Science.gov

Sample records for development nutrition study

  1. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES OF DEVELOPMENT IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE

    PubMed Central

    Niederpruem, Donald J.; Hobbs, Hudner; Henry, Lyle

    1964-01-01

    Niederpruem, Donald J. (Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis), Hudner Hobbs, and Lyle Henry. Nutritional studies of development in Schizophyllum commune. J. Bacteriol. 88:1721–1729. 1964.—Individual carbon and nitrogen sources which sustain dikaryotic fruiting in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune were determined. Combination studies indicated that certain poor substrates were inhibitory; these included acetate, citrate, KNO2, and l-lysine. Homokaryotic (haploid) fruiting was promoted by dilute culture medium. Both developmental systems were arrested by respiratory CO2. Elevated temperature (e.g., 30 C) essentially completely blocked homokaryotic fruiting of S. commune. Images PMID:14240962

  2. Nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed metabolic studies were conducted of the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 flight crews, and the results are presented in tabular form. Intake and absorption data are also included. Apollo nutrient intakes were found to be characteristically hypocaloric. Estimates of body composition changes from metabolic balance data, from preflight and postflight weights and volumes, and from total body water and potassium provide no evidence for diminished caloric requirements during a flight. As observed during the Gemini Program and during periods of bed rest, measurements of bone density and metabolic balance confirm a tendency toward loss of skeletal tissue in weightlessness. No evidence exists that any inflight metabolic anomaly, including hypokalemia, was induced by marginal or deficient nutrient intakes. In general, the Apollo crewmen were well nourished and exhibited normal gastroenterological functions, although appetite was somewhat diminished and the organoleptic response to food was somewhat modified during flight.

  3. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  4. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  5. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  6. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  7. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  8. Development of Home Economics Curriculum Materials and Their Use in a Field Study of Applied Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Margaret Virginia

    To improve students' food habits through teacher training in newer teaching methods as applied to nutrition, curriculum materials based on four basic nutrition concepts were developed, pilot tested, evaluated, and revised. Ten Louisiana home economics teachers were given inservice training, and they field tested the curriculum materials using 425…

  9. Behavioral Data from the Tulane Nutrition Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzer, Jefferson L.

    Does nutritional deficiency retard psychological development? The Tulane Nutrition Study reports the first segment of its research based on extensive analysis of psychological and nutritional data gathered predominately on children who attended five, 6-week Head Start programs. Scores on a battery of eight psychological tests and two hematological…

  10. [Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

  11. Developing Comparative Bibliometric Indicators for Evaluating the Research Performance of Four Academic Nutrition Departments, 1992-1996: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Eric George

    This study develops a set of empirically and theoretically sound citation-based bibliometric indicators of scientific research performance and applies them in an exploratory comparative study of the University of Tennessee-Knoxville's (UTK's) Nutrition Department with three of its peer programs at the University of Florida, the University of…

  12. Development and analysis of acceptance of a nutrition education package among a rural elderly population: an action research study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that older adults are often vulnerable to malnutrition. This action research was conducted to develop a nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases among older adults in a rural area of Malaysia. Methods This study was designed and conducted in three stages, including needs assessment, development of the package and analysis of acceptance among 33 older adults aged 60 years and over in rural communities, and 14 health staff members at rural health clinics. Subjects completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic factors and acceptance evaluation of the nutrition education package with respect to content, graphics and design. Data were analysed descriptively using numbers and percentages. Results A nutrition education package comprising a booklet, flipchart and placemats was developed. A total of 42.4% of the older adults expressed that the sentences in the flipchart needed to be simplified and medical terms explained. Terminology (60%), illustrations (20%) and nutrition recommendations (20%) were the aspects that prevented elderly subjects from fully understanding the booklet. Information on the placemats was easily understood by subjects. Conclusions A well accepted nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases was developed that incorporated modifications based on feedback from older adult subjects and health clinic staff in a rural area. It is a tool that can effectively be used for health education in this population. PMID:22676577

  13. Nutrition and Mental Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Linda S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…

  14. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  15. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  16. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children’s development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children’s neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a

  17. Urban nutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Gross, R

    1995-04-01

    In developing countries, the past decades have seen a marked demographic shift from rural to urban. By the year 2000, 40% of the population of the Third World will live in urban areas. We have limited specific knowledge of the similarities and differences in diet, nutrition status, and health effects of diet and lifestyle between the traditional rural populations and the emerging urban poor. Such information will be useful for basic descriptive information as well as for assistance in the design and execution of health and nutrition projects for the urban poor. PMID:7624063

  18. Associations of maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Strain, J.J.; Davidson, Philip W.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Thurston, Sally W.; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Robson, Paula J.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Georger, Lesley A.; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Myers, Gary J.; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Fish consumption during gestation can provide the fetus with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and other nutrients essential for growth and development of the brain. However, fish consumption also exposes the fetus to the neurotoxicant, methyl mercury (MeHg). We studied the association between these fetal exposures and early child development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Specifically, we examined a priori models of Ω-3 and Ω-6 LCPUFA measures in maternal serum to test the hypothesis that these LCPUFA families before or after adjusting for prenatal MeHg exposure would reveal associations with child development assessed by the BSID-II at ages 9 and 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data available for analysis. At 9 months, the PDI was positively associated with total Ω-3 LCPUFA and negatively associated with the ratio of Ω-6/Ω-3 LCPUFA. These associations were stronger in models adjusted for prenatal MeHg exposure. Secondary models suggested that the MeHg effect at 9 months varied by the ratio of Ω-6/Ω-3 LCPUFA. There were no significant associations between LCPUFA measures and the PDI at 30 months. There were significant adverse associations, however, between prenatal MeHg and the 30 month PDI when the LCPUFA measures were included in the regression analysis. The BSID-II Mental Developmental Index (MDI) was not associated with any exposure variable. These data support the potential importance to child development of prenatal availability of Ω-3 LCPUFA present in fish and of LCPUFA in the overall diet. Furthermore, they indicate that the beneficial effects of LCPUFA can obscure the determination of adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure in longitudinal observational studies. PMID:18590765

  19. Nutrition, development, and foreign aid: a case study of U.S.-directed health care in Colombian plantation zone.

    PubMed

    Taussig, M

    1978-01-01

    Based on a case study of some aspects of Rockefeller and USAID intervention in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, this article is aimed at drawing attention to the political characteristics and inadequacies of U.S.-sponsored health care planning and research in the Third World, particularly as regards nutrition in rural regions of intensive economic development. By contrasting an historical analysis of the politicoeconomic development of agriculture and nutrition in the southern Cauca Valley with the assumptions guiding U.S. intervention in the health field there, a more complete picture of the causes of malnutrition is obtained, among which should be counted the intervention of the U.S. itself. Inter alia, other approaches to the malnutrition problem are suggested. PMID:631959

  20. Nutrition, Development, and Social Behavior. Proceedings of the Conference on the Assessment of Tests of Behavior From Studies of Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, David J., E.

    Contents of this book include the following papers, followed by discussion and comment: "Malnutrition and Animal Behavior," David A. Levitsky and Richard H. Barnes; "Malnutrition in Infants," Henry N. Ricciuti; "Nutrition and the Community," David J. Kallen; "A Methodological Note: The Development of Visual Attention in Infants," A. C.…

  1. A Pilot Study of an Online Workplace Nutrition Program: The Value of Participant Input in Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design: Formative research was conducted with gaming…

  2. Nutrition and national development planning.

    PubMed

    Joy, J L; Payne, P R

    1975-01-01

    We have argued that development strategies aimed at the reduction of all forms of deprivation, according to an explict statement of values and priorities, are necessary for the integration of nutrition planning into overall national development planning. We do not regard this as likely to lead to the neglect of the key issues of investment and production. Instead, we argue that consideration of investment and production strategies should be explicitly directed to their purpose, the reduction of deprivation, rather than, as in the past, treated as the necessary means to that purpose. Thus investment and production strategies would be aimed directly at relieving deprivation including, especially, nutritional deprivation, and their impact in this respect will need to be explicitly predicted and evaluated. We have argued that problems and potentials differ greatly at the area level and that planning must be an iterative process in which national and area-level strategies and programmes are brought to consistency through successive cycles of adjustment and reappraisal. A major role in planning, especially in detailed design and implementation, is assigned to area level. Planning must proceed from an identification of the deprivations under attack to the identification of intervention measures. Elsewhere we have argued the case for the 'functional classification" of malnutrition and the use of "typical profiles" in the understanding of "the ecology and etiology of malnutition". Where planning accepts the need for an integrated approach to the attack on all forms of deprivation, these analyses of nutritional deprivation would from part of a more comprehensive analysis of general deprivation. The existence of "functional classification" and "typical profiles" analysis with respect to malnutrition would provide an excellent base from which a more comprehensive view might be developed. The factors affecting the evolution of nutritional - and other - deprivation problems need

  3. A Pilot Study of an Online Workplace Nutrition Program: The Value of Participant Input in Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study’s purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design Formative research was conducted with gaming industry employees and benefits managers to develop a consensus on workplace-specific nutrition needs. A demonstration Web program was piloted with stakeholders to determine feasibility. Setting Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Jersey gaming establishments. Participants 86 employees, 18 benefits managers. Intervention Prototype Web program. Main Outcome Measures Concept mapping; 16-item nutrition knowledge test; satisfaction. Analysis Concept mapping was used to aggregate importance ratings on programmatic content, which informed Web program curriculum. Chi-square tests were performed postintervention to determine knowledge improvement. Results (1) Employees and benefits managers exhibited moderate agreement about content priorities for the program (r = 0.48). (2) There was a significant increase in employees’ nutrition knowledge scores postintervention (t = 7.16, df = 36, P < .001); those with less knowledge exhibited the greatest gains in knowledge scores (r = −0.647, P < .001). Conclusions and Implications Employees and benefit managers do not necessarily agree on the priority of nutrition-related content, suggesting a need for programs to appeal to various stakeholders. Computer-based approaches can address various stakeholder health concerns via tailored, customized programming. PMID:18457784

  4. Nutrition and Mental Development. Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Muriel G.

    This study investigated (1) the nutritional status of urban American disadvantaged children, (2) the relationship of nutritional status to mental growth and development, (3) the relationship of physical maturation to the development of perceptual-motor factors of intelligence, and (4) if found, the effects of undernutrition on intellectual…

  5. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  6. New Developments in Nutrition Education. Nutrition Education Series, Issue 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheila A., Ed.; Ingle, Richard B., Ed.

    This monograph is an edited collection of some of the papers presented at the conference on "New Developments in Nutrition," held in London in 1983. One of the strengths of the conference was the diverse background of the participants, who represented more than thirty different countries. This diversity of interest and expertise is reflected in…

  7. Care for nutrition and development.

    PubMed

    Engle, P L; Pelto, G; Bentley, P

    2000-09-01

    Optimal growth and development depend not only on food quality and availability, on access to health care services and a healthy environment but also on the care provided to the child especially during the first few years of life. Care refers to the actions and practices of caregivers on a day to day basis that translate food, heakh care, and water and sanitation supplies into good growth and development of children. It includes behaviours such as feeding, sanitation and hygiene, home health practices, preparing food for children, and providing psychosocial support for development. Families also are responsible for providing care for girls in the family and women. Care requires resources--both skills and capabilities, as well as economic resources. Some resources are easily recognised, such as education of the caregiver, but others are less often seen, including time of the caregiver, motivation of caregiver and male family members, organisational resources such as child care centres, and the caregiver's ability to influence decisions about child care. It must be noted that the poorer the family, the more risks for children in the environment. Therefore, the poorer the environment, the more important a role care has in children's survival, growth and development. Implications for health care providers include assessing the care practices in the home, and resources for care when making recommendations; supporting positive practices already being performed in order to empower the caregiver; checking the understanding and recall of the caregiver; and finally, recognising that all children, regardless of gender, ethnicity, case, economic level, etc, have a right to good nutrition and health care in order to develop to their fullest potential under the Convention for the Rights of the Child, acceded to by India in 1992. PMID:11291785

  8. Assessing the nutritional vulnerability of older people in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The nutrition of older people in developing countries, and the effect of their nutritional status on the quality of life, have not received sufficient attention. A 1997 symposium held at the London (England) School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine addressed the assessment of nutritional vulnerability in older people in rural and urban settings. Reported were the results of a collaborative study conducted in the urban slums of Mumbai, India; a refugee camp for Rwandans in Karagwe, Tanzania; and rural communities in Malawi. Physical impairment was highest in India and increased with both age and deteriorating nutritional status in all three settings. Among the risk factors for nutritional vulnerability identified through the study to date are living alone, social isolation, reduced food intake, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and certain diseases. A field handbook to assess nutritional vulnerability has been prepared based on the research program and will be published in 1988. PMID:12293175

  9. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  10. Nutritional development and the target weight debate.

    PubMed

    Hall, John B

    2013-11-01

    Postnatal nutrition has immediate and long-lasting effects on beef heifer reproductive efficiency, longevity, and productivity. This article reviews the effects of nutrients and nutritional management on reproduction in developing heifers. In addition, the current debate on the preferred target weight for heifers at breeding is discussed. PMID:24182433

  11. NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON INFANT DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutri...

  12. Marabou 2005: nutrition and human development.

    PubMed

    James, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Nutrition is now becoming once more of intense interest to biological and medical scientists working on the control of development and human health. It is also now of ever greater public health interest. Few scientists, however, recognize that the same interest for those involved in fundamental science and public health developed a century ago focusing on the way in which nutrition and specific micronutrients, as well as general energy and protein intakes, were crucial to infant growth and appropriate development. The discovery of vitamins was matched by the proposition that stunted children in poor communities in the Western world were suffering from poverty-related poor diets. The critical role of nutrition was established by feeding studies, which then led to major food and agricultural policy changes during the Second World War, when food supplies were scarce throughout Europe. The success of these wartime policies led to a revolution in governmental thinking and a cheap food policy, together with a major boost in national agricultural production as an issue of national security. Nutritionists transferred their scientific interest to the study of childhood malnutrition in the developing world. The promotion of intensive agriculture and the food industry led to a revolution in food supplies, with the intense promotion of meat, milk, butter, and sugar production and consumption. The resulting escalation in cardiovascular disease related to the dietary change slowly altered public health policies, but as cardiovascular deaths decreased in the developed world, obesity and diabetes progressively increased. Now the lower- and middle-income countries (i.e., the developing world) have far more cardiovascular disease as Western diets and cultural habits are imported. The remarkable escalation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, particularly in populations currently and previously subjected to malnutrition, now reveals unusual susceptibility to these diseases. This

  13. Food, Nutrition and Development in Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This purpose of this journal is to document advances in the fields of health, education, food, diet, and development. Each issue contains an overview of a high-priority subject touching the everyday life of children, mothers, and families. This double issue describes the Andes project, a food, diet, nutrition, and development program conducted in…

  14. Nutrition, Development, and Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Alan

    1973-01-01

    Focuses on the problem of malnutrition in developing countries through a description of its interrelationships with human development, national economies, economic growth and income, agricultural advances, the crisis in infant feeding practices, new foods, and the population dilemma. Outlines possible future policy directions to significantly…

  15. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Nutrition in Asia and Future Nutrition Policy Studies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of health disparities has been reported around the world. One of the intermediate factors between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is nutrition. Many studies reported socioeconomically disadvantaged people had more risk of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases than others in western society. Micronutrient intake affected by SES, but little evidence indicates that SES affects either energy intake or the macronutrient composition of the diet in western countries. In contrast, there is not enough evidence of a consistent relationship between SES and nutrition in Asian countries at present. The present status of nutrition disparities in Asia is considered to vary by economic level of the country. For developing countries in Asia, India and Vietnam, SES associates with BMI positively in women. For relatively developed countries in Asia, Korea and Japan, SES associates with BMI negatively in women. Low SES groups consume more carbohydrate, and less protein and fat, so not only micronutrient but also macronutrient intake is affected by SES both in developing and in developed Asian countries. There are some studies on the pathway from SES to diet/nutrition. The association between low SES and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods, concern about food price and dietary knowledge. Nutrition policy research is required to reduce nutrition disparities in Asia. We need a collaborative study of the impact of potential political options on diet and on health with other academic fields. PMID:26598891

  16. Fundamental Approaches to the Study of Zebrafish Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephen A.; Powell, Mickie; D’Abramo, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    The value of the zebrafish model has been well established. However, culture variability within and among laboratories remains a concern, particularly as it relates to nutrition. Investigators using rodent models addressed this concern several decades ago and have developed strict nutritional regimes to which their models adhere. These investigators decreased the variability associated with nutrition in most studies by developing standardized reference and open formulation diets. Zebrafish investigators have not embraced this approach. In this article, we address the problems associated with the lack of nutritional information and standardization in the zebrafish research community. Based on the knowledge gained from studies of other animals, including traditional research models, other fish species, domesticated and companion animals, and humans, we have proposed an approach that seeks to standardize nutrition research in zebrafish. We have identified a number of factors for consideration in zebrafish nutrition studies and have suggested a number of proposed outcomes. The long term-goal of nutrition research will be to identify the daily nutritional requirements of the zebrafish and to develop appropriate standardized reference and open formulation diets. PMID:23382346

  17. Nutritional regulation of root development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Herrera, León Francisco; Shane, Michael W; López-Bucio, José

    2015-01-01

    Mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Adequate provision of nutrients via the root system impacts greatly on shoot biomass and plant productivity and is therefore of crucial importance for agriculture. Nutrients are taken up at the root surface in ionic form, which is mediated by specific transport proteins. Noteworthy, root tips are able to sense the local and internal concentrations of nutrients to adjust growth and developmental processes, and ultimately, to increase or decrease the exploratory capacity of the root system. Recently, important progress has been achieved in identifying the mechanisms of nutrient sensing in wild- and cultivated species, including Arabidopsis, bean, maize, rice, lupin as well as in members of the Proteaceae and Cyperaceae families, which develop highly sophisticated root clusters as adaptations to survive in soils with very low fertility. Major findings include identification of transporter proteins and transcription factors regulating nutrient sensing, miRNAs as mobile signals and peptides as repressors of lateral root development under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Understanding the roles played by N, P, and Fe in gene expression and biochemical characterization of proteins involved in root developmental responses to homogeneous or heterogeneous N and P sources has gained additional interest due to its potential for improving fertilizer acquisition efficiency in crops. PMID:25760021

  18. Primary-Graders Study Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Moncrief, Michael H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the content of an instructional unit on nutrition prepared by the Dairy Council of California for primary-level school children and the results of its large-scale tryout in 30 California schools. (SDH)

  19. The Narangwal Nutrition Study: a summary review.

    PubMed

    Kielmann, A A; Taylor, C E; Parker, R L

    1978-11-01

    Between April 1968 and May 1973 the department of International Health of The Johns Hopkins University carried out investigations into the interactions of malnutrition and infection and their effects on preschool child growth, morbidity and mortality in 10 villages of Punjab, North India. Base line surveys before the introduction of services revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition and undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity, as well as lack of accessibility, underutilization and poor population coverage of governmental health services. Study villages were selected in separate clusters and allocated to a control group and three service groups in which nutrition care and medical care were provided singly and in combination by auxiliary health workers resident in each village. Outcome effects were measured through means of longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys. Service inputs and service costs were similarly monitored. Results showed significant improvement of growth (weight and height) and hemoglobin levels of children. Perinatal mortality was reduced by nutrition supplementation to pregnant women. Medical care significantly reduced postneonatal and 1 to 3 mortality, and decreased illness duration of all six conditions examined in this paper. The auxiliary health worker capably managed more than 90% of health needs on her own and referred the rest safely to the physician. Analysis of cost per child death averted showed that cost-effectiveness declined with increasing age of the child. Prenatal nutrition care to pregnant women was most cost-effective in preventing perinatal deaths followed by medical care for infants, and then medical care for the 1 to 3 year age group. The relevance of the field research to national or international endeavors to solve present health problems of developing nations and the timeliness of projects such as the Narangwal Nutrition Study is also evaluated. PMID:102180

  20. Virtues and challenges in using the community based participatory research (cbpr) approach by the delta nutrition research initiative (delta niri) in developing rural community walking studies to lower obesity risks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To discuss the CBPR approach in development, implementation, and evaluation of rural community walking and nutrition studies. Background: The current obesity epidemic, especially among rural and low-income minority populations, presents challenges in designing interventions that are effec...

  1. Nutrition and national development: the case of Chile.

    PubMed

    Solimano, G; Hakim, P

    1979-01-01

    This study is an historical analysis of food consumption and nutrition in Chile emphasizing the influence of political and economic factors on nutritional standards. It attempts to document and explain the persistence of malnutrition as a widespread social problem in Chile even as the country achieved a relatively advanced state of economic development and boasted an unusually progressive record of social legislation. The major findings of the study were: (a) Chile's pattern of development, social reform efforts notwithstanding, consistently discriminated against low-income groups, and (b) this discrimination perpetuated low standards of nutrition and low levels of food consumption among the country's poor and undermined the effectiveness of specific measures to alleviate malnutrition. PMID:468441

  2. Nutrition Education Today. A Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Nutrition Education Today is a state-funded curriculum project that addresses the behavioral aspects of nutrition as well as the nutritional knowledge of secondary school students in California. The curriculum design for the Nutrition Education Today project is a result of the efforts of a statewide task force of specialists in the area of…

  3. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  4. Boundary development in the field of international nutrition science.

    PubMed

    Centrone Stefani, Monique; Humphries, Debbie L

    2014-03-01

    Using a sociological approach that elaborates on key observations of institutional entrepreneurs in international nutrition, this paper explores institutional boundaries and boundary work in international nutrition. Sociological concepts of "boundary making" and "situated knowledge" are applied to the boundaries between the nutrition sciences and lay nutrition knowledge in nutrition intervention. These concepts allow an analysis of how nutrition science creates boundaries between its field and other sciences and between nutrition as a science and other nutrition practices, providing additional perspective on current challenges in global food security and malnutrition. Analysis of boundary processes in international nutrition can also illuminate the development of "implementation" or "delivery science" in the field of international nutrition as it attempts to strengthen effectiveness of global efforts to reduce malnutrition. Although some risk taking in the academic world is rewarded, the analysis indicates that there are underlying processes that may inhibit full partnership with local people in the course of intervention work that builds scientific nutrition knowledge. As nutrition science becomes increasingly central to development, the boundaries that are reinforced by digging in heels over the implementation of programs with little local input or softened by inviting local stakeholders to publicly consider the problems in global nutrition together are important to consider in helping to create directions that favor viable solutions. PMID:24618761

  5. Boundary Development in the Field of International Nutrition Science12

    PubMed Central

    Centrone Stefani, Monique; Humphries, Debbie L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sociological approach that elaborates on key observations of institutional entrepreneurs in international nutrition, this paper explores institutional boundaries and boundary work in international nutrition. Sociological concepts of “boundary making” and “situated knowledge” are applied to the boundaries between the nutrition sciences and lay nutrition knowledge in nutrition intervention. These concepts allow an analysis of how nutrition science creates boundaries between its field and other sciences and between nutrition as a science and other nutrition practices, providing additional perspective on current challenges in global food security and malnutrition. Analysis of boundary processes in international nutrition can also illuminate the development of “implementation” or “delivery science” in the field of international nutrition as it attempts to strengthen effectiveness of global efforts to reduce malnutrition. Although some risk taking in the academic world is rewarded, the analysis indicates that there are underlying processes that may inhibit full partnership with local people in the course of intervention work that builds scientific nutrition knowledge. As nutrition science becomes increasingly central to development, the boundaries that are reinforced by digging in heels over the implementation of programs with little local input or softened by inviting local stakeholders to publicly consider the problems in global nutrition together are important to consider in helping to create directions that favor viable solutions. PMID:24618761

  6. Dairy Heifer Development and Nutrition Management.

    PubMed

    Akins, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Heifer development depends on nutritional management decisions throughout all growing phases. Optimizing costs to raise heifers improves profitability of dairy farms. Feed costs for heifers make up 50% of heifer costs. Required growth rates depend on the desired age at first calving and estimated mature body weight. Intensive milk feeding improves calf growth and subsequent milk production. Prepubertal heifers should be fed for adequate gains to calve between 22 and 24 months of age. Controlling gains in pregnant heifers to limit fat deposition is possible using limit-feeding of a higher concentrate diet or using high-fiber forages to reduce diet energy. PMID:27161393

  7. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  8. Developing a Performance Nutrition Curriculum for Collegiate Athletics.

    PubMed

    Parks, Rachel B; Helwig, Dennis; Dettmann, John; Taggart, Tim; Woodruff, Bridget; Horsfall, Karla; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for developing a sports nutrition education program in a collegiate athletic department. A review of literature on student-athlete nutrition behaviors is combined with practical suggestions from personnel who wrote a sports nutrition curriculum at a large Midwestern university. There are 2 primary implications for practice. First, maintaining a written curriculum and conducting periodic evaluation are fundamental aspects of sports nutrition education programs. Second, better documentation of program outcomes is needed to establish best practices in collegiate sports nutrition education and demonstrate the value of full-time sports registered dietitians. PMID:27062229

  9. Nutritionally Mediated Programming of the Developing Immune System12

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother’s nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a “layered” expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease. PMID:22332080

  10. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O.; Drevon, Christian A.; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C.; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise

  11. Improving Nutrition in Less Developed Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Chavez, Miriam Munoz

    1972-01-01

    An exploration of the positive aspects of nutrition education programs aimed at improving the diets of low-income persons in underdeveloped countries. Results of programs concerning undernourished infants from birth to three years old in three communities in Mexico are presented. When, what, and how nutrition education questions are discussed. (LK)

  12. Nutritional Disorders and the Development of Young Children: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Joan Good

    This bibliography on nutritional disorders and child development is directed towards early childhood professionals outside the field of nutrition. The main topic covered pertains to malnutrition and undernutrition as it relates to mental/intellectual/cognitive development of children from the fetal stage through the early childhood years. Included…

  13. Behavioral aspects of development of eating behavior and nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz

    2002-05-01

    Studies on the development of eating behavior in rural India indicated that mothers of young children made food choices that fit into their budgets, and were also influenced by new information. Their choices were still immersed in traditional beliefs, some of which had positive effects on nutrition. Specific childrearing behaviors influenced positive deviance in the growth and psychosocial development of infants and preschoolers. A life-cycle approach to the development of eating behavior that deciphers needs at each stage and linkages between stages is necessary. Cost-benefit needs to be considered when devising strategies for future intervention programs. PMID:12035868

  14. Development of a vinasse nutritive solution for hydroponics.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, José Darcy; Lopes da Silva, André Luís; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Scheidt, Gessiel Newton; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2013-01-15

    Vinasse is a residue that originates from the distillation of fuel alcohol. However, it contains a relative amount of nutrients. The aim of this work was to develop a nutritive solution using vinasse and to compare it with a commercial solution for the cultivation of lettuce, watercress and rocket. Vinasse obtained from juice must was decanted and filtered, followed by chemical analyses of the nutrients. A nutritive solution composed of 10% vinasse supplemented with nutrients was in agreement with the results of the chemical analyses (a similar amount of Furlani's solution). Experiments were then performed in an NFT (Nutrient film technique) system. The treatments used the vinasse solution and a commercial solution constituted from a Yara Fertilizantes(®) product. The height of the aerial part and the number of leaves of the crops were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. In most crops, the results were very similar. The vinasse solution promoted a larger number of leaves in lettuce and the highest aerial part in watercress. For the rocket, there were no significant differences between the two solutions. In conclusion, a nutritive solution was developed using vinasse, and this solution provided suitable growth, which was higher in some cases, for the crops studied herein. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal. PMID:23201600

  15. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

  16. The Relationship of Nutrition to Brain Development and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on International Nutrition Programs.

    The physical, chemical, and physiological development of the brain and consequent behavior in all species of higher animals evolves from the continuous interaction of genetic and numerous environmental factors. Among the latter are nutritional, disease, psychological, learning, and cultural variables. Of these, nutrition is concerned directly with…

  17. Development of the Mississippi communities for healthy living nutrition education toolkit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to develop a nutrition education toolkit for communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) with content that is current, evidence-based, culturally relevant, and user friendly. The Mississippi Communities for Fealthy Living (MCHL), an evidenced-based nutrition educa...

  18. Developing conceptions of food and nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Rod; Hill, Doug

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes an investigation of concepts that various groups hold about food and nutrition. Groups investigated were students in Years 4 and 8, university students in a BEd (primary) program and parents of the Year 4 students. It was found that for many important concepts relating to food selection, the basic ideas of each group were surprisingly consistent, despite the influence of formal education. In particular, misconception about energy and its role in nutrition and particular food groups was an important finding. Implications for school and community education are drawn from the results.

