGU formed a single crustal block at least until 1.9 Ga. East of the Adrar fault, the Tin Essako orthogneiss is dated at 2020 ± 5 Ma, but escaped granulite facies metamorphism. During the Neoproterozoic, the Kidal terrane underwent a long-lived continental margin magmatism. To the west, this terrane is bounded by the Tilemsi intra-oceanic island arc, for which a gneissic sub-alkali granite was dated at 716 ± 6 Ma. A synkinematic diorite extends the magmatic activity of the arc down to 643 ± 4 Ma, and, along with literature data, indicates that the Tilemsi arc has a life span of about 90 Ma. Backward docking to the western margin of the Kidal terrane is documented by migmatites dated at 628 ± 6 Ma. Subduction related processes and the development of the Kidal active margin was responsible for the development of a back-arc basin in the Tafeliant area, with

  7. Evolution and development of cell walls in cereal grains

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be contrasted with walls of the endosperm, where the amount of cellulose is relatively low, and the walls are generally not lignified. The low cellulose and lignin contents are possible because the walls of the endosperm perform no load-bearing function in the mature grain and indeed the low levels of these relatively intractable wall components are necessary because they allow rapid degradation of the walls following germination of the grain. The major non-cellulosic components of endosperm walls are usually heteroxylans and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans, with lower levels of xyloglucans, glucomannans, and pectic polysaccharides. Pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucans are the major non-cellulosic wall constituents in most dicot species, in which (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans are usually absent and heteroxylans are found at relatively low levels. Thus, the “core” non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain of the cereals and other grasses are the heteroxylans and, more specifically, arabinoxylans. The (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans appear in the endosperm of some grass species but are essentially absent from others; they may constitute from zero to more than 45% of the cell walls of the endosperm, depending on the species. It is clear that in some cases these (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans function as a major store of metabolizable glucose in the grain. Cereal grains and their constituent cell wall polysaccharides are centrally important as a source of dietary fiber in human societies and breeders have started to select for high levels of non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain. To meet end-user requirements, it is important that we understand cell wall biology in the grain both during development and

  8. Evolution and Development of the Tetrapod Auditory System: an Organ of Corti-Centric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Pan, Ning; Jahan, Israt; Duncan, Jeremy S.; Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Elliott, Karen L.; Kersigo, Jennifer; Yang, Tian

    2013-01-01

    The tetrapod auditory system transmits sound through the outer and middle ear to the organ of Corti or other sound pressure receivers of the inner ear where specialized hair cells translate vibrations of the basilar membrane into electrical potential changes that are conducted by the spiral ganglion neurons to the auditory nuclei. In other systems, notably the vertebrate limb, a detailed connection between the evolutionary variations in adaptive morphology and the underlying alterations in the genetic basis of development has been partially elucidated. In this review, we attempt to correlate evolutionary and partially characterized molecular data into a cohesive perspective of the evolution of the mammalian organ of Corti out of the tetrapod basilar papilla. We propose a stepwise, molecularly partially characterized transformation of the ancestral, vestibular developmental program of the vertebrate ear. This review provides a framework to decipher both discrete steps in development and the evolution of unique functional adaptations of the auditory system. The combined analysis of evolution and development establishes a powerful cross-correlation where conclusions derived from either approach become more meaningful in a larger context not possible through exclusively evolution or development centered perspectives. PMID:23331918

  9. Parallel evolution of male germline epigenetic poising and somatic development in animals.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Bluma J; Silber, Sherman J; McCarrey, John R; Page, David C

    2016-08-01

    Changes in gene regulation frequently underlie changes in morphology during evolution, and differences in chromatin state have been linked with changes in anatomical structure and gene expression across evolutionary time. Here we assess the relationship between evolution of chromatin state in germ cells and evolution of gene regulatory programs governing somatic development. We examined the poised (H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent) epigenetic state in male germ cells from five mammalian and one avian species. We find that core genes poised in germ cells from multiple amniote species are ancient regulators of morphogenesis that sit at the top of transcriptional hierarchies controlling somatic tissue development, whereas genes that gain poising in germ cells from individual species act downstream of core poised genes during development in a species-specific fashion. We propose that critical regulators of animal development gained an epigenetically privileged state in germ cells, manifested in amniotes by H3K4me3/H3K27me3 poising, early in metazoan evolution. PMID:27294618

  10. Education and Poverty in the Global Development Agenda: Emergence, Evolution and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of education and poverty in the current global development agenda. It intends to analyse the emergence, evolution and consolidation of a global agenda, which attributes a key role to education in the fight against poverty. With this objective, the paper addresses four main issues: first, it…

  11. A theoretical examination of the relative importance of evolution management and drug development for managing resistance

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Nathan S.; Day, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a serious public health problem that threatens to thwart our ability to treat many infectious diseases. Repeatedly, the introduction of new drugs has been followed by the evolution of resistance. In principle, there are two complementary ways to address this problem: (i) enhancing drug development and (ii) slowing the evolution of drug resistance through evolutionary management. Although these two strategies are not mutually exclusive, it is nevertheless worthwhile considering whether one might be inherently more effective than the other. We present a simple mathematical model that explores how interventions aimed at these two approaches affect the availability of effective drugs. Our results identify an interesting feature of evolution management that, all else equal, tends to make it more effective than enhancing drug development. Thus, although enhancing drug development will necessarily be a central part of addressing the problem of resistance, our results lend support to the idea that evolution management is probably a very significant component of the solution as well. PMID:25377456

  12. A More Fine-Grained Measure of Students' Acceptance of Evolution: Development of the Inventory of Student Evolution Acceptance—I-SEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Southerland, Sherry

    2012-07-01

    The potential influences of affective perceptions on cognitive engagement in learning, particularly with emotionally charged topics such as evolution, provide justification for acknowledging and assessing learners' attitudes toward content. One approach to determining students' attitudes toward a construct is to explicitly ask them to what degree they accept the related content. This was the approach we took as we developed the Inventory of Student Evolution Acceptance. Our goal was to make a finer-grained instrument that would assess acceptance on three evolution subscales: microevolution, macroevolution, and human evolution. Further, we sought to not conflate understanding with acceptance of the constructs. We began our instrument development with a series of interviews and open-ended questionnaires to determine students' perceptions of evolution acceptance. Based on the responses we developed and field tested a 49-item Likert scale instrument with stems distributed across our three targeted subscales. Using the data from our field test, we reduced the instrument to 24 items evenly distributed across the three subscales, and the revised instrument was again field tested with high school and undergraduate college students. The final instrument has an internal reliability of Cronbach's alpha of 0.96 and the items loaded onto three components that reflect documented evolution acceptance conditions. The instrument development, implications, and applications are discussed.

  13. Vocal Development as a Guide to Modeling the Evolution of Language.

    PubMed

    Oller, D Kimbrough; Griebel, Ulrike; Warlaumont, Anne S

    2016-04-01

    Modeling of evolution and development of language has principally utilized mature units of spoken language, phonemes and words, as both targets and inputs. This approach cannot address the earliest phases of development because young infants are unable to produce such language features. We argue that units of early vocal development-protophones and their primitive illocutionary/perlocutionary forces-should be targeted in evolutionary modeling because they suggest likely units of hominin vocalization/communication shortly after the split from the chimpanzee/bonobo lineage, and because early development of spontaneous vocal capability is a logically necessary step toward vocal language, a root capability without which other crucial steps toward vocal language capability are impossible. Modeling of language evolution/development must account for dynamic change in early communicative units of form/function across time. We argue for interactive contributions of sender/infants and receiver/caregivers in a feedback loop involving both development and evolution and propose to begin computational modeling at the hominin break from the primate communicative background. PMID:26932662

  14. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  15. Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

  16. Toward Agent-Based Models of the Development And Evolution of Business Relations and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Ian F.; Marks, Robert E.; Young, Louise

    Firms achieve competitive advantage in part through the development of cooperative relations with other firms and organisations. We describe a program of research designed to map and model the development of cooperative inter-firm relations, including the processes and paths by which firms may evolve from adversarial to more cooperative relations. Narrative-event-history methods will be used to develop stylised histories of the emergence of business relations in various contexts and to identify relevant causal mechanisms to be included in the agent-based models of relationship and network evolution. The relationship histories will provide the means of assuring the agent-based models developed.

  17. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  18. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods

  19. PHONATION TAKES PRECEDENCE IN DEVELOPMENT AS WELL AS EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE

    PubMed Central

    Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Early development of vocalization in humans is characterized by emerging control of phonation, rather than of prosody or supraglottal articulation. This fact offers an opportunity to the authors of the target article to enrich their characterization of the evolution of differential brain mechanisms in human and non-human primates. Phonation, I suggest, is the initial target of human-specific brain changes in sound-making capability upon which language is founded. PMID:25514957

  20. Dissecting the regulatory switches of development: lessons from enhancer evolution in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Borok, Matthew J.; Tran, Diana A.; Ho, Margaret C. W.; Drewell, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules are non-protein-coding regions of DNA essential for the control of gene expression. One class of regulatory modules is embryonic enhancers, which drive gene expression during development as a result of transcription factor protein binding at the enhancer sequences. Recent comparative studies have begun to investigate the evolution of the sequence architecture within enhancers. These analyses are illuminating the way that developmental biologists think about enhancers by revealing their molecular mechanism of function. PMID:20023155

  1. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars - Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.

    1990-01-01

    An equilibrium geochemical model of the primitive Martian atmosphere-regolith-ocean system that could have existed early in the history of Mars is developed. The results of this model are used to examine the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars and the processes occurring in the Martian ocean that may have contributed to the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Results of this model are compared to those of the Pollack et al. (1987) model.

  2. Tuberculosis Drug Development: History and Evolution of the Mechanism-Based Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Rhee, Kyu Y

    2015-08-01

    Modern tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy is widely viewed as a crowning triumph of anti-infectives research. However, only one new TB drug has entered clinical practice in the past 40 years while drug resistance threatens to further destabilize the pandemic. Here, we review a brief history of TB drug development, focusing on the evolution of mechanism(s)-of-action studies and key conceptual barriers to rational, mechanism-based drugs. PMID:25877396

  3. Genomics, evolution and development of amphioxus and tunicates: The Goldilocks principle.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-06-01

    Morphological comparisons among extant animals have long been used to infer their long-extinct ancestors for which the fossil record is poor or non-existent. For evolution of the vertebrates, the comparison has typically involved amphioxus and vertebrates. Both groups are evolving relatively slowly, and their genomes share a high level of synteny. Both vertebrates and amphioxus have regulative development in which cell fates become fixed only gradually during embryogenesis. Thus, their development fits a modified hourglass model in which constraints are greatest at the phylotypic stage (i.e., the late neurula/early larva), but are somewhat greater on earlier development than on later development. In contrast, the third group of chordates, the tunicates, which are sister group to vertebrates, are evolving rapidly. Constraints on evolution of tunicate genomes are relaxed, and they have discarded key developmental genes and organized much of their coding sequences into operons, which are transcribed as a single mRNA that undergoes trans-splicing. This contrasts with vertebrates and amphioxus, whose genomes are not organized into operons. Concomitantly, tunicates have switched to determinant development with very early fixation of cell fates. Thus, tunicate development more closely fits a progressive divergence model (shaped more like a wine glass than an hourglass) in which the constraints on the zygote and very early development are greatest. This model can help explain why tunicate body plans are so very diverse. The relaxed constraints on development after early cleavage stages are correlated with relaxed constraints on genome evolution. The question remains: which came first? PMID:24665055

  4. Insects as test systems for assessing the potential role of microgravity in biological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernós, I.; Carratalá, M.; González-Jurado, J.; Valverde, J. R.; Calleja, M.; Domingo, A.; Vinós, J.; Cervera, M.; Marco, R.

    Gravity and radiation are undoubtedly the two major environmental factors altered in space. Gravity is a weak force, which creates a permanent potential field acting on the mass of biological systems and their cellular components, strongly reduced in space flights. Developmental systems, particularly at very early stages, provide the larger cellular compartments known, where the effects of alterations in the size of the gravity vector on living organisms can be more effectively tested. The insects, one of the more highly evolved classes of animals in which early development occurs in a syncytial embryo, are systems particularly well suited to test these effects and the specific developmental mechanisms affected. Furthermore, they share some basic features such as small size, short life cycles, relatively high radio-resistance, etc. and show a diversity of developmental strategies and tempos advantageous in experiments of this type in space. Drosophila melanogaster, the current biological paradigm to study development, with so much genetic and evolutionary background available, is clearly the reference organism for these studies. The current evidence on the effects of the physical parameters altered in space flights on insect development indicate a surprising correlation between effects seen on the fast developing and relatively small Drosophila embryo and the more slowly developing and large Carausius morosus system. In relation to the issue of the importance of developmental and environmental constraints in biological evolution, still the missing link in current evolutionary thinking, insects and space facilities for long-term experiments could provide useful experimental settings where to critically assess how development and evolution may be interconnected. Finally, it has to be pointed out that since there are experimental data indicating a possible synergism between microgravity and space radiation, possible effects of space radiation should be taken into

  5. Friends with social benefits: host-microbe interactions as a driver of brain evolution and development?

    PubMed Central

    Stilling, Roman M.; Bordenstein, Seth R.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behavior. In this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development. In particular, we explore the integration of human brain development with evolution, symbiosis, and RNA biology, which together represent a “social triangle” that drives human social behavior and cognition. We argue that, in order to understand how inter-kingdom communication can affect brain adaptation and plasticity, it is inevitable to consider epigenetic mechanisms as important mediators of genome-microbiome interactions on an individual as well as a transgenerational time scale. Finally, we unite these interpretations with the hologenome theory of evolution. Taken together, we propose a tighter integration of neuroscience fields with host-associated microbiology by taking an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25401092

  6. Not just black and white: pigment pattern development and evolution in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Patterson, Larissa B.