  19. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  20. [Epigenetics and Nutrition: maternal nutrition impacts on placental development and health of offspring].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Polina E; Lemaire, Marion; Fneich, Sara; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The environment, defined broadly by all that is external to the individual, conditions the phenotype during development, particularly the susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases. This notion, called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), is based on numerous epidemiological studies as well as animal models. Thus, parental nutrition and obesity can predispose the offspring to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The known underlying mechanisms include an altered development of tissues that adapt to maternal metabolic condition, and a placental dysfunction, which in turn impacts fetal growth and development. Epigenetic mechanisms modulate gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence itself. The main epigenetic marks are DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These marks are erased and set-up during gametogenesis and development in order to ensure cellular identity. Therefore, they can lead to a memorisation of early environment and induce long-term alteration of cell and tissue functions, which will condition the susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. The placenta is a programming agent of adult disease. The environment, such as smoking or psychosocial stress, is able to modify epigenetic processes in placenta, such as small RNA expression and DNA methylation. We showed that placenta is sensitive to maternal obesity and maternal nutrition, in terms of histology, transcription and epigenetic marks. A clear sexual dimorphism is remarkable in the placental response to maternal environment. In adulthood, the phenotype is also different between males and females. Epigenetic mechanisms could underlie this differential response of males and females to the same environment. The DOHaD can no longer be ignored in Biology of Reproduction. The prevention of non-communicable diseases must take this new paradigm into account. Research will allow a better comprehension of the mechanisms of this

  1. Development of the New York State Nutrition Surveillance Program.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, J M; Melnik, T A

    1993-01-01

    New York State established a Nutrition Surveillance Program (NSP) in 1984. Precedents for the program included the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System of the Public Health Service's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and periodic food and nutrition surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics and the Human Nutrition Information Service, Department of Agriculture. The first phase of NSP was connected to a new program, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which established support for more than 1,000 emergency food programs across the State. SNAP also expanded the home delivered meal program for the frail elderly and the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. NSP provided information on the extent of unmet nutrition needs that was used to establish funding requests and provided data describing the characteristics of SNAP participants that were used in developing new SNAP program components. The second phase of NSP began in 1988. It identified populations that were thought to be at nutrition risk and compiled information about the extent of unmet need, the characteristics of the population, and the status of current nutrition programs to meet the needs. As a result of this review, NSP added a nutrition component to the Dental Survey of School Children; conducted a dietary survey; developed an inventory of information sources in all State agencies; and established an annual work plan using department of health objectives. The third phase of NSP is the policy and planning phase, monitoring the Year 2000 Objectives and the Five-Year Plan of the New York State Food and Nutrition Policy Council. PMID:8464981

  2. Mother's nutritional miRNA legacy: Nutrition during pregnancy and its possible implications to develop cardiometabolic disease in later life.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Dávalos, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences the offspring's health in the long-term. Indeed, human epidemiological studies and animal model experiments suggest that either an excess or a deficit in maternal nutrition influence offspring development and susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Different epigenetic mechanisms may explain in part the way by which dietary factors in early critical developmental steps might be able to affect the susceptibility to develop metabolic diseases in adulthood. microRNAs are versatile regulators of gene expression and play a major role during tissue homeostasis and disease. Dietary factors have also been shown to modify microRNA expression. However, the role of microRNAs in fetal programming remains largely unstudied. This review evaluates in vivo studies conducted to analyze the effect of maternal diet on the modulation of the microRNA expression in the offspring and their influence to develop metabolic and cardiovascular disease in later life. In overall, the available evidence suggests that nutritional status during pregnancy influence offspring susceptibility to the development of cardiometabolic risk factors, partly through microRNA action. Thus, therapeutic modulation of microRNAs can open up new strategies to combat - later in life - the effects of nutritional insult during critical points of development. PMID:26325301

  3. Development and evaluation of continuing education course in renal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Rana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Competent renal dietitians are crucial for better patient compliance and clinical outcomes, specifically in critical settings. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based course in renal dietetics for dietitians working in health care systems where dietetic specialization is absent. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifteen licensed dietitians working with hemodialysis patients in Lebanon were randomly recruited to participate in the course. The latter was developed by the study's primary investigator, according to evidence-based practice guidelines, and focused on all aspects of renal nutrition. Total course duration was 28 hours spread over a 2 month period. Dietitians' knowledge in renal nutrition was tested pre- and post-training through a 23-item questionnaire; the total score was expressed in percentage (< 60% score indicated insufficient knowledge). Paired-samples t test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Overall knowledge of the dietitians significantly improved post-training and reached satisfactory levels (pre: 38.75 ± 17.20%, post: 62.08 ± 21.85%). Sub-analysis of the change in the knowledge showed significant and satisfactory improvement only in 3 topics: 1) correct body weight use in calculations, 2) energy estimation method and 3) phosphorus management. Knowledge in the fluid management significantly improved but did not achieve a satisfactory level. CONCLUSION The course significantly improved dietitians' knowledge in renal nutrition. If adopted as part of the continuing education of dietitians in countries that lack dietetic specializations, it may serve the first step towards improving health care practice. PMID:26865922

  4. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

  5. Nutrition, maternal responsiveness and mental development of Ethiopian children.

    PubMed

    Aboud, F E; Alemu, T

    1995-09-01

    Forty children between the ages of 16 and 42 months and their mothers, living in an Ethiopian rural village, participated in the study. The objective was to determine the mental development of the children using the Bayley Scale of Mental Development, and to examine its relation to nutritional status and mother-child interaction. Forty-eight percent of the children were mildly or moderately malnourished; 7.5% severely so. The child's weight for age was significantly related to the child's scores on the Bayley scale. Mother-child interaction was assessed through a 30-60 min observation of the pair in a naturalistic setting around the home. The number of verbal, gestural and motor actions spontaneously initiated by the mother and child, as well as responses made by each to the others' behavior were recorded and coded separately. The rate of a mother's verbal responses to the child positively predicted the child's verbal score. In contrast, the mother's spontaneously initiated motor actions toward the child correlated negatively with the child's performance score. The mother's responsiveness was unrelated to the child's nutritional status, age or sex, but was best predicted by a fussing/crying child and by her expectations about the ages when specific social-cognitive abilities would be acquired by a child. PMID:7502104

  6. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    PubMed

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  7. Modifying Choroidal Neovascularization Development with a Nutritional Supplement in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, Alina Adriana; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Heras-Mulero, Henar; Sádaba-Echarri, Luis Manuel; García-García, Laura; Fernández-García, Vanessa; Moreno-Orduna, Maite; Redondo-Exposito, Aitor; Recalde, Sergio; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We examined the effect of nutritional supplements (modified Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS)-II formulation containing vitamins, minerals, lutein, resveratrol, and omega-3 fatty acids) on choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Supplements were administered alone and combined with intravitreal anti-VEGF in an early-CNV (diode laser-induced) murine model. Sixty mice were evenly divided into group V (oral vehicle, intravitreal saline), group S (oral supplement, intravitreal saline), group V + aVEGF (oral vehicle, intravitreal anti-VEGF), and group S + aVEGF (oral supplement, intravitreal anti-VEGF). Vehicle and nutritional supplements were administered daily for 38 days beginning 10 days before laser. Intravitreal injections were administered 48 h after laser. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and flat-mount CD31 staining evaluated leakage and CNV lesion area. Expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, and NLRP3 were evaluated with RT-PCR, zymography, and western-blot. Leakage, CNV size, VEGF gene and protein expression were lower in groups V + aVEGF, S + aVEGF, and S than in V (all p < 0.05). Additionally, MMP-9 gene expression differed between groups S + aVEGF and V (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 activity was lower in S + aVEGF than in V and S (both p < 0.01). Levels of MMP-2 and NLRP3 were not significantly different between groups. Nutritional supplements either alone or combined with anti-VEGF may mitigate CNV development and inhibit retinal disease involving VEGF overexpression and CNV. PMID:26153682

  8. Modifying Choroidal Neovascularization Development with a Nutritional Supplement in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Alina Adriana; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Heras-Mulero, Henar; Sádaba-Echarri, Luis Manuel; García-García, Laura; Fernández-García, Vanessa; Moreno-Orduna, Maite; Redondo-Exposito, Aitor; Recalde, Sergio; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of nutritional supplements (modified Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS)-II formulation containing vitamins, minerals, lutein, resveratrol, and omega-3 fatty acids) on choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Supplements were administered alone and combined with intravitreal anti-VEGF in an early-CNV (diode laser-induced) murine model. Sixty mice were evenly divided into group V (oral vehicle, intravitreal saline), group S (oral supplement, intravitreal saline), group V + aVEGF (oral vehicle, intravitreal anti-VEGF), and group S + aVEGF (oral supplement, intravitreal anti-VEGF). Vehicle and nutritional supplements were administered daily for 38 days beginning 10 days before laser. Intravitreal injections were administered 48 h after laser. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and flat-mount CD31 staining evaluated leakage and CNV lesion area. Expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, and NLRP3 were evaluated with RT-PCR, zymography, and western-blot. Leakage, CNV size, VEGF gene and protein expression were lower in groups V + aVEGF, S + aVEGF, and S than in V (all p < 0.05). Additionally, MMP-9 gene expression differed between groups S + aVEGF and V (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 activity was lower in S + aVEGF than in V and S (both p < 0.01). Levels of MMP-2 and NLRP3 were not significantly different between groups. Nutritional supplements either alone or combined with anti-VEGF may mitigate CNV development and inhibit retinal disease involving VEGF overexpression and CNV. PMID:26153682

  9. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  10. A nutritional study of Irish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A.; Cantwell, T.; Doherty, F.; Folan, Jean C.; Ingoldsby, M.; Kevany, J. P.; O'Broin, J. D.; O'Connor, H.; O'Shea, B.; Ryan, B. A.; Vaughan, J.

    1981-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to carry out a nutritional assessment of selected Irish athletes and (2) to provide individual results and specific advice to each athlete on how to achieve an optimum diet. Dietary intakes were measured by a three-day weighed dietary record technique designed to evaluate each athlete's usual eating habits. The results were evaluated against a set of dietary standards in order to determine adequacy. Nutritional status was also assessed in a limited form by selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements. A total of 148 subjects took part in the assessment which began in May, 1979 and continued until April, 1980. The sports involved included: canoeing, cycling, rowing, swimming, hockey, squash and track and field events. The results indicated a range of sub-optimal dietary patterns relating in particular to abnormal intakes of folate, iron, pyridoxine and calcium. The significance and applications of these findings are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:7023594

  11. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  13. [Food and nutrition studies in Mexico: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Gil-Romo, Sara Elena Pérez; Coria, Silvia Díez-Urdanivia

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reflects on utilization of the gender category in food and nutrition studies in Mexico. It highlights women's important role as caretakers of family health and nutrition. Briefly the authors review how women have been analysed in the different food an nutrition surveys; how gender has been effaced in the "mean per capita", and how women have been taken into account only as far as their reproductive role. This paper also outlines the importance of including the gender category and gender approach in food and nutrition studies; in order to clearly visualize the feeding inequities among men and women throughout the stages of the feeding process, i.e. decision, provision, preparation, distribution and intake. Moreover, improved understanding of women's nutrition practices and meanings that foods convey to women is advocated. In the conclusion the absolute need to articulate the gender issue in nutrition, nursing and medical academic curricula is stated. PMID:18176705

  14. Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of neonatal nutrition on the health status of the newborn and incidence of disease in later life is a topic of intense interest. Animal models are an invaluable tool to identify mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrition on neonatal development and metabolic function. This review hig...

  15. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  16. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  17. Executive summary: biomarkers of nutrition for development: building a consensus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevan...

  18. Postweaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From weaning to breeding, nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. Overfeeding heifers decreases the number of calves weaned, w...

  19. Breakfast cereal sampling study for nutritional elements

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura J.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Phillips, Melissa M.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Leigh, Stefan D.; Moors, Amanda J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Rust, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program (DSQAP) in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS). The DSQAP invites laboratories twice annually to participate in interlaboratory studies where participants elect to measure concentrations of nutritional and/or toxic elements as well as active and/or marker compounds. One of these studies was designed to determine the effects of material granularity and sample processing techniques on measurement variability (precision) as well as to provide participating laboratories information on their performance relative to the NIST assigned values (bias) and to the other participants (concordance). Participants were asked to determine the mass fractions of Ca, Fe, and Zn, in mg/kg, in six breakfast cereal samples. Cereal samples consisted of three ground materials (homogenized wheat, wheat, and rice), two flake materials (wheat and rice) and a partially crushed material (a wheat/rice mixture). In general, approximately 25 % of the laboratories processed and analyzed the suite of six cereal materials with adequate to exemplary measurement precision. Over half of the laboratories (60 %) experienced measurement issues related to only a particular type of cereal matrix or for only a single element. A small number (15 %) of laboratories experienced significant sample processing or measurement problems. Future studies planned by the DSQAP may be designed to use commercial products to aid laboratories with their sampling and analytical techniques. PMID:23380950

  20. Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

  1. Growth and nutrition effects on gilt development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and development of gilts are a component of their lifetime potential for productivity. Growth and development affects not only their ability to reach puberty, they also likely affect their reproductive performance through later parities and their physical soundness as they age. Because of...

  2. Development and evaluation of a nutritional health program for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hejazi, Farzaneh; Peykari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy nutritional behaviors are a threat to adolescents. In this regard, we compared different training methods through a participatory interventional study. Materials and Methods: Through proportional random selection, 1823 female students were selected from 15 middle schools of Tehran. Following 2 years of intervention, nutritional habits of three different interventional groups were assessed. Results: Eating breakfast was significantly higher in the trained groups, and the use of weight loss diets was lower in them than in the control group. Also, satisfactory consumption of various kinds of nutrients in the trained groups was more than in the control group. Conclusion: Participatory health training, especially through parents, leads to adolescence nutritional health promotion. PMID:24403948

  3. Nutritional and engineering aspects of microbial process development.

    PubMed

    Masurekar, Prakash S

    2008-01-01

    Today we use many drugs produced by microorganisms. However, when these drugs were discovered it was found that the yields were low and a substantial effort had to be put in to develop commercially viable processes. A key part of this endeavor was the studies of the nutritional and the engineering parameters. In this chapter, the basic principles of optimizing the nutritional and engineering aspect of the production process are described with appropriate examples. It was found that two critical components of nutritional medium, carbon and nitrogen source regulated the synthesis of the compounds of interest. Rapidly utilizable carbon source such as glucose supported the growth but led to catabolite repression and alternative carbon sources or methods of addition had to be devised. Inorganic nitrogen sources led to undesirable changes in pH of the medium. Organic nitrogen sources could influence the yields positively or negatively and had to be chosen carefully. Essential nutrients like phosphates often inhibited the synthesis and its concentration had to be maintained below the inhibitory levels. On many occasions, trace nutrients like metal ions and vitamins were found to be critical for good production. Temperature and pH were important environmental variables and their optimum values had to be determined. The media were designed and optimized initially with 'one variable at a time' approach and later with experimental design based on statistics. The latter approach is preferred because it is economical, considers interactions between medium components and allows rapid optimization of the process. The engineering aspects like aeration, agitation, medium sterilization, heat transfer, process monitoring and control, become critical as the process is scaled-up to the production size. Aeration and agitation are probably the most important variables. In many processes dissolved oxygen concentration had to be maintained above a critical value to obtain the best yields

  4. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  5. Development and implementation of the guiding stars nutrition guidance program.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Leslie M; Sutherland, Lisa A; Kaley, Lori A; Fox, Tracy A; Hasler, Clare M; Nobel, Jeremy; Kantor, Mark A; Blumberg, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE . To describe the collaborative process between a grocery retailer and a panel of nutrition experts used to develop a nutrition guidance system (Guiding Stars) that evaluates the nutrient profile of all edible products in the supermarket, and to report the results of the food and beverage ratings. DESIGN . A collaboration between a private retailer and members of the scientific community that led to the development of a scoring algorithm used to evaluate the nutritional quality of foods and beverages. SETTING/SUBJECTS . Northeast supermarkets (n  =  160). MEASURES . Food and beverage nutrition ratings and distribution of stars across different grocery categories. ANALYSIS . Descriptive statistics for rating distributions were computed. T-tests were conducted to assess differences in mean nutrient values between foods with zero versus three stars or a dichotomized variable representing all foods with one to three stars. RESULTS . All edible grocery items (n  =  27,466) were evaluated, with 23.6% earning at least one star. Items receiving at least one star had lower mean levels of sodium, saturated fat, and sugars and higher amounts of fiber than products not earning stars. CONCLUSION . The Guiding Stars system rates edible products without regard to brand or manufacturer, and provides consumers with a simple tool to quickly identify more nutritious choices while shopping. The low percentage of products qualifying for stars reflects poorly on the food choices available to Americans. PMID:22040397

  6. Development of Job Standards for Clinical Nutrition Therapy for Dyslipidemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Jae; Seo, Jung-Sook; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Mi-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hye; Ju, Dal-Lae; Wie, Gyung-Ah; Lee, Song-Mi; Cha, Jin-A

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has significantly contributed to the increase of death and morbidity rates related to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical nutrition service provided by dietitians has been reported to have a positive effect on relief of medical symptoms or reducing the further medical costs. However, there is a lack of researches to identify key competencies and job standard for clinical dietitians to care patients with dyslipidemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the job components of clinical dietitian and develop the standard for professional practice to provide effective nutrition management for dyslipidemia patients. The current status of clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients in hospitals with 300 or more beds was studied. After duty tasks and task elements of nutrition care process for dyslipidemia clinical dietitians were developed by developing a curriculum (DACUM) analysis method. The developed job standards were pretested in order to evaluate job performance, difficulty, and job standards. As a result, the job standard included four jobs, 18 tasks, and 53 task elements, and specific job description includes 73 basic services and 26 recommended services. When clinical dietitians managing dyslipidemia patients performed their practice according to this job standard for 30 patients the job performance rate was 68.3%. Therefore, the job standards of clinical dietitians for clinical nutrition service for dyslipidemia patients proposed in this study can be effectively used by hospitals. PMID:25954728

  7. Development of job standards for clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jae; Seo, Jung-Sook; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Mi-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hye; Ju, Dal-Lae; Wie, Gyung-Ah; Lee, Song-Mi; Cha, Jin-A; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-04-01

    Dyslipidemia has significantly contributed to the increase of death and morbidity rates related to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical nutrition service provided by dietitians has been reported to have a positive effect on relief of medical symptoms or reducing the further medical costs. However, there is a lack of researches to identify key competencies and job standard for clinical dietitians to care patients with dyslipidemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the job components of clinical dietitian and develop the standard for professional practice to provide effective nutrition management for dyslipidemia patients. The current status of clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients in hospitals with 300 or more beds was studied. After duty tasks and task elements of nutrition care process for dyslipidemia clinical dietitians were developed by developing a curriculum (DACUM) analysis method. The developed job standards were pretested in order to evaluate job performance, difficulty, and job standards. As a result, the job standard included four jobs, 18 tasks, and 53 task elements, and specific job description includes 73 basic services and 26 recommended services. When clinical dietitians managing dyslipidemia patients performed their practice according to this job standard for 30 patients the job performance rate was 68.3%. Therefore, the job standards of clinical dietitians for clinical nutrition service for dyslipidemia patients proposed in this study can be effectively used by hospitals. PMID:25954728

  8. Nutrition and brain development: social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Emily M; Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    2002-04-01

    Undernutrition among young children is widespread in the United States and has a detrimental impact on brain development. This article explores the risks associated with undernutrition and the potential for recovery when diet and the environment improve. Three policy implications are discussed: (a) increasing access to federal food programs, (b) promoting breastfeeding, and (c) working toward reducing child poverty. PMID:15792058

  9. Plant nutrition for sustainable development and global health

    PubMed Central

    White, P. J.; Brown, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants require at least 14 mineral elements for their nutrition. These include the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and the micronutrients chlorine (Cl), boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo). These are generally obtained from the soil. Crop production is often limited by low phytoavailability of essential mineral elements and/or the presence of excessive concentrations of potentially toxic mineral elements, such as sodium (Na), Cl, B, Fe, Mn and aluminium (Al), in the soil solution. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of the Annals of Botany on ‘Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Development and Global Health’. It provides an introduction to plant mineral nutrition and explains how mineral elements are taken up by roots and distributed within plants. It introduces the concept of the ionome (the elemental composition of a subcellular structure, cell, tissue or organism), and observes that the activities of key transport proteins determine species-specific, tissue and cellular ionomes. It then describes how current research is addressing the problems of mineral toxicities in agricultural soils to provide food security and the optimization of fertilizer applications for economic and environmental sustainability. It concludes with a perspective on how agriculture can produce edible crops that contribute sufficient mineral elements for adequate animal and human nutrition. PMID:20430785

  10. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women. PMID:27086430

  11. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331

  12. From surveillance to development of nutritional guidelines.

    PubMed

    Guberti, Emilia; Alonzo, Elena; Cairella, Giulia; Pontieri, Vincenzo; Talarico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, like in most parts of the world, 30% of children and almost 50% of adults are overweight. This condition is one of the causes of non-communicable diseases responsible for over two thirds of DALYs, deaths and costs for healthcare. Current surveys confirm that overweight and obesity are associated with food habits which have changed, in Italy, in the last fifty years. Fewer and fewer people have been following a Mediterranean diet, which is considered an effective diet for the prevention of many diseases. The consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole cereals, and EVO oil has decreased, while the consumption of food with high energetic density and rich in sugar, salt, and added fat has increased, especially when eating out. Schools and workplaces are the best places to promote healthy food habits and an active lifestyle. The aim is to involve families (including low-income families), educators, and catering services. This type of intervention is not new to the National Health System and has already led to improvements: however, it is still possible to improve the use of resources and coordination between social, educational, and health services bringing the community to become its own health promoter. Health operators have to be more aware of overweight as a health threat. The National Health Plan represents a commitment for Italy, the country hosting EXPO 2015, to fulfill the targets of the «Action Plan European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases 2012-2016» entrusting the Departments of Prevention with the interventions and development of a network of stakeholders. PMID:26499418

  13. [Psychology and nutrition in the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years].

    PubMed

    Fuillerat Alfonso, R

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established. PMID:15315112

  14. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  15. Parenteral nutrition support: Beyond gut feeling? Quality control study of parenteral nutrition practices in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Shankar, Bhuvaneshwari; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Daphnee, D. K.; Bharadwaj, Adithya; Venkataraman, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) is preferred over parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospitalized patients based on International consensus guidelines. Practice patterns of PN in developing countries have not been documented. Objectives: To assess practice pattern and quality of PN support in a tertiary hospital setting in Chennai, India. Methods: Retrospective record review of patients admitted between February 2010 and February 2012. Results: About 351,008 patients were admitted to the hospital in the study period of whom 29,484 (8.4%) required nutritional support. About 70 patients (0.24%) received PN, of whom 54 (0.18%) received PN for at least three days. Common indications for PN were major gastrointestinal surgery (55.6%), intolerance to EN (25.9%), pancreatitis (5.6%), and gastrointestinal obstruction (3.7%). Conclusions: The proportion of patients receiving PN was very low. Quality issues were identified relating to appropriateness of indication and calories and proteins delivered. This study helps to introspect and improve the quality of nutrition support. PMID:26955215

  16. Nutrition Planning and Policy for African Countries. Summary Report of a Seminar Held at the Institute for Development Studies (Nairobi, Kenya, June 2-19, 1976). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 5 (1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Michael C., Ed.; Westley, Sidney B., Ed.

    This paper is the summary report of a seminar which was held in Kenya at the Institute for Development Studies of the University of Nairobi from June 2-19, 1976. The seminar was sponsored by USAID through a contract to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Ten English-speaking African countries, whose responsibilities are related to nutrition…

  17. [Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal development and in infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A; Nieto, M S

    2001-10-01

    Docosahexanoic acid (C22:6, DHA) is a highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid that forms part of the central nervous and visual system structures. DHA is synthesized from its precursor, alfa-linolenic acid, that is also a omega-3 fatty acid and can be obtained from vegetable oils. Marine organisms, specially fish, are good nutritional sources of DHA and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), another omega-3 fatty acid that has a role in vascular homeostasis. DHA increases membrane fluidity, improving neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and the activity of retinal photoreceptors. The fetus, specially during the last trimester of pregnancy, has high DHA requirements. It is provided by the mother, since fetal DHA synthesis is negligible in this stage of development. Breast feeding provides DHA to the child, but most replacement artificial formulas do not provide this fatty acid. At the present moment, many products for infant nutrition contain DHA. PMID:11775350

  18. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  19. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops. PMID:18296343

  20. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance. PMID:24044066

  1. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  2. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  3. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  4. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices. PMID:16442667

  5. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:27345315

  6. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development. PMID:19848276

  7. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  8. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. PMID:24673167

  9. Comparative Ratings of Printed Nutrition Materials Developed by Industry and Government Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cheryl Lynn; Bunda, Mary Anne

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated the quality of supplemental, printed nutrition materials sponsored by the food industry and government agencies and evaluated their appropriateness for classroom instruction. Materials were rated by teachers, curriculum specialists, and nutrition specialists. (Authors/PP)

  10. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Home Enteral Nutrition Team

    PubMed Central

    Dinenage, Sarah; Gower, Morwenna; Van Wyk, Joanna; Blamey, Anne; Ashbolt, Karen; Sutcliffe, Michelle; Green, Sue M.

    2015-01-01

    The organisation of services to support the increasing number of people receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF) at home varies across regions. There is evidence that multi-disciplinary primary care teams focussed on home enteral nutrition (HEN) can provide cost-effective care. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HEN Team in one UK city. A HEN Team comprising dietetians, nurses and a speech and language therapist was developed with the aim of delivering a quality service for people with gastrostomy tubes living at home. Team objectives were set and an underpinning framework of organisation developed including a care pathway and a schedule of training. Impact on patient outcomes was assessed in a pre-post test evaluation design. Patients and carers reported improved support in managing their ETF. Cost savings were realised through: (1) prevention of hospital admission and related transport for ETF related issues; (2) effective management and reduction of waste of feed and thickener; (3) balloon gastrostomy tube replacement by the HEN Team in the patient’s home, and optimisation of nutritional status. This service evaluation demonstrated that the establishment of a dedicated multi-professional HEN Team focussed on achievement of key objectives improved patient experience and, although calculation of cost savings were estimates, provided evidence of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25751819

  12. Development and evaluation of a home enteral nutrition team.

    PubMed

    Dinenage, Sarah; Gower, Morwenna; Van Wyk, Joanna; Blamey, Anne; Ashbolt, Karen; Sutcliffe, Michelle; Green, Sue M

    2015-03-01

    The organisation of services to support the increasing number of people receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF) at home varies across regions. There is evidence that multi-disciplinary primary care teams focussed on home enteral nutrition (HEN) can provide cost-effective care. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HEN Team in one UK city. A HEN Team comprising dietetians, nurses and a speech and language therapist was developed with the aim of delivering a quality service for people with gastrostomy tubes living at home. Team objectives were set and an underpinning framework of organisation developed including a care pathway and a schedule of training. Impact on patient outcomes was assessed in a pre-post test evaluation design. Patients and carers reported improved support in managing their ETF. Cost savings were realised through: (1) prevention of hospital admission and related transport for ETF related issues; (2) effective management and reduction of waste of feed and thickener; (3) balloon gastrostomy tube replacement by the HEN Team in the patient's home, and optimisation of nutritional status. This service evaluation demonstrated that the establishment of a dedicated multi-professional HEN Team focussed on achievement of key objectives improved patient experience and, although calculation of cost savings were estimates, provided evidence of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25751819

  13. Exploring Pre-Operational and Concrete Operational Children's Thinking on Nutrition: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Chow, Tracy H. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we observed the process in which children make food choices from a cognitive development perspective and the implications that these choices have on the areas of cognitive development and health and nutrition education. Design: This was a cross-sectional case study that involved an in-depth examination of the…

  14. Development and evaluation of a nutritionally enhanced multigrain tortilla snack.

    PubMed

    Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón; Molina-Jacott, Luis Enrique; Del Carmen Granados-Nevárez, María; Vasquez-Lara, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    An increased consumption of healthy foods to reduce chronic diseases risks is needed. We developed and evaluated a multigrain snack as a nutritive alternative to the highly consumed corn tortilla chips. Corn, wheat, and chickpea grains were boiled in 1% calcium oxide solution, steeped, washed, and ground before being mixed with soy protein isolate and oat flour to prepare the multigrain masa. Multigrain tortillas were moulded, baked, dried, and fried. Proximate composition, dietary fiber, protein quality, sensorial, and textural properties were evaluated. A commercial tortilla chip was used as control. The multigrain snack contained 153% more protein, 53% more dietary fiber, and 43 % less fat than commercial tortilla chips. Its lysine and isoleucine contents helped to increase the corrected-net protein utilization by 10%, while digestibility increased from 83.5 to 91.8% as compared to commercial tortilla chips. The mean breaking force was 6,082 g for the multigrain snack and 4,780 g for the commercial tortilla chips. The mean acceptability score for the multigrain snack was 12.1 (unstructured line scale 0-15 cm), and 82% of the panelists rated the snack as acceptable. In conclusion, a nutritionally enhanced multigrain tortilla snack was developed which provides significantly more dietary fiber and protein and less fat than traditional commercial corn tortilla chips, but with comparable appearance and high acceptability. PMID:24590456

  15. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)-Vitamin A Review.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Russell, Robert M; Stephensen, Charles B; Gannon, Bryan M; Craft, Neal E; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lietz, Georg; Schulze, Kerry; Raiten, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readers who want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin A's use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serum retinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described. PMID:27511929

  16. Nutrition Education: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Revised Edition, 1978. Developed through an Inservice Program of the Nutrition Education Development Project. Administered by Luzerne Intermediate Unit 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Jane, Ed.; Armillay, Joy, Ed.

    This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers from pre-school through secondary grade levels provide an interdisciplinary approach to teaching nutrition. This guide begins with eleven instructional units, varying from two to twenty pages in length, on basic nutrition and other selected topics. Each unit includes some or all of the…

  17. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  18. Biomarkers of nutrition for development--iodine review.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael; Jooste, Pieter; Pandav, Chandrakant; Caldwell, Kathleen; Raghavan, Ramkripa; Raiten, Daniel J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is to provide state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. Specifically, the BOND project seeks to develop consensus on accurate assessment methodologies that are applicable to researchers (laboratory/clinical/surveillance), clinicians, programmers, and policy makers (data consumers). The BOND project is also intended to develop targeted research agendas to support the discovery and development of biomarkers through improved understanding of nutrient biology within relevant biologic systems. In phase I of the BOND project, 6 nutrients (iodine, vitamin A, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12) were selected for their high public health importance because they typify the challenges faced by users in the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers. For each nutrient, an expert panel was constituted and charged with the development of a comprehensive review covering the respective nutrient's biology, existing biomarkers, and specific issues of use with particular reference to the needs of the individual user groups. In addition to the publication of these reviews, materials from each will be extracted to support the BOND interactive Web site (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/global_nutrition/programs/bond/pages/index.aspx). This review represents the first in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of iodine biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of iodine's background history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers and specific considerations for the use and interpretation of iodine biomarkers across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The review also includes a detailed research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of iodine biology and assessment

  19. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  20. National Dairy Council Award for Excellence in Medical/Dental Nutrition Education Lecture, 1995: medical-nutrition education--factors important for developing a successful program.

    PubMed

    Weinsier, R L

    1995-10-01

    Currently, there are no established guidelines which define the goals, the course content, or the approach to developing a successful medical-nutrition education program. The result has been great variability in the approach to teaching nutrition to medical students. A common concern among medical educators is how to teach all of the material currently known. The obvious outcome of trying to teach the constantly expanding body of facts is an increasing demand and competition for instructional time. In turn, nutrition educators have fallen into the trap of vying for more time and claiming success for their program on the basis of their acquired number of hours of instruction rather than on the demonstrated quality or effectiveness of their program. The purpose of this report is to recommend a set of goals for nutrition training of medical students and to highlight those factors which appear to be most (and least) important to achieving those goals. It is my belief that the primary goal of educating medical students should be to sensitize students to the relevance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. A secondary goal should be to impart important information about nutrition. Relative to these goals, and based on previous studies and on my experience at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, I believe that two factors are critical to the success of any medical-nutrition education program: 1) demonstrated relevance of the course material to the practice of medicine, and 2) positive role modeling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7572717

  1. The Change in Nutritional Status in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masha'al, Dina A.

    There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a

  2. Nutritional effects on oocyte and embryo development in mammals: implications for reproductive efficiency and environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Cheryl J.; Toma, Luiza M.; Hunter, Morag G.

    2009-01-01

    The environment in which a breeding female lives prior to conception and during the early stages of her pregnancy has striking effects on oocytes developing in the ovarian follicle and on early embryos in the reproductive tract. Of the various environmental factors known to affect oocyte and embryo development, altered nutrition during this critical period has been particularly well studied. Alterations in the quantity of food consumed or the composition of the diet imposed solely during the pre-mating period affect oocyte maturity, blastocyst yield, prenatal survival and the number of offspring born alive. Importantly, nutrition at this time also affects the quality of embryos and resultant offspring, with increasing evidence from a variety of species showing that peri-conception nutrition can alter behaviour, cardiovascular function and reproductive function throughout post-natal life. In livestock species, it is important to devise nutritional strategies that improve reproductive efficiency and the quality of offspring but that do not add to the environmental footprint of the production system and which recognize likely changes in feedstuff availability arising from predicted changes in climate. PMID:19833647

  3. [Nutrition pumps in pediatrics: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Struijk, T; Visser, D; de Schryver, J E; Houwen, R H

    1992-12-01

    Home enteral nutrition as the sole or as an additional way of feeding children is becoming increasingly popular. It can be used in the form of bolus-feeding, or as drip-feeding, either continuous (24 hours) or semicontinuous (nightly). For the latter method usually a feeding pump is used. In the Netherlands several feeding pumps are available, which were tested in this report. These feeding pumps (Compat, Enteroport, Flexiflo Companion, Flocare 500, Frenta Mat, Frenta-System II, Kangaroo 324, Nutromat Päd S, Nutromat S) were investigated for accuracy, available rate-settings, adequate alarming at interruption of the drip feeding, weight and ease of operation. All pumps were tested stationary, and suitable pumps weighing less than 1000 grams were subsequently tested ambulatory. The nine tested pumps were all fairly easy to operate. Three pumps were not suitable for pediatric use, either because the infusion rate was more than 30% out of range (Flexiflo Companion) or because of inadequate rate settings (Nutromat S and Frentasystem II; respectively 20 and 25 ml/hour minimally). Accuracy for the other pumps was always within 10% of the set rate. One pump, the Enteroport, has a rate setting which is suboptimal for pediatric use. In addition this pump does not alarm when the drip feeding is interrupted. The other pumps (Compat, Frenta Mat, Kangaroo 324, Flocare 500, and Nutramat Päd S) are all suitable for pediatric use, both with respect to the rate settings as to the adequate alarming when the drip feeding is interrupted. The Flocare 500 and the Nutromat Päd S, in addition to the Enteroport, have a weight below 1000 grams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1488738

  4. Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technical Paper No. 91. SD Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Leherr, Kay

    As increasing numbers of children in developing nations survive to school age, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers are increasingly focusing on the health and well-being of school-age children and on the possibility of using the infrastructure of the school system to deliver health and nutrition interventions. This research, conducted in…

  5. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Devaney, Barbara

    This publication, which is based on the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study, describes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP), presents findings on the nutrients and foods provided in school meals, and describes the dietary intakes of the nation's students on a typical school day. Data were derived…

  6. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  7. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  8. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  9. Nutrition Education Development Project. ESEA Title IVC Project. Pamphlet File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzerne Intermediate Unit 18, Kingston, PA.