    2009-01-01

    Animals display diverse colors and patterns that vary within and between species. Similar phenotypes appear in both closely related and widely divergent taxa. Pigment patterns thus provide an opportunity to explore how development is altered to produce differences in form and whether similar phenotypes share a common genetic basis. Understanding the development and evolution of pigment patterns requires knowledge of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways that produce those patterns. These complex traits provide unparalleled opportunities for integrating studies from ecology and behavior to molecular biology and biophysics. PMID:19073271

  7. Morphological Evolution of Physical Robots through Model-Free Phenotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Luzius; Hauser, Simon; Iida, Fumiya

    2015-01-01

    Artificial evolution of physical systems is a stochastic optimization method in which physical machines are iteratively adapted to a target function. The key for a meaningful design optimization is the capability to build variations of physical machines through the course of the evolutionary process. The optimization in turn no longer relies on complex physics models that are prone to the reality gap, a mismatch between simulated and real-world behavior. We report model-free development and evaluation of phenotypes in the artificial evolution of physical systems, in which a mother robot autonomously designs and assembles locomotion agents. The locomotion agents are automatically placed in the testing environment and their locomotion behavior is analyzed in the real world. This feedback is used for the design of the next iteration. Through experiments with a total of 500 autonomously built locomotion agents, this article shows diversification of morphology and behavior of physical robots for the improvement of functionality with limited resources. PMID:26091255

  8. Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Nancy L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students

  9. Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real-Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental systems (evo-devo) theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully (as acknowledged in traditional evo-devo accounts) and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may underlie the evolution of complex mechanisms for language development and processing. I present two case studies to illustrate how the demands of both real-time communication and language acquisition may be subtly different (and interact). The first case study examines infant-directed speech (IDS). A recent view is that IDS underwent cultural to statistical learning mechanisms that infants use to acquire the speech categories of their language. However, recent data suggest is it may not have evolved to enhance development, but rather to serve a more real-time communicative function. The second case study examines the argument for seemingly specialized mechanisms for learning word meanings (e.g., fast-mapping). Both behavioral and computational work suggest that learning may be much slower and served by general-purpose mechanisms like associative learning. Fast-mapping, then, may be a real-time process meant to serve immediate communication, not learning, by augmenting incomplete vocabulary knowledge with constraints from the current context. Together, these studies suggest that evolutionary accounts consider selection pressure arising from both real-time communicative demands and from the need for accurate language development. PMID:26991438

  10. The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ∼13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion

  11. Decanalization of wing development accompanied the evolution of large wings in high-altitude Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Justin B.; Monette, Matthew J.; Johanning, Evan J.; Sprengelmeyer, Quentin D.; Pool, John E.

    2016-01-01

    In higher organisms, the phenotypic impacts of potentially harmful or beneficial mutations are often modulated by complex developmental networks. Stabilizing selection may favor the evolution of developmental canalization—that is, robustness despite perturbation—to insulate development against environmental and genetic variability. In contrast, directional selection acts to alter the developmental process, possibly undermining the molecular mechanisms that buffer a trait’s development, but this scenario has not been shown in nature. Here, we examined the developmental consequences of size increase in highland Ethiopian Drosophila melanogaster. Ethiopian inbred strains exhibited much higher frequencies of wing abnormalities than lowland populations, consistent with an elevated susceptibility to the genetic perturbation of inbreeding. We then used mutagenesis to test whether Ethiopian wing development is, indeed, decanalized. Ethiopian strains were far more susceptible to this genetic disruption of development, yielding 26 times more novel wing abnormalities than lowland strains in F2 males. Wing size and developmental perturbability cosegregated in the offspring of between-population crosses, suggesting that genes conferring size differences had undermined developmental buffering mechanisms. Our findings represent the first observation, to our knowledge, of morphological evolution associated with decanalization in the same tissue, underscoring the sensitivity of development to adaptive change. PMID:26755605

  12. Decanalization of wing development accompanied the evolution of large wings in high-altitude Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lack, Justin B; Monette, Matthew J; Johanning, Evan J; Sprengelmeyer, Quentin D; Pool, John E

    2016-01-26

    In higher organisms, the phenotypic impacts of potentially harmful or beneficial mutations are often modulated by complex developmental networks. Stabilizing selection may favor the evolution of developmental canalization--that is, robustness despite perturbation--to insulate development against environmental and genetic variability. In contrast, directional selection acts to alter the developmental process, possibly undermining the molecular mechanisms that buffer a trait's development, but this scenario has not been shown in nature. Here, we examined the developmental consequences of size increase in highland Ethiopian Drosophila melanogaster. Ethiopian inbred strains exhibited much higher frequencies of wing abnormalities than lowland populations, consistent with an elevated susceptibility to the genetic perturbation of inbreeding. We then used mutagenesis to test whether Ethiopian wing development is, indeed, decanalized. Ethiopian strains were far more susceptible to this genetic disruption of development, yielding 26 times more novel wing abnormalities than lowland strains in F2 males. Wing size and developmental perturbability cosegregated in the offspring of between-population crosses, suggesting that genes conferring size differences had undermined developmental buffering mechanisms. Our findings represent the first observation, to our knowledge, of morphological evolution associated with decanalization in the same tissue, underscoring the sensitivity of development to adaptive change. PMID:26755605

  13. Ontophyletics of the nervous system: development of the corpus callosum and evolution of axon tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, M J; Lasek, R J; Silver, J

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of nervous systems has included significant changes in the axon tracts of the central nervous system. These evolutionary changes required changes in axonal growth in embryos. During development, many axons reach their targets by following guidance cues that are organized as pathways in the embryonic substrate, and the overall pattern of the major axon tracts in the adult can be traced back to the fundamental pattern of such substrate pathways. Embryological and comparative anatomical studies suggest that most axon tracts, such as the anterior commissure, have evolved by the modified use of preexisting substrate pathways. On the other hand, recent developmental studies suggest that a few entirely new substrate pathways have arisen during evolution; these apparently provided opportunities for the formation of completely new axon tracts. The corpus callosum, which is found only in placental mammals, may be such a truly new axon tract. We propose that the evolution of the corpus callosum is founded on the emergence of a new preaxonal substrate pathway, the "glial sling," which bridges the two halves of the embryonic forebrain only in placental mammals. Images PMID:6577462

  14. Mapping arealisation of the visual cortex of non-primate species: lessons for development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Bourne, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of the visual stimulus takes place at the level of the neocortex, organized in anatomically distinct and functionally unique areas. Primates, including humans, are heavily dependent on vision, with approximately 50% of their neocortical surface dedicated to visual processing and possess many more visual areas than any other mammal, making them the model of choice to study visual cortical arealisation. However, in order to identify the mechanisms responsible for patterning the developing neocortex, specifying area identity as well as elucidate events that have enabled the evolution of the complex primate visual cortex, it is essential to gain access to the cortical maps of alternative species. To this end, species including the mouse have driven the identification of cellular markers, which possess an area-specific expression profile, the development of new tools to label connections and technological advance in imaging techniques enabling monitoring of cortical activity in a behaving animal. In this review we present non-primate species that have contributed to elucidating the evolution and development of the visual cortex. We describe the current understanding of the mechanisms supporting the establishment of areal borders during development, mainly gained in the mouse thanks to the availability of genetically modified lines but also the limitations of the mouse model and the need for alternate species. PMID:25071460

  15. Language and life history: a new perspective on the development and evolution of human language.

    PubMed

    Locke, John L; Bogin, Barry

    2006-06-01

    It has long been claimed that Homo sapiens is the only species that has language, but only recently has it been recognized that humans also have an unusual pattern of growth and development. Social mammals have two stages of pre-adult development: infancy and juvenility. Humans have two additional prolonged and pronounced life history stages: childhood, an interval of four years extending between infancy and the juvenile period that follows, and adolescence, a stage of about eight years that stretches from juvenility to adulthood. We begin by reviewing the primary biological and linguistic changes occurring in each of the four pre-adult ontogenetic stages in human life history. Then we attempt to trace the evolution of childhood and juvenility in our hominin ancestors. We propose that several different forms of selection applied in infancy and childhood; and that, in adolescence, elaborated vocal behaviors played a role in courtship and intrasexual competition, enhancing fitness and ultimately integrating performative and pragmatic skills with linguistic knowledge in a broad faculty of language. A theoretical consequence of our proposal is that fossil evidence of the uniquely human stages may be used, with other findings, to date the emergence of language. If important aspects of language cannot appear until sexual maturity, as we propose, then a second consequence is that the development of language requires the whole of modern human ontogeny. Our life history model thus offers new ways of investigating, and thinking about, the evolution, development, and ultimately the nature of human language. PMID:17214017

  16. Space Launch System Spacecraft/Payloads Integration and Evolution Office Advanced Development FY 2014 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 36 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2014.

  17. Development and Evolution of the Amniote Integument: Current Landscape and Future Horizon

    PubMed Central

    CHUONG, CHENG-MING; HOMBERGER, DOMINIQUE G.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on the development and evolution of the amniote integument begins with a discussion of the adaptations to terrestrial conditions, the acquisition of water-impermeability by the reptilian integument, and the initial formation of filamentous integumentary appendages that pave the way towards avian flight. Recent feather fossils are reviewed and a definition of feathers is developed. Hierarchical models are proposed for the formation of complex structures, such as feathers. Molecular signals that alter the phenotype of integumentary appendages at different levels of the hierarchy are presented. Tissue interactions and the roles of keratins in evolution are discussed and linked to their bio-mechanical properties. The role of mechanical forces on patterning is explored. Elaborate extant feather variants are introduced. The regeneration/gene mis-expression protocol for the chicken feather is established as a testable model for the study of biological structures. The adaptations of the mammalian distal limb end organs to terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic conditions are discussed. The development and cycling of hair are reviewed from a molecular perspective. These contributions reveal that the structure and function of diverse integumentary appendages are variations superimposed on a common theme, and that their formation is modular, hierarchical, and cyclical. They further reveal that these mechanisms can be understood at the molecular level, and that an integrative and organismal approach to studying integumentary appendages is needed. We propose that future research should foster interdisciplinary approaches, pursue understanding at the cellular and molecular level, analyze interactions between the environment and genome, and recognize the contributions of variation in morphogenesis and evolution. PMID:12949766

  18. LORICA - A new model for linking landscape and soil profile evolution: Development and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Soils and landscapes evolve in tandem. Landscape position is a strong determinant of vertical soil development, which has often been formalized in the catena concept. At the same time, soil properties are strong determinants of geomorphic processes such as overland erosion, landsliding and creep. We present a new soilscape evolution model; LORICA, to study these numerous interactions between soil and landscape development. The model is based on the existing landscape evolution model LAPSUS and the soil formation model MILESD. The model includes similar soil formation processes as MILESD, but the main novelties include the consideration of more layers and the dynamic adaption of the number of layers as a function of the soil profile's heterogeneity. New processes in the landscape evolution component include a negative feedback of vegetation and armouring and particle size selectivity of the erosion-deposition process. In order to quantify these different interactions, we present a full sensitivity analysis of the input parameters. First results show that the model successfully simulates various soil-landscape interactions, leading to outputs where the surface changes in the landscape clearly depend on soil development, and soil changes depend on landscape location. Sensitivity analysis of the model confirms that soil and landscape interact: variables controlling amount and position of fine clay have the largest effect on erosion, and erosion variables control among others the amount of chemical weathering. These results show the importance of particle size distribution, and especially processes controlling the presence of finer clay particles that are easily eroded, both for the resulting landscape form as for the resulting soil profiles. Further research will have to show whether this is specific to the boundary conditions of this study or a general phenomenon.

  19. Maternal Lipid Provisioning Mirrors Evolution of Reproductive Strategies in Direct-Developing Whelks.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sergio A; Phillips, Nicole E; Sewell, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    The energetic input that offspring receive from their mothers is a well-studied maternal effect that can influence the evolution of life histories. Using the offspring of three sympatric whelks: Cominella virgata (one embryo per capsule); Cominella maculosa (multiple embryos per capsule); and Haustrum scobina (multiple embryos per capsule and nurse-embryo consumption), we examined how contrasting reproductive strategies mediate inter- and intraspecific differences in hatchling provisioning. Total lipid content (as measured in μg hatchling(-1) ± SE) was unrelated to size among the 3 species; the hatchlings of H. scobina were the smallest but had the highest lipid content (33.8 ± 8.1 μg hatchling(-1)). In offspring of C. maculosa, lipid content was 6.6 ± 0.4 μg hatchling(-1), and in offspring of C. virgata, it was 21.7 ± 3.2 μg hatchling(-1) The multi-encapsulated hatchlings of C. maculosa and H. scobina were the only species that contained the energetic lipids, wax ester (WE) and methyl ester (ME). However, the overall composition of energetic lipid between hatchlings of the two Cominella species reflected strong affinities of taxonomy, suggesting a phylogenetic evolution of the non-adelphophagic development strategy. Inter- and intracapsular variability in sibling provisioning was highest in H. scobina, a finding that implies less control of allocation to individual hatchlings in this adelphophagic developer. We suggest that interspecific variability of lipids offers a useful approach to understanding the evolution of maternal provisioning in direct-developing species. PMID:27365414

  20. Discrete element modeling of rock deformation, fracture network development and permeability evolution under hydraulic stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shouchun Deng; Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang

    2011-02-01

    Key challenges associated with the EGS reservoir development include the ability to reliably predict hydraulic fracturing and the deformation of natural fractures as well as estimating permeability evolution of the fracture network with time. We have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a network flow model. In DEM model, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external and internal load is applied. The natural fractures are represented by a series of connected line segments. Mechanical bonds that intersect with such line segments are removed from the DEM model. A network flow model using conjugate lattice to the DEM network is developed and coupled with the DEM. The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms the mechanical bonds and breaks them if the deformation reaches a prescribed threshold value. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability of the flow network, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, intimately coupling the two processes. The intimate coupling between fracturing/deformation of fracture networks and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM- network flow simulations necessary in order to accurately evaluate the permeability evolution, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be

  1. Emerging roles of non-coding RNAs in brain evolution, development, plasticity and disease

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are being characterized at a rapid pace, driven by recent paradigm shifts in our understanding of genomic architecture, regulation and transcriptional output, as well as by innovations in sequencing technologies and computational and systems biology. These ncRNAs can interact with DNA, RNA and protein molecules; engage in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities; and have roles in nuclear organization and transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes. This expanding inventory of ncRNAs is implicated in mediating a broad spectrum of processes including brain evolution, development, synaptic plasticity and disease pathogenesis. PMID:22814587

  2. A software development and evolution model based on decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, J. Christian; Dong, Jinghuan; Maly, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    Design is a complex activity whose purpose is to construct an artifact which satisfies a set of constraints and requirements. However the design process is not well understood. The software design and evolution process is the focus of interest, and a three dimensional software development space organized around a decision-making paradigm is presented. An initial instantiation of this model called 3DPM(sub p) which was partly implemented, is presented. Discussion of the use of this model in software reuse and process management is given.

  3. Role of maternal thyroid hormones in the developing neocortex and during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Denise; Huttner, Wieland B

    2013-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g., caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic impairment and mental retardation, underlining the importance of the maternal thyroid hormone contribution. In fact, iodine intake, which is essential for thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland, has been related to the expansion of the brain, associated with the increased cognitive capacities during human evolution. Because thyroid hormones regulate transcriptional activity of target genes via their nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), even mild and transient changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Here we summarize how thyroid hormones may have influenced human brain evolution through the adaptation to new habitats, concomitant with changes in diet and, therefore, iodine intake. Further, we review the current picture we gained from experimental studies in rodents on the function of maternal thyroid hormones during developmental neurogenesis. We aim to evaluate the effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency as well as lack of THRs and transporters on brain development and function, shedding light on the cellular behavior conducted by thyroid hormones. PMID:23882187

  4. Role of maternal thyroid hormones in the developing neocortex and during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Denise; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g., caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic impairment and mental retardation, underlining the importance of the maternal thyroid hormone contribution. In fact, iodine intake, which is essential for thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland, has been related to the expansion of the brain, associated with the increased cognitive capacities during human evolution. Because thyroid hormones regulate transcriptional activity of target genes via their nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), even mild and transient changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Here we summarize how thyroid hormones may have influenced human brain evolution through the adaptation to new habitats, concomitant with changes in diet and, therefore, iodine intake. Further, we review the current picture we gained from experimental studies in rodents on the function of maternal thyroid hormones during developmental neurogenesis. We aim to evaluate the effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency as well as lack of THRs and transporters on brain development and function, shedding light on the cellular behavior conducted by thyroid hormones. PMID:23882187

  5. Molecular development of chondrichthyan claspers and the evolution of copulatory organs

    PubMed Central

    O'Shaughnessy, Katherine L.; Dahn, Randall D.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest known vertebrate copulatory organs are claspers, paired penis-like structures that are associated with evolution of internal fertilization and viviparity in Devonian placoderms. Today, only male chondrichthyans possess claspers, which extend from posterior pelvic fins and function as intromittent organs. Here we report that clasper development from pelvic fins of male skates is controlled by hormonal regulation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signalling is necessary for male clasper development and is sufficient to induce clasper cartilages in females. Androgen receptor (AR) controls the male-specific pattern of Shh in pelvic fins by regulation of Hand2. We identify an androgen response element (ARE) in the Hand2 locus and present biochemical evidence that AR can directly bind the Hand2 ARE. Together, our results suggest that the genetic circuit for appendage development evolved an androgen regulatory input, which prolonged signalling activity and drove clasper skeletogenesis in male fins. PMID:25868783

  6. [Centennial retrospective on the evolution and development of the nursing profession in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kwua-Yun; Chang, Shu-Rong

    2014-08-01

    This article explores the evolution and development of the Taiwanese nursing profession. After introducing the origins of nursing, this article proceeds to introduce nursing during various periods in Taiwan, including the early-Qing Dynasty, foreign missionary nursing, the Japanese Colonial Era, and the Nationalist Chinese Era following World War Two up to the present. The authors then present the current situation in the Taiwanese nursing profession in terms of gender issues, high-technology developments, educational issues, the nursing licensing examination, hiring and training, multiple role functions, and the skill-mix care model. Finally, the authors make recommendations for the further development and improvement of the nursing profession in Taiwan. PMID:25125159

  7. Modeling of the evolution of steppe chernozems and development of the method of pedogenetic chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisetskii, F. N.; Stolba, V. F.; Goleusov, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    Geoarchaeological methods were used to study chronosequences of surface soils in the steppe zone and to trace soil evolution during the Late Holocene in northwestern Crimea. It was found that the morphological and functional "maturity" of the humus horizons in steppe chernozems of the Late Holocene was reached in about 1600-1800 yrs. After this, their development decelerated irreversibly. The maximum concentration of trace elements accumulated in these horizons in the course of pedogenesis was reached in 1400 yrs. A new method of pedogenetic chronology based on the model chronofunction of the development of irreversible results of pedogenesis over time is suggested. Original pedochronological data and growth functions—the most suitable models for simulating pedogenesis over the past three thousand years—suggest that the development of morphological features of soil as an organomineral natural body follows growth patterns established for biological systems.

  8. Regulatory punctuated equilibrium and convergence in the evolution of developmental pathways in direct-developing sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Popodi, Ellen M; Kauffman, Jeffery S; Sly, Belinda J; Turner, F Rudolf; Morris, Valerie B; Raff, Rudolf A

    2003-01-01

    We made hybrid crosses between closely and distantly related sea urchin species to test two hypotheses about the evolution of gene regulatory systems in the evolution of ontogenetic pathways and larval form. The first hypothesis is that gene regulatory systems governing development evolve in a punctuational manner during periods of rapid morphological evolution but are relatively stable over long periods of slow morphological evolution. We compared hybrids between direct and indirect developers from closely and distantly related families. Hybrids between eggs of the direct developer Heliocidaris erythrogramma and sperm of the 4-million year distant species H. tuberculata, an indirect developer, restored feeding larval structures and paternal gene expression that were lost in the evolution of the direct-developing maternal parent. Hybrids resulting from the cross between eggs of H. erythrogramma and sperm of the 40-million year distant indirect-developer Pseudoboletia maculata are strikingly similar to hybrids between the congeneric hybrids. The marked similarities in ontogenetic trajectory and morphological outcome in crosses of involving either closely or distantly related indirect developing species indicates that their regulatory mechanisms interact with those of H. erythrogramma in the same way, supporting remarkable conservation of molecular control pathways among indirect developers. Second, we tested the hypothesis that convergent developmental pathways in independently evolved direct developers reflect convergence of the underlying regulatory systems. Crosses between two independently evolved direct-developing species from two 70-million year distant families, H. erythrogramma and Holopneustes purpurescens, produced harmoniously developing hybrid larvae that maintained the direct mode of development and did not exhibit any obvious restoration of indirect-developing features. These results are consistent with parallel evolution of direct-developing features

  9. The development and evolution of insect mouthparts as revealed by the expression patterns of gnathocephalic genes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bryan T; Peterson, Michael D; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    To understand better both the development and evolution of insect mouthparts, we have compared the expression pattern of several developmentally important genes in insects with either mandibulate or stylate-haustellate mouthparts. Specifically, we examined the expression of the proboscipedia (pb) and Distal-less (Dll) gene products as well as three regulators of pb, Sex combs reduced (Scr), Deformed (Dfd), and cap 'n' collar (cnc). These genes are known to control the identity of cells in the gnathal segments of Drosophila melanogaster and would appear to have similar conserved functions in other insects. Together we have made an atlas of gene expression in the heads of three insects: Thermobia domestica and Acheta domestica, which likely exemplify the mandibulate mouthparts present in the common insect ancestor, and Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has piercing-sucking mouth parts that are typical of the Hemiptera. At the earliest stages of embryogenesis, only the expression of pb was found to differ dramatically between Oncopeltus and the other insects examined, although significant differences were observed later in development. This difference in pb expression reflects an apparent divergence in the specification of gnathal identity between mandibulate and stylate-haustellate mouthparts, which may result from a "phylogenetic homeosis" that occurred during the evolution of the Hemiptera. PMID:12004967

  10. Evolution of JAK-STAT Pathway Components: Mechanisms and Role in Immune System Development

    PubMed Central

    Liongue, Clifford; O'Sullivan, Lynda A.; Trengove, Monique C.; Ward, Alister C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lying downstream of a myriad of cytokine receptors, the Janus kinase (JAK) – Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is pivotal for the development and function of the immune system, with additional important roles in other biological systems. To gain further insight into immune system evolution, we have performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the JAK-STAT pathway components, including the key negative regulators of this pathway, the SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP), Protein inhibitors against Stats (PIAS), and Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins across a diverse range of organisms. Results Our analysis has demonstrated significant expansion of JAK-STAT pathway components co-incident with the emergence of adaptive immunity, with whole genome duplication being the principal mechanism for generating this additional diversity. In contrast, expansion of upstream cytokine receptors appears to be a pivotal driver for the differential diversification of specific pathway components. Conclusion Diversification of JAK-STAT pathway components during early vertebrate development occurred concurrently with a major expansion of upstream cytokine receptors and two rounds of whole genome duplications. This produced an intricate cell-cell communication system that has made a significant contribution to the evolution of the immune system, particularly the emergence of adaptive immunity. PMID:22412924

  11. Microbes in the coral holobiont: partners through evolution, development, and ecological interactions

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Janelle R.; Rivera, Hanny E.; Closek, Collin J.; Medina, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, genetic and genomic studies have revealed the astonishing diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms. Emergence and expansion of the human microbiome project has reshaped our thinking about how microbes control host health—not only as pathogens, but also as symbionts. In coral reef environments, scientists have begun to examine the role that microorganisms play in coral life history. Herein, we review the current literature on coral-microbe interactions within the context of their role in evolution, development, and ecology. We ask the following questions, first posed by McFall-Ngai et al. (2013) in their review of animal evolution, with specific attention to how coral-microbial interactions may be affected under future environmental conditions: (1) How do corals and their microbiome affect each other's genomes? (2) How does coral development depend on microbial partners? (3) How is homeostasis maintained between corals and their microbial symbionts? (4) How can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of coral-microbial interactions? Elucidating the role that microorganisms play in the structure and function of the holobiont is essential for understanding how corals maintain homeostasis and acclimate to changing environmental conditions. PMID:25621279

  12. Convective scale interaction: Arc cloud lines and the development and evolution of deep convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, James Francis Whitehurst

    1986-01-01

    Information is used from satellite data and research aircraft data to provide new insights concerning the mesoscale development and evolution of deep convection in an atmosphere typified by weak synoptic-scale forcing. The importance of convective scale interaction in the development and evolution of deep convection is examined. This interaction is shown to manifest itself as the merger and intersection of thunderstorm outflow boundaries (arc cloud lines) with other convective lines, areas or boundaries. Using geostationary satellite visible and infrared data convective scale interaction is shown to be responsible for over 85 percent of the intense convection over the southeast U.S. by late afternoon, and a majority of that area's afternoon rainfall. The aircraft observations provided valuable information concerning critically important regions of the arc cloud line: (1) the cool outflow region, (2) the density surge line interface region; and (3) the sub-cloud region above the surge line. The observations when analyzed with rapid scan satellite data, helped in defining the arc cloud line's life cycle as 3 evolving stages.

  13. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  14. Evolution-development congruence in pattern formation dynamics: Bifurcations in gene expression and regulation of networks structures.

    PubMed

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Search for possible relationships between phylogeny and ontogeny is important in evolutionary-developmental biology. Here we uncover such relationships by numerical evolution and unveil their origin in terms of dynamical systems theory. By representing developmental dynamics of spatially located cells with gene expression dynamics with cell-to-cell interaction under external morphogen gradient, gene regulation networks are evolved under mutation and selection with the fitness to approach a prescribed spatial pattern of expressed genes. For most numerical evolution experiments, evolution of pattern over generations and development of pattern by an evolved network exhibit remarkable congruence. Both in the evolution and development pattern changes consist of several epochs where stripes are formed in a short time, while for other temporal regimes, pattern hardly changes. In evolution, these quasi-stationary regimes are generations needed to hit relevant mutations, while in development, they are due to some gene expression that varies slowly and controls the pattern change. The morphogenesis is regulated by combinations of feedback or feedforward regulations, where the upstream feedforward network reads the external morphogen gradient, and generates a pattern used as a boundary condition for the later patterns. The ordering from up to downstream is common in evolution and development, while the successive epochal changes in development and evolution are represented as common bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory, which lead to the evolution-development congruence. Mechanism of exceptional violation of the congruence is also unveiled. Our results provide a new look on developmental stages, punctuated equilibrium, developmental bottlenecks, and evolutionary acquisition of novelty in morphogenesis. PMID:26678220

  15. [The influence of Janicki cercomer theory on the development of platyhelminthes systematics and evolution investigations].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present the development of ideas about the provenience of parasitic helminths and the phylogenetical relationships within this taxon, since the publication of the "cercomer theory" just to nowadays. The following essentials of the Janicki theory are outlined: main differences between free-living Turbellaria and parasitic platyhelminths (ciliated epithelium in Turbellaria versus unciliated surface in the others); universality of the cercomer presence in Monogenea, Digenea and Cestoda; evolutionary changes in the morphology and function of the cercomer; homology of the caudal appendices of all parasitic helminths; the subsequent evolution of parasitic platyhelminthes from the ancestor to Monogena, Digenea and Cestoda; proposition to establish a new common taxon--Cercomerophora--for these three groups. In this background the evolution of evolutionary ideas is reviewed, divided into two periods: up to the eighties of the XX century, and up to date. The first period can be characterised by the criticism of some points of the "cercomer theory" and formulation of some new hypotheses; these are those of Fuhrmann, Bychovsky, Llewellyn, Price and Malmberg, which: questioned the homology of the cercarial tail with the caudal appendices of Monogenea and Cestoda; rejected Digenea from the common group; established the common taxon--Cercomeromorpha--comprising only Monogenea and Cestoda; opposed the idea of radial evolution of three main groups of Platyhelmithes (Turbellaria, Digenea and Cercomeromorpha) to the idea of subsequent evolution presented by Janicki. The differences between these last hypotheses are also underlined, arising mainly from the different ideas on the importance of particular features as the evolutionary indicators of affinities between and within the taxons. As to the hypotheses dealing with the evolution of particular groups of parasitic platyhelminths formulated at the same period, the publications of Freeman and Jarecka

  16. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  17. Evolution of the IBDM Structural Latch Development into a Generic Simplified Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVriendt, K.; Dittmer, H.; Vrancken, D.; Urmston, P.; Gracia, O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution in the development of the structural latch for the International Berthing Docking Mechanism (IBDM, see Figure 1). It reports on the lessons learned since completion of the test program on the engineering development unit of the first generation latching system in 2007. The initial latch design has been through a second generation concept in 2008, and now evolved into a third generation of this mechanism. Functional and structural testing on the latest latch hardware has recently been completed with good results. The IBDM latching system will provide the structural connection between two mated space vehicles after berthing or docking. The mechanism guarantees that the interface seals become compressed to form a leak-tight pressure system that creates a passageway for the astronauts.