    This compilation of pamphlets and other educational materials on current issues in nutrition provides elementary and secondary teachers with a list of free or inexpensive materials to help them implement nutrition education into the existing curriculum. This list, organized in alphabetical order by topic, contains 293 entries and each one includes…

  10. Comparison between Total Parenteral Nutrition Vs. Partial Parenteral Nutrition on Serum Lipids Among Chronic Ventilator Dependent Patients; A Multi Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Radpay, Rojan; Radpay, Badiozaman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is very common among chronically hospitalized patients, especially those in the intensive care unit (ICU). Identifying the patients at risk and providing suitable nutritional support can prevent and/or overcome malnutrition in them. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) are two common routes to deliver nutrition to hospitalized patients. We conducted a multicenter, prospective double blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the benefits and compare their adverse effects of each method. Materials and Methods: 97 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the inclusion criteria. Serum protein, serum albumin, serum transferrin, and total lymphocyte count were measured on days 7 and 14. Results: We did not find any statistically significant differences in clinical status or laboratory values between the two groups but there were significant improvements in measured lab values between days 7 and 14 (p<0.005) indicating improved nutritional status in each groups. Conclusion: This study shows that both TPN and PPN can be used safely in chronic ICU patients to provide nutritional support and prevent catabolic state among chronic critically ill patients. We need to develop precise selection criteria in order to choose the patients who would benefit the most from TPN and PPN. In addition, appropriate laboratory markers are needed to monitor the metabolic requirements of the patients and assess their progress. PMID:27403176

  11. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  12. Vitamin and mineral nutrition for the health and development of the children of Europe.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, A

    2001-02-01

    Most European countries are now affected by demographic transition and changing epidemiology of disease; the nutrition of children is increasingly recognised as crucial for present and future health. Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status among children are important for their own growth, development and function but there is now increasing evidence that childhood nutrition also influences adult health. Intrauterine nutrition influences adult morbidity and mortality, but the childhood diet and nutritional status modify the increased risk of being born small. Thus, childhood diet needs to be taken more seriously in order to improve a nation's health as well as producing bright, active children. A key factor is the recognition that nutritional interventions at different stages of the life cycle are necessary if childhood nutrition is to improve. The mosaic pattern of the geography and social structure of communities in Europe produces 'poverty' and 'consumer' related nutrition patterns - often side by side. At one extreme, there is an urgent need to prevent obesity; while at the other extreme serious attention is required towards the prevention of deficiency disorders, mostly related to poverty and social exclusion. Few European governments take childhood nutrition at all seriously. This paper reviews a number of micronutrient issues and makes the case for the development of evidence-based policies and programmes for improving the nutrition of children in Europe. PMID:11345062

  13. Effects of Social Network Exposure on Nutritional Learning: Development of an Online Educational Platform

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Noa; Beskin, Daniel; Brezis, Mayer

    2015-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have the potential to enhance online public health interventions, in part, as they provide social exposure and reinforcement. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate whether social exposure provided by SNSs enhances the effects of online public health interventions. Methods As a sample intervention, we developed Food Hero, an online platform for nutritional education in which players feed a virtual character according to their own nutritional needs and complete a set of virtual sport challenges. The platform was developed in 2 versions: a "private version" in which a user can see only his or her own score, and a "social version" in which a user can see other players’ scores, including preexisting Facebook friends. We assessed changes in participants’ nutritional knowledge using 4 quiz scores and 3 menu-assembly scores. Monitoring feeding and exercising attempts assessed engagement with the platform. Results The 2 versions of the platform were randomly assigned between a study group (30 members receiving the social version) and a control group (33 members, private version). The study group's performance on the quizzes gradually increased over time, relative to that of the control group, becoming significantly higher by the fourth quiz (P=.02). Furthermore, the study group's menu-assembly scores improved over time compared to the first score, whereas the control group's performance deteriorated. Study group members spent an average of 3:40 minutes assembling each menu compared to 2:50 minutes in the control group, and performed an average of 1.58 daily sport challenges, compared to 1.21 in the control group (P=.03). Conclusions This work focused on isolating the SNSs' social effects in order to help guide future online interventions. Our results indicate that the social exposure provided by SNSs is associated with increased engagement and learning in an online nutritional educational platform

  14. Measuring vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements for nutrition studies in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article illustrates the importance of having analytical data on the vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplements in nutrition studies and describes efforts to develop an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) by a consortium of federal agencies in the USA. ...

  15. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  16. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  17. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  18. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding

  19. Pilot study of a budget-tailored culinary nutrition education program for undergraduate food science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrison, Dorothy Adair

    The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition

  20. Food and nutrition studies for Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been conducted on nutrient intake and absorption during the Apollo 16 mission. Results indicate that inflight intakes of all essential nutrients were adequate and that absorption of these materials occurred normally.

  1. Infant Nutrition and 12 and 18 Months Secure Base Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hillary; Gurkas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    A notable omission in studies of developmental links to early nutritional deficiencies is infant attachment. In those few studies investigating associations between infant nutrition and attachment, nutrition was defined solely by physical growth, and infants had moderate-severe growth retardation. In this study, we utilized multiple markers of…

  2. Developing a nutrition and health education program for primary schools in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services. PMID:17996629

  3. The need for combined inorganic, biochemical, and nutritional studies of chromium(III).

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B; Love, Sharifa T

    2012-09-01

    The history of biochemical and nutritional studies of the element is unfortunately full of twists and turns, most leading to dead ends. Chromium (Cr), as the trivalent ion, has been proposed to be an essential element, a body mass and muscle development agent, and, in the form of the most popular Cr-containing nutritional supplement, to be toxic when given orally to mammals. None of these proposals, despite significant attention in the popular media, has proven to be correct. Trivalent chromium has also been proposed as a therapeutic agent to increase insulin sensitivity and affect lipid metabolism, although a molecular mechanism for such actions has not been elucidated. Greater cooperative research interactions between nutritionists, biochemists, and chemists might have avoided the earlier issues in nutritional and biochemical Cr research and is necessary to establish the potential role of Cr as a therapeutic agent at a molecular level. PMID:22976981

  4. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  5. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  6. Development and implementation of client-centered nutrition education programs in a 4-stage framework.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Matthew G; Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C

    2015-04-01

    The Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sought to engage the WIC staff and community in the implementation of relevant and effective client-centered nutrition education. The program was implemented in a 4-stage framework. The collaborative process of developing client-centered nutrition education allowed members to learn from one another, thus ensuring commitment to client-centered nutrition education from all levels of staff. The co-created materials and trainings developed during the implementation played a key role. Evaluation feedback started at the infancy of implementation and gave all community members a stake in developing client-centered nutrition education and an opportunity to be invested in its success, which led to increased execution at the local agency level over the implementation stages. PMID:25713950

  7. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  8. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES OF THE EDIBLE SEAWEED PORPHYRA TENERA. II. NUTRITION OF CONCHOCELIS(1).

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, H

    1967-03-01

    The nutrition of the free-living phase of Conchocelis of P. tenera was studied axenically. Conch-ocelis preferred NO3 , as nitrogen source. Urea and NH4 in low concentration, asparagine, and lysine were very good N sources. Several other amino acids were also utilized but growth was less abundant. Inorganic and organic phosphates were utilized; they were required at relatively low concentrations. Glycerophosphate gave excellent growth in a comparatively wide range of concentrations (0.1-5 mg P %). The optimal Ca concentration was 10-100 mg %. Needs for boron, manganese, zinc, strontium, rubidium, lithium, and iodine were demonstrated. The iodine effect was remarkable (peak growth with 1μg %); the effective concentration range was very narrow. Iron, cobalt, and bromine seemed to be adequately supplied as impurities of the macro-nutrients. A modified artificial medium (ASP12 I) for the Conchocelis phase is presented. PMID:27064705

  9. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E.; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies. PMID:10361758

  10. Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?

    PubMed Central

    Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost

  11. Nutrition and Child Growth and Development in Tunisia. Annual Progress Report, September 1, 1971--August 31, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harben Boutourline

    This annual report of the Yale Project describes the progress made on the nutrition and growth study of Tunisian children from September 1, 1971 through August 31, 1972. The report details: (1) the progress in analysis of the cross-sectional study data, which was completed as of June 30, 1972, and (2) the development of the present longitudinal…

  12. Executive summary—Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus123

    PubMed Central

    Namasté, Sorrel; Brabin, Bernard; Combs, Gerald; L'Abbe, Mary R; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Darnton-Hill, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevant data are developed with the use of biomarkers that reflect nutrient exposure, status, and functional effect. A need exists to promote the discovery, development, and use of biomarkers across a range of applications. In addition, a process is needed to harmonize the global health community's decision making about what biomarkers are best suited for a given use under specific conditions and settings. To address these needs, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, organized a conference entitled “Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus,” which was hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partners included key multilateral, US agencies and public and private organizations. The assembly endorsed the utility of this initiative and the need for the BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) project to continue. A consensus was reached on the requirement to develop a process to inform the community about the relative strengths or weaknesses and specific applications of various biomarkers under defined conditions. The articles in this supplement summarize the deliberations of the 4 working groups: research, clinical, policy, and programmatic. Also described are content presentations on the harmonization processes, the evidence base for biomarkers for 5 case-study micronutrients, and new frontiers in science and technology. PMID:21733880

  13. The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet) and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine, and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilizing single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients. PMID:23532379

  14. The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan; Oddy, Wendy H

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet) and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine, and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilizing single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients. PMID:23532379

  15. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…

  16. Biological mechanisms for nutritional regulation of maternal health and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Girard, Amy Webb

    2012-07-01

    This review paper highlights mechanisms for nutritional regulation of maternal health and fetal development. Malnutrition (nutrient deficiencies or obesity) in pregnant women adversely affects their health by causing or exacerbating a plethora of problems, such as anaemia, maternal haemorrhage, insulin resistance, and hypertensive disorders (e.g. pre-eclampsia/eclampsia). Maternal malnutrition during gestation also impairs embryonic and fetal growth and development, resulting in deleterious outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birthweight, preterm birth, and birth defects (e.g. neural tube defects and iodine deficiency disorders). IUGR and preterm birth contribute to high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Major common mechanisms responsible for malnutrition-induced IUGR and preterm birth include: (i) abnormal growth and development of the placenta; (ii) impaired placental transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus; (iii) endocrine disorders; and (iv) disturbances in normal metabolic processes. Activation of a series of physiological responses leading to premature and sustained contraction of the uterine myometrium also results in preterm birth. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between IUGR and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults, and the effects of IUGR may be carried forward to subsequent generations through epigenetics. While advanced medical therapies, which are generally unavailable in low-income countries, are required to support preterm and IUGR infants, optimal nutrition during pregnancy may help ameliorate many of these problems. Future studies are necessary to develop effective nutritional interventions to enhance fetal growth and development and alleviate the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22742599

  17. A Study of Nutrition in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Deborah L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to document the extent of nutritional content in U.S. dental hygiene program curricula; identify program directors' opinions, perceptions, and barriers to expanding nutritional content; and evaluate if a proposed nutrition curriculum model would be beneficial. This mixed methods study involved quantitative and qualitative aspects. An invitation letter was sent to all 335 directors of entry-level U.S. dental hygiene programs. In response, 55 directors submitted nutrition course syllabi from their programs (16.4% of the total) for the quantitative analysis. In addition, 14 nutrition instructors and ten program directors were interviewed regarding their perceptions and opinions of nutrition education for dental hygiene students. All aspects of the content analysis results revealed that nutrition content in entry-level dental hygiene programs is diverse. Some programs did not include nutrition content, while others provided oral and systemic nutrition intervention subject matter. Some programs offered multiple clinical nutrition applications and patient contact opportunities while most required none. The interview results disclosed a variety of opinions and perceptions of dental hygienists' role in nutrition. Several interviewees viewed dental hygienists' role in nutrition to be an integral part of patient care, while others indicated no role or providing caries prevention counseling only. Although dental hygienists are expected to provide nutrition assessments and interventions, no standards or standardized competencies exist for nutrition in dental hygiene education. A standardized nutrition model could be beneficial for entry-level programs to ensure dental hygienists possess basic knowledge to perform nutrition assessments and intervention to address Healthy People 2020's intervention initiatives. PMID:26729687

  18. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819

  19. Is There a Relationship between Nutrition, Facial Development, and Crowding of the Teeth?

    PubMed

    Tyszkowski, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role, especially key vitamins D3 and K2 which are necessary for proper dentofacial development and food consistency influence on crowding and dental arches narrowing. Changes in our dentition and facial appearance are caused by changing our diet from primitive hunter gatherer to a more modern industrialized agriculture. Nutrition and its impact on epigeneticaly- mediated mechanisms continuously shape our phenotype which impacts overall health and can reverse the path for overall health and facial bone development. Orthodontics and nutrition both play a role in following nature's path to reestablishing facial balance and dental arches proportions to accommodate all 32 teeth. PMID:27319035

  20. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  1. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  2. To grow or not to grow: nutritional control of development during Caenorhabditis elegans L1 arrest.

    PubMed

    Baugh, L Ryan

    2013-07-01

    It is widely appreciated that larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrest development by forming dauer larvae in response to multiple unfavorable environmental conditions. C. elegans larvae can also reversibly arrest development earlier, during the first larval stage (L1), in response to starvation. "L1 arrest" (also known as "L1 diapause") occurs without morphological modification but is accompanied by increased stress resistance. Caloric restriction and periodic fasting can extend adult lifespan, and developmental models are critical to understanding how the animal is buffered from fluctuations in nutrient availability, impacting lifespan. L1 arrest provides an opportunity to study nutritional control of development. Given its relevance to aging, diabetes, obesity and cancer, interest in L1 arrest is increasing, and signaling pathways and gene regulatory mechanisms controlling arrest and recovery have been characterized. Insulin-like signaling is a critical regulator, and it is modified by and acts through microRNAs. DAF-18/PTEN, AMP-activated kinase and fatty acid biosynthesis are also involved. The nervous system, epidermis, and intestine contribute systemically to regulation of arrest, but cell-autonomous signaling likely contributes to regulation in the germline. A relatively small number of genes affecting starvation survival during L1 arrest are known, and many of them also affect adult lifespan, reflecting a common genetic basis ripe for exploration. mRNA expression is well characterized during arrest, recovery, and normal L1 development, providing a metazoan model for nutritional control of gene expression. In particular, post-recruitment regulation of RNA polymerase II is under nutritional control, potentially contributing to a rapid and coordinated response to feeding. The phenomenology of L1 arrest will be reviewed, as well as regulation of developmental arrest and starvation survival by various signaling pathways and gene regulatory

  3. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. PMID:25526827

  4. Incidence of nutritional support complications in patient hospitalized in wards. multicentric study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Aguilar, Nora Luz; Restrepo, Beatriz Elena; Vanegas, Marcela; Alzate, Sandra; Martínez, Mónica; Gamboa, Sonia Patricia; Castaño, Eliana; Barbosa, Janeth; Román, Juliana; Serna, Ángela María; Hoyos, Gloria Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p= 0.363). For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%), followed by diarrhea (8.3%); an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05). For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest incidence (22.9%), followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%); all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05). Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an association with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits. PMID:24893056

  5. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  6. A critical period for omega-3 nutritional supplementation in the development of the rodent visual system.

    PubMed

    De Velasco, P C; Sandre, P C; Tavares Do Carmo, M G; Faria-Melibeu, A C; Campello-Costa, P; Ferraz, A C; Andrade Da Costa, B L S; Serfaty, C A

    2015-07-30

    Retinocollicular connections form precise topographical maps that are normally completed through the selective elimination of misplaced axons and the stabilization of topographically ordered axon terminals during early development. Omega-3 fatty acids, acquired exclusively through the diet, and its main metabolite, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are involved in brain development and synaptic maturation. We have previously shown that the nutritional restriction of omega-3/DHA results in abnormal retinocollicular topographical fine-tuning. Therefore, we studied the role of omega-3 fatty acids nutritional supplementation and the developmental time windows during which this postnatal supplementation would restore normal topographical maps in the visual system. Female rats and their litters were chronically fed with either control (soy oil) or restricted omega-3 (coconut oil) diets. Fish oil supplementation was introduced between either postnatal day (PND) 7-13, PND7-28 or PND21-42. At PND13, PND28 or PND42, animals received an anterograde eye injection of a neuronal tracer to visualize retinocollicular axons. Confirming previous observations we found that an omega-3/DHA deficiency resulted in an abnormally high innervation density of retinal axons at the visual layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Although a short-term fish oil supplementation between PND7-13 could not restore normal retinocollicular topography, an extended treatment between PND7-28 completely recovered normal innervation densities of retinotectal axons. However, a late onset supplementation protocol, between PND28-42, was no longer effective in the restoration of the abnormal topographical pattern induced by an early omega-3 nutritional malnutrition. The results suggest a critical period for omega3/DHA dietary intake for the proper development of visual topographical maps. PMID:25916576

  7. Nutrition education aimed at toddlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Weight problems in children are increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low-income populations. This concern requires effective strategies to promote healthy eating. A quasi-experiment was used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent-toddler feeding practices. The NEAT intervention comprises four nutrition lessons and structured reinforcements over 6 months. A convenience sample of 135 low-income families participated in the study up to the first data collection wave. Complete data were available for 43 parent-toddler dyads in the intervention and 53 dyads in the control group. The results show that, compared to the controls, caregivers exposed to the intervention had significantly higher knowledge scores concerning toddler feedings. No statistically significant differences were found for measures of child and parent mealtime behaviors. Because it is generally easier to change knowledge than actual behaviors, our study results demonstrate the need to focus on other avenues to enhance parents' ability to feed toddlers appropriately. PMID:16295151

  8. Development of nutrition standards and therapeutic diet specifications for public hospitals in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Hazlewood, Tanya; Pang, Glen

    2014-09-01

    In New South Wales (NSW), a new suite of nutrition standards for menus and specifications for therapeutic diets to be used in hospitals has been developed. These standards were required to facilitate centralised menu planning and food production, with the move to management of most hospital food services by HealthShare NSW, a state-wide business unit of NSW Health. The standards also aim to improve communication between health professionals, particularly with the increasing use of computerised meal-ordering systems. Nutrition standards have been developed for adult, paediatric and mental health inpatients, and specifications for 147 different adult and paediatric therapeutic diets. There is still significant variation in the nutrition standards for nutrition and therapeutic diets in hospitals across the Australian states, and a move to a more nationally harmonised approach would be welcome. Further research is required to examine the impact of these standards on operating efficiency and patient care outcomes. PMID:24871049

  9. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  10. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  11. Nutrition and Age-Related Eye Diseases: The ALIENOR (Antioxydants, LIpides Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies OculaiRes) Study

    PubMed Central

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Marie-Bénédicte, Rougier; Le Goff, Mélanie; Malet, Florence; Joseph, Colin; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, degenerative eye diseases (age-related maculopathy (ARM), cataract, glaucoma) are the main causes of visual impairment and blindness, which contribute to disability in the elderly. Mainly three types of nutritional factors are investigated for their potential protection against eye ageing: antioxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids which accumulate specifically in the eye); omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few epidemiological studies have been conducted in this field, particularly in Europe. Objective The Alienor (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et maladies OculaiRes) Study aims at assessing the associations of eye diseases with nutritional factors, determined from plasma measurements and estimation of dietary intakes. Design, setting and participants Subjects were recruited in Bordeaux (France) from the ongoing population-based 3C study. In 2006–2008, 963 subjects from the 3C Study, aged 73 years or more, had an eye examination and will have follow-up eye examinations every 2 years. Measurements Vascular, genetic and nutritional factors were assessed at baseline (1999–2001) and follow-up examinations of the 3C Study. Eye diseases were classified according to international classifications. Results Nutritional status and vascular disease and risk factors were similar between participants and non participants, except for a slight difference in plasma triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. As expected, the prevalence of eye diseases was high: early and late ARM (28.4 % and 5.6 %, respectively), open-angle glaucoma and treated ocular hypertension (4.8 % and 10.0 %, respectively), cataract extraction (45.2 %), retinopathy (8.4 %), retinal vein occlusion (1.1 %), epiretinal membrane (3.9 %), current use of artificial tears (17.3 %). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of eye diseases in the elderly. Its main strength is the combination of nutritional, vascular and genetic information, collected over a 7 year

  12. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

  13. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    PubMed

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  14. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, DD; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, SL; El ghormli, L; Staten, MA; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  15. Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology: lysine maize as a case study.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the area of biotech crops modified for agronomic input traits (e.g., herbicide tolerance and insect protection) has increased to 90 million halyear, grown by over 8 million farmers in a total of 17 countries. As adoption of these improved agronomic trait biotech crops has grown, so has interest in biotech crops that have improved nutritional characteristics for use as feed and food. A previous publication by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) reported on the principles and concepts proposed for the nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology. In this paper, the guidelines and principles recommended in the earlier publication are discussed relative to a specific case study, Lysine maize. Lysine maize is a feed ingredient with enhanced nutritional characteristics for poultry and swine and provides an alternative to the need for addition of supplemental lysine to some diets for these animals. The 2004 Task Force of the ILSI has also applied the concepts from that report to 4 other case studies: sweet potato enriched in provitamin A (2 examples, one using biotechnology and one using conventional breeding); Golden Rice 2; double-embryo maize; and ASP-1 enhanced protein sweet potato. PMID:17955996

  16. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  17. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: summary and discussion.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, J A; Devaney, B L; Gordon, A R

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key findings of the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study and discusses the implications for policy and practice in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). Reducing total fat offered in NSLP lunches to the amount set in the Dietary Guidelines, as called for in the proposed regulations published by the US Department of Agriculture in June 1994, would be facilitated by changing the legislative requirement to serve whole milk. In addition, the following menu choices and meal preparation methods would reduce considerably the amounts of fat in NSLP lunches: reducing the average meat serving from 2 to 1.5 oz; eliminating high-fat meats, high-fat cheese, nuts, and nut butters; eliminating high-fat desserts and milk-based desserts; and reducing sharply the use of added fats in food preparation. PMID:7832175

  18. Cultural perceptions and nutritional disorders: a Jamaican case study.

    PubMed

    Fonaroff, A

    1975-01-01

    This case study brings out differences in the way protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) in Jamaica is regarded by women who use medical services, women who do not, indigenous health practitioners, and trained health workers. The study reveals that women who utilize modern health clinics are able to identify appropriate techniques for reducing a child's susceptibility to PCM. But women who rely on indigenous medical services, as well as the actual providers of such services, frequently misdiagnose PCM as a "marasmi cold" and treat it as such. This treatment often involves actions which decrease the child's resistance to nutrition-related disorders. Both groups of women, and also the indigenous practitioners, provided more information about marasmus than about kwashiorkor, and often identified the latter as a form of robust good health. All of the mothers believed that improper prenatal and postnatal care would increase a child's susceptibility marasmus, although some mothers did not associate the condition with nutritional deficiency. These and other findings are used to recommend ways of organizing and disseminating information about PCM to the public at large. Such educational efforts should emphasize that food is a prime etiological and therapeutic factor, and that the quality and quantity of foods influence a child's susceptibility to PCM. Education programs, however, need not attempt to change indigenous practices which are neutral or harmless; ideas about PCM which parallel rather than conflict with traditional beliefs may stand the best chance of altering PCM incidence. It is also recommended that influential family members and native practitioners such as the nana be enlisted as local sources in the effort to provide health information about PCM. PMID:808243

  19. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  20. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Nutritional Indices in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.; Rottschaefer, Susan M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals are genetically variable for the way in which they process nutrients and in the effects of dietary content on reproductive success, immunity, and development. Here, we surveyed genetic variation for nutrient stores (glucose, glycogen, glycerol, protein, triglycerides, and wet weight) in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) after rearing the flies on either a low-glucose or high-glucose diet. We found significant genetic variation for these nutritional phenotypes and identified candidate genes that underlie that variation using genome-wide associations. In addition, we found several significant correlations between the nutritional phenotypes measured in this study and other previously published phenotypes, such as starvation stress resistance, oxidative stress sensitivity, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which reinforce the notion that these lines can be used to robustly measure related phenotypes across distinct laboratories. PMID:25583649

  1. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  2. Creating the Future of Evidence-Based Nutrition Recommendations: Case Studies from Lipid Research.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Rubin, Kristin H; Fritsche, Kevin L; Psota, Tricia L; Liska, DeAnn J; Harris, William S; Montain, Scott J; Lyle, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, intervention, comparator, and outcome criteria affect whether or not high-quality studies are considered relevant to specific guidance questions and are therefore included as evidence within the context of systematic review frameworks used by authoritative food and health organizations. The process used in systematic reviews, developed by the USDA for its Nutrition Evidence Library, is described. An eating pattern and cardiovascular disease (CVD) evidence review is provided as an example, and factors that differentiated the studies considered relevant and included in that evidence base from those that were excluded are noted. Case studies on ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) and industrial trans-FAs illustrate key factors vital to relevance and translational impact, including choice of a relevant population (e.g., healthy, at risk, or diseased subjects; general population or high-performance soldiers); dose and form of the intervention (e.g., food or supplement); use of relevant comparators (e.g., technically feasible and realistic); and measures for both exposure and outcomes (e.g., inflammatory markers or CVD endpoints). Specific recommendations are provided to help increase the impact of nutrition research on future dietary guidance, policy, and regulatory issues, particularly in the area of lipids. PMID:27422509

  3. No Trade-Offs between Lipid Stores and Structural Growth in Juvenile Zebra Finches Undergoing Nutritional Stress during Development.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional conditions during development can affect both structural growth and body fat deposition. Body size and body fat each have significant consequences for fitness, yet few studies have investigated how young birds balance resource allocation between structural growth and fat reserves. We raised zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in consistently high- or low-food conditions until posthatch day 35 (PHD 35). From this age until PHD 62, half of the birds in each condition were switched to the other treatment, while the rest were maintained on the same conditions. Body mass, lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length were measured before (PHD 25) and after (PHD 55) nutritional independence. Precise measures of body composition were obtained noninvasively at both ages using quantitative magnetic resonance analysis. At PHD 25, birds in the high treatment had more body mass and lean mass than birds in the low treatment, but nutritional treatments did not affect body fat at this age. Unexpectedly, the strategic response of birds that experienced deteriorating food availability was to maintain body mass by increasing body fat and decreasing lean mass. Birds that experienced an improvement in food availability significantly increased body mass by increasing lean mass and not body fat. Birds maintained on a low diet throughout did not significantly increase body mass, lean mass, or body fat. Tarsus length was not affected by nutritional manipulations. These findings indicate that nutritional stress did not affect the relationship between skeletal growth and body fat deposition because lean mass, body fat, and tarsus length can be independently regulated at different developmental periods depending on nutritional conditions. PMID:25730275

  4. Building evidence for sustainability of food and nutrition intervention programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunny S; Rogers, Beatrice L; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, "Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries," provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustainability but concrete evidence about the approaches and methods used as well as lessons on how they do or do not work in particular contexts. We presented the following findings: 1) sustainability of activities and impacts of Title II food aid programs in Bolivia and Kenya, 2) sustainability of impact in terms of adoption and consumption of a biofortified orange sweet potato in Uganda, and 3) lessons from incorporating pro-sustainability investment strategies in child survival programs in Guinea. Our symposium introduced a new important body of research on program sustainability to provide insights and stimulate innovative thinking in the design and planning of further applied research and future prosustainability intervention programs. PMID:24038245

  5. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed. PMID:24038255

  6. Nutrition and Its Effects on the Hyperkinetic Child's Behavior and Learning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This case study reviews the literature related to diet, behavior and learning and describes procedures and results of a change in the diet of an adolescent girl who had an extensive history of problems at home and at school. Studies of nutritional deficiency, nutritional imbalance, allergies, and synthetic food additives are briefly overviewed.…

  7. Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development in ovine offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal over and restricted nutrition has negative consequences on the muscle of offspring by reducing muscle fiber number and altering regulators of muscle growth. To determine if over and restricted maternal nutrition affected muscle growth and gene and protein expression in offspring, 36 pregnant ewes were fed 60%, 100% or 140% of National Research Council requirements from d 31 ± 1.3 of gestation until parturition. Lambs from control-fed (CON), restricted-fed (RES) or over-fed (OVER) ewes were necropsied within 1 d of birth (n = 18) or maintained on a control diet for 3 mo (n = 15). Semitendinosus muscle was collected for immunohistochemistry, and protein and gene expression analysis. Results Compared with CON, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased in RES (58%) and OVER (47%) lambs at 1 d of age (P < 0.01); however at 3 mo, CSA decreased 15% and 17% compared with CON, respectively (P < 0.01). Compared with CON, muscle lipid content was increased in OVER (212.4%) and RES (92.5%) at d 1 (P < 0.0001). Muscle lipid content was increased 36.1% in OVER and decreased 23.6% in RES compared with CON at 3 mo (P < 0.0001). At d 1, myostatin mRNA abundance in whole muscle tended to be greater in OVER (P = 0.07) than CON. Follistatin mRNA abundance increased in OVER (P = 0.04) and tended to increase in RES (P = 0.06) compared with CON at d 1. However, there was no difference in myostatin or follistatin protein expression (P > 0.3). Phosphorylated Akt (ser473) was increased in RES at 3 mo compared with CON (P = 0.006). Conclusions In conclusion, maternal over and restricted nutrient intake alters muscle lipid content and growth of offspring, possibly through altered gene and protein expression. PMID:25247074

  8. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  9. Reproductive toxicology and nutritional studies on mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia).

    PubMed

    Rukmini, C

    1990-09-01

    Mahua (Madhuca latifolia, Sapotaceae) seed oil is a common ingredient of hydrogenated fat in India. It is obtained from the seed kernels (which contain 45% oil, w/w), and is a pale yellow, semi-solid fat at room temperature. It has palmitic (19%), stearic (15%), oleic (42%) and linoleic (24%) as a major fatty acids. The physicochemical parameters of the oil are similar to those of other edible oils. The unsaponifiable fraction contains several unidentified polyenes. Nutritional studies were carried out in groups of 15 weanling albino rats of each sex, fed for 14 wk on a 20% protein diet, adequate in all vitamins and minerals, containing 10% mahua oil. A similar (control) group was simultaneously maintained on the same basic diet containing 10% groundnut oil. The growth, fat absorption, and retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were similar in the two groups, as were the lipid profiles of the serum, liver and heart. Multigeneration reproduction studies in groups of 15 rats of each sex, fed a diet containing 10% mahua oil, as used in the above study, indicated poor reproductive performance in the second generation. All the male rats became sterile. Histological studies indicated bilateral testicular atrophy with degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules in the affected animals. On withdrawal of mahua oil from the diet and rehabilitation, the male animals regained their fertility. These results indicate temporary male sterility on feeding mahua oil to rats. No other adverse toxicological effects were found. PMID:2272556

  10. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  11. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. Third Year Report. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  12. Vitamin A: biomarkers of nutrition for development1234

    PubMed Central

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A is essential for multiple functions in mammals. Without vitamin A, mammals cannot grow, reproduce, or fight off disease. Because of its numerous functions in humans, biomarkers of vitamin A status are quite diverse. Assessment of liver reserves of vitamin A is considered the gold standard because the liver is the major storage organ. However, this measure is not feasible in human studies. Alternative biomarkers of status can be classified as biological, functional, histologic, and biochemical. Historically, signs of xerophthalmia were used to determine vitamin A deficiency. Before overt clinical damage to the eye, individuals who suffer from vitamin A deficiency are plagued by night blindness and longer vision-restoration times. These types of assessments require large population-based evaluations. Therefore, surrogate biochemical measures of vitamin A status, as defined by liver reserves, have been developed. Serum retinol concentrations are a common method used to evaluate vitamin A deficiency. Serum retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled until liver reserves are dangerously low. Therefore, other biochemical methods that respond to liver reserves in the marginal category were developed. These included dose-response tests and isotope dilution assays. Dose-response tests work on the principle that apo-retinol–binding protein builds up in the liver as liver reserves become depleted. A challenge dose of vitamin A binds to this protein, and serum concentrations increase within a few hours if liver vitamin A concentrations are low. Isotope dilution assays use stable isotopes as tracers of total body reserves of vitamin A and evaluate a wide range of liver reserves. Resources available and study objectives often dictate the choice of a biomarker. PMID:21715511

  13. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world. PMID:20529339

  14. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805

  15. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring’s Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Lindsay, Karen L.; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Gibney, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring’s epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out. PMID:26917970

  16. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Murray, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India. Methods A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries. Results The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1) million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2) million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6) million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1) million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Conclusion Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under-nutrition

  17. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  18. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  19. Effect of nutrition during calfhood and peripubertal period on serum metabolic hormones, gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations, and on sexual development in bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Barth, Albert D; Rawlings, Norm C; Wilde, Randal E; Crews, Denny H; Mir, Priya S; Kastelic, John P

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the effects of nutrition on circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone during sexual development in bulls. Nutrition regulated the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis through effects on the GnRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus and through direct effects on the testes. Pituitary function (gonadotropin secretion after GnRH challenge) was not affected by nutrition. However, nutrition affected LH pulse frequency and basal LH concentration during the early gonadotropin rise (10-26 weeks of age). There were close temporal associations between changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and changes in LH pulse frequency, suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating the early gonadotropin rise in bulls. The peripubertal increase in testosterone concentration was delayed in bulls with lesser serum IGF-I concentrations (low nutrition), suggesting a role for IGF-I in regulating Leydig cell function. Serum IGF-I concentrations accounted for 72 and 67% of the variation in scrotal circumference and paired-testes volume, respectively (at any given age), indicating that IGF-I may regulate testicular growth. Bulls with a more sustained elevated LH pulse frequency during the early gonadotropin rise (high nutrition) had greater testicular mass at 70 weeks of age relative to the control group (medium nutrition), despite no differences in metabolic hormone concentrations after 26 weeks of age. Therefore, gonadotropin-independent mechanism regulating testicular growth might be dependent on previous gonadotropin milieu. PMID:16677793

  20. Using focus groups to develop a nutrition education video for high school students.

    PubMed

    James, D C; Rienzo, B A; Frazee, C

    1997-11-01

    Focus group interviews were used to develop a nutrition education video and a teacher's guide for use in Florida high schools. Authors conducted a pilot and four focus group interviews with ninth grade students in five geographically distinct regions of Florida. Most students agreed that a video with scenarios or success stories would work well. Teens expressed interest in 10 topics: eating disorders; consequences of unhealthy eating; preparing quick, healthy meals; what constitutes a balanced diet; nutrition and fitness; weight control; food and the environment; the food guide pyramid; nutrition facts and fallacies; and food labels. Students suggested no more than three or four topics should be covered in the video, and the video cast should consist mainly of teen-agers with different body sizes, who were average, attractive, and from different ethnic backgrounds. Music was recommended only for transitions between scenes, as background, or during the credits. PMID:9471089

  1. Choline nutrition programs brain development via DNA and histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2012-06-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. Metabolically choline is used for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids (e.g. phosphatidylcholine), as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and, following oxidation to betaine, choline functions as a methyl group donor in a pathway that produces S-adenosylmethionine. As a methyl donor choline influences DNA and histone methylation--two central epigenomic processes that regulate gene expression. Because the fetus and neonate have high demands for choline, its dietary intake during pregnancy and lactation is particularly important for normal development of the offspring. Studies in rodents have shown that high choline intake during gestation improves cognitive function in adulthood and prevents memory decline associated with old age. These behavioral changes are accompanied by electrophysiological, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical changes and by altered patterns of expression of multiple cortical and hippocampal genes including those encoding key proteins that contribute to the biochemical mechanisms of learning and memory. These actions of choline are observed long after the exposure to the nutrient ended (months) and correlate with fetal hepatic and cerebral cortical choline-evoked changes in global- and gene-specific DNA cytosine methylation and with dramatic changes of the methylation pattern of lysine residues 4, 9 and 27 of histone H3. Moreover, gestational choline modulates the expression of DNA (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a) and histone (G9a/Ehmt2/Kmt1c, Suv39h1/Kmt1a) methyltransferases. In addition to the central role of DNA and histone methylation in brain development, these processes are highly dynamic in adult brain, modulate the expression of genes critical for synaptic plasticity, and are involved in mechanisms of learning and memory. A recent study documented that in a cohort of normal elderly people, verbal and visual memory function correlated positively with the amount of dietary choline consumption

  2. The Development of a Model for Adult Education in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Villano, Maurice W.