  18. Contribution of genoarchitecture to understanding forebrain evolution and development, with particular emphasis on the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Medina, Loreta; Bupesh, Munisamy; Abellán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a forebrain center involved in functions and behaviors that are critical for survival (such as control of the neuroendocrine system and homeostasis, and reproduction and fear/escape responses) and in cognitive functions such as attention and emotional learning. In mammals, the amygdala is highly complex, with multiple subdivisions, neuronal subtypes, and connections, making it very difficult to understand its functional organization and evolutionary origin. Since evolution is the consequence of changes that occurred in development, herein we review developmental data based on genoarchitecture and fate mapping in mammals (in the mouse model) and other vertebrates in order to identify its basic components and embryonic origin in different species and understand how they changed in evolution. In all tetrapods studied, the amygdala includes at least 4 components: (1) a ventral pallial part, characterized by expression of Lhx2 and Lhx9, that includes part of the basal amygdalar complex in mammals and a caudal part of the dorsal ventricular ridge in sauropsids and also produces a cell subpopulation of the medial amygdala; (2) a striatal part, characterized by expression of Pax6 and/or Islet1, which includes the central amygdala in different species; (3) a pallidal part, characterized by expression of Nkx2.1 and, in amniotes, Lhx6, which includes part of the medial amygdala, and (4) a hypothalamic part (derived from the supraoptoparaventricular domain or SPV), characterized by Otp and/or Lhx5 expression, which produces an important subpopulation of cells of the medial extended amygdala (medial amygdala and/or medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Importantly, the size of the SPV domain increases upon reduction or lack of Nkx2.1 function in the hypothalamus. It appears that Nkx2.1 expression was downregulated in the alar hypothalamus during evolution to mammals, which may have produced an enlargement of SPV and the amygdalar cell subpopulation

  19. Evolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala de 2005 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ebongue, Cécile Okalla; Tsiazok, Martial Dongmo; Mefo'o, Jean Pierre Nda; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Beyiha, Gérard; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude vise à déterminer le profil de résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala (Cameroun) et analyser leur évolution dans le temps. Méthodes Etude rétrospective, sur une période de huit ans (2005 - 2012), portant sur l'ensemble des souches d'entérobactéries isolées chez les malades ambulatoires et hospitalisés. Les prélèvements ont été analysés au laboratoire de bactériologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala. Résultats Les entérobactéries étaient les germes les plus fréquents sur l'ensemble des souches isolées. Nous avons noté une prédominance d’Escherichia coli (48,5%) et de Klebsiella pneumoniae (32,8%). Pendant la période d’étude, nous avons observé des taux de résistance élevés aux principales classes d'antibiotiques, et une augmentation entre 2005 et 2012 de 29,1% à 51,6% pour les céphalosporines de troisième génération, de 29,2% à 44% pour la ciprofloxacine. L'imipénème, l'amikacine et la fosfomycine étaient les molécules les plus actives avec respectivement 1,3%, 12,9% et 13,4% des souches d'entérobactéries résistantes. Conclusion L’évolution des résistances des entérobactéries aux antibiotiques est un phénomène réel dans la ville de Douala. Il expose à des difficultés de prise en charge thérapeutique des infections. Lamaitrise actuelle de ce phénomène est une véritable urgence et nécessite une implication des pouvoirs publics. Des tests spécifiques de recherche des bétalactamases à spectre élargi (BLSE) et AmpC doivent être mis en place dans nos laboratoires afin de mettre en évidence les différents phénotypes de résistances. PMID:26140070

  20. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC. PMID:25200250

  1. The genetic basis of modularity in the development and evolution of the vertebrate dentition.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, D W

    2001-01-01

    The construction of organisms from units that develop under semi-autonomous genetic control (modules) has been proposed to be an important component of their ability to undergo adaptive phenotypic evolution. The organization of the vertebrate dentition as a system of repeated parts provides an opportunity to study the extent to which phenotypic modules, identified by their evolutionary independence from other such units, are related to modularity in the genetic control of development. The evolutionary history of vertebrates provides numerous examples of both correlated and independent evolution of groups of teeth. The dentition itself appears to be a module of the dermal exoskeleton, from which it has long been under independent genetic control. Region-specific tooth loss has been a common trend in vertebrate evolution. Novel deployment of teeth and reacquisition of lost teeth have also occurred, although less frequently. Tooth shape differences within the dentition may be discontinuous (referred to as heterodonty) or graded. The occurrence of homeotic changes in tooth shape provides evidence for the decoupling of tooth shape and location in the course of evolution. Potential mechanisms for region-specific evolutionary tooth loss are suggested by a number of mouse gene knockouts and human genetic dental anomalies, as well as a comparison between fully-developed and rudimentary teeth in the dentition of rodents. These mechanisms include loss of a tooth-type-specific initiation signal, alterations of the relative strength of inductive and inhibitory signals acting at the time of tooth initiation and the overall reduction in levels of proteins required for the development of all teeth. Ectopic expression of tooth initiation signals provides a potential mechanism for the novel deployment or reacquisition of teeth; a single instance is known of a gene whose ectopic expression in transgenic mice can lead to ectopic teeth. Differences in shape between incisor and molar

  2. Development and Evolution of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia and Their Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.; Jones, K.; Fariñas, I.; Maklad, A.; Lee, J.; Reichardt, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    The development and evolution of the inner ear sensory patches and their innervation is reviewed. Recent molecular developmental data suggest that development of these sensory patches is a developmental recapitulation of the evolutionary history. These data suggest that the ear generates multiple, functionally diverse sensory epithelia by dividing a single sensory primordium. Those epithelia will establish distinct identities through the overlapping expression of genes of which only a few are currently known. One of these distinctions is the unique pattern of hair cell polarity. A hypothesis is presented on how the hair cell polarity may relate to the progressive segregation of the six sensory epithelia. Besides being markers for sensory epithelia development, neurotrophins are also expressed in delaminating cells that migrate toward the developing vestibular and cochlear ganglia. These delaminating cells originate from multiple sites at or near the developing sensory epithelia and some also express neuronal markers such as NeuroD. The differential origin of precursors raises the possibility that some sensory neurons acquire positional information before they delaminate the ear. Such an identity of these delaminating sensory neurons may be used both to navigate their dendrites to the area they delaminated from, as well as to help them navigate to their central target. The navigational properties of sensory neurons as well as the acquisition of discrete sensory patch phenotypes implies a much more sophisticated subdivision of the developing otocyst than the few available gene expression studies suggest. PMID:12382272

  3. Maternal-fetal unit interactions and eutherian neocortical development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Juan F.; Kaune, Heidy; Maliqueo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The conserved brain design that primates inherited from early mammals differs from the variable adult brain size and species-specific brain dominances observed across mammals. This variability relies on the emergence of specialized cerebral cortical regions and sub-compartments, triggering an increase in brain size, areal interconnectivity and histological complexity that ultimately lies on the activation of developmental programs. Structural placental features are not well correlated with brain enlargement; however, several endocrine pathways could be tuned with the activation of neuronal progenitors in the proliferative neocortical compartments. In this article, we reviewed some mechanisms of eutherians maternal–fetal unit interactions associated with brain development and evolution. We propose a hypothesis of brain evolution where proliferative compartments in primates become activated by “non-classical” endocrine placental signals participating in different steps of corticogenesis. Changes in the inner placental structure, along with placenta endocrine stimuli over the cortical proliferative activity would allow mammalian brain enlargement with a concomitant shorter gestation span, as an evolutionary strategy to escape from parent-offspring conflict. PMID:23882189

  4. Evolution, Development, and Function of the Pulmonary Surfactant System in Normal and Perturbed Environments.

    PubMed

    Orgeig, Sandra; Morrison, Janna L; Daniels, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant lipids and proteins form a surface active film at the air-liquid interface of internal gas exchange organs, including swim bladders and lungs. The system is uniquely positioned to meet both the physical challenges associated with a dynamically changing internal air-liquid interface, and the environmental challenges associated with the foreign pathogens and particles to which the internal surface is exposed. Lungs range from simple, transparent, bag-like units to complex, multilobed, compartmentalized structures. Despite this anatomical variability, the surfactant system is remarkably conserved. Here, we discuss the evolutionary origin of the surfactant system, which likely predates lungs. We describe the evolution of surfactant structure and function in invertebrates and vertebrates. We focus on changes in lipid and protein composition and surfactant function from its antiadhesive and innate immune to its alveolar stability and structural integrity functions. We discuss the biochemical, hormonal, autonomic, and mechanical factors that regulate normal surfactant secretion in mature animals. We present an analysis of the ontogeny of surfactant development among the vertebrates and the contribution of different regulatory mechanisms that control this development. We also discuss environmental (oxygen), hormonal and biochemical (glucocorticoids and glucose) and pollutant (maternal smoking, alcohol, and common "recreational" drugs) effects that impact surfactant development. On the adult surfactant system, we focus on environmental variables including temperature, pressure, and hypoxia that have shaped its evolution and we discuss the resultant biochemical, biophysical, and cellular adaptations. Finally, we discuss the effect of major modern gaseous and particulate pollutants on the lung and surfactant system. PMID:26756637

  5. The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony; Okabe, Masataka; Quinlan, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    The oro-pharyngeal apparatus has its origin in a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. Significantly, the development of these structures is extremely complex, involving interactions between a number of disparate embryonic cell types: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm and neural crest, each of which generates particular components of the arches, and whose development must be co-ordinated to generate the functional adult oro-pharyngeal apparatus. In the past most studies have emphasized the role played by the neural crest, which generates the skeletal elements of the arches, in directing pharyngeal arch development. However, it is now apparent that the pharyngeal endoderm plays an important role in directing arch development. Here we discuss the role of the pharyngeal endoderm in organizing the development of the pharyngeal arches, and the mechanisms that act to pattern the endoderm itself and those which direct its morphogenesis. Finally, we discuss the importance of modification to the pharyngeal endoderm during vertebrate evolution. In particular, we focus on the emergence of the parathyroid gland, which we have recently shown to be the result of the internalization of the gills. PMID:16313389

  6. Neocortex expansion in development and evolution - from cell biology to single genes.

    PubMed

    Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Florio, Marta; Huttner, Wieland B

    2016-08-01

    Neocortex expansion in development and evolution reflects an increased and prolonged activity of neural progenitor cells. Insight into key aspects of the underlying cell biology has recently been obtained. First, the restriction of apical progenitors to undergo mitosis at the ventricular surface is overcome by generation of basal progenitors, which are free to undergo mitosis at abventricular location, typically the subventricular zone. This process involves basolateral ciliogenesis, delamination from the apical adherens junction belt, and loss of apical cell polarity. Second, proliferative capacity of basal progenitors is supported by self-produced extracellular matrix constituents, which in turn promote growth factor signalling. Humans amplify these processes by characteristic alterations in expression of key regulatory genes (PAX6), and via human-specific genes (ARHGAP11B). PMID:27258840

  7. Genetic manipulation of reptilian embryos: toward an understanding of cortical development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Yamashita, Wataru; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex is a remarkable structure that is characterized by tangential surface expansion and six-layered lamination. However, how the mammalian neocortex emerged during evolution remains elusive. Because all modern reptiles have a homolog of the neocortex at the dorsal pallium, developmental analyses of the reptilian cortex are valuable to explore the origin of the neocortex. However, reptilian cortical development and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear, mainly due to technical difficulties with sample collection and embryonic manipulation. Here, we introduce a method of embryonic manipulations for the Madagascar ground gecko and Chinese softshell turtle. We established in ovo electroporation and an ex ovo culture system to address neural stem cell dynamics, neuronal differentiation and migration. Applications of these techniques illuminate the developmental mechanisms underlying reptilian corticogenesis, which provides significant insight into the evolutionary steps of different types of cortex and the origin of the mammalian neocortex. PMID:25759636

  8. General hallmarks of microRNAs in brain evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Qin, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules that mediate post-transcriptional gene suppression by incomplete matches with their host mRNAs. In the central nervous system, miRNAs that functionally interact with their target genes constitute a flexible, robust and buffered regulatory network, exerting diverse roles in brain evolution and development. However, distinct variation either in hub miRNA expression levels or patterns may initiate and/or progress various adult-onset nerve-related diseases. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the general hallmarks of brain miRNAs that act as vital determinants in increasingly complicated neural activities. We endeavor to provide a constructive insight into the neuroscience research in the quest to comprehend molecular underpinnings of physiological functions and pathological disorders in central nervous system. PMID:26000728

  9. Genomic divergence and brain evolution: How regulatory DNA influences development of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Silver, Debra L

    2016-02-01

    The cerebral cortex controls our most distinguishing higher cognitive functions. Human-specific gene expression differences are abundant in the cerebral cortex, yet we have only begun to understand how these variations impact brain function. This review discusses the current evidence linking non-coding regulatory DNA changes, including enhancers, with neocortical evolution. Functional interrogation using animal models reveals converging roles for our genome in key aspects of cortical development including progenitor cell cycle and neuronal signaling. New technologies, including iPS cells and organoids, offer potential alternatives to modeling evolutionary modifications in a relevant species context. Several diseases rooted in the cerebral cortex uniquely manifest in humans compared to other primates, thus highlighting the importance of understanding human brain differences. Future studies of regulatory loci, including those implicated in disease, will collectively help elucidate key cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying our distinguishing cognitive traits. PMID:26642006

  10. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars: Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, M.W. )

    1990-08-30

    It is likely that early in Mars' history, abundant liquid water was available. Under a thick (several bars) carbon dioxide atmosphere, this water could have formed an ocean, located primarily in the lowlands of the northern hemisphere. An equilibrium geochemical model of this ocean and its interactions with the atmosphere and regolith of Mars was developed, and the results of this model were used to discuss the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars, including the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Differential solutional weathering of these carbonate beds may have caused the formation of some of the enigmatic features seen on the northern plains of Mars, such as the thumbprint terrain and enclosed depressions.

  11. Genome Evolution and the Emergence of Fruiting Body Development in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Barry; Bhat, Swapna; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is thought to promote speciation in bacteria, though well-defined examples have not been put forward. Methodology/Principle Findings We examined the evolutionary history of the genes essential for a trait that defines a phylogenetic order, namely fruiting body development of the Myxococcales. Seventy-eight genes that are essential for Myxococcus xanthus development were examined for LGT. About 73% of the genes exhibit a phylogeny similar to that of the 16S rDNA gene and a codon bias consistent with other M. xanthus genes suggesting vertical transmission. About 22% have an altered codon bias and/or phylogeny suggestive of LGT. The remaining 5% are unique. Genes encoding signal production and sensory transduction were more likely to be transmitted vertically with clear examples of duplication and divergence into multigene families. Genes encoding metabolic enzymes were frequently acquired by LGT. Myxobacteria exhibit aerobic respiration unlike most of the δ Proteobacteria. M. xanthus contains a unique electron transport pathway shaped by LGT of genes for succinate dehydrogenase and three cytochrome oxidase complexes. Conclusions/Significance Fruiting body development depends on genes acquired by LGT, particularly those involved in polysaccharide production. We suggest that aerobic growth fostered innovation necessary for development by allowing myxobacteria access to a different gene pool from anaerobic members of the δ Proteobacteria. Habitat destruction and loss of species diversity could restrict the evolution of new bacterial groups by limiting the size of the prospective gene pool. PMID:18159227

  12. Early floral development of Heliconia latispatha (Heliconiaceae), a key taxon for understanding the evolution of flower development in the Zingiberales.

    PubMed

    Kirchoff, Bruce K; Lagomarsino, Laura P; Newman, Winnell H; Bartlett, Madelaine E; Specht, Chelsea D

    2009-03-01

    We present new comparative data on early floral development of Heliconia latispatha, an ecologically and horticulturally important tropical plant within the order Zingiberales. Modification of the six members of two androecial whorls is characteristic of Zingiberales, with a reduction in number of fertile stamen from five or six in the banana families (Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae, and Heliconiaceae) to one in Costaceae and Zingiberaceae and one-half in Marantaceae and Cannaceae. The remaining five infertile stamens in these later four families (the ginger families) are petaloid, and in Costaceae and Zingiberaceae fuse together to form a novel structure, the labellum. Within this developmental sequence, Heliconiaceae share with the ginger families the possession of an antisepalous staminode, a synapomorphy that has been used to place Heliconiaceae as sister to the ginger family clade. Here, we use epi-illumination light microscopy and reconstruction of serial sections to investigate the ontogeny of the Heliconia flower with emphasis on the ontogeny of the staminode. We compare floral development in Heliconia with that previously described for other species of Zingiberales. A comparison of floral structure and development across Zingiberales is presented to better understand the evolution of the flower in this charismatic group of tropical plants. PMID:21628214

  13. Development of a coupled Thermo-Hydro model and study of the evolution of a river-valley-talik system in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Damien; Grenier, Christophe; Davy, Philippe; Benabderrahmane, Hakim

    2010-05-01

    Boreal regions have been subject to recent and intensive studies within the field of the impact of climate change. A vast number of the modeling approaches correspond to large scale modeling firstly oriented to thermal field and permafrost evolution. We consider the evolution of smaller scale units of the landscape, in particular here the river-valley unit. In cold environments, we know that some rivers have at their bottoms a talik or a non frozen zone. Such systems have been poorly studied until now should it be as such or in relation with their surroundings, as major thermal conductors potentially impacting a larger portion of a region. The present work is part of a more global study implying the Lena river (Siberia) evolution under climate change in collaboration with the IDES laboratory (Interaction et Dynamique des Environnements de Surface at Orsay University, see e.g. Costard and Gautier, 2007) where the study of the system involves a threefold approach including in situ field work (near Yakutsk), experimental modeling (in a cold room at Orsay University) and numerical modeling. The river-valley system is a case where thermal evolution is coupled with water flow (hydrology and hydrogeology in the talik). The thermal field is impacted by and modifies the water flow conditions when freezing. We first present the development of our numerical simulation procedure. A novel 2D-3D simulation approach was developed in the Cast3M code (www-cast3m.cea.fr/cast3m) with a mixed hybrid finite element approach. It couples Darcy equations for flow (permeability depending on temperature) with heat transfer equations (conductive, advective and phase change process) with a Picard iterations algorithm for coupling. Then we present the validation of the code against 1D analytical solutions (Stefan problem) and 2D cases issued from the literature (McKenzie et al. 2007, Bense et al. 2009). We finally study by means of numeric simulations the installation of permafrost in an

  14. The Start-Up, Evolution and Impact of a Research Group in a University Developing Its Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Martins, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the understudied role of research groups contributing to develop the knowledge base of developing universities in regions lagging behind in human, financial and scientific resources. We analyse the evolution of a research group that, in less than 10 years, achieved worldwide recognition in the field of microelectronics,…

  15. The development and evolution of full thickness macular hole in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-W; Ho, T-C; Yang, C-M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the morphological changes before and after the formation of a full-thickness macular hole (MH) in highly myopic eyes. Patients and methods Retrospective observational case series. From 2006 to 2013, clinical records of patients with MH and high myopia who had optical coherence tomography (OCT) before the development of MH were reviewed. All patients had been followed for more than 1 year since MH formation to observe the morphological changes. Results Twenty-six eyes of 24 patients were enrolled. The initial OCT images could be classified into four types: (1) normal foveal depression with abnormal vitreo-retinal relationship (eight cases), (2) macular schisis without detachment (six cases), (3) macular schisis with concomitant/subsequent detachment (nine cases), and (4) macular atrophy with underlying/adjacent scar (three cases). After MH formation, one case in type 1 and one case in type 4 group developed retinal detachment (RD). In type 2 group, four cases developed RD at the same time of MH formation. The preexisting detachment in type 3 group extended in eight cases and improved in one case. Among all the cases, 14 eyes received vitrectomy and 7 eyes received gas injection. MH sealed in nine eyes after vitrectomy and four eyes by gas injection. Conclusion The study revealed four pathways of MH formation in highly myopic eyes. MH from macular schisis tended to be associated with detachment. However, the evolution and the results of surgical intervention were not always predictable. PMID:25572579

  16. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2(+) cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  17. Cis-regulatory programs in the development and evolution of vertebrate paired appendages.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Andrew R; Shubin, Neil H

    2016-09-01

    Differential gene expression is the core of development, mediating the genetic changes necessary for determining cell identity. The regulation of gene activity by cis-acting elements (e.g., enhancers) is a crucial mechanism for determining differential gene activity by precise control of gene expression in embryonic space and time. Modifications to regulatory regions can have profound impacts on phenotype, and therefore developmental and evolutionary biologists have increasingly focused on elucidating the transcriptional control of genes that build and pattern body plans. Here, we trace the evolutionary history of transcriptional control of three loci key to vertebrate appendage development (Fgf8, Shh, and HoxD/A). Within and across these regulatory modules, we find both complex and flexible regulation in contrast with more fixed enhancers that appear unchanged over vast timescales of vertebrate evolution. The transcriptional control of vertebrate appendage development was likely already incredibly complex in the common ancestor of fish, implying that subtle changes to regulatory networks were more likely responsible for alterations in phenotype rather than the de novo addition of whole regulatory domains. Finally, we discuss the dangers of relying on inter-species transgenesis when testing enhancer function, and call for more controlled regulatory swap experiments when inferring the evolutionary history of enhancer elements. PMID:26783722

  18. Frogs as integrative models for understanding digestive organ development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Womble, Mandy; Pickett, Melissa; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2016-03-01

    The digestive system comprises numerous cells, tissues and organs that are essential for the proper assimilation of nutrients and energy. Many aspects of digestive organ function are highly conserved among vertebrates, yet the final anatomical configuration of the gut varies widely between species, especially those with different diets. Improved understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that orchestrate digestive organ development is pertinent to many areas of biology and medicine, including the regeneration or replacement of diseased organs, the etiology of digestive organ birth defects, and the evolution of specialized features of digestive anatomy. In this review, we highlight specific examples of how investigations using Xenopus laevis frog embryos have revealed insight into the molecular and cellular dynamics of digestive organ patterning and morphogenesis that would have been difficult to obtain in other animal models. Additionally, we discuss recent studies of gut development in non-model frog species with unique feeding strategies, such as Lepidobatrachus laevis and Eleutherodactylous coqui, which are beginning to provide glimpses of the evolutionary mechanisms that may generate morphological variation in the digestive tract. The unparalleled experimental versatility of frog embryos make them excellent, integrative models for studying digestive organ development across multiple disciplines. PMID:26851628

  19. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  20. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  1. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  2. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2+ cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  3. Carbonate Platform Development and Stromatolite Morphogenesis: Constraints on Environmental and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotzinger, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Work has been completed on the digital mapping of a terminal Proterozoic reef complex in Namibia. This complex formed an isolated carbonate platform developed downdip on a carbonate ramp of the Nama Group. The stratigraphic evolution of the platform was digitally reconstructed from an extensive dataset that was compiled by using digital surveying technologies. The platform comprises three accommodation cycles in which each subsequent cycle experienced progressively greater influence of a long-term accommodation increase. Aggradation and progradation during the first cycle resulted in a flat, uniform, sheet-like platform. The coarsening and shallowing-upward sequence representing the first cycle is dominated by columnar stromatolitic thrombolites and massive dolostones with interbedded mudstone-grainstone at the base of the sequence grading into cross-bedded dolostones. The second cycle features aggradation, formation of a distinct margin containing thrombolite mounds and domes, and the development of a bucket geometry. Columnar stromatolitic thrombolites dominate the platform interior. The final stage of platform development shows a deepening trend with initial aggradation and formation of well-bedded, thin deposits in the interior and mound development at the margins. While the interior drowned, the platform margin kept up with rising sea level and a complex pinnacle reef formed containing fused and coalesced thrombolite mounds flanked by bioclastic grainstones (containing Cloudina and Namacalathus fossils) and collapse breccias. A set of isolated large thrombolite mounds flanked by shales indicate the final stage of the carbonate platform. During a progressive increase in accommodation, a flat-topped isolated carbonate platform becomes aerially less extensive by either backstepping or formation of smaller pinnacles or a combination of both. The overall geometric evolution of the studied platform from flat-topped to bucket with elevated margins is recorded in many

  4. Transposable elements play an important role during cotton genome evolution and fiber cell development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Gai; Zhu, Yuxian

    2016-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) usually occupy largest fractions of plant genome and are also the most variable part of the structure. Although traditionally it is hallmarked as "junk and selfish DNA", today more and more evidence points out TE's participation in gene regulations including gene mutation, duplication, movement and novel gene creation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The recently sequenced genomes of diploid cottons Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) together with their allotetraploid progeny Gossypium hirsutum (AtAtDtDt) provides a unique opportunity to compare genome variations in the Gossypium genus and to analyze the functions of TEs during its evolution. TEs accounted for 57%, 68.5% and 67.2%, respectively in DD, AA and AtAtDtDt genomes. The 1,694 Mb A-genome was found to harbor more LTR(long terminal repeat)-type retrotransposons that made cardinal contributions to the twofold increase in its genome size after evolution from the 775.2 Mb D-genome. Although the 2,173 Mb AtAtDtDt genome showed similar TE content to the A-genome, the total numbers of LTR-gypsy and LTR-copia type TEs varied significantly between these two genomes. Considering their roles on rewiring gene regulatory networks, we believe that TEs may somehow be involved in cotton fiber cell development. Indeed, the insertion or deletion of different TEs in the upstream region of two important transcription factor genes in At or Dt subgenomes resulted in qualitative differences in target gene expression. We suggest that our findings may open a window for improving cotton agronomic traits by editing TE activities. PMID:26687725

  5. A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Daly, E Susanne; Catlett, Kierstin K; Paul, Kathleen S; King, Stephen J; Skinner, Matthew M; Nesse, Hans P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Townsend, Grant C; Schwartz, Gary T; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-02-25

    The variation in molar tooth size in humans and our closest relatives (hominins) has strongly influenced our view of human evolution. The reduction in overall size and disproportionate decrease in third molar size have been noted for over a century, and have been attributed to reduced selection for large dentitions owing to changes in diet or the acquisition of cooking. The systematic pattern of size variation along the tooth row has been described as a 'morphogenetic gradient' in mammal, and more specifically hominin, teeth since Butler and Dahlberg. However, the underlying controls of tooth size have not been well understood, with hypotheses ranging from morphogenetic fields to the clone theory. In this study we address the following question: are there rules that govern how hominin tooth size evolves? Here we propose that the inhibitory cascade, an activator-inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth (deciduous premolars and permanent molars) in hominins. This configuration is also equivalent to a morphogenetic gradient, finally pointing to a mechanism that can generate this gradient. The pattern of tooth size remains constant with absolute size in australopiths (including Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus). However, in species of Homo, including modern humans, there is a tight link between tooth proportions and absolute size such that a single developmental parameter can explain both the relative and absolute sizes of primary postcanine teeth. On the basis of the relationship of inhibitory cascade patterning with size, we can use the size at one tooth position to predict the sizes of the remaining four primary postcanine teeth in the row for hominins. Our study provides a development-based expectation to examine the evolution of the unique proportions of human teeth. PMID:26911784

  6. Success in developing regions: world records evolution through a geopolitical prism.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Marion; Helou, Nour El; Nassif, Hala; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Len, Stéphane; Thibault, Valérie; Tafflet, Muriel; Quinquis, Laurent; Desgorces, François; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    A previous analysis of World Records (WR) has revealed the potential limits of human physiology through athletes' personal commitment. The impact of political factors on sports has only been studied through Olympic medals and results. Here we studied 2876 WR from 63 nations in four summer disciplines. We propose three new indicators and show the impact of historical, geographical and economical factors on the regional WR evolution. The south-eastward path of weighted annual barycenter (i.e. the average of country coordinates weighting by the WR number) shows the emergence of East Africa and China in WR archives. Home WR ratio decreased from 79.9% before the second World War to 23.3% in 2008, underlining sports globalization. Annual Cumulative Proportions (ACP, i.e. the cumulative sum of the WR annual rate) highlight the regional rates of progression. For all regions, the mean slope of ACP during the Olympic era is 0.0101, with a maximum between 1950 and 1989 (0.0156). For European countries, this indicator reflects major historical events (slowdown for western countries after 1945, slowdown for eastern countries after 1990). Mean North-American ACP slope is 0.0029 over the century with an acceleration between 1950 and 1989 at 0.0046. Russia takes off in 1935 and slows down in 1988 (0.0038). For Eastern Europe, maximal progression is seen between 1970 and 1989 (0.0045). China starts in 1979 with a maximum between 1990 and 2008 (0.0021), while other regions have largely declined (mean ACP slope for all other countries = 0.0011). A similar trend is observed for the evolution of the 10 best performers. The national analysis of WR reveals a precise and quantifiable link between the sport performances of a country, its historical or geopolitical context, and its steps of development. PMID:19862324

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic evolution in children with different rates of development of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshan, S; Dickover, R E; Korber, B T; Bryson, Y J; Wolinsky, S M

    1997-01-01

    The rate of development of disease varies considerably among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children. The reasons for these observed differences are not clearly understood but most probably depend on the dynamic interplay between the HIV-1 quasispecies virus population and the immune constraints imposed by the host. To study the relationship between disease progression and genetic diversity, we analyzed the evolution of viral sequences within six perinatally infected children by examining proviral sequences spanning the C2 through V5 regions of the viral envelope gene by PCR of blood samples obtained at sequential visits. PCR product DNAs from four sample time points per child were cloned, and 10 to 13 clones from each sample were sequenced. Greater genetic distances relative to the time of infection were found for children with low virion-associated RNA burdens and slow progression to disease relative to those found for children with high virion-associated RNA burdens and rapid progression to disease. The greater branch lengths observed in the phylogenetic reconstructions correlated with a higher accumulation rate of nonsynonymous base substitutions per potential nonsynonymous site, consistent with positive selection for change rather than a difference in replication kinetics. Viral sequences from children with slow progression to disease also showed a tendency to form clusters that associated with different sampling times. These progressive shifts in the viral population were not found in viral sequences from children with rapid progression to disease. Therefore, despite the HIV-1 quasispecies being a diverse, rapidly evolving, and competing population of genetic variants, different rates of genetic evolution could be found under different selective constraints. These data suggest that the evolutionary dynamics exhibited by the HIV-1 quasispecies virus populations are compatible with a Darwinian system evolving under the constraints of

  8. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones.