    Two nutrition education modules were developed on cardiovascular disease and fat-controlled diet consisting of a self-instruction leader's guide and teaching package to conduct learning sessions for the participants. The sessions consisted of an audio-visual presentation, situations related to the module topic, group discussion, role-playing,…

  3. Nutrition and Mental Development. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 36, February 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussow, Joan Dye

    During the 1960's a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that early malnutrition could affect the development and the functioning of the brain was translated into a concern that nutritional deprivation might be producing permanent mental retardation among "disadvantaged" children. The purpose of this paper is to show, through a review…

  4. The consequence of level of nutrition on heifer ovarian and mammary development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing cows in the herd is second only to nutrition as the single greatest input cost in cow/calf beef production. The increased availability of cereal grains for feeding livestock has allowed replacement heifers to enter the production system at younger ages. Many heifer development programs fe...

  5. Post-weaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From weaning to breeding, the nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. However, overfeeding heifers decreased number of calves ...

  6. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  7. Facultative apomixis and development of fruit in a deciduous shrub with medicinal and nutritional uses.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Yash; Chaudhary, Manju; Gupta, Himshikha; Thakur, Rakesh; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, S N; Tandon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive biology of plants is crucial to understand their natural mode of propagation, which may aid in conservation and crop improvement. The reproductive details are also crucial for beginning the cultivation of a potential crop on a commercial scale. Fruits of sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides, are used in a variety of medicinal and nutritional products. So far, fruits are collected from the female plants in the wild. It is known that the species fruits profusely and also propagates by forming root suckers, but the details of sexual reproduction are not available. We investigated the mode of reproduction and development of fruits from natural populations of sea buckthorn. Megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were studied through resin-embedded sectioning and ovule-clearing methods, and fruit development through histochemistry. The study of mitosis and male meiosis showed that the plants at the site were diploid (2n = 2x = 24). The embryo sac may develop either through the monosporic pathway and differentiates into 'Polygonum type' or aposporously into 'Panicum type'. The embryo may develop by sexual and adventitious pathways. Thus, sea buckthorn is a facultative apomict. The occurrence of diverse reproductive pathways assures the possibility of generation of novel genotypes through sexuality, while apomictic reproduction maintains adaptive genotypes and ensures reproduction in the absence of pollination. Anatomical details suggest that the fruit of sea buckthorn may be appropriately described as a pseudo-drupe. PMID:26286224

  8. Facultative apomixis and development of fruit in a deciduous shrub with medicinal and nutritional uses

    PubMed Central

    Mangla, Yash; Chaudhary, Manju; Gupta, Himshikha; Thakur, Rakesh; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, S. N.; Tandon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive biology of plants is crucial to understand their natural mode of propagation, which may aid in conservation and crop improvement. The reproductive details are also crucial for beginning the cultivation of a potential crop on a commercial scale. Fruits of sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides, are used in a variety of medicinal and nutritional products. So far, fruits are collected from the female plants in the wild. It is known that the species fruits profusely and also propagates by forming root suckers, but the details of sexual reproduction are not available. We investigated the mode of reproduction and development of fruits from natural populations of sea buckthorn. Megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were studied through resin-embedded sectioning and ovule-clearing methods, and fruit development through histochemistry. The study of mitosis and male meiosis showed that the plants at the site were diploid (2n = 2x = 24). The embryo sac may develop either through the monosporic pathway and differentiates into ‘Polygonum type’ or aposporously into ‘Panicum type’. The embryo may develop by sexual and adventitious pathways. Thus, sea buckthorn is a facultative apomict. The occurrence of diverse reproductive pathways assures the possibility of generation of novel genotypes through sexuality, while apomictic reproduction maintains adaptive genotypes and ensures reproduction in the absence of pollination. Anatomical details suggest that the fruit of sea buckthorn may be appropriately described as a pseudo-drupe. PMID:26286224

  9. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    PubMed

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-08-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants. PMID:26738001

  10. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. PMID:26970339

  11. The Nutrinet-Santé Study: a web-based prospective study on the relationship between nutrition and health and determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nutrition-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer are of multiple origin, and may be due to genetic, biologic, behavioural and environmental factors. In order to detangle the specific role of nutritional factors, very large population sample cohort studies comprising precisely measured dietary intake and all necessary information for accurately assessing potential confounding factors are needed. Widespread use of internet is an opportunity to gradually collect huge amounts of data from a large sample of volunteers that can be automatically verified and processed. The objectives of the NutriNet-Santé study are: 1) to investigate the relationship between nutrition (nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, physical activity), mortality and health outcomes; and 2) to examine the determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status (sociological, economic, cultural, biological, cognitive, perceptions, preferences, etc.), using a web-based approach. Methods/design Our web-based prospective cohort study is being conducted for a scheduled follow-up of 10 years. Using a dedicated web site, recruitment will be carried out for 5 years so as to register 500 000 volunteers aged ≥ 18 years among whom 60% are expected to be included (having complete baseline data) and followed-up for at least 5 years for 240 000 participants. Questionnaires administered via internet at baseline and each year thereafter will assess socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, health status, physical activity and diet. Surveillance of health events will be implemented via questionnaires on hospitalisation and use of medication, and linkage with a national database on vital statistics. Biochemical samples and clinical examination will be collected in a subsample of volunteers. Discussion Self-administered data collection using internet as a complement to collection of biological data will enable identifying nutrition-related risks and

  12. Nutrition and aging: potentials and problems for research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1992-08-01

    The demographic explosion of persons over 60 years of age is a reality in developed and developing countries alike. There is evidence that research on aging and nutrition in Third World countries is growing and developing. Specific research programs, and the linking of these programs in timely multicenter efforts, promise both valuable descriptive research for the benefit of national populations and comparative insights that will help us to learn more, collectively, about the intrinsic nature of the aging process itself. PMID:1407753

  13. Development and implementation of a nutrition intervention programme in North West Pakistan: a realist framework.

    PubMed

    Lhussier, Monique; Bangash, Sonia; Dykes, Fiona; Zaman, Mukhtiar; Lowe, Nicola M

    2012-12-01

    Maternal and infant malnutrition is prevalent in rural regions of NW Pakistan. This article reports on the use of a combination of a realist Context-Mechanism-Outcome framework and participatory appraisal methods to facilitate the development of a locally sensitive and responsive nutritional intervention programme. Data were gathered through a series of focus group (FG) discussions with local lady health workers, as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women attending an Emergency Field Hospital in North West Pakistan between May 2008 and March 2009. A nutrition intervention programme was implemented that involved cookery demonstration kitchens and free food supplements, coupled with nutrition and healthcare information and advice for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Subsequent FG discussions revealed that the programme had a positive impact on knowledge gained by women in the community and generated an openness to receiving and spreading knowledge. The framework, which rested on the use of a double feedback loop, involving local women, lady health workers, local researchers and UK-based researchers, has enabled not only the establishment of the programme, but has also given the local team the tools to apply for, and gain, further funding for the development of nutrition support services. The development of such methodological tools, which empower local researchers and service providers (wherever located) to operationalize local knowledge and assess interventions, is particularly relevant in international financially-constrained contexts. PMID:21948952

  14. Development of a Nutritional Delivery System to Feed Crew in a Pressurized Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leonig, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  15. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  16. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide. PMID:18974069

  17. Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, K L; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2012-12-01

    Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted. PMID:22594552

  18. Trends in the development of Thailand's nutrition and health plans and programs.

    PubMed

    Tontisirin, K; Kachondham, Y; Winichagoon, P

    1992-12-01

    Thailand's achievements in health and social development, since its First National Economic Development Plan (1961) and those of its National Food and Nutrition Plans beginning in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977), have received worldwide acclaim. During the last decade the nation has experienced dramatic results in reducing protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), including the virtual eradication of severe PEM. Children and adults alike have better access to health care services, preventive and curative, during the past decade as Thailand's poverty alleviation, primary health care and quality of life approaches have reached out into even the remotest of rural villages. This paper explores the reasons behind this successful effort with special reference to how Thailand integrated nutrition plans into national health and rural development policies and programs. PMID:24323239

  19. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  20. Development and Evaluation of the School Cafeteria Nutrition Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…

  1. Nutrition, Growth and Development of North American Indian Children. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William M., Ed.; And Others

    Recognizing the special health needs of disadvantaged minority groups, in May 1969 the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development cosponsored a conference on these needs for North American Indian children. The monograph, based on this conference, summarizes previous knowledge, provides new information, and emphasizes the role of…

  2. Implementing a multifaceted tailored intervention to improve nutrition adequacy in critically ill patients: results of a multicenter feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tailoring interventions to address identified barriers to change may be an effective strategy to implement guidelines and improve practice. However, there is inadequate data to inform the optimal method or level of tailoring. Consequently, we conducted the PERFormance Enhancement of the Canadian nutrition guidelines by a Tailored Implementation Strategy (PERFECTIS) study to determine the feasibility of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary, tailored intervention aimed at improving adherence to critical care nutrition guidelines for the provision of enteral nutrition. Methods A before-after study was conducted in seven ICUs from five hospitals in North America. During a 3-month pre-implementation phase, each ICU completed a nutrition practice audit to identify guideline-practice gaps and a barriers assessment to identify obstacles to practice change. During a one day meeting, the results of the audit and barriers assessment were reviewed and used to develop a site-specific tailored action plan. The tailored action plan was then implemented over a 12-month period that included bi-monthly progress meetings. Compliance with the tailored action plan was determined by the proportion of items in the action plan that was completely implemented. We examined acceptability of the intervention through staff responses to an evaluation questionnaire. In addition, the nutrition practice audit and barriers survey were repeated at the end of the implementation phase to determine changes in barriers and nutrition practices. Results All five sites successfully completed all aspects of the study. However, their ability to fully implement all of their developed action plans varied from 14% to 75% compliance. Nurses, on average, rated the study-related activities and resources as ‘somewhat useful’ and a third of respondents ‘agreed’ or ‘strongly agreed’ that their nutrition practice had changed as a result of the intervention. We observed a statistically significant

  3. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available. PMID:24016763

  4. Development and nutritional and sensory evaluation of cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma sp) pâté

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Cátia Maria de Oliveira; Torrezan, Renata; de Furtado, Ângela Aparecida Lemos; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Freitas, Daniela De Grandi Castro; de Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro; Penteado, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Cássia Soares; Junior, Carlos Adam Conte; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a technique for the preparation of pâté from cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma sp) waste. For this, frozen minced cachapinta fish was crushed in a mini cutter and homogenized with all other ingredients. The prepared pâté was stored in seamed and thermally treated cans (volume 170 g). Weight proportions of mean moisture, ash, protein, and lipid contents of the minced fish were 75.49, 1.00, 15.00, and 7.92 (g/100 g), respectively. The formulation of the developed pâté is in accordance with legislation for fish products. Cachapinta pâté is a product with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, low level of trans fat, and good indices of nutritional quality. Tests of sensory acceptance, purchase intent, and sensory attributes (except spreadability) averaged a score above 6.0, indicating acceptability of the product. Our study suggests that the potential of minced cachapinta for pâté production is high, and that it can contribute a value-added product to seafood consumption. PMID:25649424

  5. Using Formative Research to Develop a Nutrition Education Resource Aimed at Assisting Low-Income Households in South Africa Adopt a Healthier Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett-Murphy, K.; De Villiers, A.; Ketterer, E.; Steyn, K.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to…

  6. Development and Evaluation of Nutrition Education Competencies and a Competency-Based Resource Guide for Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…

  7. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Formative Research to Develop Tailored Nutrition Intervention Materials for a Diverse Low-Income Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strolla, Leslie O.; Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia M.

    2006-01-01

    More effective nutrition education to reach low-income and ethnic minority populations is needed. As part of a project to develop a tailored nutrition education intervention to meet the needs of low-income Hispanics and non-Hispanics, complementary, mixed methods of formative research were used to determine specific characteristics of the target…

  8. Optimising nutritional intake to promote growth and development in children.

    PubMed

    Burton-Shepherd, Alison

    2012-08-01

    Eating habits may be formed at a young age and once entrenched, tend to track across childhood and beyond (Tsuji et al, 2012). Although parents have a significant role in the development of their child's dietary intake (Clarke et al, 2007), Harris (2010) argues that the diets and feeding habits of young children are now no longer the sole responsibility of parents but other childcare professionals, including nannies and nursery staff. The aim of this article is to provide parents and professionals with guidance to help encourage parents, and other members of the multidisciplinary team, to provide children with a healthy diet. PMID:22919787

  9. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  10. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Victor A

    2002-10-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources. PMID:12361783

  11. An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions. PMID:19299679

  12. The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Karen S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the genome, the epigenome can be modified and hence some epigenetic risk markers have the potential to be reversed. Such modifications take place by means of drugs, diet or environmental exposures. It is widely accepted that epigenetic modifications take place during early embryonic and primordial cell development, but it is also important that we gain an understanding of the potential for such changes later in life. These “later life” epigenetic modifications in response to dietary intervention are the focus of this paper. The epigenetic modifications investigated include DNA methylation, histone modifications and the influence of microRNAs. The epigenotype could be used not only to predict susceptibility to certain cancers but also to assess the effectiveness of dietary modifications to reduce such risk. The influence of diet or dietary components on epigenetic modifications and the impact on cancer initiation or progression has been assessed herein. PMID:25647662

  13. Nutritional amblyopia. A histopathologic study with retrospective clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Smiddy, W E; Green, W R

    1987-01-01

    During a 10-year period ending in 1985, we observed atrophy of the maculopapillary bundle in both eyes of 25 cases examined post mortem. We retrospectively examined the clinical history and general autopsy findings for evidence of malnutrition. An adequate clinical history was obtained in 24 patients, and an autopsy was performed on 21 patients. Our review disclosed that all 25 patients had marked nutritional deprivation, most commonly from alcohol abuse (20 patients), advanced carcinoma (8 patients, 7 of whom were also alcohol abusers), and other malnutritional and disabling conditions (4 patients). A history of heavy smoking was documented in 11 patients. Our findings support the contention that dietary deficiency plays a role in the pathogenesis of the condition that in the past has been referred to as tobacco-alcohol amblyopia and more recently has been called nutritional amblyopia. PMID:3666474

  14. Iron and zinc nutrition in the economically-developed world: a review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2013-08-01

    This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes. PMID:23945676

  15. The Impact of Socioeconomic Development and Ecological Change on Health and Nutrition in Latin America. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 9 (1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimano, Giorgio R.; Chapin, Georganne

    This monograph presents an examination of patterns which emerge from the interrelationship between development, environment, and health and nutrition in Latin America. First, the authors consider the components of this interrelationship, discussing the inseparability of health problems such as malnutrition, fecally-borne and parasitic diseases,…

  16. Postweaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Amundson, O L; Fountain, T H; Larimore, E L; Richardson, B N; McNeel, A K; Wright, E C; Keisler, D H; Cushman, R A; Perry, G A; Freetly, H C

    2015-11-01

    treatments ( = 0.30). Abundance of mRNA in the ovarian cortex did not change due to dietary treatment or age ( > 0.10). In conclusion, developing heifers on a stair-step compensatory growth scheme resulted in larger ovarian reserve before the onset of breeding, which may have beneficial effects on increasing reproductive lifespan. PMID:26641043

  17. Using social marketing principles to guide the development of a nutrition education initiative for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Young, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Beckstrom, Leslie; Bellows, Laura; Johnson, Susan L

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of nutrition education, social marketing has become a promising framework to systematically approach problems related to nutrition behavior. In 1997, the Colorado Nutrition Network began developing a social marketing campaign to promote healthful food choices among low-income Coloradans. A multifaceted formative evaluation plan that included focus groups, campaign concept pretesting, and a food frequency questionnaire was used to segment and scrutinize the target audience. The resulting pilot program was a blend of educational and marketing strategies targeting preschoolers that was implemented in Head Start classrooms. The 12-week intervention contained a narrow, behavior-based "try new foods" message, multiple nutrition education activities, and repeated opportunities to taste 13 novel foods. Key strategies used and findings from the formative evaluation process are presented herein in an effort to provide insight for nutrition educators interested in developing similar interventions. PMID:15707548

  18. A Pilot Study of Self-Management-based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention in Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda

    2016-07-01

    Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450

  19. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009.

    PubMed

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the

  20. Examining the Cultural Competence of Third- and Fourth-Year Nutrition Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Rebekah; Hekmat, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Latifeh

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary Canadian research assessing nutrition students' cultural competence and to identify areas for future education initiatives in dietetic education that could ultimately improve dietitians' cultural competence. A mixed-methods study was conducted using a 24-item questionnaire that was administered to students enrolled in third- and fourth-year undergraduate nutrition classes (n = 133). In total, 115 questionnaires were analyzed for quantitative data, and 109 were analyzed for qualitative data. The students scored an overall medium-high level of cultural competence. Out of the 5 areas examined (skills, attitudes, awareness, desires, knowledge), students' multicultural knowledge scores were the lowest. It was found that a lower number of barriers to learning about other cultures were significantly associated with a higher overall cultural competence score, and taking a course in cultural foods significantly increased the students' knowledge and overall cultural competence (P ≤ 0.05). The qualitative data found that students felt the cultural competence curriculum had gaps and identified several ideas for improvement. In conclusion, this research data provides novel insights into the cultural competence of Canadian dietetic students and additionally supports future research and curriculum development to enhance cultural competence. PMID:26280274

  1. Comparing apples with apples: it is time for standardized reporting of neonatal nutrition and growth studies.

    PubMed

    Cormack, Barbara E; Embleton, Nicholas D; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hay, William W; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2016-06-01

    The ultimate goal of neonatal nutrition care is optimal growth, neurodevelopment, and long-term health for preterm babies. International consensus is that increased energy and protein intakes in the neonatal period improve growth and neurodevelopment, but after more than 100 y of research the optimum intakes of energy and protein remain unknown. We suggest an important factor contributing to the lack of progress is the lack of a standardized approach to reporting nutritional intake data and growth in the neonatal literature. We reviewed randomized controlled trials and observational studies documented in MEDLINE and the Web of Science from 2008 to 2015 that compared approximately 3 vs. 4 g.kg(-1).d(-1) protein for preterm babies in the first month after birth. Consistency might be expected in the calculation of nutritional intake and assessment of growth outcomes in this relatively narrow scope of neonatal nutrition research. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. There was substantial variation in methods used to estimate and calculate nutritional intakes and in the approaches used in reporting these intakes and measures of infant growth. Such variability makes comparisons amongst studies difficult and meta-analysis unreliable. We propose the StRONNG Checklist-Standardized Reporting Of Neonatal Nutrition and Growth to address these issues. PMID:26866908

  2. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Meghna; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Leber, Andrew; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Casandra; Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response, and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition, and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to apply complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery, and development through “use cases” centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, which include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism. PMID:26909350

  3. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meghna; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Leber, Andrew; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Casandra; Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response, and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition, and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to apply complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery, and development through "use cases" centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, which include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism. PMID:26909350

  4. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to

  5. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  6. Web Based Personal Nutrition Management Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Zayim, Neşe; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Samur, Mehmet Kemal

    Internet is being used increasingly as a resource for accessing health-related information because of its several advantages. Therefore, Internet tailoring becomes quite preferable in health education and personal health management recently. Today, there are many web based health programs de-signed for individuals. Among these studies nutrition and weight management is popular because, obesity has become a heavy burden for populations worldwide. In this study, we designed a web based personal nutrition education and management tool, The Nutrition Web Portal, in order to enhance patients’ nutrition knowledge, and provide behavioral change against obesity. The present paper reports analysis, design and development processes of The Nutrition Web Portal.

  7. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000) of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure

  8. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  9. Nutrition, behavioral development, and mother-child interaction in young rural children.

    PubMed

    Chavez, A; Martinez, C; Yaschine, T

    1975-06-01

    In a poor rural community two groups of 17 mother-child units each were studied longitudinally. One group followed the usual feeding habits of the community which result in undernutrition of the child. The other group was provided food supplementation which was sufficient to provide an adequate diet for the child. From the 24th week on, the supplemented children developed a different pattern of interaction with mother and the environment: they slept less, barely used the cradle during the day, played more in the yard, and refused to be carried wrapped up. After the 36th week they received more stimuli and more deferences and rewards, not only from the mother but from the father as well. At 18 months the supplemented children moved about six times as much as the nonsupplemented and exhibited more complex behavior. They were more restless, playful, demanding, disobedient. It is concluded that better nutrition caused an increase in the activity of the child, which made him more demanding, which in turn increased interaction with his mother and established a feedback system, which in turn modified his behavior. PMID:1132521

  10. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets as larvae and low- quality diets as adults, and then those fed diets poor in protein as larvae but high as adults. Workers fed high-protein diets at both life stages had the highest levels of ovary development. The increases in ovary development due to improved dietary protein in the larval and adult life stages were additive. Adult diet also had an effect on body mass. The results demonstrate that both carry-over of larval reserves and nutrients acquired in the adult life stage are important to ovary development in worker honey bees. Carry-over from larval development, however, appears to be less important to adult fecundity than is adult nutrition. Seasonal trends in worker ovary development and mass were examined throughout the brood rearing season. Worker ovary development was lowest in spring, highest in mid-summer, and intermediate in fall. PMID:16228242

  11. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  12. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  13. Nutritional status in cognitively intact older people receiving home care services--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soini, H; Routasalo, P; Lagstrom, H

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are a potentially vulnerable group for malnutrition. This cross-sectional pilot study aims to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients living at home and receiving home health care services. The data were collected from patient care plans, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a questionnaire on eating problems. In addition, serum nutritional status indicators were measured, and an oral examination including quantitative saliva measurement was carried out. Out of 71 eligible patients 51 (72%) patients aged 76-93 years participated. MNA results showed that 47% were at risk of malnutrition. Care plans for 26 patients made reference to questions of nutrition but provided no detailed forward planning. The mean serum albumin value was 39.1 +/- 3.8 g/l, seven patients had a value lower than 35 g/l. MNA scores were significantly lower for female patients with haemoglobin values lower than 120 g/l (p = 0.027). The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and subjective problems in energy intake were significantly associated with lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015). Subjects with functioning natural dentition had higher body mass index (BMI) scores than others (p = 0.0485). The results point at the importance of using screening tools such as the MNA for purposes of nutritional assessment, the estimation of oral problems such as dry mouth, chewing and swallowing problems, and advance planning in nutritional issues within the field of home care. PMID:15980925

  14. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Robert W.; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors’ work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity’s ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it. PMID:26413098

  15. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition and providing exogenous estrogen increases mammary gland development in Holstein heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2016-09-01

    study, we observed that the degree of expansion of epithelium into the adjacent stromal tissue and the complexity of ductal development were minimal in R, increased in EH, and increased by estrogen in both dietary treatments. Results provide compelling evidence that preweaning nutrition and estrogen administration immediately postweaning markedly increase mammary gland development in dairy calves. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences are currently under study. PMID:27372586

  16. Nutritional status, brain development and scholastic achievement of Chilean high-school graduates from high and low intellectual quotient and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, MaríaSoledadC; Inzunza, Nélida B; Bosch, Enrique O

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the inter-relationships between nutritional status (past and current nutrition), brain development, and scholastic achievement (SA) of Chilean high-school graduates from high and low intellectual quotient (IQ) and socio-economic status (SES) (mean age 18.0 (SD 0.9) years). Results showed that independently of SES, high-school graduates with similar IQ have similar nutritional, brain development and SA variables. Multiple regression analysis between child IQ (dependent variable) and age, sex, SES, brain volume (BV), undernutrition during the first year of life, paternal and maternal IQ (independent variables) revealed that maternal IQ (P<0.0001), BV (P<00387) and severe undernutrition during the first year of life (P<0.0486), were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 0.707), without interaction with age, sex or SES. Child IQ (P<0.0001) was the only independent variable that explained both SA variance (r2 0.848) and academic aptitude test variance (r2 0.876) without interaction with age, sex or SES. These results confirm the hypotheses formulated for this study that: (1) independently of SES, high-school graduates with similar IQ have similar variables of nutritional status, brain development and SA; (2) past nutritional status, brain development, child IQ and SA are strongly and significantly inter-related. These findings are relevant in explaining the complex interactions between variables that affect IQ and SA and can be useful for nutritional and educational planning. PMID:11895316

  17. Diet Assessment Methods in the Nurses' Health Studies and Contribution to Evidence-Based Nutritional Policies and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Sampson, Laura; Rosner, Bernard; Camargo, Carlos A.; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to diet assessment methods and evidence-based nutritional policies and guidelines. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Through periodic assessment of diet by validated dietary questionnaires over 40 years, the NHSs have identified dietary determinants of diseases such as breast and other cancers; obesity; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases; and neurodegenerative and mental health disorders. Nutritional biomarkers were assessed using blood, urine, and toenail samples. Robust findings, from the NHSs, together with evidence from other large cohorts and randomized dietary intervention trials, have contributed to the evidence base for developing dietary guidelines and nutritional policies to reduce intakes of trans fat, saturated fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, red and processed meats, and refined carbohydrates while promoting higher intake of healthy fats and carbohydrates and overall healthful dietary patterns. Conclusions. The long-term, periodically collected dietary data in the NHSs, with documented reliability and validity, have contributed extensively to our understanding of the dietary determinants of various diseases, informing dietary guidelines and shaping nutritional policy. PMID:27459459

  18. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  19. A pre-post pilot study of peer nutritional counseling and food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among antiretroviral therapy patients in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Felician, Melissa; Han, Bing; Palar, Kartika; Ramírez, Blanca; Farías, Hugo; Martínez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and poor nutrition are key barriers to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Culturally-appropriate and sustainable interventions that provide nutrition counseling for people on ART and of diverse nutritional statuses are needed, particularly given rising rates of overweight and obesity among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods As part of scale-up of a nutritional counseling intervention, we recruited and trained 17 peer counselors from 14 government-run HIV clinics in Honduras to deliver nutritional counseling to ART patients using a highly interactive curriculum that was developed after extensive formative research on locally available foods and dietary patterns among PLHIV. All participants received the intervention; at baseline and 2 month follow-up, assessments included: 1) interviewer-administered, in-person surveys to collect data on household food insecurity (15-item scale), nutritional knowledge (13-item scale), dietary intake and diversity (number of meals and type and number of food groups consumed in past 24 hours); and 2) anthropometric measures (body mass index or BMI, mid-upper arm and waist circumferences). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to examine changes pre-post in food insecurity and the various nutritional outcomes while controlling for baseline characteristics and clinic-level clustering. Results Of 482 participants at baseline, we had complete follow-up data on 356 (74%), of which 62% were women, median age was 39, 34% reported having paid work, 52% had completed primary school, and 34% were overweight or obese. In multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, age, household size, work status, and education, we found that between baseline and follow-up, household food insecurity decreased significantly among all participants (β=−0.47, p<.05) and among those with children under 18 (β=−1.16, p<.01), while nutritional knowledge and dietary intake and diversity also significantly improved

  20. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  1. Key Strategies for Improving School Nutrition: A Case Study of Three School Nutrition Program Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheck, Jennifer M.; Morgan, Emily H.; Wilde, Parke; Griffin, Timothy; Nahar, Elizabeth; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This case study identified common elements of three diverse New England school districts that were real-world models of improving school meals. Methods: School districts that had greater than 1,000 students, [greater than or equal to]3 schools, and [greater than or equal to]40% of students who qualified for free- or…

  2. Assessment of nutritional status in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Izadi-Khah, Akram

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. With the aid of subjective global assessment (SGA), a semi-quantitative scale for estimating nutritional status, the malnutrition score (MS), has been developed. The MS incorporates advantages of the SGA while extending the reliability and precision. This study was performed to assess the nutritional status in patients on HD at the Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Based on the MS, which consists of seven components--weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidity, subcutaneous fat, and muscle wasting--we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study on 54 HD patients (35 males, 19 females) with age range of 18 to 82 years (mean 44.2 +/- 19.8 years). Each component of the MS has a score from one (normal) to five (very severe). Anthropometric measurements including triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were taken on all patients. Also, the body mass index and TSF/MAC ratio were calculated. Relevant laboratory parameters were checked. The duration of HD of the study patients ranged between 5 and 36 months (mean 19.5 +/- 1.5 months). Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS, Pearson correlation, 't' test and regression. Based on the MS, 40.7% of patients had malnutrition (mean score 13.8 +/- 2.8). There were statistically significant correlations between TSF (p < 0.01), MAC (p = 0.02), MAMC (p = 0.01), TSF/MAC ratio (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.028), serum albumin concentration (p = 0.021) and MS. No statistically significant correlation was found between the MS and urea reduction ratio, protein catabolic rate, age, gender, or duration of dialysis. After 1 year, 20.4% of patients died because of dialysis-related complications. The mortality rate did not show significant correlation with