    PubMed

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research. PMID:24194709

  9. Success in Developing Regions: World Records Evolution through a Geopolitical Prism

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Marion; Helou, Nour El; Nassif, Hala; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Len, Stéphane; Thibault, Valérie; Tafflet, Muriel; Quinquis, Laurent; Desgorces, François; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    A previous analysis of World Records (WR) has revealed the potential limits of human physiology through athletes' personal commitment. The impact of political factors on sports has only been studied through Olympic medals and results. Here we studied 2876 WR from 63 nations in four summer disciplines. We propose three new indicators and show the impact of historical, geographical and economical factors on the regional WR evolution. The south-eastward path of weighted annual barycenter (i.e. the average of country coordinates weighting by the WR number) shows the emergence of East Africa and China in WR archives. Home WR ratio decreased from 79.9% before the second World War to 23.3% in 2008, underlining sports globalization. Annual Cumulative Proportions (ACP, i.e. the cumulative sum of the WR annual rate) highlight the regional rates of progression. For all regions, the mean slope of ACP during the Olympic era is 0.0101, with a maximum between 1950 and 1989 (0.0156). For European countries, this indicator reflects major historical events (slowdown for western countries after 1945, slowdown for eastern countries after 1990). Mean North-American ACP slope is 0.0029 over the century with an acceleration between 1950 and 1989 at 0.0046. Russia takes off in 1935 and slows down in 1988 (0.0038). For Eastern Europe, maximal progression is seen between 1970 and 1989 (0.0045). China starts in 1979 with a maximum between 1990 and 2008 (0.0021), while other regions have largely declined (mean ACP slope for all other countries  = 0.0011). A similar trend is observed for the evolution of the 10 best performers. The national analysis of WR reveals a precise and quantifiable link between the sport performances of a country, its historical or geopolitical context, and its steps of development. PMID:19862324

  10. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones

    PubMed Central

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R.; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research. PMID:24194709

  11. A model of growth restraints to explain the development and evolution of tooth shapes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Jeffrey W

    2008-12-01

    The problem investigated here is control of the development of tooth shape. Cells at the growing soft tissue interface between the ectoderm and mesoderm in a tooth anlage are observed to buckle and fold into a template for the shape of the tooth crown. The final shape is created by enamel secreted onto the folds. The pattern in which the folds develop is generally explained as a response to the pattern in which genes are locally expressed at the interface. This congruence leaves the problem of control unanswered because it does not explain how either pattern is controlled. Obviously, cells are subject to Newton's laws of motion so that mechanical forces and constraints must ultimately cause the movements of cells during tooth morphogenesis. A computer model is used to test the hypothesis that directional resistances to growth of the epithelial part of the interface could account for the shape into which the interface folds. The model starts with a single epithelial cell whose growth is constrained by 4 constant directional resistances (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). The constraints force the growing epithelium to buckle and fold. By entering into the model different values for these constraints the modeled epithelium is induced to buckle and fold into the different shapes associated with the evolution of a human upper molar from that of a reptilian ancestor. The patterns and sizes of cusps and the sequences in which they develop are all correctly reproduced. The model predicts the changes in the 4 directional constraints necessary to develop and evolve from one tooth shape into another. I conclude more generally expressed genes that control directional resistances to growth, not locally expressed genes, may provide the information for the shape into which a tooth develops. PMID:18838080

  12. Evolution in action in the classroom: Engaging students in scientific practices to develop a conceptual understanding of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wendy Renae

    Public understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution in the United States is not commensurate with its acceptance in the scientific community and its role as the central organizing principle of the biological sciences. There are a multitude of factors that affect student understanding of the theory of evolution documented in the literature including the proposition that understanding of evolution is intimately linked to understanding the nature of science. This study describes the development, implementation, and assessment of learning activities that address the process of natural selection and the scientific methodology that illuminates these mechanisms. While pre and post-test scores were higher for students in an Advanced Placement Biology course than students in a general biology course, similar learning gains were observed in both groups. Learning gains were documented in understanding the random nature of mutations and their importance to the process of natural selection, explaining selection as a competitive advantage of one variation over another type and specifically linking this to reproductive success, and in connecting inheritance, variation, and selection to explain the process of natural selection. Acceptance of the scientific validity of the theory of evolution as measured by the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument also increased significantly in both groups over the course of the school year. These findings suggest that the sequence of activities implemented in this study promote conceptual change about the nature of science and the process of evolution by natural selection in students.

  13. Heredity, development and evolution: the unmodern synthesis of E.S. Russell.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    In 1930, while R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane, E.B. Ford and S.G. Wright were laying the foundations of what a decade later J.S. Huxley dubbed "Modern Synthesis", E.S. Russell published a groundbreaking work, The Interpretation of Development and Heredity. In this book Russell not only condemned Mendelian genetics and neo-Darwinism, but also proposed an alternative synthesis unifying heredity, development, and evolution. The book did not represent the work of a mind operating in isolation. Rather, it was a synthetic work connecting ideas and doctrines of many influential scientists working in Europe and the USA. Through the analysis of archival documents and rarely or never mentioned sources, this article provides an unconventional picture of Russell's theoretical biology. It will be shown that Russell was an international celebrity; he was at the centre of a large network of scholars who shared his ideas and insights. He was one of several biologists arguing for a different synthesis; a synthesis perhaps less visible, less institutionalised, and less 'modern', nevertheless with its influential advocates and international support. Finally, this study shows that Russell's synthesis was not rooted in the classic pantheon of towering figures in the history of biology, i.e. Darwin, Wallace, and Mendel, but was based on the teachings of Kant, Goethe, Cuvier, von Baer, and Müller. PMID:23408008

  14. The machine conception of the organism in development and evolution: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. The analysis presented here focuses on the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the contexts of development and evolution. In developmental biology the MCO underlies a logically incoherent model of ontogeny, the genetic program, which serves to legitimate three problematic theses about development: genetic animism, neo-preformationism, and developmental computability. In evolutionary biology the MCO is responsible for grounding unwarranted theoretical appeals to the concept of design as well as to the interpretation of natural selection as an engineer, which promote a distorted understanding of the process and products of evolutionary change. Overall, it is argued that, despite its heuristic value, the MCO today is impeding rather than enabling further progress in our comprehension of living systems. PMID:25220402

  15. Molecular development of fibular reduction in birds and its evolution from dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Botelho, João Francisco; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; O'Connor, Jingmai; Palma, Verónica; Vargas, Alexander O

    2016-03-01

    Birds have a distally reduced, splinter-like fibula that is shorter than the tibia. In embryonic development, both skeletal elements start out with similar lengths. We examined molecular markers of cartilage differentiation in chicken embryos. We found that the distal end of the fibula expresses Indian hedgehog (IHH), undergoing terminal cartilage differentiation, and almost no Parathyroid-related protein (PTHrP), which is required to develop a proliferative growth plate (epiphysis). Reduction of the distal fibula may be influenced earlier by its close contact with the nearby fibulare, which strongly expresses PTHrP. The epiphysis-like fibulare however then separates from the fibula, which fails to maintain a distal growth plate, and fibular reduction ensues. Experimental downregulation of IHH signaling at a postmorphogenetic stage led to a tibia and fibula of equal length: The fibula is longer than in controls and fused to the fibulare, whereas the tibia is shorter and bent. We propose that the presence of a distal fibular epiphysis may constrain greater growth in the tibia. Accordingly, many Mesozoic birds show a fibula that has lost its distal epiphysis, but remains almost as long as the tibia, suggesting that loss of the fibulare preceded and allowed subsequent evolution of great fibulo-tibial disparity. PMID:26888088

  16. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Ellen B.; Matson, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge systems—networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action—have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research–decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  17. Ultrastructure of Archigetes sieboldi (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea): relationship between progenesis, development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Mackiewicz, John S; Kuperman, Boris I

    2003-12-01

    Ultrastructural characteristics of progenetic and monoxenic Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 from the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède are described. Our observations demonstrate that progenetic Archigetes sieboldi shares characteristics of both larval (progenetic) and adult stages. The primary larval characteristics are: the presence of a cercomer; a surface filamentous coat covering the whole worm; the presence of the penetration glands and the absence of tegumental ones; wide sarcoplasmic processes connecting the circular and longitudinal external tegumental muscles; the absence of the dense homogenous zone of the basal lamina beneath the epithelial cytoplasm of all reproductive organs and ducts; non-functional gonopores; and an orthogonal plan of nervous system with three pairs of longitudinal nerve trunks. The principle adult characteristics are: oogenesis, spermiogenesis and vitellogenesis that produce fertilized eggs; the uterine glands; a well-developed longitudinal tegumental muscle layer between tegumental cytons; and the presence of different microtriches. As a result of this progenetic development there has been a secondary reduction in the life cycle of A. sieboldi. It is postulated that a similar process of progenesis may have played a major role in the early evolution of the Caryophyllidea by first appearing in a plerocercoid stage of an ancestral strobilate cestode from fish. PMID:14971597

  18. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. PMID:26988525

  19. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Ellen B; Matson, Pamela A

    2016-04-26

    Knowledge systems-networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action-have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research-decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  20. Evolution of insect wings and development - new details from Palaeozoic nymphs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Garwood, Russell J

    2016-02-01

    The nymphal stages of Palaeozoic insects differ significantly in morphology from those of their modern counterparts. Morphological details for some previously reported species have recently been called into question. Palaeozoic insect nymphs are important, however - their study could provide key insights into the evolution of wings, and complete metamorphosis. Here we review past work on these topics and juvenile insects in the fossil record, and then present both novel and previously described nymphs, documented using new imaging methods. Our results demonstrate that some Carboniferous nymphs - those of Palaeodictyopteroidea - possessed movable wing pads and appear to have been able to perform simple flapping flight. It remains unclear whether this feature is ancestral for Pterygota or an autapomorphy of Palaeodictyopteroidea. Further characters of nymphal development which were probably in the ground pattern of Pterygota can be reconstructed. Wing development was very gradual (archimetaboly). Wing pads did not protrude from the tergum postero-laterally as in most modern nymphs, but laterally, and had well-developed venation. The modern orientation of wing pads and the delay of wing development into later developmental stages (condensation) appears to have evolved several times independently within Pterygota: in Ephemeroptera, Odonatoptera, Eumetabola, and probably several times within Polyneoptera. Selective pressure appears to have favoured a more pronounced metamorphosis between the last nymphal and adult stage, ultimately reducing exploitation competition between the two. We caution, however, that the results presented herein remain preliminary, and the reconstructed evolutionary scenario contains gaps and uncertainties. Additional comparative data need to be collected. The present study is thus seen as a starting point for this enterprise. PMID:25400084

  1. Differentiation of ovarian development and the evolution of fecundity in rapidly diverging exotic beetle populations.

    PubMed

    Macagno, Anna L M; Beckers, Oliver M; Moczek, Armin P

    2015-11-01

    Fecundity is a fundamental determinant of fitness, yet the proximate developmental and physiological mechanisms that enable its often rapid evolution in natural populations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated two populations of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus that were established in exotic ranges in the early 1970s. These populations are subject to drastically different levels of resource competition in the field, and have diverged dramatically in female fecundity. Specifically, Western Australian O. taurus experience high levels of resource competition, and exhibit greatly elevated reproductive output compared to beetles from the Eastern US, where resource competition is minimal and female fecundity is low. We compared patterns of ovarian maturation, relative investment into and timing of egg production, and potential trade-offs between ovarian investment and the duration of larval development and adult body size between populations representative of both exotic ranges. We found that the rapid divergence in fecundity between exotic populations is associated with striking differences in several aspects of ovarian development: (1) Western Australian females exhibit accelerated ovarian development, (2) produce more eggs, (3) bigger eggs, and (4) start laying eggs earlier compared to their Eastern US counterparts. At the same time, divergence in ovarian maturation patterns occurred alongside changes in (5) larval developmental time, and (6) adult body size, and (7) mass. Western Australian females take longer to complete larval development and, surprisingly, emerge into smaller yet heavier adults than size-matched Eastern US females. We discuss our results in the context of the evolutionary developmental biology of fecundity in exotic populations. PMID:26300520

  2. Beyond the Baseline: Proceedings of the Space Station Evolution Symposium. Volume 2, Part 2; Space Station Freedom Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the individual presentations delivered at the Space Station Evolution Symposium in League City, Texas on February 6, 7, 8, 1990. Personnel responsible for Advanced Systems Studies and Advanced Development within the Space Station Freedom program reported on the results of their work to date. Systems Studies presentations focused on identifying the baseline design provisions (hooks and scars) necessary to enable evolution of the facility to support changing space policy and anticipated user needs. Also emphasized were evolution configuration and operations concepts including on-orbit processing of space transfer vehicles. Advanced Development task managers discussed transitioning advanced technologies to the baseline program, including those near-term technologies which will enhance the safety and productivity of the crew and the reliability of station systems. Special emphasis was placed on applying advanced automation technology to ground and flight systems. This publication consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the results of the advanced system studies with the emphasis on reference evolution configurations, system design requirements and accommodations, and long-range technology projections. Volume 2 reports on advanced development tasks within the Transition Definition Program. Products of these tasks include: engineering fidelity demonstrations and evaluations on Station development testbeds and Shuttle-based flight experiments; detailed requirements and performance specifications which address advanced technology implementation issues; and mature applications and the tools required for the development, implementation, and support of advanced technology within the Space Station Freedom Program.

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin at twenty-four weeks after interferon-based therapy predict hepatocellular carcinoma development

    PubMed Central

    Shakado, Satoshi; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Chayama, Kazuaki; Okanoue, Takeshi; Toyoda, Joji; Izumi, Namiki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ido, Akio; Hiasa, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Kentaro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Seike, Masataka; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis (LC-C). METHODS: To evaluate the relationship between clinical factors including virological response and the development of HCC in patients with LC-C treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective study in 14 hospitals in Japan. All patients had compensated LC-C with clinical or histological data available. HCC was diagnosed by the presence of typical hypervascular characteristics on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: HCC was diagnosis in 50 (21.6%) of 231 LC-C patients during a median observation period of 3.8 years after IFN and ribavirin therapy. Patients who developed HCC were older (P = 0.018) and had higher serum levels of pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent risk factors for HCC development: history of treatment for HCC [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 15.27, 95%CI: 4.98-59.51], AFP levels of ≥ 10 ng/mL (P = 0.009, OR = 3.89, 95%CI: 1.38-11.94), and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) levels of ≥ 40 mAU/mL at 24 wk after the completion of IFN and ribavirin therapy (P < 0.001, OR = 24.43, 95%CI: 4.11-238.67). CONCLUSION: We suggested that the elevation of AFP and DCP levels at 24 wk after the completion of IFN and ribavirin therapy were strongly associated with the incidence of HCC irrespective of virological response among Japanese LC-C patients. PMID:26644819

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance.

  5. Phylogenetic systematics of egg-brooding frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and the evolution of direct development.

    PubMed

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; De La Riva, Ignacio; Pombal, José P; Da Silva, Helio R; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Medina-Méndez, Esteban; Frost, Darrel R

    2015-01-01

    Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies. PMID:26623754

  6. National medicines policies – a review of the evolution and development processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Continuous provision of appropriate medicines of assured quality, in adequate quantities, and at reasonable prices is a concern for all national governments. A national medicines policy (NMP) developed in a collaborative fashion identifies strategies needed to meet these objectives and provides a comprehensive framework to develop all components of a national pharmaceutical sector. To meet the health needs of the population, there is a general need for medicine policies based on universal principles, but nevertheless adapted to the national situation. This review aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative (describing the historical development) study of the development process and evolution of NMPs. Methods The number of NMPs and their current status has been obtained from the results of the assessment of WHO Level I indicators. The policy formulation process is examined in more detail with case studies from four countries: Sri Lanka, Australia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and South Africa. Results The number of NMPs worldwide has increased in the last 25 years with the highest proportional increase in the last 5–10 years in high-income countries. Higher income countries seem to have more NMP implementation plans available and have updated their NMP more recently. The four case studies show that the development of a NMP is a complex process that is country specific. In addition, it demonstrates that an appropriate political window is needed for the policy to be passed (for South Africa and the FYR Macedonia, a major political event acted as a trigger for initiating the policy development). Policy-making does not stop with the official adoption of a policy but should create mechanisms for implementation and monitoring. The NMPs of the FYR Macedonia and Australia provide indicators for monitoring. Conclusions To date, not all countries have a NMP since political pressure by national experts or non-governmental organizations is generally

  7. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  8. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  9. Development of the RFBB “Bargouzine” concept for Ariane-5 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumin, Yuriy; Kostromin, Sergey F.; Panichkin, Nikolai; Prel, Yves; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Prampolini, Marco

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the study of a concept of Ariane-5 evolution by means of replacement of two solid-propellant boosters EAP with two liquid-propellant reusable fly-back boosters (RFBBs) called "Bargouzine". The main design feature of the reference RFBB is LOX/LH2 propellant, the canard aerodynamic configuration with delta wings and rocket engines derived from Vulcain-2 identical to that of the central core except for the nozzle length. After separation RFBBs return back by use of air breathing engines mounted in the aft part and then landing on a runway. The aim of the study is a more detailed investigation of critical technology issues concerning reliability, re-usability and maintenance requirements. The study was performed in three main phases: system trade-off, technical consolidation, and programmatic synthesis. The system trade-off includes comparative analysis of two systems with three and four engines on each RFBB and determination of the necessary thrust level taking into account thrust reservation for emergency situations. Besides, this phase contains trade-off on booster aerodynamic configurations and abort scenario analysis. The second phase includes studying of controllability during the ascent phase and separation, thermo-mechanical design, development of ground interfaces and attachment means, and turbojets engine analysis taking into account reusability.

  10. Evolution of Rapid Development in Spadefoot Toads Is Unrelated to Arid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Cen; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Wiens, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species' life histories evolve to match climatic conditions is a critical question in evolutionary biology and ecology and as human activities rapidly modify global climate. GIS-based climatic data offer new opportunities to rigorously test this question. Superficially, the spadefoot toads of North America (Scaphiopodidae) seem to offer a classic example of adaptive life-history evolution: some species occur in extremely dry deserts and have evolved the shortest aquatic larval periods known among anurans. However, the relationships between the climatic conditions where spadefoots occur and the relevant life-history traits have not been explicitly tested. Here, we analyzed these relationships using GIS-based climatic data, published life-history data, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for pelobatoid frogs. Surprisingly, we find no significant relationships between life-history variables and precipitation or aridity levels where these species occur. Instead, rapid development in pelobatoids is strongly related to their small genome sizes and to phylogeny. PMID:24800832

  11. Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing resistance to BTK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Landau, Dan A.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Bozic, Ivana; Zhang, Huidan; Sarosiek, Kristopher; Wang, Lili; Stewart, Chip; Fan, Jean; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Sivina, Mariela; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Fraser, Cameron; Han, Yulong; Li, Shuqiang; Livak, Kenneth J.; Zou, Lihua; Wan, Youzhong; Konoplev, Sergej; Sougnez, Carrie; Brown, Jennifer R.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Carter, Scott L.; Keating, Michael J.; Davids, Matthew S.; Wierda, William G.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Zenz, Thorsten; Werner, Lillian; Cin, Paola Dal; Kharchencko, Peter; Neuberg, Donna; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Brien, Susan; Letai, Anthony; Weitz, David A.; Nowak, Martin A.; Getz, Gad; Wu, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance. PMID:27199251

  12. Evolution of water chemistry during Marcellus Shale gas development: A case study in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul F; Thomas He, Y

    2015-09-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has been used with horizontal drilling to extract gas and natural gas liquids from source rock such as the Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin. Horizontal drilling and HF generates large volumes of waste water known as flowback. While inorganic ion chemistry has been well characterized, and the general increase in concentration through the flowback is widely recognized, the literature contains little information relative to organic compounds and radionuclides. This study examined the chemical evolution of liquid process and waste streams (including makeup water, HF fluids, and flowback) in four Marcellus Shale gas well sites in north central West Virginia. Concentrations of organic and inorganic constituents and radioactive isotopes were measured to determine changes in waste water chemistry during shale gas development. We found that additives used in fracturing fluid may contribute to some of the constituents (e.g., Fe) found in flowback, but they appear to play a minor role. Time sequence samples collected during flowback indicated increasing concentrations of organic, inorganic and radioactive constituents. Nearly all constituents were found in much higher concentrations in flowback water than in injected HF fluids suggesting that the bulk of constituents originate in the Marcellus Shale formation rather than in the formulation of the injected HF fluids. Liquid wastes such as flowback and produced water, are largely recycled for subsequent fracturing operations. These practices limit environmental exposure to flowback. PMID:25957035

  13. Evolution of rapid development in spadefoot toads is unrelated to arid environments.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Cen; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Wiens, John J

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species' life histories evolve to match climatic conditions is a critical question in evolutionary biology and ecology and as human activities rapidly modify global climate. GIS-based climatic data offer new opportunities to rigorously test this question. Superficially, the spadefoot toads of North America (Scaphiopodidae) seem to offer a classic example of adaptive life-history evolution: some species occur in extremely dry deserts and have evolved the shortest aquatic larval periods known among anurans. However, the relationships between the climatic conditions where spadefoots occur and the relevant life-history traits have not been explicitly tested. Here, we analyzed these relationships using GIS-based climatic data, published life-history data, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for pelobatoid frogs. Surprisingly, we find no significant relationships between life-history variables and precipitation or aridity levels where these species occur. Instead, rapid development in pelobatoids is strongly related to their small genome sizes and to phylogeny. PMID:24800832

  14. Mutual influences between the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; García-González, Diego; de Castro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The sense of smell plays a crucial role in the sensory world of animals. Two chemosensory systems have been traditionally thought to play-independent roles in mammalian olfaction. According to this, the main olfactory system (MOS) specializes in the detection of environmental odorants, while the vomeronasal system (VNS) senses pheromones and semiochemicals produced by individuals of the same or different species. Although both systems differ in their anatomy and function, recent evidence suggests they act synergistically in the perception of scents. These interactions include similar responses to some ligands, overlap of telencephalic connections and mutual influences in the regulation of olfactory-guided behavior. In the present work, we propose the idea that the relationships between systems observed at the organismic level result from a constant interaction during development and reflects a common history of ecological adaptations in evolution. We review the literature to illustrate examples of developmental and evolutionary processes that evidence these interactions and propose that future research integrating both systems may shed new light on the mechanisms of olfaction. PMID:23269914

  15. Human APOBEC3G drives HIV-1 evolution and the development of drug resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Tamoy; Kim, Eun - Young; Koning, Fransje; Malim, Michael; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is an innate virus restriction factor that induces deamination of specific cytidine residues in single-stranded human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA. Whereas destructive hA3G editing leads to a profound loss of HIV-1 infectivity, more limited editing could be a source of adaptation and diversification. Here we show that the presence of hA3G in T-cells can drive the development of diversity in HIV-1 populations and that under selection pressure imposed by the nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor 3TC ((-)2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine), a single point mutation that confers 3TC resistance, methionine 184 to isoleucine (M1841), emerges rapidly and reaches fixation. These results provide strong evidence that mutation by hA3G is an important source of genetic variation on which natural selection acts to shape the structure of the viral population and drive the tempo of HIV-1 evolution.

  16. Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing resistance to BTK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A; Landau, Dan A; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Bozic, Ivana; Zhang, Huidan; Sarosiek, Kristopher; Wang, Lili; Stewart, Chip; Fan, Jean; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Sivina, Mariela; Dubuc, Adrian M; Fraser, Cameron; Han, Yulong; Li, Shuqiang; Livak, Kenneth J; Zou, Lihua; Wan, Youzhong; Konoplev, Sergej; Sougnez, Carrie; Brown, Jennifer R; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Carter, Scott L; Keating, Michael J; Davids, Matthew S; Wierda, William G; Cibulskis, Kristian; Zenz, Thorsten; Werner, Lillian; Dal Cin, Paola; Kharchencko, Peter; Neuberg, Donna; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Brien, Susan; Letai, Anthony; Weitz, David A; Nowak, Martin A; Getz, Gad; Wu, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance. PMID:27199251

  17. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Mammals show a very low level of variation in vertebral count, particularly in the neck. Phenotypes exhibited at various stages during the development of the axial skeleton may play a key role in testing mechanisms recently proposed to explain this conservatism. Here, we provide osteogenetic data that identify developmental criteria with which to recognize cervical vs. noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches. In sloths with 8-10 ribless neck vertebrae, the caudal-most neck centra ossify early, matching the pattern observed in cranial thoracic vertebrae of other mammals. Accordingly, we interpret the ribless neck vertebrae of three-toed sloths caudal to V7 as thoracic based on our developmental criterion. Applied to the unusual vertebral phenotype of long-necked sloths, these data support the interpretation that elements of the axial skeleton with origins from distinct mesodermal tissues have repatterned over the course of evolution. PMID:20956304

  18. The role of human-specific gene duplications during brain development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Takayuki

    2013-09-01

    One of the most fascinating questions in evolutionary biology is how traits unique to humans, such as their high cognitive abilities, erect bipedalism, and hairless skin, are encoded in the genome. Recent advances in genomics have begun to reveal differences between the genomes of the great apes. It has become evident that one of the many mutation types, segmental duplication, has drastically increased in the primate genomes, and most remarkably in the human genome. Genes contained in these segmental duplications have a tremendous potential to cause genetic innovation, probably accounting for the acquisition of human-specific traits. In this review, I begin with an overview of the genes, which have increased their copy number specifically in the human lineage, following its separation from the common ancestor with our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Then, I introduce the recent experimental approaches, focusing on SRGAP2, which has been partially duplicated, to elucidate the role of SRGAP2 protein and its human-specific paralogs in human brain development and evolution. PMID:23782070

  19. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Mammals show a very low level of variation in vertebral count, particularly in the neck. Phenotypes exhibited at various stages during the development of the axial skeleton may play a key role in testing mechanisms recently proposed to explain this conservatism. Here, we provide osteogenetic data that identify developmental criteria with which to recognize cervical vs. noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches. In sloths with 8–10 ribless neck vertebrae, the caudal-most neck centra ossify early, matching the pattern observed in cranial thoracic vertebrae of other mammals. Accordingly, we interpret the ribless neck vertebrae of three-toed sloths caudal to V7 as thoracic based on our developmental criterion. Applied to the unusual vertebral phenotype of long-necked sloths, these data support the interpretation that elements of the axial skeleton with origins from distinct mesodermal tissues have repatterned over the course of evolution. PMID:20956304