  3. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact. PMID:27413216

  4. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Muhoozi, Grace K. M.; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. Objective In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Design Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background variables (e.g. household characteristics, poverty likelihood, and child dietary diversity scores (CDDS)) were collected using questionnaires. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) and Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) were used to collect data on child development. Anthropometric measures were used to determine z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), head circumference (HCZ), and mid-upper arm circumference. Chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analyses were used to relate background variables, nutritional status indicators, and infant development. Results The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 12.1, 24.6, and 4.7%, respectively. Household head education, gender, sanitation, household size, maternal age and education, birth order, poverty likelihood, and CDDS were associated (p<0.05) with WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Regression analysis showed that gender, sanitation, CDDS, and likelihood to be below the poverty line were predictors (p<0.05) of undernutrition. BSID III indicated development delay of 1.3% in cognitive and language, and 1.6% in motor development. The ASQ indicated delayed development of 24, 9.1, 25.2, 12.2, and 15.1% in communication, fine motor, gross motor, problem solving, and personal social ability, respectively. All nutritional status indicators except HCZ were positively and significantly associated with development domains. WAZ was the main predictor for

  5. Health and nutrition effects of cash crop production in developing countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, E; Bouis, H; von Braun, J

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents results of a comparative analysis of the health and nutritional effects of cash crop production in 6 countries--The Gambia, Guatemala, Kenya, Malawi, the Philippines, and Rwanda. The 6 country case studies were conducted during the same time period and used a similar, although not identical, research protocol. Participation in cash crop schemes resulted in increases in household income. Short-term increases in household income did not result in a decrease in the incidence of illness in preschool-aged children nor in the total time that preschoolers were ill. Increases in household income did result in increases in the preschooler's energy consumption; however, the income/calorie consumption links, although significant, were weak. The household income gains did not have an immediate or large impact on preschooler nutritional status. While, in the longer term, increases in income may bring about improvements in preschooler health, in the short term, it appears that increases in income must be accompanied by improvements in the health environment in order to have a significant effect in reducing preschooler morbidity and improving child nutritional status. PMID:1439919

  6. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  7. [Nutritional transition and non-communicable diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Maire, Bernard; Lioret, Sandrine; Gartner, Agnès; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition similar to that which occurred in industrialized countries in previous centuries. While infectious diseases are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a marked increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly in the most advanced developing countries, and these diseases are expected to take the lead in a decade or two. Most of these diseases, above all coronary heart diseases, stroke and diabetes, are related to diet and lifestyles, for example tobacco and alcohol consumption. As a matter of fact, these societies are also facing a growing epidemic of overweight and obesity, due to the frequent energetic imbalance between energy-dense food consumption and reduced daily physical expenditure. This health transition, favoured by demographic changes towards aging populations, is occurring at an increased pace in urban societies widely exposed to the modernization of lifestyle, sedentary occupation, and to lipid- and sugar-rich food, often poor in fibre and micronutrients. Increased world access to cheaper vegetable oil is thought to have triggered off this accelerated and generalized trend, though animal food, rich in saturated fat, and imported or locally-made industrialized food also play a role. While increased national and household incomes facilitate the initial change, as the transition advances poor people progressively become the main victims, as has been observed in the more advanced developing countries. Metabolic imprinting due to intra-uterine and infant malnutrition, which are still common in these societies, is also thought to play a significant role in the increase in the expression of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic diseases when these children are exposed to abundant food and modern lifestyle, later in life. Treatment and secondary prevention of nutrition-related chronic diseases and associated disabilities have an

  8. Understanding the Role of Nutrition in the Brain & Behavioral Development of Toddlers and Preschool Children: Identifying and Overcoming Methodological Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Francisco J.; Reznick, J. Steven; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    The pre-school years (i.e., 1–5 years of age) is a time of rapid and dramatic postnatal brain development, i.e., neural plasticity, and of fundamental acquisition of cognitive development i.e., working memory, attention and inhibitory control. Also, it is a time of transition from a direct maternal mediation/selection of diet-based nutrition to food selection that is more based on self-selection and self-gratification. However, there have been fewer published studies in pre-school children than in infants or school-aged children that examined the role of nutrition in brain/mental development (i.e., 125 studies vs. 232 and 303 studies, respectively during the last 28 years, Figure 1). This may arise because of age-related variability, in terms of individual differences in temperament, linguistic ability, and patterns of neural activity that may affect assessment of neural and cognitive development in pre-school children. In this review, we suggest several approaches for assessing brain function in children that can be refined. It would be desirable if the discipline developed some common elements to be included in future studies of diet and brain function, with the idea that they would complement more targeted measures based on time of exposure and understanding of data from animal models. Underlining this approach is the concepts of “window of sensitivity” during which nutrients may affect postnatal neural development: investigators and expert panels need to specifically look for region-specific changes and do so with understanding of the likely time window during which the nutrient was, or was not available. (244 words) PMID:19761650

  9. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status. PMID:18043554

  10. Economic development and its influences and risks for nutrition, cuisine and health.

    PubMed

    McKay, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on some of the major trends in economic development at a global level and assess their influence on food, nutrition and health. Food and nutrition are themselves broad topics, and each is influenced by a myriad of local and international forces, making them both interesting and important, but also challenging in their complexity. It is especially difficult to deal with such a vast and complicated terrain in such a short paper, and one must inevitably deal only superficially with a number of complex areas. This paper will review a number of key forces for change in the global system, with a focus on the implications of each for food and nutrition. Each area is central to the experience of economic, social and political development, particularly in the period since 1945, and each is tied in various ways with that complex and interrelated set of changes that we call globalisation. Seven key factors will be explored: global population growth, leading to strong pressures on world availability of arable land and food; increasing integration in the global economy, as measured through such things as trade, financial flows and information exchanges, and with specific implications for the food industry and for trade in food products; growing gaps between rich and poor countries; similar increases in disparities between rich and poor segments within individual countries; the rapid growth of cities in the developing world, resulting in massive challenges for the food supply systems of many nations; the growth within some countries, for example in a number of Asian countries, of a "new middle class" with distinctive patterns of consumption; and, high levels of population movements between countries resulting in the creation of significant communities of immigrants in a number of nations. Examples will be drawn from the two regions familiar to the author, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, but with a particular emphasis on East Asia. PMID:15228985

  11. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation. PMID:25757574

  12. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events Guidelines & ... Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What ...

  13. Design and development of a meal system for the elderly. [public health - nutrition/diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Food preference surveys (taste tests) were performed for 95 food items (which were selected from an original list of 150 items), and 21 menus were developed from the survey results. Each menu contains an entree, two side dishes, dessert, and a beverage. Food manufacturing specifications for freeze dried foods, frozen foods, and beverages are examined, and product labeling and packaging requirements are discussed. The nutritional value of the various foods is listed in tabular form, and sample product labels are shown. Cost estimates per serving are also included.

  14. Review of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) Clinical Guidelines for Nutrition Support in Cancer Patients: nutrition screening and assessment.

    PubMed

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2008-01-01

    It is clear that cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may or may not be indicated in these patients depending on individual patient characteristics. This review article, the first in a series of articles to examine the A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients Cancer Guidelines, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in cancer patients. This first article will provide background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients as well as discuss the role of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in the care of cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the Clinical Guidelines, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequent published studies. Future articles will explore the guidelines related to nutrition support in oncology patients receiving anticancer therapies. PMID:18390787

  15. Implementation of Mandatory Nutritional Guidelines in South Australian Primary School Canteens: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Elizabeth; Drummond, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Primary schools are identified as being in a primary position to offer nutrition education. Moreover, primary schools can offer an environment which is conducive to the promotion of healthy eating while influencing eating behaviours of children to benefit their health, well-being and academic development and performance. School canteens are one…

  16. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  17. Random and correlated errors in gold standards used in nutritional epidemiology: implications for validation studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement error correction de-attenuation factor was estimated from two studies using recovery biomarkers. One study, the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN), was unable to adequately account for within-person variation in protein and energy intake estimated by recovery biomarkers, ...

  18. An investment in children's health, nutrition and education is the foundation stone for all national development.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S

    1991-01-01

    A medical student at the Christian Medical College in Ludhiana, India, won first place in the First Annual Dr. S.M. Gupta Memorial Essay Contest with this essay on investing in the health, nutrition, and education of India's children. The health, nutrition, and education condition of India's children is substandard. 10% of infants die before their first birthday. 15% of children die before age 5. Many Indian children suffer from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Investment in immunization, oral rehydration therapy, hygiene, and health education would prevent many of these deaths and illnesses. Illness and death cost parents time, energy, and money. Children suffering from malnutrition and sickness cannot concentrate on learning. The state of today's children foretells the state of tomorrow's adults, work force, and leaders. Poor nutrition and health contribute to India's substandard economic productivity. India has 14% of the world's population, but produces only 1.2% of its gross national product. Even though India was the first country to have a national family planning program, its fertility and population growth rates are high. Investment in children's health would show parents the benefits of planning their families. It would also improve India's poor performance in sports and war as well as national prestige and socioeconomic development. The considerable number of illiterates reflect India's failure to invest in education. Females have a lower literacy rate than males. Girls in India suffer much discrimination. They receive less food, less medical care, less opportunities for education, and less recreation. National development depends on the active participation of girls. Prevention is the key: nourish the children, educate them, and keep them healthy. PMID:12346057

  19. Postpyloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    López-Herce, Jesús; Mencía, Santiago; Sánchez, César; Santiago, Maria J; Bustinza, Amaya; Vigil, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Background Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. Methods A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN). The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolerance, and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. The 65 children with shock who received PEN were compared with 461 non-shocked critically ill children who received PEN. Results Sixty-five critically ill children with shock, aged between 21 days and 22 years, received PEN. 75.4% of patients with shock received PEN exclusively. The mean duration of the PEN was 25.2 days and the maximum calorie intake was 79.4 kcal/kg/day. Twenty patients with shock (30.7%) presented gastrointestinal complications, 10 (15.4%) abdominal distension and/or excessive gastric residue, 13 (20%) diarrhoea, 1 necrotising enterocolitis, and 1 duodenal perforation due to the postpyloric tube. The frequency of gastrointestinal complications was significantly higher than in the other 461 critically ill children (9.1%). PEN was suspended due to gastrointestinal complications in 6 patients with shock (9.2%). There were 18 deaths among the patients with shock and PEN (27.7%). In only one patient was the death related to complications of the nutrition. Conclusion Although most critically ill children with shock can tolerate postpyloric enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastrointestinal complications is higher in this group of patients than in other critically ill children. PMID:18237381

  20. Poor But Not Forgotten. An Evaluative Study of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Virginia Li; Ephross, Paul H.

    An evaluative study of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Maryland was made. The study aimed at the assessment of the results of this program currently conducted by the University of Maryland. The object of the program is to influence homemakers to change and improve family nutritional practices. This study focused on the…

  1. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  2. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  3. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  4. A Retrospective, Observational Study of Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Enteroatmospheric Fistulas.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Alexander; Liese, Juliane; Woeste, Guido; Bechstein, Wolf; Habbe, Nils

    2016-07-01

    Enteroatmospheric fistulas (EAFs) represent a challenging problem in patients with an open abdomen (OA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the effects of enteral alimentation on wound status and management and nutrition. All patients with an EAF in an OA treated between October 2012 and December 2014 at a university hospital in Germany were included without criteria for exclusions. Demographic and morbidity-related data collected included age, gender, surgeries, OA grading, body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, and serum creatinin. Underlying diseases and time between the index operation and the formation of the OA and EAFs were analyzed in relation to the initiation of enteral nutrition (EN), which can aggravate and contaminate the OA due to intestinal secretions necessary for digestion. The OA was described in size and area of the fascia defect and classified according to the Björck Scale. The number and location of the fistulas and the duration of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) were documented. Outcome parameters included fistula volume, wound management (eg, dressing change frequency, need for wound revision), feeding tolerance, systemic impact of nutrition, nutrition status at discharge, and mortality. Data were analyzed using primary descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate changes in fistula volume and BMI; categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Ten (10) patients (8 women, median age of participants 55.4 [range 44-71] years) were treated during the study time period. Seven (7) patients had the first fistula orifice in the upper jejunum (UJF); 8 had more than 1 fistula. EN was initiated with high caloric liquid nutrition and gradually increased to a 25 kcal/kg/day liquid or solid nutrition. All patients were provided NPWT at 75 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg. EN was not followed by a significant increase of median daily fistula volume

  5. Recent developments in minimal processing: a tool to retain nutritional quality of food.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, M Tauseef; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Rohi, Madiha

    2014-01-01

    The modernization during the last century resulted in urbanization coupled with modifications in lifestyles and dietary habits. In the same era, industrial developments made it easier to meet the requirements for processed foods. However, consumers are now interested in minimally processed foods owing to increase in their awareness to have fruits and vegetables with superior quality, and natural integrity with fewer additives. The food products deteriorate as a consequence of physiological aging, biochemical changes, high respiration rat,e and high ethylene production. These factors contribute substantially to discoloration, loss of firmness, development of off-flavors, acidification, and microbial spoilage. Simultaneously, food processors are using emerging approaches to process perishable commodities, along with enhanced nutritional and sensorial quality. The present review article is an effort to utilize the modern approaches to minimize the processing and deterioration. The techniques discussed in this paper include chlorination, ozonation, irradiation, photosensitization, edible coating, natural preservative use, high-pressure processing, microwave heating, ohmic heating, and hurdle technology. The consequences of these techniques on shelf-life stability, microbial safety, preservation of organoleptic and nutritional quality, and residue avoidance are the limelight of the paper. Moreover, the discussion has been made on the feasibility and operability of these techniques in modern-day processing. PMID:24188306

  6. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  7. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944

  8. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence

  9. Nutrition education in six congregate meal sites improves participant's nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Christine A; Kicklighter, R D Jana R; Patacca, R D Dena; Deshpande, Keya

    2004-01-01

    Providing relevant nutrition education at federally funded senior centers is one way of increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults. The purpose of this study was to present three nutrition education sessions on the revised Food Guide Pyramid, dietary protein, and dietary fiber to older adults at six senior centers in Atlanta, Georgia. Three 20-minute lesson plans were developed and delivered at six senior centers over the course of 3 weeks. Forty-eight matched pre- and post-nutrition knowledge tests were analyzed and a significant difference (p < .01) in nutrition knowledge was found for the total score and three subtest scores. PMID:15030162

  10. [Use of computers in studying the actual nutritional and health status of children].

    PubMed

    Mostovaia, L A; Bushko, R P; Rassokhan', G I; Iakovleva, L S; Broverman, L L

    1985-01-01

    The authors have devised a pack of applied programs for statistic data treatment, which can be used for studying problems of nutrition and the health status of children, for design of rational diets by the research institutes and childhood establishments sponsored by the public health and education systems, as well as by trade unions. PMID:4036078

  11. Trash Tells a Tale: School Studies of Food Waste as a Tool for Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gail G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The article presents recent data on food waste in the United States, shows how several schools have built upon these data and on student interest in the subject, and suggests ways to utilize the study of food waste to stimulate learning in nutrition and in critical thinking about societal issues. (Author/AJ)

  12. Nutrition Implications of Low Fruit and Vegetable Intakes in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes have nearly doubled despite that more than half the U.S. population does not meet previous recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the implications of low FV intakes in a group of rural older adults at nutrition risk who are part...

  13. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  14. Effect of a nutrition education program on nutrition-related knowledge of English-as-second-language elementary school students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lascurain, Maria C; Kicklighter, Jana R; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Boudolf, Erin Atkerson; Duchon, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition programs that target English-as-Second-Language (ESL) students can potentially improve their nutrition knowledge. This pilot study evaluated the effect of a Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) lesson on nutrition knowledge of ESL students (ages 9-12 years) in a refugee after-school program. A pre- and post-FGP lesson one group design was used. A 12-item knowledge questionnaire was administered to students (N = 15) and their opinions about the lesson were obtained. Overall FGP lesson mean knowledge scores did not increase significantly from pretest to posttest; however, scores that measured specific objectives on the ability to identify food groups and the number of servings for food groups increased, while scores on the ability to identify the importance of each food group for health decreased. Overall, students liked the nutrition lesson, described learning mainly about the FGP, and reported no confusing aspects. Findings suggest that nutrition education targeted to ESL students should emphasize foods versus nutrients and promote active learner involvement. PMID:19835000

  15. Homemaker Reaction to EFNEP/Food Stamp Pilot Nutrition Education Project. A 1983 Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Survey. Extension Studies 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Polly P.; And Others

    Between 1982 and 1983, more than 750 homemakers from Pennsylvania and Massachusetts participated in a national study to test selected methods of delivering nutrition education to low-income families. The study, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Food Stamp Pilot Project, was conducted through the EFNEP in 10 states. At the…

  16. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?

    PubMed

    Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold

    2013-08-10

    Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time

  17. Parallels between nutrition and physical activity: research questions in development of peak bone mass.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle choices are attributed to 40% to 60% of adult peak bone mass. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) sought to update its 2000 consensus statement on peak bone mass and partnered with the American Society for Nutrition, which, in turn, charged a 9-member writing committee with using a systematic review approach to update the previous NOF guidelines. PubMed searches of the scientific literature from January 2000 through December 2014 were conducted on all relevant lifestyle choice factors and their relation to increasing bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The writing group concluded that there is strong evidence for the benefits of physical activity and calcium intake on bone mass accretion, moderately strong evidence for the benefits of vitamin D and dairy intake on bone mass and for physical activity on bone structure, and weaker evidence for other lifestyle choices. There were parallels and synergies between the benefits of diet and exercise on development of peak bone mass, but the type of evidence and public policy recommendations in the two disciplines differ in several important ways. Nutrition uses a more reductionist approach in contrast to physical activity, which uses a more global approach. This leads to differences in research priorities in the 2 disciplines. The disciplines can advance more quickly through collaboration and adoption of the best approaches from each other. PMID:25965111

  18. Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-10-01

    An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

  19. Innovations in capture fisheries are an imperative for nutrition security in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stephen J; Hilborn, Ray; Andrew, Neil L; Allison, Edward H

    2013-05-21

    This article examines two strands of discourse on wild capture fisheries; one that focuses on resource sustainability and environmental impacts, another related to food and nutrition security and human well-being. Available data and research show that, for countries most dependent on fish to meet the nutritional requirements of their population, wild capture fisheries remain the dominant supplier. Although, contrary to popular narratives, the sustainability of these fisheries is not always and everywhere in crisis, securing their sustainability is essential and requires considerable effort across a broad spectrum of fishery systems. An impediment to achieving this is that the current research and policy discourses on environmental sustainability of fisheries and food security remain only loosely and superficially linked. Overcoming this requires adoption of a broader sustainability science paradigm to help harness synergies and negotiate tradeoffs between food security, resource conservation, and macroeconomic development goals. The way society chooses to govern fisheries is, however, an ethical choice, not just a technical one, and we recommend adding an ethical dimension to sustainability science as applied to fisheries. PMID:23671089

  20. Innovations in capture fisheries are an imperative for nutrition security in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Stephen J.; Hilborn, Ray; Andrew, Neil L.; Allison, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two strands of discourse on wild capture fisheries; one that focuses on resource sustainability and environmental impacts, another related to food and nutrition security and human well-being. Available data and research show that, for countries most dependent on fish to meet the nutritional requirements of their population, wild capture fisheries remain the dominant supplier. Although, contrary to popular narratives, the sustainability of these fisheries is not always and everywhere in crisis, securing their sustainability is essential and requires considerable effort across a broad spectrum of fishery systems. An impediment to achieving this is that the current research and policy discourses on environmental sustainability of fisheries and food security remain only loosely and superficially linked. Overcoming this requires adoption of a broader sustainability science paradigm to help harness synergies and negotiate tradeoffs between food security, resource conservation, and macroeconomic development goals. The way society chooses to govern fisheries is, however, an ethical choice, not just a technical one, and we recommend adding an ethical dimension to sustainability science as applied to fisheries. PMID:23671089

  1. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2009-11-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  2. Implementing nutrition guidelines for older people in residential care homes: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Optimizing the dietary intake of older people can prevent nutritional deficiencies and diet-related diseases, thereby improving quality of life. However, there is evidence that the nutritional intake of older people living in care homes is suboptimal, with high levels of saturated fat, salt, and added sugars. The UK Food Standards Agency therefore developed nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes. The acceptability of these guidelines and their feasibility in practice is unknown. This study used the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementing the guidelines and inform future implementation. Methods We conducted a process evaluation in five care homes in the north of England using qualitative methods (observation and interviews) to explore the views of managers, care staff, catering staff, and domestic staff. Data were analyzed thematically and discussed in data workshops; emerging themes were then mapped to the constructs of NPT. Results Many staff perceived the guidelines as unnecessarily restrictive and irrelevant to older people. In terms of NPT, the guidelines simply did not make sense (coherence), and as a result, relatively few staff invested in the guidelines (cognitive participation). Even where staff supported the guidelines, implementation was hampered by a lack of nutritional knowledge and institutional support (collective action). Finally, the absence of observable benefits to clients confirmed the negative preconceptions of many staff, with limited evidence of reappraisal following implementation (reflexive monitoring). Conclusions The successful implementation of the nutrition guidelines requires that the fundamental issues relating to their perceived value and fit with other priorities and goals be addressed. Specialist support is needed to equip staff with the technical knowledge and skills required for menu analysis and development and to devise ways of evaluating

  3. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Assessment of Physical Educators and Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conkle, M. Terence; Tishler, Anne G.

    This study assessed the sports nutrition knowledge of current and prospective physical educators/coaches (HPEs) to determine the need for improved education in this area and to compare the nutrition knowledge of HPEs with that of foods and nutrition students (FNSs) and general college students (GENs). A researcher-developed 4-point Likert-type…

  4. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  5. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children. PMID:26280164

  6. Increased sow nutrition during midgestation affects muscle fiber development and meat quality, with no consequences on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Baucells, M D; Gasa, J; Coma, J; Carrión, D; Chapinal, N; Sala, R

    2009-02-01

    Pregnant sow nutrition has potential effects on the muscle fiber development of progeny in utero. A total of 199 Landrace x Large White sows from parities 0 to 6 and their offspring were used to evaluate the effects of increasing the feeding amount during midpregnancy on the muscle tissue, growth performance, and meat quality of the progeny. The experiment was divided into 2 study replicates, and in each replicate, sows were assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments: 1) sows in the control group (C sows) were fed 2.5 to 3.0 kg/d (feed: 12.1 MJ of ME/kg and 0.62% lysine) throughout gestation; and 2) sows in the high group (H sows) received an extra feed allowance of 1.5 kg/d for gilts and 2.0 kg/d for multiparous sows above the C amount from d 45 to 85 of gestation (period of secondary muscle fiber formation). Sow backfat was recorded on d 40 and 85 of gestation. Sow performance (litter size and piglet BW) at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation was measured. At weaning, pigs were divided into 5 BW groups/treatment, and progeny growth performance was measured during the nursery (n = 958) and the growing-finishing (n = 636) periods. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits (lean content, main cut weight, pH, Minolta color, and drip loss) were recorded from the second lightest group at weaning (BW group 4; n = 90), and samples from the longissimus thoracis muscle were taken to study muscle fiber characteristics (n = 70). The extra nutrition from d 45 to 85 of gestation did not lead to differences in litter size or piglet BW at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation. Pigs born to H mothers had fewer muscle fibers and fewer estimated primary and secondary fibers than did pigs born to C mothers (P < 0.05). However, postnatal growth performance was not consistently affected by the maternal treatment. The smaller number of muscle fibers found in the H group of pigs was associated with fewer type IIB fibers (P < 0.05) with greater cross-sectional areas (P < 0.10), which might be

  7. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216

  8. Development and evaluation of a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 using the Nutrition Data System for Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) with the widely used Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) based on the method developed for use with the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrient Dietary Data System (FNDDS) and M...

  9. Cookin' Up Health: developing a nutrition intervention for a rural Appalachian population.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Irene; Rye, Sheila; Parker, Lindsey; Trangsrud, Kristin; Mangone, Carol; McCrone, Susan; Leslie, Nan

    2006-04-01

    Cookin' Up Health is a culturally targeted and individualized tailored nutrition intervention using a computer-based interactive format. Using a cooking show theme, the program demonstrates step-by-step meal preparation emphasizing healthy selection and portion control. Focus groups were conducted with women in two rural counties in West Virginia to guide the development of the intervention. Women felt more susceptible to heart disease because the changing role of women creates more stress and less time; weight loss was a greater motivator for dietary change than was preventing heart disease; social support is a barrier and facilitator for dietary change; cultural heritage and the way women were raised were major barriers to making health changes as adults; convenience and the cost of eating healthier were major factors when trying to make changes in diet; and women did not feel confident in their ability to maintain dietary changes. PMID:16585148

  10. Comparison of three instructional strategies in food and nutrition education: developing a diet plan for a diabetic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; `Logan'Arrington, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1) peer discussion with just-in-time information (JIT information), (2) peer discussion without JIT information), and (3) independent performers. The learners' performance in the three conditions was analyzed. The results presented here describe the role of prior knowledge and JIT information across the conditions and the interaction of the two factors as well as the instructional implications of the findings.

  11. A Nutrition Education Bibliography for Teachers of All Subjects and Grade Levels. Revised Edition, 1978. Developed through an ESEA Title IVC Project in Nutrition Education for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzerne Intermediate Unit 18, Kingston, PA.

    This bibliography lists a library collection of educational resources on topics in nutrition which are available to elementary and secondary teachers who need information and instructional aids to help them implement nutrition education into the existing curriculum. Two hundred seven entries of nutrition education resources comprise this…

  12. Socio-cultural factors influencing nutritional status of infants -- a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, J; Khan, Z; Sinha, S N

    1991-01-01

    During 1985-1986 in India, health workers went to the homes of 200 infants, 1-11 months old at the time they were brought into the study, and followed them until they reached one year. The researchers aimed to evaluate the role of weaning in determining the nutritional status of infants as well as to identify the sociocultural factors affecting weaning practices in the rural area near Aligarh. 99% of the infants received a prelacteal feed, especially ghutti (94%), within 6 hours of delivery. 99% were breast fed. Breast feeding began between 6 and 72 hours of birth. Almost all mothers believed ghutti cleanses the intestines and that colostrum is harmful. They discarded the colostrum. 73.5% of infants received top diluted milk. Mothers did not feed undiluted milk to their infants because they believed it causes diarrhea. 50.5% of mothers did not give their infants semi-solid foods until after 9 months. 20.5% did not give any semi-solid or solid food at one year. They all thought that semi-solid food causes diarrhea. 62.5% of infants received family food. 15% received biscuits. 98% had poor knowledge about nutritional requirements of infants, other than that breast milk is the natural food of infants. Most mothers practiced poor hygiene. Infants less than 6 months old were significantly more likely to have normal nutrition for age than those older than 6 months old (65.5% vs. 32.4%). Nutritional status declined with age, reflecting the unhygienic weaning practices in the area. At the end of 12 months, 6.8% suffered from severe grades of malnutrition. Nutritional status was not associated with social class. Educational status of mothers and fathers was significantly associated with nutritional status. These findings show that inadequate knowledge about proper weaning, not lack of food, is the limiting factor in infant nutrition. Education about the importance of proper weaning and weaning foods imparted by grass-root level workers is needed. PMID:12346054

  13. Nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M; D'agostino, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experience of an International Children's Center (ICC) team following many years of work in the field of education for nutrition in developing and industrialized countries. Nutrition education, a long term intervention in which individuals of all ages are active participants who acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude pertaining to food and nutrition in the context of socioeconomic and cultural limitations. The discussion covers the concepts of attitude, behavior, and eating conduct. Attitude is defined as a way of viewing or internal disposition adopted by any person in a specific situation. Attitudes grow out of knowledge, beliefs, and values and personal predisposition. On the other hand, behavior denotes an observable act and results in a certain manner of acting in response to external stimuli. Eating conduct is expressed differently and in varying extents depending on living conditions and dietary resources. These concepts correspond to the different degrees of information, awareness, and participation achieved by individuals during the educational program. While examination of conduct and dietary resources are necessary for any education for nutrition programs, more attention and investigation should be given to the "negotiation" phase with the people. The community must be ready to take risks, made aware of the implications of the choices to be made to the professionals and to the general public. In this issue, the ICC team highlights important points concerning nutrition education programs. PMID:12295489

  14. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  15. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  16. A cross-sectional pilot study to examine food sufficiency and assess nutrition among low-income patients with injection-related venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-04-01

    Adequate nutrition has long been considered a critical component for wound healing, but literature regarding the relationship between nutrition and venous ulcer (VU) healing is limited. A person's nutrition is affected by the availability of food as well as his/her overall health. Food sufficiency and nutrition are important concerns in the care of persons of low income with injection-related VUs, which tend to be large and slow to heal. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between food sufficiency/security and nutrition with regard to demographic, wound, quality-of-life, physical activity, falls, and fall risk variables. Nutrition was examined using 2 well-developed instruments that measure food sufficiency/security and assess nutrition--the United States Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Sufficiency Questionnaire (FSQ) and the Nestle Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). All participants (N = 31, 54% men, mean age 56.1 ± 3.6 years, all African American) were recruited from an outpatient clinic. All had injection-related VUs from a history of injecting illicit substances. In terms of food sufficiency/security, most participants (26, 84%) reported having enough food in the house, but 10 (32%) worried about running out of food. From 16% to 22.6% of participants expressed concern with food sufficiency/security in terms of cutting meal size, eating less, hunger, and weight loss. Food sufficiency/security was high for 19 (61.3%), but 12 (39%) had marginal or lower food sufficiency/security. MNA scores showed 16 participants (52%) were at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Low food sufficiency/security was significantly (P <0.05) associated with less motivation for activity (r = -0.40) and less walking (r = -0.36). Better nutrition assessment scores were significantly associated (P <0.01) with fewer comorbidities (r = -0.57) and falls (r = -0.46) and with higher quality of life (r = 0.50), motivation for physical activity (r = 0

  17. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is based on clinical studies including virtually all patients treated with peritoneal dialysis in Gothenburg during the 1990s. The patients had a fundamentally altered body composition compared to healthy subjects, characterised by a reduction in body cell mass and body fat already at start of dialysis. During PD treatment. a further decrease in body cell mass was observed. Energy stores tended to normalise during the first years of treatment and remained constant thereafter, or declined subsequently. Extracellular water, calculated from the four-compartment model, was increased when patients started PD treatment and increased further, in parallel to the reduction in body cell mass. These alterations were seen in combination with a normal. or slightly reduced, body weight. Standard methods of assessing nutritional status may therefore not be valid in the dialysis population. Prediction equations to estimate total body water, used in measurements of dialysis adequacy, give erroneous results in PD patients, as shown in a study on our PD population. This may have important clinical consequences, especially in wasted patients. Reduced muscle mass is a marker of protein-energy malnutrition, and therefore simple and reliable methods to measure muscle mass are warranted. When lean body mass was calculated from creatinine generation rate and compared to lean body mass estimated from measurements of total body potassium. the agreement between the two methods was low. Furthermore, when repeated measurements of creatinine generation rate were performed, the variation coefficient was unacceptably high. Thus. creatinine generation rate cannot be recommended as a method to evaluate somatic protein status in PD patients. The lipoprotein metabolic derangements are pronounced in PD patients. in which a further increase in cholesterol and cholesterol-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins are added to the already pre-existing renal dyslipidemia. characterised by increased

  18. Development and Evaluation of Activity-Oriented Nutrition Classes for Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Darcy; Kendall, Patricia; Wilken, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Compared to 10 controls, pregnant or parenting teens (n=60) who attended nutrition workshops significantly increased their knowledge; 87% reported improvements in nutrition behavior. There were no significant improvements in dietary intake, possibly due to lack of control of food purchasing and preparation or lack of readiness to change. (SK)

  19. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) alters histiotrophic nutrition pathways and epigenetic processes in the developing conceptus.

    PubMed

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Shay, Brian J; Harris, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNPs) are processes by which the organogenesis-stage conceptus obtains nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors required for protein biosynthesis and metabolic activities. Nutrients are captured from the maternal milieu as whole proteins and cargoes via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the visceral yolk sac (VYS), degraded by lysosomal proteolysis and delivered to the developing embryo (EMB). Several nutrients obtained by HNPs are required substrates for one-carbon (C1) metabolism and supply methyl groups required for epigenetic processes, including DNA and histone methylation. Increased availability of methyl donors has been associated with reduced risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we show that mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) treatment (100 or 250μM) alters HNPs, C1 metabolism and epigenetic programming in the organogenesis-stage conceptus. Specifically, 3-h MEHP treatment of mouse EMBs in whole culture resulted in dose-dependent reduction of HNP activity in the conceptus. To observe nutrient consequences of decreased HNP function, C1 components and substrates and epigenetic outcomes were quantified at 24h. Treatment with 100-μM MEHP resulted in decreased dietary methyl donor concentrations, while treatment with 100- or 250-μM MEHP resulted in dose-dependent elevated C1 products and substrates. In MEHP-treated EMBs with NTDs, H3K4 methylation was significantly increased, while no effects were seen in treated VYS. DNA methylation was reduced in MEHP-treated EMB with and without NTDs. This research suggests that environmental toxicants such as MEHP decrease embryonic nutrition in a time-dependent manner and that epigenetic consequences of HNP disruption may be exacerbated in EMB with NTDs. PMID:26507544

  20. Industry Approach to Nutrition-Based Product Development and Reformulation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Leroy, Fabienne; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been a proliferation of initiatives to classify food products according to their nutritional composition (e.g., high in fat/sugar) to better guide consumer choices and regulate the food environment. This global trend, lately introduced in Asia as well, utilizes nutrient profiling (NP) to set compositional criteria for food products. Even though the use of NP to set targets for product reformulation has been proposed for years, to date only two NP systems have been specifically developed for that purpose. The majority of the NP applications, especially in Asia, focus on marketing and/or health claim regulation, as well as front-of-pack labeling. Product reformulation has been identified, by the World Health Organization and other official bodies, as a key tool for the food industry to help address public health nutrition priorities and provide support towards the reduction of excessive dietary sugar, salt and fats. In the United Kingdom, the Responsibility Deal is an excellent example of a public-private collaborative initiative that successfully reduced the salt content of products available in the supermarkets by 20-30%, resulting in an estimated 10% reduction in salt intake at the population level. Validation of NP systems targeted towards reformulation supports the hypothesis that, by adopting them, the industry can actively support existing policies in the direction of lowering consumptions in public health-sensitive nutrients. The symposium presented a discussion on the current NP landscape in Asia, the importance of reformulation for public health and the Nestlé approach to improve the food environment in Asia through NP. PMID:26598851

  1. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. PMID:24571214

  2. Nutritional attitudes of homosexual people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Chongqing, Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjie; Ma, Rui; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    This article aimed at understanding nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of homosexual persons living with HIV/AIDS in Chongqing, China. A cross sectional design using a valid and reliable survey was used. The survey was completed in Chongqing, Southwest China (n = 172). Knowledge of nutrition was deficient regarding sources of nutrients such as calcium and iron, relationships between diet/nutrients and disease, and only 36.1% of participants knew about the Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese. Eating habits did not meet the nutritional requirements, and a majority (59.3%) did not eat breakfast every day. The average score on the knowledge quiz was 51.8%. This study showed that homosexual persons with HIV/AIDS in China longed for nutrition knowledge, and this was supported by objective data. Efforts and targeted education programs aiming to improve their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be emphasized. PMID:24366024

  3. Diet and nutrition: a knowledge, attitude and practice study of pregnant women in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Zobairi, S E; Freitas, M L; Wasti, S A

    1998-05-01

    This study determines knowledge, attitude, and practice of diet and nutrition during pregnancy among women in Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from a randomized convenience sample of 150 pregnant women from outpatient clinics of 3 hospitals: Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi Adventist Hospital, and Civil Hospital. Daily caloric intake was based on a single day. Two dietary patterns were observed. Meals among individuals with monthly income under Rs. 5000 consisted of flatbread, lentils, and/or vegetables. Meat was eaten under twice/week. Calories came primarily from flatbread, cereals, and cooking oil. Those with income over Rs. 10,000/month ate a great variety of foods and meat frequently. The source of calories was diverse and more balanced. The women preferred milk and fresh fruit during pregnancy. Milk was desired for fetal bone development, enhanced lactation, good skin, and a settled stomach. Desired foods were described as cold and justified since the womb was a source of heat production. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups did not trust their judgment about beneficial foods and could not afford the foods they desired. Many women had food avoidances, such as hot foods. The percentage of women with food avoidances increased with increased SES. Most women valued increased food consumption during pregnancy, but 68% did not increase their caloric intake and 40% decreased caloric intake. The mean caloric intakes, from low to high SES, were 1087, 1656, and 1750 kcal/day/woman, respectively. PMID:9653858

  4. Linking supermarket sales data to nutritional information: an informatics feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina M; Brewster, Philip J; Clark, Edward B; Jordan, Kristine C; Cummins, Mollie R; Hurdle, John F

    2011-01-01

    Grocery sales are a data source of potential value to dietary assessment programs in public health informatics. However, the lack of a computable method for mapping between nutrient and food item information represents a major obstacle. We studied the feasibility of linking point-of-sale data to USDA-SR nutrient database information in a sustainable way. We analyzed 2,009,533 de-identified sales items purchased by 32,785 customers over a two-week period. We developed a method using the item category hierarchy in the supermarket's database to link purchased items to records from the USDA-SR. We describe our methodology and its rationale and limitations. Approximately 70% of all items were mapped and linked to the SR; approximately 90% of all items could be mapped with an equivalent expenditure of additional effort. 100% of all items were mapped to USDA standard food groups. We conclude that mapping grocery sales data to nutritional information is feasible. PMID:22195115

  5. Linking Supermarket Sales Data To Nutritional Information: An Informatics Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina M.; Brewster, Philip J.; Clark, Edward B.; Jordan, Kristine C.; Cummins, Mollie R.; Hurdle, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Grocery sales are a data source of potential value to dietary assessment programs in public health informatics. However, the lack of a computable method for mapping between nutrient and food item information represents a major obstacle. We studied the feasibility of linking point-of-sale data to USDA-SR nutrient database information in a sustainable way. We analyzed 2,009,533 de-identified sales items purchased by 32,785 customers over a two-week period. We developed a method using the item category hierarchy in the supermarket’s database to link purchased items to records from the USDA-SR. We describe our methodology and its rationale and limitations. Approximately 70% of all items were mapped and linked to the SR; approximately 90% of all items could be mapped with an equivalent expenditure of additional effort. 100% of all items were mapped to USDA standard food groups. We conclude that mapping grocery sales data to nutritional information is feasible. PMID:22195115

  6. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrition (specific nutrients, broad food groups, diet quality and dietary pattern) of 1424 male and female adolescents at 14 years of age, in Western Australia. Results Back or neck pain were experienced by around half of the adolescents, with females more likely to experience spinal pain. Nutrition differed between sexes and deviated from optimal intakes. Vitamin B12, eggs, cereals and meat consumption were related to spinal pain in sex specific multivariate analyses including primary carer education level and adolescent waist girth and smoking. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that certain aspects of diet may have an association with spinal pain in adolescence. PMID:20587071

  7. Development and Implementation of a Summer Youth Nutrition Education and Physical Activity Intervention in a Rural Mississippi Delta Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to implement a sustainable community-based sport intervention that encourages physical activity and healthy eating, with potential for preventing obesity among children ages 5-12 years. Presented is descriptive information of the development of a summer nutrition and physical activit...

  8. Use of Qualitative Research to Inform Development of Nutrition Messages for Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alicie H.; Wilson, Judy F.; Burns, Adam; Blum-Kemelor, Donna; Singh, Anita; Race, Patricia O.; Soto, Valery; Lockett, Alice F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test nutrition messages and supporting content with low-income mothers for use with theory-based interventions addressing fruit and vegetable consumption and child-feeding practices. Design: Six formative and 6 evaluative focus groups explored message concepts and tested messages, respectively. Setting: Research…

  9. The effect of time of sweetpotato whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) disorder is associated with Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding and is characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and the development of tomato irreg...

  10. Home Environment, Nutritional Status, and Maternal Intelligence as Determinants of Intellectual Development in Rural Philippine Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships among home environment, nutritional status, maternal intelligence, and intellectual development were investigated for 177 5- and 6-year-old children in the Philippines using culture-relevant scales. Results support the generalizability to the Philippine cultural setting of relationships among these factors found in American settings.…

  11. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...

  12. Effects of gestational plane of nutrition and selenium supplementation on mammary development and colostrum quality in pregnant ewe lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine effects of nutritional plane and selenium (Se) supplementation on colostrum quality and mammary development, individually fed, pregnant Rambouillet ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Main effects included dietary Se level which began at...

  13. English/Spanish Glossary of Health and Nutrition Terms. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint Series R-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This glossary was developed to aid English-speaking health workers in Guatemala in translating health and nutrition terms from English to Spanish. Because Guatemala is renowned for its extensive vocabulary of "modismos", or slang, a column has been added to facilitate adaptation of the glossary to regional variations. The terms in the glossary are…

  14. Stepping up to the challenge: the development, implementation, and assessment of a statewide, regional, leadership program for school nutrition directors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jacqueline J; Briggs, Marilyn M; Beall, Deborah L; Curwood, Sandy; Gray, Pilar; Soiseth, Scott; Taylor, Rodney K; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    A statewide professional development program was developed and implemented throughout California for school nutrition directors with the goal of creating healthy school environments and regional networks for collaboration and healthy school environment sustainability. Needs of school nutrition directors were identified through a needs assessment questionnaire. Results of the needs assessment questionnaire (n = 256) identified (a) planning cost-effective menus; (b) reducing calories, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat in menus; and (c) using U.S. Department of Agriculture foods cost-effectively as the most useful topics. Highest rated topics informed the content of the professional development program. A post-professional development questionnaire identified key "insights, inspirations, and strategies" as (a) marketing of school foods program, (b) expansion of salad bars, and (c) collaboration with community partners. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire identified that 86% of participants made progress toward implementing at least one of their five insights, inspirations, and strategies in their school districts. Most common areas that were implemented were marketing and branding (32%), revamping salad bars (18%), and motivating staff (16%). School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey analysis showed a significant increase in the use of marketing methods in school nutrition programs from baseline to 6-month post-program implementation (p = .024). PMID:24740964

  15. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  16. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  17. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  18. Nutrition and Child Growth and Development in Tunisia. Interim Progress Report, (September 1, 1972--February 28, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harben Boutourline

    This interim report of the Yale Project describes the progress made on the nutrition and growth study of Tunisian children from September 1, 1972 through February 28, 1973. A major part of the report is devoted to the organizational and data collection problems of the longitudinal study, discussed under the following categories: biomedics,…

  19. Using formative research to develop a nutrition education resource aimed at assisting low-income households in South Africa adopt a healthier diet.

    PubMed

    Everett-Murphy, K; De Villiers, A; Ketterer, E; Steyn, K

    2015-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to the budgetary constraints and information needs of poor households in the major urban centres of South Africa. Twenty-two focus groups were convened to explore the target audience's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices as they related to healthy eating and their views about the proposed nutrition resource (N = 167). A brief questionnaire assessed eating and cooking practices among focus group participants. Key informant interviews with eight dieticians/nutritionists working with this population added to the focus group findings. The research identified important issues to take into account in the development of the resource. These included the need to: directly address prevalent misconceptions about healthy eating and unhealthy eating practices; increase self-efficacy regarding the purchasing and preparation of healthy food; represent diverse cultural traditions and consider the issues of affordability and availability of food ingredients. This study demonstrates the value of using formative research in the design of nutrition-related communication in a multicultural, poor, urban South African setting. PMID:26590241

  20. [Applicability of multivariate statistics for nutritional studies: bioassay rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L)].

    PubMed

    Lugo Gonázlez, Dennis Alexander; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Casotto, Meris; Laurentin, Alexander; Gómez, Ana

    2013-09-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA), non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) are multivariate statistical techniques that graphically represent numerical measures of several factors and display multiple relationships that may exist between them. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of these techniques to analyze the nutritional quality of diet, using as model, the bioassay rice weevil. The diets tested were: corn starch, potato starch, 5% glucose, peas, starved and starved with water supply. The variables studied were: survival, weight change and body composition. The PCA and MDS showed positive relationships of survival and weight change with body fat and carbohydrate parameters. Fat and carbohydrates were greater in starches diets, similar to the positive control. The PCA showed differences between populations fed with different diets, whereas the MDS showed similarity between diets. Both studies defined a gradient of the nutritive value of diets in the x-axis. The ANOSIM indicate significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. This test is necessary to support the results obtained in the PCA and MDS. The application of these statistical tools is promising to analyze complex processes such as interaction of differents variables to measure the nutritional quality of diets. PMID:25362823

  1. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  2. Multilevel data analysis of a crossover designed human nutritional intervention study.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Westerhuis, Johan A; van Duynhoven, John P M; van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Jacobs, Doris M; Smit, Suzanne; Draijer, Richard; Kroner, Christine I; Smilde, Age K

    2008-10-01

    A new method is introduced for the analysis of 'omics' data derived from crossover designed drug or nutritional intervention studies. The method aims at finding systematic variations in metabolic profiles after a drug or nutritional challenge and takes advantage of the crossover design in the data. The method, which can be considered as a multivariate extension of a paired t test, generates different multivariate submodels for the between- and the within-subject variation in the data. A major advantage of this variation splitting is that each submodel can be analyzed separately without being confounded with the other variation sources. The power of the multilevel approach is demonstrated in a human nutritional intervention study which used NMR-based metabolomics to assess the metabolic impact of grape/wine extract consumption. The variations in the urine metabolic profiles are studied between and within the human subjects using the multilevel analysis. After variation splitting, multilevel PCA is used to investigate the experimental and biological differences between the subjects, whereas a multilevel PLS-DA model is used to reveal the net treatment effect within the subjects. The observed treatment effect is validated with cross model validation and permutations. It is shown that the statistical significance of the multilevel classification model ( p < 0.0002) is a major improvement compared to a ordinary PLS-DA model ( p = 0.058) without variation splitting. Finally, rank products are used to determine which NMR signals are most important in the multilevel classification model. PMID:18754629

  3. Metabolic control of oocyte development: linking maternal nutrition and reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglin; Gu, Xi; Boots, Christina; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders are major health issues worldwide. As the epidemic of metabolic disorders continues, the associated medical comorbidities, including the detrimental impact on reproduction, increase as well. Emerging evidence suggests that the effects of maternal nutrition on reproductive outcomes are likely to be mediated, at least in part, by oocyte metabolism. Well-balanced and timed energy metabolism is critical for optimal development of oocytes. To date, much of our understanding of oocyte metabolism comes from the effects of extrinsic nutrients on oocyte maturation. In contrast, intrinsic regulation of oocyte development by metabolic enzymes, intracellular mediators, and transport systems is less characterized. Specifically, decreased acid transport proteins levels, increased glucose/lipid content and elevated reactive oxygen species in oocytes have been implicated in meiotic defects, organelle dysfunction and epigenetic alteration. Therefore, metabolic disturbances in oocytes may contribute to the diminished reproductive potential experienced by women with metabolic disorders. In-depth research is needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms. This review also discusses several approaches for metabolic analysis. Metabolomic profiling of oocytes, the surrounding granulosa cells, and follicular fluid will uncover the metabolic networks regulating oocyte development, potentially leading to the identification of oocyte quality markers and prevention of reproductive disease and poor outcomes in offspring. PMID:25280482

  4. Developing and Implementing an Effective Nutrition and Fitness Program for Kindergarten/First-Grade Students through Hands-On and Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Brenda M.

    A practicum developed and implemented a nutrition and fitness program for 90 kindergarten and first-grade students in an urban elementary school. The program was designed to make parents, teachers, and students more aware of nutrition and physical fitness requirements for proper growth and development. The 33-week program included: (1) pretest…

  5. Nutritional influences on folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Campbell, B K; Webb, R

    2012-08-01

    Folliculogenesis is an intricate process that involves the proliferation and differentiation of both somatic and germ cells. This process depends on complex interactions between systemic factors such as both pituitary gonadotrophins and metabolic hormones and/or local factors produced by the ovarian somatic and germ cells, such as the IGF system and TGF-β superfamily members. In domestic ruminants, follicular development begins during foetal life with formation of primordial follicles from the association of germ cells and pre-granulosa cells. After follicular formation, folliculogenesis begins with a primordial follicle progressing into more developed stages (i.e. primary, secondary, pre-antral and antral) in a continuous, progressive process to either ovulation or, as in most cases, to atresia. Even early stages of follicular formation and subsequent development are influenced by both internal (e.g. genotype) and/or external environmental (e.g. nutrition and season) factors. Among these external factors, nutrition is one of the most important affecting reproductive function, and this is the focus of this review, because other reviews in this issue discuss other environmental factors. A number of studies have now shown that nutrition can have both positive and negative effects on follicular growth, oestrous activity, oocyte quality, blastocyst development and pregnancy outcome. Therefore, understanding the intricate processes involved during folliculogenesis and the ways in which factors, such as nutrition, affect them is leading to new opportunities to improve pregnancy rates by influencing follicle development and oocyte quality. This review will focus on follicular development from foetal to adult stages and the influences that nutrition has during some of these developmental stages. PMID:22827381

  6. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  7. Measuring Nutrition Literacy in Breast Cancer Patients: Development of a Novel Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Heather D; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Befort, Christie; Gajewski, Byron; Kennett, Amy R; Yu, Qing; Christifano, Danielle; Sullivan, Debra K

    2016-09-01

    No nutrition literacy instruments have been tested in breast cancer survivors, yet nutrition is a critical lifestyle factor for optimizing weight and improving quality of life in breast cancer survival. Our objectives were to adapt our Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for breast cancer populations and to pilot test its validity and reliability. We modified the instrument based on review by content experts in cancer and nutrition and cognitive interviews with 18 cancer survivors. The modified instrument (Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Breast Cancer, NLit-BCa) was pilot-tested with 17 high-risk women and 55 breast cancer survivors. We conducted the NLit-BCa on two separate occasions 4 weeks apart and assessed reliability by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing results of the NLit-BCa to a Healthy Eating Index score derived from two separate 24-h dietary recalls. Content validity of the NLit-BCa was acceptable (0.93). Entire reliability for three instrument domains was substantial (>0.80), while remaining domains demonstrated fair or moderate reliability. Significant relationships were found between five of the six domains of nutrition literacy and diet quality (P < 0.05). The NLit-BCa is content valid and demonstrates promising reliability and construct validity related to diet quality, through a larger sample size, and removal of non-discriminating items is needed to confirm these findings. Thus, the NLit-BCa demonstrates potential for comprehensively measuring nutrition literacy in breast cancer populations. PMID:25952941

  8. Multistrategy childcare-based intervention to improve compliance with nutrition guidelines versus usual care in long day care services: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Kirsty; Finch, Meghan; Wiggers, John; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interventions to improve child diet are recommended as dietary patterns developed in childhood track into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic disease. For child health, childcare services are required to provide foods to children consistent with nutrition guidelines. Research suggests that foods and beverages provided by services to children are often inconsistent with nutrition guidelines. The primary aim of this study is to assess, relative to a usual care control group, the effectiveness of a multistrategy childcare-based intervention in improving compliance with nutrition guidelines in long day care services. Methods and analysis The study will employ a parallel group randomised controlled trial design. A sample of 58 long day care services that provide all meals (typically includes 1 main and 2 mid-meals) to children while they are in care, in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, will be randomly allocated to a 6-month intervention to support implementation of nutrition guidelines or a usual care control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to overcome barriers to the implementation of nutrition guidelines assessed using the theoretical domains framework. Intervention strategies will include the provision of staff training and resources, audit and feedback, ongoing support and securing executive support. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the proportion of long day care services that have a 2-week menu compliant with childcare nutrition guidelines, measured by comprehensive menu assessments. As a secondary outcome, child dietary intake while in care will also be assessed. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, the measures will be undertaken at baseline and ∼6 months postbaseline. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications. PMID

  9. Development and validity of a questionnaire to test the knowledge of primary care personnel regarding nutrition in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of its epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries, obesity is considered a serious public health issue. In order to increase knowledge concerning the ability of health care professionals in caring for obese adolescents and adopt more efficient preventive and control measures, a questionnaire was developed and validated to assess non-dietitian health professionals regarding their Knowledge of Nutrition in Obese Adolescents (KNOA). Methods The development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of primary care practitioners with respect to nutrition in obese adolescents was carried out in five phases, as follows: 1) definition of study dimensions 2) development of 42 questions and preliminary evaluation of the questionnaire by a panel of experts; 3) characterization and selection of primary care practitioners (35 dietitians and 265 non-dietitians) and measurement of questionnaire criteria by contrasting the responses of dietitians and non-dietitians; 4) reliability assessment by question exclusion based on item difficulty (too easy and too difficult for non-dietitian practitioners), item discrimination, internal consistency and reproducibility index determination; and 5) scoring the completed questionnaires. Results Dietitians obtained higher scores than non-dietitians (Mann–Whitney U test, P < 0.05), confirming the validity of the questionnaire criteria. Items were discriminated by correlating the score for each item with the total score, using a minimum of 0.2 as a correlation coefficient cutoff value. Item difficulty was controlled by excluding questions answered correctly by more than 90% of the non-dietitian subjects (too easy) or by less than 10% of them (too difficult). The final questionnaire contained 26 of the original 42 questions, increasing Cronbach’s α value from 0.788 to 0.807. Test-retest agreement between respondents was classified as good to very good (Kappa test, >0.60). Conclusion The

  10. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  11. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    PubMed

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  12. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic.

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient's admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  13. Nutrition research and education in the Age of Franklin. A Bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Bing, F C

    1976-01-01

    Two hundred years ago, the United States was just emerging as a new nation. Chemistry and biology, on which the science of nutrition is based, were also just beginning or in their infancy. Dietetics and nutrition education, being applied sciences, were concerned then--as they are now--with the solution of practical problems of everyday living. Dietetics was an important part of medical practice in colonial days. Much of the teaching then about the value of diet in health and disease was provided by pithy statements, based on empiricism backed by authority, by which the science of medicine was taught to students, and by which health instruction was offered to the public. The experimental method of studying "Nature," promulgated by Francis Bacon, was just beginning to be employed in studies of nutrition. Delay in accepting experimental results, such as Lind's demonstration of the value of citrus fruits in the treatment of scurvy, may be attributed in part to a lack of understanding of the experimental method. In part, it may have been due to the absence of animal experimental methods that are capable of providing clear-cut and convincing evidence. Three of the greatest experimental scientists of the eighteenth century--Lavoisier, Count Rumford, and Benjamin Franklin--busied themselves with matters of concern to dietitians and home economists. Their work and that of others provided a firm foundation for the advances in scientific knowledge during the last two hundred years. PMID:1104697

  14. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  15. Nutritional Adequacy and Diet Quality in Colorectal Cancer Patients Postsurgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Lertxundi, Iker; Alvarez, Maider; Rocandio, Ana M; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that an unhealthy diet is associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and death among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aims of this study were to assess nutritional adequacy and diet quality in a group of CRC patients postsurgery and to identify possible associations between dietary and nutritional aspects and environmental factors and weight status. This was an observational study conducted on a random sample of 74 patients, aged 50-69 years. Dietary intake was evaluated utilizing a validated frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was evaluated utilizing the Healthy Eating Index for Spanish Diet and the MedDietScore. Data regarding socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyles, dietary supplements use, and body mass index were collected. Subjects followed a diet characterized by a low carbohydrate intake (94% of the cases), excessive protein (48%), high fat intake (67%), and some micronutrient deficiencies. The inadequacy of some nutrients was associated with male gender, overweight/obesity, smoking, and low educational level; and low adherence to the MedDiet was identified in those with a low educational level (adjusted odds ratio = 4.16, P < 0.05). Therefore, such patients should be an important target group when applying educational programs and giving individualized nutritional advice to improve their quality of life. PMID:27144653

  16. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  17. Nutrition in space.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Davis-Street, J; Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted. PMID:11540643

  18. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  19. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2) ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2) > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions

  20. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885

  1. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at

  2. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  3. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  4. Feeding the brain and nurturing the mind: Linking nutrition and the gut microbiota to brain development

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Manu S.; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    The human gut contains a microbial community composed of tens of trillions of organisms that normally assemble during the first 2–3 y of postnatal life. We propose that brain development needs to be viewed in the context of the developmental biology of this “microbial organ” and its capacity to metabolize the various diets we consume. We hypothesize that the persistent cognitive abnormalities seen in children with undernutrition are related in part to their persistent gut microbiota immaturity and that specific regions of the brain that normally exhibit persistent juvenile (neotenous) patterns of gene expression, including those critically involved in various higher cognitive functions such as the brain’s default mode network, may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of microbiota immaturity in undernourished children. Furthermore, we postulate that understanding the interrelationships between microbiota and brain metabolism in childhood undernutrition could provide insights about responses to injury seen in adults. We discuss approaches that can be used to test these hypotheses, their ramifications for optimizing nutritional recommendations that promote healthy brain development and function, and the potential societal implications of this area of investigation. PMID:26578751

  5. Advancing the nutrition and early childhood development agenda: indicators and guidance.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David; Neuman, Michelle J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of early childhood development (ECD) is scientifically established and is increasingly recognized by governments and international organizations. However, progress in protecting and improving ECD is constrained by multisectoral influences on ECD, the multiple sectors and venues for delivering services, the lack of a common fiscal and policy space, and weak or fragmented data and monitoring systems. This paper describes two tools and strategies to strengthen multisectoral, system-wide policy environments for ECD. One is the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework for tracking progress toward an integrated ECD system. Developed by the World Bank, SABER-ECD assists governments and their partners to take stock of their existing ECD policies and programs, analyze strengths and areas for improvement using common metrics, and learn from international examples. The other tool is an Agenda-Setting and Commitments framework, based on research in global health and nutrition that can guide national-level actors in their advocacy and strategic efforts to strengthen the integrated ECD system. These represent practical and research-based tools to translate scientific evidence concerning ECD into effective and large-scale actions. PMID:24152149

  6. Impact of foods nutritionally enhanced through biotechnology in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    According to United Nations (UN) projections, the world's population will grow from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 8 billion in 2025 and 9.4 billion in 2050. Most (93%) of the increase will take place in developing countries. The rapid population growth in developing countries creates major challenges for governments regarding food and nutrition security. According to current World Health Organization estimates, more than 3 billion people worldwide, especially in developing countries, are malnourished in essential nutrients. Malnutrition imposes severe costs on a country's population due to impaired physical and cognitive abilities and reduced ability to work. Little progress has been made in improving malnutrition over the past few decades. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN would like to see more nutrient-rich foods introduced into these countries, because supplements are expensive and difficult to distribute widely. Biofortification of staple crops through modern biotechnology can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries. Several genetically modified crops, including rice, potatoes, oilseeds, and cassava, with elevated levels of essential nutrients (such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, protein and essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids); reduced levels of antinutritional factors (such as cyanogens, phytates, and glycoalkaloid); and increased levels of factors that influence bioavailability and utilization of essential nutrients (such as cysteine residues) are advancing through field trial stage and regulatory processes towards commercialization. The ready availability and consumption of the biofortified crops would have a significant impact in reducing malnutrition and the risk of chronic disease in developing countries. PMID:17955991

  7. Glucagon clearance is regulated by nutritional state: evidence from experimental studies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Alyssa; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo; D’Argenio, David Z.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Given the importance of glucagon in the development of type 2 diabetes and as a potential therapeutic agent, the aim of this study was to characterise glucagon kinetics in mice and its regulation by the nutritional state. Methods Anaesthetised C57BL/6 mice fed normal or high-fat diets, or fasted, were injected intravenously with glucagon (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 10.0 or 20 μg/kg); blood samples were withdrawn before injection and 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 min thereafter for glucagon assay by RIA. Glucagon kinetics were described by two-compartment models using a population analysis. Results The population mean and between-animal SD of glucagon clearance in the fed mice was 6.03 ± 2.58 ml/min, with a rapid elimination half-life of 2.92 ± 1.21 min. Fasted mice showed a slower glucagon clearance. The kinetics of glucagon in the fed and fasted group was linear across this large dose range. The mice fed a high-fat diet, however, showed non-linear kinetics with a faster terminal clearance of 20.4 ± 5.45 ml/min (p < 0.001) and a shorter elimination half-life of 1.59 ± 0.606 (p < 0.001) min relative to normal mice. Conclusions/interpretation This first systematic dose-ranging study of glucagon kinetics produced several findings: (1) a linear two-compartment model describes glucagon in normal C57BL/6 mice; (2) fasting reduces the clearance of glucagon and (3) high-fat diet enhances the clearance of glucagon. These results may direct future studies on glucagon physiology and indicate that there are other mechanisms, not included in the current model, needed to fully explain glucagon’s kinetics. PMID:24370975

  8. A content analysis of nutrition education curricula used with low-income audiences: implications for questionnaire development.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Griffin, Sarah; Cason, Katherine L; Loberger, Ginger; Williams, Joel; Baker, Susan; Coffee, Aubrey; Linton, Brittney; Hall, Trisha; Hayden, Victoria

    2013-07-01

    In developing recommendations for core measures/items for the evaluation of the Youth Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), three nutrition education curricula, implemented by land grant universities, were content analyzed. Selection criteria included the following: Curriculum content must include all EFNEP core content areas and must be implemented in more than one state with school children in third through fifth grades. Content analysis strategies were employed to identify and describe common areas/themes and mediators of behaviors addressed across the selected curricula. Content analysis coding was based on a list of behavioral mediators, which have empirical associations with nutrition, physical activity, and food safety. The most evident approaches identified across the three curricula were to enhance motivation, teach cognitive knowledge, and practice behavioral skills. The presence of self-regulation and environmental theory-based strategies was limited in all three curricula. In addition, multiple themes for nutrition, physical activity, and food safety were commonly addressed across curricula with multiple educational strategies. Based on these findings, recommendations for developing content appropriate measures and items for an outcome evaluation tool for Youth EFNEP are provided. PMID:23159995

  9. A study on the consumer's perception of front-of-pack nutrition labeling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the present situation for front of pack labeling in Korea and the perception of consumers for the new system of labeling, front of pack labeling, based on the consumer survey. We investigated the number of processed foods with front of pack labeling in one retailer in Youngin-si. And we also surveyed 1,019 participants nationwide whose ages were from 20 to 49; the knowledge of nutrition labeling, the knowledge of 'front of pack labeling', and the opinion about the labeling system. The data were analyzed using SAS statistics program. The results were as follows: 13.4% of processed foods had front of pack labeling, and 16.8% of the consumers always checked the nutrition labeling, while 32.7% of the consumers seldom checked it. In addition, 44.3% of the consumers think that 'front of pack labeling' is necessary, and 58.3% of the consumers think it is important to show the percentage of daily value as a way of 'front of pack labeling'. However, 32% of the consumer think the possibility of 'front of pack labeling' is slim. Meanwhile, 58.3% of the consumers think that it is important to have the color difference according to contents. The number of favorite nutrients in the front of pack was four or five. It seems that the recognition of current nutrition labeling has the influence on the willingness of using the future 'front of pack labeling'. Along with our study, the policy for 'front of pack labeling' has to be updated and improved constantly since 'front of pack labeling' helps consumer understand nutrition facts. PMID:20098583

  10. Simplifying healthful choices: a qualitative study of a physical activity based nutrition label format

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study used focus groups to pilot and evaluate a new nutrition label format and refine the label design. Physical activity equivalent labels present calorie information in terms of the amount of physical activity that would be required to expend the calories in a specified food item. Methods Three focus groups with a total of twenty participants discussed food choices and nutrition labeling. They provided information on comprehension, usability and acceptability of the label. A systematic coding process was used to apply descriptive codes to the data and to identify emerging themes and attitudes. Results Participants in all three groups were able to comprehend the label format. Discussion about label format focused on issues including gender of the depicted figure, physical fitness of the figure, preference for walking or running labels, and preference for information in miles or minutes. Feedback from earlier focus groups was used to refine the labels in an iterative process. Conclusions In contrast to calorie labels, participants shown physical activity labels asked and answered, “How does this label apply to me?” This shift toward personalized understanding may indicate that physical activity labels offer an advantage over currently available nutrition labels. PMID:23742678

  11. Case study: nutritional strategies of a cyclist with celiac disease during an ultraendurance race.

    PubMed

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2012-08-01

    Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and post-race. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety. PMID:22645170

  12. The impact of nutrition education interventions on the dietary habits of college students in developed nations: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Wan Putri Elena, Wan Dali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future. PMID:22977369

  13. Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and dietary behaviors among head start teachers in Texas: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela; Dortch, Katherine Skala; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Truxillio, Jeanette B; Rahman, Gulshan A; Bonsu, Pamela; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2013-04-01

    Head Start teachers are responsible for providing nutrition education to over 1 million low-income children annually, yet little is known about their nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess the self-reported nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Head Start teachers from one urban Head Start organization in Harris County, TX. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using baseline surveys in the 2008-2009 school year. One hundred eighty-one Head Start teachers completed self-reported surveys of their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, weight status, and other weight-related behaviors. The sample was predominantly female (97%) and minority (93%); 24% were overweight and 55% were obese. One fourth of the sample did not consume fruit (26%) or vegetables (23%) the previous day. Half of the teachers reported consuming french fries (52%) and soda (44%), and one fourth consumed fried meat (28%) at least once on the previous day. Only four teachers (3%) answered at least four of the five nutrition knowledge questions correctly. Half of the teachers (54%) agreed that it was hard to know which nutrition information to believe, and only 9% reported that their nutrition habits were healthy. A majority of teachers were trying to lose weight (71%) and said they would like to weigh less (81%). This study underscores the importance of providing nutrition education and wellness opportunities to Head Start teachers to better enable them to teach nutrition education to their students and to improve their own health. PMID:23415503

  14. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies. PMID:26820112

  15. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014–2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a “diet requires modification’, both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients’ diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with

  16. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with an

  17. The influence of maternal protein nutrition on offspring development and metabolism: the role of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Almond, K; Bikker, P; Lomax, M; Symonds, M E; Mostyn, A

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One mechanism linking manipulations of the maternal environment to an increased risk of later disease is enhanced fetal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC). Tissue sensitivity to cortisol is regulated, in part, by the GC receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) types 1 and 2. Several studies have shown the effects of maternal undernutrition, particularly low-protein diets, on the programming of GC action in the offspring; however, dietary excess is far more characteristic of the diets consumed by contemporary pregnant women. This study investigated the programming effects of moderate protein supplementation in pigs throughout pregnancy. We have demonstrated an up-regulation of genes involved in GC sensitivity, such as GC receptor and 11β-HSD, in the liver, but have yet to detect any other significant changes in these piglets, with no differences observed in body weight or composition. This increase in GC sensitivity was similar to the programming effects observed following maternal protein restriction or global undernutrition during pregnancy. PMID:22123495

  18. [Medical fault or professional negligence? Case studies in two recovery nutrition centers in Niger].