  20. A Transcriptome Atlas of Physcomitrella patens Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Hernandez-Coronado, Marcela; Thamm, Anna; Catarino, Bruno; Wang, Mingyi; Dolan, Liam; Feijó, José A; Becker, Jörg D

    2016-02-01

    Identifying the genetic mechanisms that underpin the evolution of new organ and tissue systems is an aim of evolutionary developmental biology. Comparative functional genetic studies between angiosperms and bryophytes can define those genetic changes that were responsible for developmental innovations. Here, we report the generation of a transcriptome atlas covering most phases in the life cycle of the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, including detailed sporophyte developmental progression. We identified a comprehensive set of sporophyte-specific transcription factors, and found that many of these genes have homologs in angiosperms that function in developmental processes such as flowering and shoot branching. Deletion of the PpTCP5 transcription factor results in development of supernumerary sporangia attached to a single seta, suggesting that it negatively regulates branching in the moss sporophyte. Given that TCP genes repress branching in angiosperms, we suggest that this activity is ancient. Finally, comparison of P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptomes led us to the identification of a conserved core of transcription factors expressed in tip-growing cells. We identified modifications in the expression patterns of these genes that could account for developmental differences between P. patens tip-growing cells and A. thaliana pollen tubes and root hairs. PMID:26687813

  1. Episode-Based Evolution Pattern Analysis of Haze Pollution: Method Development and Results from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangjie; Duan, Fengkui; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Haze episodes occurred in Beijing repeatedly in 2013, resulting in 189 polluted days. These episodes differed in terms of sources, formation processes, and chemical composition and thus required different control policies. Therefore, an overview of the similarities and differences among these episodes is needed. For this purpose, we conducted one-year online observations and developed a program that can simultaneously divide haze episodes and identify their shapes. A total of 73 episodes were identified, and their shapes were linked with synoptic conditions. Pure-haze events dominated in wintertime, whereas mixed haze-dust (PM2.5/PM10 < 60%) and mixed haze-fog (Aerosol Water/PM2.5 ∼ 0.3) events dominated in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. For all types, increase of ratio of PM2.5 in PM10 was typically achieved before PM2.5 reached ∼150 μg/m(3). In all PM2.5 species observed, organic matter (OM) was always the most abundant component (18-60%), but it was rarely the driving factor: its relative contribution usually decreased as the pollution level increased. The only OM-driven episode observed was associated with intensive biomass-burning activities. In comparison, haze evolution generally coincided with increasing sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR), indicating the enhanced production of secondary inorganic species. Applicability of these conclusions required further tests with simultaneously multisite observations. PMID:27050081

  2. Heredity, evolution and development in their (epistemic) environment at the turn of the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Federica Turriziani

    2016-03-01

    During the early 1870s a young zoologist who worked as a Privatdozent delivering lectures at different Prussian universities invested much of his family wealth and solicited his fellows' contributions to establish a research facility by the sea. The young zoologist happened to be called Anton Dohrn. From the time it opened its doors, the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station - or Naples Zoological Station, as it was originally called - played a crucial role in shaping life sciences as it facilitated research aimed at explaining the mechanics of inheritance. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth, zoologists attempted to explain how evolutionary changes occur within a population and become stabilized. In so doing, they looked at developmental processes as well as environmental pressure, coming up with different hypotheses to explain inheritance. In some cases, their research was highly speculative, whereas in other cases they conducted cytological observations to identify the material basis of heredity. Research on evolution and development has been carried out in different places, and zoological stations like the one in Naples have played a major role in this story. However, numerous biological institutions active at the turn of the twentieth century have not received much attention from historians. PMID:26979817

  3. Calcite fabric development during the spatial and temporal evolution of a high-strain zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchan, C.; Reddy, S.

    2003-04-01

    High-strain zones commonly have complex deformation histories because of the spatial and temporal localisation of deformation during their development. Linking microstructural development to particular stages of this progressive deformation may provide a significant advance in our understanding of how high-strain zones develop but such studies are difficult unless the temporal framework of deformation can be constrained. The Gressoney Shear Zone (GSZ) in the Italian Alps is a kilometre-wide, calcite-dominated high strain zone characterised by top-SE movement related to crustal extension. Rb-Sr dating of micas within different fabrics recrystallised below their blocking temperature thus recording the time of deformation, show that the GSZ developed between c. 45 -- 36 Ma ago. This well constrained temporal and kinematic framework provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the microstructural evolution of high strain rocks. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has been utilised to: 1) characterise the effects of grain size on crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); 2) establish the relationship of calcite deformation mechanisms to misorientations; and 3) compare deformation processes in naturally-deformed samples with experimental data. In most cases, samples record a similar CPO with (0001) lying parallel to the shear zone boundary. Coarser grains (>200 μm) record e-twinning but also the development of low-angle boundaries and core/mantle structures indicative of sub-grain rotation. Smaller grains (10--200 μm) show no evidence of twinning and generally record similar (0001) CPO to coarser grains. The samples with older mica ages exhibit more variability with significant differences in CPO. Within all samples, r- and f- planes show no preferred orientation and slip directions associated with these calcite slip planes are randomly distributed. Our data indicates considerably more complexity than experimentally deformed calcite and are not readily

  4. The evolution of spinnable cotton fiber entailed prolonged development and a novel metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hovav, Ran; Udall, Joshua A; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Hovav, Einat; Flagel, Lex; Hu, Guanjing; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2008-02-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology concerns the developmental processes by which new phenotypes arise. An exceptional example of evolutionary innovation is the single-celled seed trichome in Gossypium ("cotton fiber"). We have used fiber development in Gossypium as a system to understand how morphology can rapidly evolve. Fiber has undergone considerable morphological changes between the short, tightly adherent fibers of G. longicalyx and the derived long, spinnable fibers of its closest relative, G. herbaceum, which facilitated cotton domestication. We conducted comparative gene expression profiling across a developmental time-course of fibers from G. longicalyx and G. herbaceum using microarrays with approximately 22,000 genes. Expression changes between stages were temporally protracted in G. herbaceum relative to G. longicalyx, reflecting a prolongation of the ancestral developmental program. Gene expression and GO analyses showed that many genes involved with stress responses were upregulated early in G. longicalyx fiber development. Several candidate genes upregulated in G. herbaceum have been implicated in regulating redox levels and cell elongation processes. Three genes previously shown to modulate hydrogen peroxide levels were consistently expressed in domesticated and wild cotton species with long fibers, but expression was not detected by quantitative real time-PCR in wild species with short fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is important for cell elongation, but at high concentrations it becomes toxic, activating stress processes that may lead to early onset of secondary cell wall synthesis and the end of cell elongation. These observations suggest that the evolution of long spinnable fibers in cotton was accompanied by novel expression of genes assisting in the regulation of reactive oxygen species levels. Our data suggest a model for the evolutionary origin of a novel morphology through differential gene regulation causing prolongation of an ancestral

  5. Development and Evolution of Dentition Pattern and Tooth Order in the Skates And Rays (Batoidea; Chondrichthyes)

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Charlie J.; Johanson, Zerina; Welten, Monique; Metscher, Brian; Rasch, Liam J.; Fraser, Gareth J.; Smith, Moya Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Shark and ray (elasmobranch) dentitions are well known for their multiple generations of teeth, with isolated teeth being common in the fossil record. However, how the diverse dentitions characteristic of elasmobranchs form is still poorly understood. Data on the development and maintenance of the dental patterning in this major vertebrate group will allow comparisons to other morphologically diverse taxa, including the bony fishes, in order to identify shared pattern characters for the vertebrate dentition as a whole. Data is especially lacking from the Batoidea (skates and rays), hence our objective is to compile data on embryonic and adult batoid tooth development contributing to ordering of the dentition, from cleared and stained specimens and micro-CT scans, with 3D rendered models. We selected species (adult and embryonic) spanning phylogenetically significant batoid clades, such that our observations may raise questions about relationships within the batoids, particularly with respect to current molecular-based analyses. We include developmental data from embryos of recent model organisms Leucoraja erinacea and Raja clavata to evaluate the earliest establishment of the dentition. Characters of the batoid dentition investigated include alternate addition of teeth as offset successional tooth rows (versus single separate files), presence of a symphyseal initiator region (symphyseal tooth present, or absent, but with two parasymphyseal teeth) and a restriction to tooth addition along each jaw reducing the number of tooth families, relative to addition of successor teeth within each family. Our ultimate aim is to understand the shared characters of the batoids, and whether or not these dental characters are shared more broadly within elasmobranchs, by comparing these to dentitions in shark outgroups. These developmental morphological analyses will provide a solid basis to better understand dental evolution in these important vertebrate groups as well as the

  6. Ultrastructural characterization of porcine oocytes and adjacent follicular cells during follicle development: lipid component evolution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata C; Báo, Sônia N; Jivago, José Luiz P R; Lucci, Carolina M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the morphometry and ultrastructure of porcine preantral and antral follicles, especially the lipid component evolution. Ovarian tissue was processed for light microscopy. Ovarian tissue and dissected antral follicles (< 2, 2-4, and 4-6 mm) were also processed for transmission electron microscopy using routine methods and using an osmium-imidazole method for lipid detection. Primordial follicles (34 ± 5 μm in diameter, mean ± SD) had one layer of flattened-cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, primary follicles (40 ± 7 μm) had a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, and secondary follicles (102 ± 58 μm) had two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte. Preantral follicle oocytes had many round mitochondria and both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, lipid droplets were abundant and were mostly located at the cell poles. In secondary and antral follicles, the zona pellucida completely surrounded the oocyte, whereas some microvilli and granulosa cells projected through it. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles and vacuoles were present in the oolemma of secondary and antral follicles. Based on osmium-imidazole staining, most of these structures were shown to be lipid droplets. As the follicle developed, the appearance of the lipid droplets changed from small and black to large and gray, dark or dark with light streaks, suggesting that their nature may change over time. In summary, although porcine follicles and oocytes had many similarities to those of other mammalian species, they were rich in lipids, with lipid droplets with varying morphological patterns as the follicle developed. PMID:21835450

  7. Adaptive evolution of the Hox gene family for development in bats and dolphins.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lu; Shen, Yong-Yi; Pan, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Yang, Chao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Bats and cetaceans (i.e., whales, dolphins, porpoises) are two kinds of mammals with unique locomotive styles and occupy novel niches. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight in the sky, while cetaceans have returned to the aquatic environment and are specialized for swimming. Associated with these novel adaptations to their environment, various development changes have occurred to their body plans and associated structures. Given the importance of Hox genes in many aspects of embryonic development, we conducted an analysis of the coding regions of all Hox gene family members from bats (represented by Pteropus vampyrus, Pteropus alecto, Myotis lucifugus and Myotis davidii) and cetaceans (represented by Tursiops truncatus) for adaptive evolution using the available draft genome sequences. Differences in the selective pressures acting on many Hox genes in bats and cetaceans were found compared to other mammals. Positive selection, however, was not found to act on any of the Hox genes in the common ancestor of bats and only upon Hoxb9 in cetaceans. PCR amplification data from additional bat and cetacean species, and application of the branch-site test 2, showed that the Hoxb2 gene within bats had significant evidence of positive selection. Thus, our study, with genomic and newly sequenced Hox genes, identifies two candidate Hox genes that may be closely linked with developmental changes in bats and cetaceans, such as those associated with the pancreatic, neuronal, thymus shape and forelimb. In addition, the difference in our results from the genome-wide scan and newly sequenced data reveals that great care must be taken in interpreting results from draft genome data from a limited number of species, and deep genetic sampling of a particular clade is a powerful tool for generating complementary data to address this limitation. PMID:23825528

  8. The Development and Evolution of Ion Implanters in the Semiconductor Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Dave G.

    2008-11-01

    combined with detailed considerations of the roles of emittance, space charge and beam plasma characteristics if beams compatible with production worthy ultra-shallow junction formation are to be obtained. For these shallow, high dose implants, the proximity of the surface has a significant effect on the radiation damage build-up and annealing processes. To develop an understanding of the physics of some aspects of these processes, high depth resolution analytical techniques such as medium energy ion scattering have been applied. In the present review, the process based evolution of ion implantation equipment is discussed alongside a consideration of the contribution made by the growth in understanding of the physics of both the beams themselves and the ion collection and radiation damage processes occurring in the implanted silicon.

  9. Development of a two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay for detecting and quantifying peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Abera, Tsegalem; Thangavelu, Ardhanary

    2014-12-01

    A two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR targeting the matrix (M) gene of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was developed. The specificity of the assay was assessed against viral nucleic acid extracted from a range of animal viruses of clinical and structural similarities to PPRV including canine distemper virus, measles virus, bluetongue virus and Newcastle disease virus. But none of the viruses and no template control showed an amplification signal. Sensitivity of the same assay was assessed based on plasmid DNA copy number and with respect to infectivity titre. The lower detection limit achieved was 2.88 plasmid DNA copies/μl with corresponding Ct value of 35.93. Based on tissue culture infectivity titre the lower detection limits were 0.0001TCID50/ml and 1TCID50/ml for the SYBR green I based real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The calculated coefficient of variations values for intra- and inter-assay variability were low, ranging from 0.21% to 1.83% and 0.44% to 1.97%, respectively. The performance of newly developed assay was evaluated on a total of 36 clinical samples suspected of PPR and compared with conventional RT-PCR. The SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay detected PPRV in 32 (88.8%) of clinical samples compared to 19 (52.7%) by conventional RT-PCR. Thus, the two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay targeting the M gene of PPRV reported in this study was highly sensitive, specific and reproducible for detection and quantitation of PPRV nucleic acids. PMID:25194891

  10. Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

    2000-09-01

    Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades. Résumé. De nombreuses villes du sud et du sud-est de l'Asie ne possèdent pas de réseaux d'égouts et les eaux usées domestiques s'écoulent souvent directement sur le sol ou dans des canaux et des cours d'eau de surface. Ces pratiques peuvent provoquer une contamination dispersée de la nappe phréatique. A Hat Yai (sud de la Thaïlande), les infiltrations d'eaux usées domestiques sont responsables d'une détérioration notable de la qualité de la nappe phréatique directement sous la ville. Pour cette raison, la majorité de l'eau potable est prélevée dans des aquifères semi-captifs plus profonds, situés entre 30 et 50 m sous la surface. Cependant, une drainance à partir de la nappe phréatique sous la ville constitue une composante significative de la recharge