    PubMed

    Halidou Doudou, M; Manzo, M L; Guero, D

    2014-12-01

    In developing countries such as Niger, the risk of medical malpractice is ubiquitous in health, jeopardizing patient safety. The aim of this work was to contribute to patients' safety and respect of code of ethics and conduct in the exercise of the medical profession. The reported cases involved two children under 5 years who were admitted to nutrition rehabilitation centers, died as a result of medical malpractice. In Niger, there are no statistics on this phenomenon and a few cases found have always been considered "accident" or "fate." The establishment of an observatory collections of such information should improve their frequency, consequences and propose a prevention plan. PMID:25449444

  19. “Smart” RCTs: Development of a Smartphone App for Fully Automated Nutrition-Labeling Intervention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole; Dunford, Elizabeth; Eyles, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial interest in the effects of nutrition labels on consumer food-purchasing behavior. However, conducting randomized controlled trials on the impact of nutrition labels in the real world presents a significant challenge. Objective The Food Label Trial (FLT) smartphone app was developed to enable conducting fully automated trials, delivering intervention remotely, and collecting individual-level data on food purchases for two nutrition-labeling randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in New Zealand and Australia. Methods Two versions of the smartphone app were developed: one for a 5-arm trial (Australian) and the other for a 3-arm trial (New Zealand). The RCT protocols guided requirements for app functionality, that is, obtaining informed consent, two-stage eligibility check, questionnaire administration, randomization, intervention delivery, and outcome assessment. Intervention delivery (nutrition labels) and outcome data collection (individual shopping data) used the smartphone camera technology, where a barcode scanner was used to identify a packaged food and link it with its corresponding match in a food composition database. Scanned products were either recorded in an electronic list (data collection mode) or allocated a nutrition label on screen if matched successfully with an existing product in the database (intervention delivery mode). All recorded data were transmitted to the RCT database hosted on a server. Results In total approximately 4000 users have downloaded the FLT app to date; 606 (Australia) and 1470 (New Zealand) users met the eligibility criteria and were randomized. Individual shopping data collected by participants currently comprise more than 96,000 (Australia) and 229,000 (New Zealand) packaged food and beverage products. Conclusions The FLT app is one of the first smartphone apps to enable conducting fully automated RCTs. Preliminary app usage statistics demonstrate large potential of such technology, both for

  20. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of a Parent Nutrition Education Program with Low-Income Latina Mothers in an Urban School District Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Chan Le; Prelip, Michael; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the steps involved in the development and implementation of a parent nutrition education workshop series for a low-income, primarily Spanish-speaking population in an urban school district setting. Overall, those parents who participated in the nutrition education workshops showed positive changes in their knowledge,…

  1. Conducting needs assessment using the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE)mode to develop nutrition and physical activity interventions in a rural community in the Mississippi Delta.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of a Lower Mississippi Delta community and university partners used the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) model to assess nutrition and health problems and develop a menu of interventions. Our objectives were: 1) To identify and prioritize nutrition and physical ac...

  2. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

  3. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

  4. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  5. Video fluoroscopy swallow study and nutritional support during ambulatory venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Tobias, Joseph D; Galantowicz, Mark; Preston, Thomas J; Tzemos, Kallirroe K; McConnell, Patrick I

    2014-01-01

    We present the successful completion of a video fluoroscopy swallow study and subsequent nutritional plan of a child bridged to lung transplantation with ambulatory venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). With a limited number of programs bridging pediatric patients to lung transplantation with VV ECMO, a better understanding of nutritional support is needed to provide optimal care to this patient population awaiting organ donation. PMID:24403362

  6. [Nutrition management for COPD].

    PubMed

    Miki, Keisuke; Maekura, Ryoji

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the lung and of the whole body, and pulmonary cachexia often occurs during the advanced stage. The effects of nutritional support upon the management of under-nutrition in COPD remain controversial. However, a study of the effects of nutritional supplement therapy upon such patients with COPD has recently been published. The present report comprises a review of recent articles about the nutritional support of patients with COPD, especially those with cachexia, and a discussion about the roles of nutritional supplement therapy, focusing on exercise and treatment with ghrelin and vitamin D in the management of COPD. PMID:27254950

  7. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    PubMed

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  8. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  9. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  10. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P) 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03). The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007) and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047). The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight < P3 was greater than that of children with weight > P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037). In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition) (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032). Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight. PMID:23016957

  11. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during early fetal kidney development specifically promotes renal lipid accumulation following juvenile obesity in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fainberg, H P; Sharkey, D; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Pope, M; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2013-01-01

    Reduced maternal food intake between early-to-mid gestation results in tissue-specific adaptations in the offspring following juvenile-onset obesity that are indicative of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to establish the extent to which renal ectopic lipid accumulation, as opposed to other markers of renal stress, such as iron deposition and apoptosis, is enhanced in obese offspring born to mothers nutrient restricted (NR) throughout early fetal kidney development. Pregnant sheep were fed either 100% (control) or NR (i.e. fed 50% of their total metabolisable energy requirement from 30-80 days gestation and 100% at all other times). At weaning, offspring were made obese and, at approximately 1 year, kidneys were sampled. Triglyceride content, HIF-1α gene expression and the protein abundance of the outer-membrane transporter voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC)-I on the kidney cortex were increased in obese offspring born to NR mothers compared with those born to controls, which exhibited increased iron accumulation within the tubular epithelial cells and increased gene expression of the death receptor Fas. In conclusion, suboptimal maternal nutrition coincident with early fetal kidney development results in enhanced renal lipid deposition following juvenile obesity and could accelerate the onset of the adverse metabolic, rather than cardiovascular, symptoms accompanying the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22951182

  12. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  13. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest, quasiexperimental…

  14. Nutrition in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Beglinger, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The pancreas plays a major role in nutrient digestion. Therefore, in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop, impairing digestive and absorptive processes. These changes can lead to malnutrition over time. In parallel to these changes, decreased caloric intake and increased metabolic activity are often present. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. In severe acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition with a naso-jejunal feeding tube and a low molecular diet displays clear advantages compared to parenteral nutrition. Infectious complications, length of hospital stay and the need for surgery are reduced. Furthermore, enteral nutrition is less costly than parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who do not tolerate enteral nutrition. Abstinence from alcohol, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation is sufficient in over 80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. In addition, oral supplements are helpful. Enteral nutrition can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:16782526

  15. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  16. THE DUAL BURDEN OF NUTRITION TRANSITION AMONG WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF UNDERWEIGHT IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Emina, Jacques B O

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition research has primarily focused on under-nutrition, particularly among vulnerable children. However, there is increasing evidence of an emerging nutrition transition with extremely high rates of obesity, and malnutrition in women may be a problem that is insufficiently recognized and inadequately documented. This analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which included 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual-level data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics and aggregated to the country's 37 states. A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-nutrition at the state level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. The results reveal that 12.0% of the population were underweight, while 20.9% were either overweight or obese, based on BMI. The northern states of Sokoto and Yobe/Borno and the southern state of Delta had the highest prevalence of underweight, while states in the centre had the lowest underweight prevalence. Underweight women were more likely to be from poorer households compared with their counterparts from the richest wealth index, which were consistently associated with lower odds of being underweight (posterior odds ratio (POR) and 95% credible region (CR): 0.56 [0.46, 0.70]). On the other hand Muslim women (1.61 [1.10, 2.23]), those of traditional religion (2.12 [1.44, 3.00]), those from the Fulani ethnic group (2.90 [1.64, 5.55]) and those living in Yobe state were all consistently associated with higher odds of being underweight. This study demonstrates that underweight is a major public health problem in Nigeria affecting adult females in the northern states of Nigeria. Identifying risk factors and the need to account for sex, spatial and socio-cultural issues are crucial to develop and implement evidence-informed strategies and interventions for lifestyle health promotion. PMID:26448573

  17. Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454

  18. [Considerations on the development of nutrition-related guidelines by the World Health Organization and their implementation].

    PubMed

    Zamora, Gerardo; Meneses, Daniela; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Neufeld, Lynnette; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a complex and rigorous process to develop global guidelines. With regard to nutrition-related guidelines, the joint participation of national authorities from Member States and their partners, including those of the social economy, is key to strengthening the process of evidence-informed guideline development and the subsequent implementation as part of national public health strategies. WHO puts forward a series of tools that can assist national authorities on health and social development in the elaboration of evidence-informed policies, considering their pertinence, relevance and implementability. This adoption and adaptation process must consider equity in order to avoid widening existing inequities. WHO global nutrition guidelines contribute to the effective implementation of nutrition interventions in Member States. Two experiences of implementation, one in Panama and one in Peru, exemplify this process. The paper ends by suggesting a deeper understanding and utilization of implementation research during programmes to identify what factors ensure effective interventions, appropriate scale up strategies and greater health equity. PMID:26320300

  19. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  20. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  1. Functioning and health in patients with cancer on home-parenteral nutrition: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with cancer. One possible strategy to prevent malnutrition and further deterioration is to administer home-parenteral nutrition (HPN). While the effect on survival is still not clear, HPN presumably improves functioning and quality of life. Thus, patients' experiences concerning functioning and quality of life need to be considered when deciding on the provision of HPN. Currently used quality of life measures hardly reflect patients' perspectives and experiences. The objective of our study was to investigate the perspectives of patients with cancer on their experience of functioning and health in relation to HPN in order to get an item pool to develop a comprehensive measure to assess the impact of HPN in this population. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed to identify categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) addressed by patients' statements. Patients were consecutively included in the study until an additional patient did not yield any new information. Results We extracted 94 different ICF-categories from 16 interviews representing patient-relevant aspects of functioning and health (32 categories from the ICF component 'Body Functions', 10 from 'Body Structures', 32 from 'Activities & Participation', 18 from 'Environmental Factors'). About 8% of the concepts derived from the interviews could not be linked to specific ICF categories because they were either too general, disease-specific or pertained to 'Personal Factors'. Patients referred to 22 different aspects of functioning improving due to HPN; mainly activities of daily living, mobility, sleep and emotional functions. Conclusions The ICF proved to be a satisfactory framework to standardize the response of patients with cancer on HPN. For most aspects reported by the patients, a matching concept and ICF category could be found. The

  2. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

    PubMed

    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  3. Nutritional status and food intake in human immunodeficiency virus infection. GI/HIV Study Group.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, S J; Sharkey, K A; Sutherland, L R; Church, D L

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional status and food intake of HIV+ and HIV- homosexual men that were free from enteric pathogens were compared. Food intake (7-day weighed record), anthropometry, and D-xylose excretion were measured in 44 patients (9 HIV-, 35 HIV+). HIV+ patients were found to be thinner, based on anthropometric measurements of skinfold thickness (p < 0.05) and percentage body fat (p < 0.05), and they also tended to be lighter than the HIV- patients. No differences were observed in the arm muscle mass or the food intake of the two groups. In the HIV+ patients, regression analysis was used to correlate changes in nutritional status with progression of the disease, using CD4+ lymphocyte count as a measure of severity. A decrease in CD4 count positively correlated with a decrease in weight (r = 0.48, p < 0.01), body mass index (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), and arm muscle area (r = 0.42, p < 0.01). Energy intake (r = 0.67, p < 0.01), serum albumin (r = 0.52, p < 0.01), and D-xylose excretion (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) also positively correlated with CD4 count. Multiple regression analysis revealed a relationship between CD4 count, weight, and energy intake, indicating that as the disease progresses, a decline in weight is seen parallel to a reduction in food intake. These data indicate that changes in body composition and nutritional status are present throughout the stages of HIV disease, though no causal relationships can be interpreted from this study. The initial changes appear to be due to loss of fat stores, as determined by anthropometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1357153

  4. Foodservice industry market profile study: nutritional and objective textural profile of foodservice ground beef.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L P; Williams, S E; Neel, S W; Reagan, J O

    1994-06-01

    Ground beef patties of three types (regular, lean, extra-lean) destined for the foodservice industry were collected from foodservice purveyors in 12 cities equally distributed across six geographical regions of the United States to assess nutritional and objective texture characteristics. Patties were cooked on a foodservice-style clamshell grill to a well (approximately 80 degrees C) degree of doneness (internal temperature) for nutritional analysis and objective texture measurements. Single 5.08-cm2 samples were removed from the center of each patty and sheared with a multiple-blade Allo-Kramer shearing device. Nutritional composition, including proximate analysis values and fatty acid profiles, was determined on both raw and cooked samples of the ground beef. Extra-lean ground beef contained the least (P < .05) fat (12.43%), lean had an intermediate level (17.45%), and regular ground beef contained the most fat (P < .05) (20.20%), on a raw basis. However, after cooking, fat content was similar (P > .05) for regular and lean ground beef. Fatty acid composition of lipid and cholesterol content of ground beef did not differ (P > .05) across types of ground beef or between raw and cooked samples and was similar to USDA Handbook 8-13 values. Cooking loss decreased (P < .05) as fat percentages decreased. Regular and lean ground beef was easier (P < .05) to shear (4.20 and 4.24 kg/g of sample, respectively) than extra-lean ground beef (5.08 kg/g of sample). On average, foodservice ground beef sampled in the present study is 15.5% leaner than retail ground beef as presented in the National Beef Market Basket Survey and 22.2% leaner than USDA Handbook 8-13 values. PMID:8071173

  5. The effects of poor maternal nutrition during gestation on postnatal growth and development of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M L; Peck, K N; Forella, M E; Fox, A R; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A

    2016-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can affect the growth and development of offspring, which may lead to negative consequences in adult life. We hypothesized that lambs born to poorly nourished ewes would have reduced growth rate and increased fat deposition, with corresponding changes in the somatotropic axis, and leptin, insulin and glucose concentrations. Ewes ( = 36; 12/treatment) were assigned 1 of 3 diets; 100% (CON), 60% (RES), or 140% (OVER) of NRC requirements for TDN at d 31 of gestation until parturition. One lamb per ewe ( = 35; 11 to 12 per treatment) was used; 18 lambs were euthanized at d 1, and 17 were fed the same diet for 3 mo and then euthanized. Lamb crown rump length (CRL), heart girth, BW, and BCS were measured, and blood samples were collected at d 1 and then at weekly intervals until euthanasia. Averaged from d 1 until 3 mo, lambs from OVER ewes were larger compared with lambs born to CON ewes (BW [16.97 vs. 15.44 kg ± 0.60; = 0.09], ADG [0.23 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01 kg/d; = 0.01], and CRL [68.9 vs. 66.1 ± 0.80 cm; = 0.02]). On a BW basis, heart weight from lambs from RES (0.18 kg ± 0.03; = 0.03) ewes was greater than that of CON lambs (0.15 kg ± 0.03). Backfat thickness was reduced in RES lambs (0.11 ± 0.06; ≤ 0.04) compared with CON (0.20 ± 0.06) and OVER (0.26 ± 0.06) lambs. Concentrations of IGF-I at 3 mo and IGFBP-3 from weaning (d 56 of age) to 3 mo of age tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.06) in OVER lambs (334 ± 66 ng/mL and 175 ± 11 arbitrary units [AU], respectively) than CON lambs (149 ± 66 ng/mL and 140 ± 11 AU, respectively). At 3 mo, leptin was greater in OVER lambs compared with RES lambs (1.24 vs. 0.78 ± 0.13 ng/mL; < 0.05). Over time, average insulin concentrations were greater in OVER and RES lambs than CON lambs (0.49 and 0.49 vs. 0.33 ± 0.05 ng/mL; ≤ 0.02). However, concentrations of GH, IGFBP-2, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were not different ( > 0.10) between treatment groups. During in vivo glucose tolerance

  6. Parallels between Nutrition and Physical Activity: Research Questions in Development of Peak Bone Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle choices are attributed to 40% to 60% of adult peak bone mass. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) sought to update its 2000 consensus statement on peak bone mass and partnered with the American Society for Nutrition, which, in turn, charged a 9-member writing committee with using a systematic review approach to update the previous…

  7. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  8. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    , significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups at the age of 16 (boys only) and 17 (girls only) were seen (p<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal and dental status appears to correlate with nutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene. PMID:27403385

  9. Development of a beetroot-based nutritional gel containing high content of bioaccessible dietary nitrate and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Marina; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Vasconcellos, Julia; Monteiro, Maria Lucia; Conte-Junior, Carlos; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Beetroot, a food rich in nitrate and antioxidants has gained attention because of its potential effect on improving cardiovascular health and exercise performance. This work had the purpose of developing a beetroot-based nutritional gel (BG) and estimating the in vitro bioaccessibility of the nitrate, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic (TP) and potassium content, as compared to beetroot juice (BJ). Nitrate was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, TAC was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and TP was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method before and after an in vitro digestion. Significantly higher values of nitrate, TEAC, TP and potassium before and after digestion were observed in BG as compared to BJ. The results suggest a new nutritional strategy to give high contents of bioaccessible nutrients (nitrate, antioxidants and potassium) that are potentially relevant to improve cardiovascular health and exercise performance. PMID:26887255

  10. A nutrition model for developing nations with special reference to Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shams-ur-rahman; Clarke, H R

    1991-09-01

    A linear programming model of nutritional planning, applied to 3 nutrition problems of nutrition planning in 2 villages, Shitalpur and Kulia-Durgapur in southwest Bangladesh is described and results are discussed. The model takes into consideration features identified as affecting nutritional requirements: age and sex, recommended requirements by age and sex, activity level, proportion of lactating women, excess requirement for lactating and pregnant women, and proportion of women pregnant. Other important factors are production of nutrients in the region as affected by assimilable number of nutrients and net yield per acre and number of acres, net usage of nutrients in the region as affected by transfer of crops between regions, and net food import into the region as affected by aid import of food type and exports of food type. Total area of arable land is restriction on production. Consumption = production - net interregional transfers - net foreign trade exports and constraints. It is assumed that any shortfall in domestic production can be met in this supply side analysis. 2 types of policy objectives (self-sufficiency and surplus maximization) are also modeled. The applied model is simplified for the village analysis and the following assumptions are made: there is no trade between villages, transportation cost is not added, and crop yield depends only on land input used in production. The 3 types of nutritional planning problems are that 1) only calorie and protein are considered and arable lands are available year long; 2) calcium and vitamins A, B2, and C (multinutrients) must be met; and 3) inadequate irrigation and flood control technologies limit the amount of land available during the winter and summer months. The Mathematical Programming System and Extension Package (MPSX) was used to solve the simplified model. 8 crops are considered in 10 cropping patterns. The results are that both villages can be net food exporters if all land can be utilized and

  11. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  12. Current Challenges in Home Nutrition Services for Frail Older Adults in Japan—A Qualitative Research Study from the Point of View of Care Managers

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Kimata, Takaya; Uemura, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Preventive care for frail older adults includes providing tailor-made diet information suited to their health conditions. The present study aims to explore the current situation and challenges of home nutrition advice for Japanese frail older adults using qualitative data from a ten-person group discussion among care managers. As the results of our analysis, nine themes were identified: (1) Homebound older adults develop poor eating habits; meals turn into a lonely and unpleasant experience; (2) With age, people’s eating and drinking patterns tend to deteriorate; (3) Many older adults and their family know little about food management according to condition and medication; (4) Many older adults do not understand the importance of maintaining a proper diet; (5) Many homebound older adults do not worry about oral hygiene and swallowing ability; (6) Some older adults are at high risk for food safety problems; (7) Only a limited range of boil-in-the-bag meal options are available for older adults; (8) Many older adults feel unduly confident in their own nutrition management skills; and (9) For many family caregivers, nutrition management is a burden. We conclude that the provision of tailor-made information by skilled dietitians and high-quality home-delivered meal service are essential for the successful nutrition management of the older adults.

  13. Impact of dining room environment on nutritional intake of Alzheimer's residents: a case study.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J H; Hunt, A; Hackes, B; Pope, J F

    2001-01-01

    This case study, in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, was conducted to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The case study compared the noise, lighting, and nutritional intake of 16 Alzheimer's residents eating the same cycle menu in the extended-care (EC) dining room and the Alzheimer's unit (AU) dining room five weeks later. Noise was significantly lower in the EC (p < or = .02). Lighting was significantly higher in the EC (p < or = .001). Intake of calories and protein was slightly higher, with some days significantly higher, in the AU. Total five-day fluid intake at breakfast was significantly higher in the AU (p < or = .02). Although residents' total food and fluid intake was higher in the AU, the project identified a need to decrease noise and increase lighting in the AU. Lighting enhancement and noise reduction may further improve intake, which, in turn, may promote improved nutritional status. PMID:11603166

  14. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition. PMID:27534629

  15. Nutritional Knowledge and Eating Behaviors of Female, Collegiate Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jennifer; Morris, Chad; Schaefer, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Background Female athletes often have inadequate diets due to lack of nutritional knowledge and nutritional misconceptions. Poor nutrition may lead to an increased chance of developing the Female Athlete Triad, a trio of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mass. Physical therapists, as part of a healthcare team, must be prepared to address nutritional issues, recognize signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad, and make the appropriate intervention or referral. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional knowledge of female collegiate swimmers and how effectively they apply their nutritional knowledge to their everyday eating habits. Methods Eighty-five female collegiate swimmers from six Michigan universities completed a nutritional knowledge questionnaire and a 24-hour food recall survey. Demographic, nutritional, and statistical data were analyzed. Results The mean score on nutritional knowledge test was 54.53/76 (71.75% correct). Mean total caloric intake of swimmers was 3229.10 calories per day. Ninety-five point nine percent did not meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for all three macronutrients. No difference in total mean survey score existed between the three collegiate divisions. Conclusion This study suggests that athletes lack knowledge of nutrition, healthy food choices, components of a well-balanced diet, and the implications of nutrition on performance. PMID:21509109

  16. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutritional and active ingredient contents during the floral development of medicinal chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun Hui; Chu, Jian Zhou; Shi, Xiao Fei; Liu, Cun Qi; Yao, Xiao Qin

    2016-05-01

    The paper mainly studied the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutritional and active ingredient contents during the floral development of medicinal chrysanthemum. The experiment included two levels of UV-B radiation (0 and 400μWcm(-2)). The contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), anthocyanin, UV-B absorbing compounds, total chlorophyll and carotenoids, and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL) and cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase enzyme (C4H) in flowers significantly decreased with the floral development. However, the contents of soluble sugar, amino acid and total vitamin C in flowers significantly increased with the floral development. The contents of flavonoid and chlorogenic acid were significantly different in the four stages of floral development, and their highest contents were found in the bud stage (stage 2). In the four stages of floral development, enhanced UV-B radiation significantly increased the contents of H2O2, UV-B absorbing compounds, chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble sugar, amino acid, vitamin C, flavonoid and chlorogenic acid, and the activities of PLA and C4H in flowers. The results indicated that the highest contents of active and nutrient ingredients in flowers were found not to be in the same developmental stages of flowers. Comprehensive analysis revealed that the best harvest stage of chrysanthemum flowers was between the bud stage and the young flower stage (stage 2 and stage 3), which could simultaneously gain the higher contents of active and nutritional ingredients in flowers. PMID:26985737

  17. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  18. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  19. Intra-Household Nutritional Dynamics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Maasai Communities in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Loretta; Dantas, Jaya Ar

    2016-05-01

    To date, research on dietary consumption and nutritional outcomes of the Maasai in Kenya have failed to explore how gender dynamics and intra-household bargaining power affect dietary decisions. This exploratory qualitative study investigates the decision-making processes regarding eating habits and health-seeking behavior within Maasai families in Kenya, and how such roles currently support or conflict with maternal and child health (MCH) program activities in the field of nutritional education and practices. The data were collected from the three group ranches in Laikipia County in Kenya and draws on six focus group discussions with a total of 24 Maasai men and 24 Maasai women. Our research has documented that the dietary and health-seeking decisions of Maasai families are influenced by complex intra- and extra-household factors. Programmatic interventions need to examine decision-making processes within the context of multi-generational family dynamics and gender hierarchies to scale up community-driven interventions to ensure sustained behavior change. PMID:26861897

  20. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  1. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  2. Nutrition support to patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicola

    2003-12-01

    Nutritional depletion has been demonstrated to be a major determinant of the development of post-operative complications. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at risk of nutritional depletion from inadequate nutritional intake, surgical stress and the subsequent increase in metabolic rate. Fears of postoperative ileus and the integrity of the newly constructed anastomosis have led to treatment typically entailing starvation with administration of intravenous fluids until the passage of flatus. However, it has since been shown that prompt postoperative enteral feeding is both effective and well tolerated. Enteral feeding is also associated with specific clinical benefits such as reduced incidence of postoperative infectious complications and an improved wound healing response. Further research is required to determine whether enteral nutrition is also associated with modulation of gut function. Studies have indicated that significant reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with perioperative Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) are limited to severely malnourished patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Meta-analyses have shown that enteral nutrition is associated with fewer septic complications compared with parenteral feeding, reduced costs and a shorter hospital stay, so should be the preferred option whenever possible. Evidence to support pre-operative nutrition support is limited, but suggests that if malnourished individuals are adequately fed for at least 7-10 days preoperatively then surgical outcome can be improved. Ongoing research continues to explore the potential benefits of the action of glutamine on the gut and immune system for gastrointestinal surgery patients. To date it has been demonstrated that glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition results in reduced length of stay and reduced costs in elective abdominal surgery patients. Further research is required to determine whether the routine supplementation of glutamine is warranted. A

  3. Oesophageal bezoar as a complication of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. Two case studies.

    PubMed

    Gil-Almagro, Fernanda; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Enteral nutrition has a relatively low incidence of major complications. The most common complications are mechanical problems, bronchoaspiration and diarrhoea. A rare complication associated with the use of enteral nutrition is oesophageal bezoar. A bezoar is a body of undigested and partially digested matter in the gastrointestinal tract. The main risks factors are gastric motility dysfunction and the use of opiates or sucralfate. The aim of this paper was to present two cases of oesophageal obstruction resulting from the formation of bezoars due to enteral nutrition. Both patients experienced prolonged stays in the intensive care unit and were receiving enteral nutrition, and both cases involved an obstruction of the nasogastric tube and the regurgitation of solid chunks of enteral nutrition through the mouth and the nose. Impactions of solidified enteral nutrition in the distal parts of the oesophagus were confirmed with gastroscopies. Enzymatic complexes containing papain, cellulose, pancreatin, pepsin and diastase were used to successfully dissolve the bezoars in both cases. PMID:26531231

  4. The development of an unconventional food regeneration process: Quantifying the nutritional components of a model methylotrophic yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Stokes, B. O.

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/biological approach to unconventional food regeneration is discussed. Carbon dioxide and water, the major wastes of human metabolism would be converted to methanol by one of several physiochemical processes available (thermal, photocatalytic, etc.). Methanol is then used to supply carbon and energy for the culture of microorganisms which in turn produce biological useful basic food stuffs for human nutrition. Our work has focused on increasing the carbohydrate levels of a candidate methylotrophic yeast to more nearly coincide with human nutritional requirements. Yeasts were chosen due to their high carbohydrate levels compared to bacteria and their present familiarity in the human diet. The initial candidate yeast studied was a thermotolerant strain of Hansenula polymor pha, DL-1. The quantitative results that permit an evaluation of the overall efficiency in hybrid chemical/biological food production schemes are discussed. A preliminary evaluation of the overall efficiency of such schemes is also discussed.

  5. Preoperative Nutritional Status and The Impact on Radical Cystectomy Recovery: An International Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente Thoft; Dalbagni, Guido; Borre, Michael; Love-Retinger, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In radical cystectomy, under-nutrition is common and has detrimental physiological and clinical effects, which can lead to increased complications and prolonged recovery. This article compares measurements and outcomes across continents in this patient population with advanced bladder cancer. The association of preoperative nutritional risk, nutritional status, and length of stay is equal across continents, and the results promote increased clinical awareness that women at severe risk should be identified preoperatively. PMID:27501594

  6. Development of a Drinkable, Peanut-Based Dietary Supplement and Comparison of Its Nutritional and Microbiological Qualities with Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to formulate, using peanuts as a major ingredient, a beverage which will benefit older adults who are at a high risk of protein-energy malnutrition and other health complications, and to compare its nutritional and microbiological qualities to commercial products. Peanuts, rice flour, and flaxseed meal in a ratio of 48.0:49.8:2.2 were mixed with water (20% solids) and cooked into gruel which was sequentially treated with BAN(®) , (480 KNU-B/g, 75 °C 1 h), Alcalase(®) (2.4 AU-A/g, 60 °C 1 h), and Flavourzyme(®) (1000 LAPU/g, 55 °C 1 h) to predigest starch and protein, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis and product viscosity during hydrolysis was measured. The nutritional and microbiological qualities of the product were compared to 10 commercial products. Results indicate that 60% of starch was hydrolyzed while a total of 1.62% protein hydrolysis was observed. Product viscosity reduced from 228.55 to 3.60 cP at the end of hydrolysis. The formulation had no cholesterol and low sodium which was a functional property that was absent in the commercial products. Results of this study suggest that the formulation can be further optimized into a unique product that could cater for the protein needs and other nutritional requirements of older adults. PMID:27075630

  7. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  8. The implication of health insurance for child development and maternal nutrition: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaobo; Conley, Dalton

    2016-06-01

    We use the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) in China to investigate the effect of health insurance on maternal nutrition and child health. Given the uneven roll-out of the NCMS across rural counties, we are able to deploy its implementation as a natural experiment in order to obviate problems of adverse selection that typically plague research on the effects of health insurance. We find that, among children, the NCMS has the greatest positive effect on infants between birth and 5 years of age. Also, with respect to female nutritional status, our models show that the NCMS has the greatest effect on women of childbearing age (aged between 16 and 35), indicating that women who benefit from the NCMS benefits may, in turn, give birth to healthier babies. Thus, taken together, our findings indicate that the NCMS plays an important role in health dynamics in rural China. PMID:26024841

  9. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  10. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  11. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  12. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  13. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  14. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen P; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-10-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped pollen bi-monthly in five additional colonies at each of four of these sites. Pollen mixtures from each sampling date and site were analyzed for weight, total protein, total fatty acids (FAs), and FA composition. Compared to more temperate climates, the eastern Mediterranean allows a relatively high yearly colony growth of ca. 300,000-400,000 bees. Colonies at higher elevation above sea level showed lower growth rates. Queen egg-laying rate did not seem to limit growth, as peaks in capped brood areas showed that queens lay a prolific 2000 eggs a day on average, with up to 3300 eggs in individual cases. Pollen uptake varied significantly among sites and seasons, with an overall annual mean total 16.8kg per colony, containing 7.14kg protein and 677g fat. Overall mean pollen protein content was high (39.8%), and mean total FA content was 3.8%. Production cost, as expressed by the amount of nutrient used per bee, was least variable for linoleic acid and protein, suggesting these as the best descriptive variables for total number of bees produced. Linolenic acid levels in pollen during the autumn were relatively low, and supplementing colonies with this essential FA may mitigate potential nutritional deficiency. The essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acids was consistent with these FAs' tendency to be present at higher levels in collected pollen than in the expected nutrients in bee bodies, demonstrating a well-developed adjustment between pollinator nutritional demands and the

  15. Differences in Fourth-Graders' Participation Rates Across Four School-Based Nutrition Studies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Francesca H A; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Litaker, Mark S; Thompson, William O; Guinn, Caroline H; Baglio, Michelle L; Shaffer, Nicole M

    2003-01-01

    Federal policy has encouraged researchers to include children in research studies; thus, it is important to report experiences recruiting children to participate in studies. This article compares fourth-graders' participation rates across four school-based nutrition studies conducted in one school district in a southeastern state. For each study, children were observed eating school meals (breakfast and lunch); interviewed regarding dietary intake; and weighed and measured. For Study 1, children from 11 schools received $10 per interview for up to two interviews conducted in the morning at school. For Study 2, children from 10 schools received $25 if interviewed once in the evening, either by telephone or in a van parked outside the child's home. For Study 3, children from three schools received $10 per interview for up to three interviews held in the evening by telephone. For Study 4, children from six schools received $15 per interview for up to two interviews conducted either in the morning or afternoon at school, or in the evening by telephone. Recruitment procedures were similar for all studies.Participation rates were 73% (n=635) for Study 1, 57% (n=432) for Study 2, 66% (n=158) for Study 3, and 71% (n=296) for Study 4. Logistic regression was used to determine whether study (1, 2, 3, 4), race (black, white), or gender (male, female) were significant predictors of participation (agreed, denied). The results indicated that study (p<0.0001), race (p=0.0198), and gender (p=0.0188) were significant predictors, however, no two-factor interactions among these effects were significant. Post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment indicated that agreement to participate for Study 2 was lower (p<0.0001) than that for Studies 1, 3, and 4, which did not differ. Agreement to participate across all four studies was higher for black (69%) than white (63%; p=0.0054) children and for females (69%) than males (64%; p=0.0209). Schools provide a natural environment

  16. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  17. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context. PMID:26648377

  18. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  19. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  20. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Scott Lloyd; Lambeth-Mansell, Anneliese; Gillibrand, Gavin; Smith-Ryan, Abbie; Bannock, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods. Over a 14-week period, the Athlete was provided with a scientifically designed nutrition and conditioning plan that encouraged him to (i) consume a variety of foods; (ii) not neglect any macronutrient groups; (iii) exercise regularly but not excessively and; (iv) incorporate rest days into his conditioning regime. This strategy resulted in a body mass loss of 11.7 kg's, corresponding to a 6.7 kg reduction in fat mass and a 5.0 kg reduction in fat-free mass. Resting metabolic rate decreased from 1993 kcal/d to 1814 kcal/d, whereas resting fat oxidation increased from 0.04 g/min to 0.06 g/min. His capacity to oxidize fat during exercise increased more than two-fold from 0.24 g/min to 0.59 g/min, while there was a near 3-fold increase in the corresponding exercise intensity that elicited the maximal rate of fat oxidation; 21% V̇O2max to 60% V̇O2max. Hamstring concentric peak torque decreased (1.7 to 1.5 Nm/kg), whereas hamstring eccentric (2.0 Nm/kg to 2.9 Nm/kg), quadriceps concentric (3.4 Nm/kg to 3.7 Nm/kg) and quadriceps eccentric (4.9 Nm/kg to 5.7 Nm/kg) peak torque all increased. Psychological mood-state (BRUMS scale) was not negatively influenced by the intervention and all values relating to the Athlete

  1. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-03-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  2. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  3. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    be compared with a generic nutrition information control condition. The primary outcomes are fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. Discussion The evaluation study will provide insight into the short- and long-term efficacy of both intervention versions in adults. Additionally, differences in the efficacy among high- and low-educated people will be examined. If these interventions are effective, two well-developed interventions will become available for the implementation and promotion of healthy dietary patterns among both high- and low-educated adults in the Netherlands. Trial registration Dutch Trial Registry NTR3396. PMID:24438381

  4. How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA).

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A

    2015-09-01

    The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4-6 weeks to ascertain the test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test-retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects. PMID:25998236

  5. The Missing Link: Self Study Continuing Education for Nutrition Services Awareness in Early Intervention. Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lara; And Others

    This workbook is a companion to an 18-minute instructional video on nutrition services in early intervention programs. Both the workbook and the video are designed to assist early intervention professionals concerning nutrition and feeding concerns of children with special health care needs. The following issues are addressed: importance of…

  6. Parents and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher

    Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

  7. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  8. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  9. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  10. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  11. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases: Study Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rennan; Li, Jie; Han, Tianshu; Lin, Liqun; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥28 kg/m2), 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases. PMID:25856294

  12. Effect of Digital Nutrition Education Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Information Technology Professionals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p < 0.05). The findings support the importance of providing professionals with nutrition knowledge to promote healthy dietary behaviors.Thus, the method of e-learning and development of CD-Rom is essential for teaching the educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits. PMID:27454492

  13. The Role of Maternal Nutrition on Oocyte Size and Quality, with Respect to Early Larval Development in The Coral-Eating Starfish, Acanthaster planci

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Kerr, Alexander M.; Rivera-Posada, Jairo A.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides) versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus) and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites) produced bigger larvae with larger stomachs and had a higher frequency of normal larvae that reached the late bipinnaria / early brachiolaria stage compared to starved starfish. Females on Acropora diet also produced a higher proportion of larvae that progressed to more advanced stages faster compared to Porites-fed starfish, which progressed faster than starved starfish. These results suggest that maternal provisioning can have important consequences for the quality and quantity of progeny. Because food quality (coral community structure) and quantity (coral abundance) varies widely among reef locations and habitats, local variation in maternal nutrition of A. planci is likely to moderate reproductive success and may explain temporal and spatial fluctuations in abundance of this species. PMID:27327627

  14. The Role of Maternal Nutrition on Oocyte Size and Quality, with Respect to Early Larval Development in The Coral-Eating Starfish, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Caballes, Ciemon Frank; Pratchett, Morgan S; Kerr, Alexander M; Rivera-Posada, Jairo A

    2016-01-01

    Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides) versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus) and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites) produced bigger larvae with larger stomachs and had a higher frequency of normal larvae that reached the late bipinnaria / early brachiolaria stage compared to starved starfish. Females on Acropora diet also produced a higher proportion of larvae that progressed to more advanced stages faster compared to Porites-fed starfish, which progressed faster than starved starfish. These results suggest that maternal provisioning can have important consequences for the quality and quantity of progeny. Because food quality (coral community structure) and quantity (coral abundance) varies widely among reef locations and habitats, local variation in maternal nutrition of A. planci is likely to moderate reproductive success and may explain temporal and spatial fluctuations in abundance of this species. PMID:27327627

  15. Integrating Usability Testing into the Development of a 5 a Day Nutrition Website for At-risk Populations in the American Southwest.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Donald E; Akerelrea, Carol A; Buller, David B; Hau, Barbara; Leblanc, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    The following article documents an iterative, user-oriented process to develop a nutrition education website for a rural multicultural population. Study participants were purposefully recruited from a six-county region in Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico representing the range of ethnic backgrounds, demographics and computer experience of the site's target audience. Three studies are presented. Study one, using a card-sorting process produced a basic shallow and broad structure for the website. Study two, using verbal protocol analysis of the prototype website identified six recurring problems and Study three, using verbal protocol analysis of the nearly completed website identified nine recurring problems. The website was redesigned to eliminate the problems and recommendations were provided for training users. PMID:22113905

  16. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: in utero nutrition related to fetal development, postnatal performance, and meat quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Oksbjerg, N; Nissen, P M; Therkildsen, M; Møller, H S; Larsen, L B; Andersen, M; Young, J F

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurs naturally in pigs and leads to low birth weight of piglets due to undernutrition caused by placental insufficiency. For 2 main reasons, low birth weight causes economic loss. First, low birth weight pigs have a greater mortality and increasing the litter size causes more low birth weight piglets within litters. Second, surviving low birth weight piglets have reduced performance (i.e., ADG, feed conversion rate, and percentage meat). To develop dietary strategies for preventing IUGR, knowledge of the biological basis of IUGR is required. Muscle fiber number, formed during myogenesis, is correlated positively with performance traits and has been shown in several studies to be reduced in low birth weight pigs. Postnatal muscle hypertrophy is due to satellite cell number per fiber at birth and their rate of proliferation as well as protein deposition (i.e., protein synthesis and degradation). Previous studies and some recent ones indicate that low birth weight littermates in mice are born with fewer satellite cells and studies on pigs show that the rate of satellite cell proliferation may vary within litters. Proteomics studies show that protein synthesis and degradation is downregulated in IUGR pigs and low birth weight pigs also produce meat with less tenderness. Alternative maternal feeding strategies to prevent IUGR have been examined. Increasing maternal global nutrition had no beneficial effect on performance and muscle growth traits in several studies. Feeding excess maternal dietary protein also did not influence muscle growth traits whereas moderately decreased maternal dietary protein may decrease muscle fiber number and performance. On the other hand, addition of L-carnitine to the maternal gestation or lactation diet may increase birth and weaning weights or the muscle fiber number, respectively, in low birth weight pig offspring. Finally, promising data have been obtained on reproductive traits in pigs after

  17. Right atrial thrombus associated with subclavian catheter developed due to total parenteral nutrition application

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Nursel; Basarici, Ibrahim; Erbasan, Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization as a frequent routine clinical procedure may have significant complications. Mechanical complications may occur during catheter placement, whereas thromboembolic and infectious complications can be seen during follow-up. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) associated central venous catheterizations may result in early mechanical complications and thrombotic and infectious complications in the long term. This paper describes a patient diagnosed as mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy requiring long-term central venous catheterization for TPN implementation, who had an infected thrombus on the catheter tip resected by cardiac surgery. PMID:27212985

  18. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  19. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  20. The development and evaluation of a mathematical nutrition model to predict digestible energy intake of broodmares based on body condition changes.

    PubMed

    Cordero, V V; Cavinder, C A; Tedeschi, L O; Sigler, D H; Vogelsang, M M; Arnold, C E

    2013-05-01

    Mathematical nutrition models have been developed for beef and dairy cattle to estimate dietary energy intake needed to change BCS. Similar technology has not been used to improve nutrition and feeding strategies for horses. An accurate equine nutrition model may enhance feeding management and reduce the costs of unnecessary overfeeding and promote an optimal level of fatness to achieve reproductive efficiency. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a mathematical nutrition model capable of accurately predicting dietary energy changes to alter BW, rump fat (RF) thickness, and overall body fat (BF), which is needed to maximize profitability and productivity of mares. Model structure was similar to a previously developed model for cattle, and literature data for Quarter Horse mares were used to parameterize the horse model in predicting DE requirement associated with BCS changes. Evaluation of the horse model was performed using an independent dataset comprising 20 nonlactating Quarter Horse mares. Pretrial BCS was used to assign mares to 1 of 4 treatment groups and fed to alter BCS by 1 unit as follows: from 4 to 5 (Group 1), 5 to 4 (Group 2), 6 to 7 (Group 3), and 7 to 6 (Group 4). The BCS, RF thickness, and BW were measured for each mare before the commencement of the feeding trial and once per week thereafter for the duration of a 30-d feeding trial. Initial and target BCS, percent BF, and BW data were collected from each mare and inputted into the model. Mares were individually fed according to the DE suggestions proposed by the model to achieve the targeted BCS change within 30 d. The coefficient of determination of observed and model-predicted values (model precision) was 0.907 (P < 0.001) for BCS, 0.607 (P < 0.001) for percent BF, and 0.94 (P < 0.001) for BW. The BCS was highly correlated to percent BF (r = 0.808; P = 0.01). We concluded the reparameterized model was reliable to predict changes in BW and BCS, but more work is needed to

  1. Lessons learned from cancer prevention studies with nutrients and non-nutritive dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Chen, Jayson X; Wang, Hong; Lim, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of certain types of cancer. Extensive studies have been conducted on the cancer preventive activities of constituents from food and beverages. While laboratory research has shown impressive and promising results, such promising cancer preventive activities have not been demonstrated in many human intervention trials. This article analyzes the major differences between these different types of studies and the limitations of these studies. Animal and cell line studies usually use optimal conditions in order to demonstrate the hypothesized effects, sometimes without considering the human relevance. On the other hand, some clinical trials were designed without a good understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological properties of the agents used. Lessons learned from these studies will be illustrated using vitamin E, β-carotene and selenium as examples for nutrients, and green tea polyphenols as an example for non-nutritive dietary constituents. From the lessons learned, we believe that more interdisciplinary collaboration and integration of laboratory and human studies would effectively advance the field of cancer prevention. PMID:26865098

  2. Nutritional epigenetics with a focus on amino acids: implications for the development and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from human and animal studies indicate that maternal undernutrition or overnutrition affects covalent modifications of the fetal genome and its associated histones that can be carried forward to subsequent generations. An adverse outcome of maternal malnutrition is the development of metabolic syndrome, which is defined as a cluster of disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance. The transgenerational impacts of maternal nutrition are known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The underlying mechanisms include chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation (occurring at the 5'-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides), histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation) and expression and activity of small noncoding RNAs. The enzymes catalyzing these reactions include S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA and protein methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, histone acetylase (lysine acetyltransferase), general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (a superfamily of acetyltransferase) and histone deacetylase. Amino acids (e.g., glycine, histidine, methionine and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12 and folate) play key roles in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients and related metabolic pathways are of interest in dietary treatment of metabolic syndrome. Intervention strategies include targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways through dietary supplementation with nutrients (particularly functional amino acids and vitamins) to regulate one-carbon-unit metabolism, antioxidative reactions and gene expression, as well as protein methylation and acetylation. These mechanism-based approaches may

  3. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  4. A hydrogen gas-water equilibration method produces accurate and precise stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable hydrogen isotope methodology is used in nutrition studies to measure growth, breast milk intake, and energy requirement. Isotope ratio MS is the best instrumentation to measure the stable hydrogen isotope ratios in physiological fluids. Conventional methods to convert physiological fluids to ...

  5. Food and nutrition security public initiatives from a human and socioeconomic development perspective: mapping experiences within the 1996 World Food Summit signatories.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Marie Agnès; Chaves-Dos-Santos, Sandra Maria

    2014-03-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. In a global scenario where hunger and obesity affect millions of people, public actions have been developed towards Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). In 1996 during the World Food Summit, 186 countries signed the Rome Declaration, committing themselves to assess and address Food and Nutrition Insecurity. In this exploratory study, we compile secondary internet data using keywords in four languages to map the global distribution, among signatories, of FNS public initiatives and assess their association with key national-level socioeconomic indicators. As a result, we found FNS public policies in 123 countries, reports on the state of FNS in 139 countries, and the presence of both in 114 countries (61%). The proportion of countries with any type of, as well as with specific, FNS policy or diagnostic was higher in least developed countries. There was a statistically significant association between these proportions and selected national-level socioeconomic variables. The results are discussed along with population vulnerability, international cooperation mechanisms and political discourse and how these factors impact the existence of FNS public actions. PMID:24581064

  6. Nutritional phenotype databases and integrated nutrition: from molecules to populations.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Michael J; McNulty, Breige A; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne C

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies to generate hypotheses, dietary intervention studies to test these hypotheses, and a variety of experimental approaches to understand the underlying explanatory mechanisms. Both the novel and traditional approaches have begun to carve out separate identities vís-a-vís their own journals, their own international societies, and their own national and international symposia. The present review draws on the advent of large national nutritional phenotype databases and related technological developments to argue the case that there needs to be far more integration of molecular and public health nutrition. This is required to address new joint approaches to such areas as the measurement of food intake, biomarker discovery, and the genetic determinants of nutrient-sensitive genotypes and other areas such as personalized nutrition and the use of new technologies with mass application, such as in dried blood spots to replace venipuncture or portable electronic devices to monitor food intake and phenotype. Future development requires the full integration of these 2 disciplines, which will provide a challenge to both funding agencies and to university training of nutritionists. PMID:24829488

  7. The FRD3 Citrate Effluxer Promotes Iron Nutrition between Symplastically Disconnected Tissues throughout Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  8. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B; Spicer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers' beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  9. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  10. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. PMID:24673168

  11. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  12. Understanding Nutrition: A Study of Greek Primary School Children Dietary Habits, before and after Classroom Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Georgiou, Evanthia; Thanou, Ageliki; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to assess and then to improve the diet of Greek primary school children teaching them healthy dietary habits and instructing them to face critically advertisements and media projected dietary models using a program which included intervention on cognitive, emotional, and social level. The results show that our…

  13. Illinois State Council on Nutrition Legislative Report 1982. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

    The responsibilities of the Illinois State Council on Nutrition include studying and making recommendations concerning the following objectives: (1) introducing and developing information, subjects, and programs about nutrition for school curricula; (2) coordinating feeding programs for pre-school and school-age children, the elderly, and pregnant…

  14. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  15. Nutritional and Metabolic Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna E.; Smith, Teri; Belmont, John M.; Haden, Michael; Wagner, Leigh E.; Evans, Randall G.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently on the rise, now affecting approximately 1 in 68 children in the United States according to a 2010 surveillance summary from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This figure is an estimated increase of 78% from the figure in 2002. The CDC suggests that more investigation is needed to understand this astounding increase in autism in such a short period. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether a group of children with ASD exhibited similar variations in a broad array of potential correlates, including medical histories, symptoms, genetics, and multiple nutritional and metabolic biomarkers. Design This study was a retrospective, descriptive chart review. Setting The study took place at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC). Participants Participants were 7 children with ASD who had sought treatment at the Integrative Medicine Clinic at the medical center. Results A majority of the children exhibited an elevated copper:zinc ratio and abnormal vitamin D levels. Children also demonstrated abnormal levels of the essential fatty acids: (1) α-linolenic acid (ALA)— C13:3W3, and (2) linoleic acid (LA)—C18:2W6; high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and an elevated ω-6:ω-3 ratio. Three of 7 children demonstrated abnormal manganese levels. Children did not demonstrate elevated urine pyruvate or lactate but did have abnormal detoxification markers. Three of 7 patients demonstrated abnormalities in citric acid metabolites, bacterial metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation markers. A majority demonstrated elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to casein, egg whites, egg yolks, and peanuts. A majority had absent glutathione S-transferase (GSTM) at the 1p13.3 location, and 3 of 7 children were heterozygous for the glutathione S-transferase I105V (GSTP1). A majority also exhibited genetic polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene superoxide dismutase A16V (SOD2

  16. Attentional capture and understanding of nutrition labelling: a study based on response times.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Bruzzone, Fernanda; Antúnez, Lucía; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Vidal, Leticia; Maiche, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of nutrition information format on attentional capture and consumers' understanding. Sixteen labels of two products (yoghurt and pan bread) were designed following a four 2-level factors full factorial design with the following variables: label background design, type of product, nutrition information format and traffic light system. The labels were presented to 178 consumers, who were asked to decide whether the fat/sodium content of each yoghurt/pan bread label was medium or low. Participant responses and reaction times were recorded. Results showed that type of product, nutrition information format and traffic light system significantly affected the time needed by consumers to find the nutrition information and to classify the labels according to their content of a given nutrient. Meanwhile, consumers' understanding of the labels was mostly affected by the content of the nutrient and the presence of the traffic light system. PMID:22273500

  17. Effects of a Nutritional Supplement on Coprophagia: A Study of Three Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugle, Charles; Rubin, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    The diets of three individuals with profound mental retardation and histories of coprophagia (ingestion of feces) were supplemented with a nutritionally complete elemental diet called Vivonex, resulting in decreases in the frequency of coprophagia in all three cases. (DB)

  18. The promise of biotechnology in addressing current nutritional problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khush, Gurdev S

    2002-12-01

    To meet the nutritional needs of a rapidly growing world population, which is likely to reach 8 billion by 2030, 50% more food grains with higher and more stable yields must be produced. Biofortification is considered the most effective way to increase micronutrient intakes. It is low cost and sustainable and does not require a change in eating habits or impose recurring costs. A research project to improve the iron and zinc content of rice was initiated at the International Rice Research Institute in 1992. Several experimental lines of rice with increased iron and zinc content have been produced. In another experiment rices with beta-carotene have been produced. Other experimental efforts aim at raising the micronutrient content in wheat, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, and beans. Maize with improved amino acid balance is being grown in several African countries. PMID:16619739

  19. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  20. High-nutrition biscuits to increase animal protein in diets of HIV-infected Kenyan women and their children: A study in progress

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Judith; Ettyang, Grace; Neumann, Charlotte G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that improved nutrition early in HIV infection may delay progression to AIDS and delay the initiation or improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral drug therapy. There are few studies that evaluate food-based interventions in drug-naïve, HIV-infected women and their children. Meat provides several nutrients identified as important in maintaining immune function and lean body mass. Objective To design supplemental meat and soybean biscuits for use in a randomized trial examining the effect of meat in the diet of drug-naïve, HIV-infected rural Kenyan women on changes in weight, lean body mass, morbidity, nutritional status, and activities of daily living of the women and growth and development of their children. Methods We designed three supplemental biscuits: one with added dried beef, another with added soybean flour, and a wheat biscuit to serve as a control biscuit to be used in a randomized feeding intervention in drug-naïve, HIV-infected rural Kenyan women and their children. The nutritional contents of the different types of biscuit were examined and compared. Results The three biscuits were isocaloric. Meat biscuits provided more lysine, vitamin B12, and bioavailable zinc. Soybean biscuits provided more total and absorbable iron; however, higher fiber and phytate contents may inhibit nutrient absorption. Data analysis for clinical outcomes of the trial is ongoing. Conclusions The “biscuit model” is useful for nutrition supplementation studies because it can be provided in a blinded and randomized fashion, safely and privately in a home under directly observed consumption by a highly stigmatized population. It is well received by adults and children, and the biscuits can be produced locally with available, simple, affordable technology. PMID:25639139

  1. Evaluation study of the California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program: 24-hour food recall data.

    PubMed

    Del Tredici, A M; Joy, A B; Omelich, C L; Laughlin, S G

    1988-02-01

    The California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education program (EFNEP) Evaluation Study evaluated the effectiveness of the California program. The eating habits of 683 persons were studied in a group receiving EFNEP instruction (355 participants) and a control group (328 participants) that received no instruction. The 24-hour food recall was used to assess eating habits using the Synectics method. At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in food recall scores between the EFNEP and the control groups. After 6 months of instruction in the EFNEP group, there was a significant increase in food recall score for that group and no change in the control group. The improvements observed in the EFNEP group resulted from increased intakes from the milk, protein, and fruit and vegetable food groups. The program characteristics that led to those changes were determined to be in the length of the EFNEP visit, the number of EFNEP visits, and the EFNEP instruction topics. These results show that the California EFNEP is effective in producing significant changes in the eating habits of the low-income individuals it serves. PMID:3339205

  2. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and

  3. Improving families' nutrition knowledge through service learning.

    PubMed

    Roofe, Nina L

    2011-01-01

    Current research documents an increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity in the United States. Effective nutrition education programs are needed to affect this trend. This study pre-tested and post-tested kindergarten students and their families to evaluate the impact of a service learning nutrition education program. Changes in nutrition knowledge and home environment among kindergarten students and their parents who participated in a nutrition education program (treatment group) were compared with those who did not participate in the program (control group). The nutrition education program was developed and delivered by senior nutrition majors at an accredited 4-year university. Responses from a total of 156 parents and kindergarten children (treatment n = 79, control n = 77) out of 205 total kindergarten families (76% response rate) were analyzed to compare changes in knowledge and home environment. Results indicate an increase in the kindergarten children's knowledge and a decrease in the family's home obesigenic risk. These results provide support for the use of service learning to provide age-appropriate nutrition education programs to benefit the entire family. PMID:22138874

  4. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 4--Nutrition and Food Availability. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 20, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with an opening statement by Senator Humphrey. Dr. R. Goldberg, panel cochairman, then presented the "Report and recommendation of the Panel on Nutrition and Food Availability." Testimony was heard from a number of experts and representatives of such organizations…

  5. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P < 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA (P < 0.001) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. On d 111 (end of nutritional recovery), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P = 0.001), and ileum (P = 0.001), weights of the rumen (P < 0.001), duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and

  6. Relation between the serum albumin level and nutrition supply in patients with pressure ulcers: retrospective study in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Tanaka, Yuka; Ishida, Soshi; Abe, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the validity of the commonly used serum albumin level as an indicator of nutrition status of patients with pressure ulcer(s), particularly because the serum albumin level is affected by various factors and may not be specific to malnutrition. Specifically, we investigated whether nutrition supply or inflammation affects the serum albumin level in 82 patients with pressure ulcers(s) (29 in whom pressure ulcer was present upon admission and 53 in whom pressure ulcer developed after hospital admission). Serum albumin levels, blood test including C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and blood count, caloric intake, and depth and healing of pressure ulcers were compared between various subgroups of patients. Serum albumin levels correlated with red blood cell counts and hemoglobin and CRP levels but not with caloric intake. The correlation with CRP before and after several weeks of pressure ulcer treatment was negative. The serum albumin level upon admission was higher in patients in whom the ulcer healed than in those in whom it did not heal as well as in patients who were discharged than in those who died in the hospital. The serum albumin level appears to reflect inflammation, wound healing, and disease severity rather than nutrition supply in patients with pressure ulcer. J. Med. Invest. 61: 15-21, February, 2014. PMID:24705743

  7. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 1. Thermal environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K. J.; Eddy, T. P.; Lee, D. E.; Swann, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Collins, K. J., Eddy, T. P., Lee, D. E., and Swann, P. G. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 237-245. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. I. Thermal environment. Investigations were made on board a modern, air-conditioned oil tanker (S.S. Esso Newcastle) en route to the Persian Gulf in July to August 1967 in order to study thermal conditions in the working environment, and the nutritional status of the crew, and to examine the interrelationship between climate and nutritional balance. In this introductory paper an account is given of the aims and design of the experiments together with details of the environmental survey. The voyage round Africa lasted one month, with high ambient temperatures of 37·7°C dry bulb, 30·8°C wet bulb (100/87°F) occurring only on the last few days into and out of the Persian Gulf. Mean accommodation temperature was maintained in the zone of comfort throughout, and at 23·9°C (75°F) Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) in the Gulf. On a previous voyage in a tanker without air-conditioning CETs up to 31·6°C (89°F) had been recorded in the accommodation in the same ambient conditions. With exposure to high solar radiation in the Gulf, the deck officer's cabins and bridge house in the upper superstructure became uncomfortably warm (CET exceeding 26·6°C (80°F)) and in these temperatures skilled performance is likely to deteriorate. The main thermal problems in the working environment were associated with the engine and boiler rooms which were consistently 11 to 17°C (20 to 30°F) higher than ambient temperature. For personnel on watch, the levels of heat stress were high but not intolerable if advantage was taken of the air blowers. Conditions under which emergency or repair tasks were carried out in very hot engine-room spaces were examined and often found to allow only a small margin of safety. Predicted average tolerance times were deduced from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) scale of

  8. The impact of oedema on anthropometric measurements in nutritional surveys: a case study from Zaire

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Robert R.; Dikassa, Lusamba N.; Bertrand, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Six surveys for protein-energy malnutrition were carried out in sequence in Bas-Zaire beginning at the end of 1978 at the estimated height of the famine and continuing throughout the recovery period. Utilizing a stratified multi-stage sampling technique, over 1000 children aged 6 months to 6 years were measured anthropometrically and examined for the presence or absence of bilateral pedal oedema in each survey. The proportions of children who were less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height and who had oedema decreased, respectively, from 12.8% and 14.4% initially to 2.1% and 1.8% in the final survey. The proportion of oedematous children who were found to be not less than 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was high, varying from 71.7 ± 7.0% to 94.4 ± 10.6%. The importance of these findings for the interpretation of anthropometric data from nutritional surveys in developing countries is discussed. PMID:6609019

  9. The Clinical Trial of Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Kinzel, Laura S.; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Johnson, B. Delia; Conroy, Molly B.

    2007-01-01

    The Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study is the first randomized clinical trial of nonpharmacological intervention designed to modify lipoproteins, weight loss and exercise among postmenopausal women using noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis as the primary endpoint. The trial was initially designed to test whether intervention as compared to health education would be more effective in slowing progression of subclinical atherosclerosis among women on hormone therapy (HT), estrogen or estrogen+progestin. It was designed and implemented prior to the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The trial was since modified to include women who had been on HT but went off after the results of the WHI were reported. Eligible women were between the ages of 52-62, had waist circumference ≥80 cm, low density lipoprotein cholesterol between 100-160 mg% and controlled blood pressure. The intervention is low in total and saturated fat, trans fats, higher in fiber and promotes loss of 7-10% of body weight and includes at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The study has recruited 508 women. The primary endpoints are change in extent of carotid intima media wall thickness as measured by carotid ultrasound, pulse wave velocity as a measure of vascular stiffness and coronary artery calcium using electron beam computed tomography. Body composition is measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. PMID:17113831

  10. Nutritional status of adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Madruga, Samanta W.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and maternal variables on the nutritional status of adolescents aged 11 years. We conducted a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1993, accounting for 87.5% of the original cohort. Nutritional status was evaluated based on World Health Organization criteria. Subjects were classified according to nutritional status into thin, normal, overweight and obese. Independent variables analyzed included skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, and maternal body mass index (BMI). Analyses were stratified by sex, and multivariable regression was performed using the multinomial logistic approach. Overall, 7% of adolescents were classified as thin, 11.6% as overweight, and 11.6% as obese. Among boys, thinness was inversely associated with maternal schooling and maternal BMI. Among girls, thinness was directly associated with maternal BMI. Overweight and obesity were directly associated with socioeconomic status and maternal BMI, the former showing the strongest association with nutritional status among adolescents. PMID:20963286

  11. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status. PMID:26785711

  12. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

  13. Nutritional Status of Flemish Vegetarians Compared with Non-Vegetarians: A Matched Samples Study

    PubMed Central

    Deriemaeker, Peter; Alewaeters, Katrien; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat; Clarys, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study compares the nutritional status of vegetarian (V) with non-vegetarian (NV) subjects. A three-day food record and a health questionnaire were completed by 106 V and 106 NV matched for following characteristics: sex, age, BMI, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Total energy intake was not significantly different (men: V: 2,346 ± 685 kcal/d; NV: 2,628 ± 632 kcal/d; p = 0.078; women: V: 1,991 ± 539 kcal/d; NV: 1,973 ± 592 kcal/d; p = 0.849). Macronutrients intake differed significantly between the V and NV subjects for protein (men: V:12.7 ± 2.3 E%; NV:15.3 ± 4.5 E%; p = 0.003; women: V: 13.2 ± 2.3 E%; NV:16.0 ± 4.0 E%; p < 0.001), fat (men: V: 29.3 ± 8.4 E%; NV: 33.8 ± 5.3 E%; p = 0.010; women: V: 29.7 ± 6.9 E%; NV: 34.7 ± 9.0 E%; p < 0.001), and carbohydrate (men: V: 55.3 ± 10.1 E%; NV: 47.4 ± 6.9 E%; p < 0.001; women: V: 55.1 ± 7.6 E%; NV: 47.2 ± 8.2 E%; p < 0.001). The intake of most minerals was significantly different between the V and the NV subjects. V had a lower sodium intake, higher calcium, zinc, and iron intake compared to the NV subjects. Our results clearly indicate that a vegetarian diet can be adequate to sustain the nutritional demands to at least the same degree as that of omnivores. The intakes of the V subjects were closer to the recommendations for a healthy diet when compared to a group of well matched NV subjects. PMID:22254054

  14. Nutrition Monitoring Application in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Susan J.; Tobelmann, Rosemary C.; Albertson, Ann M.; Jacob, Brenda L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition scientists in the food industry use nutrition monitoring data in a variety of ways that include developing nutrition communications for consumers and health professionals, guiding product development and reformulation, and applying research applications. Continuous nutrition monitoring is essential to influence positively the nutrient content of the food supply and meet the changing nutrition needs of the population. This article reviews food industry application of nutrient intake information and provides specific examples of use. PMID:12131794

  15. [Nutritional ecology: chances of public health services to shape procedures].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Hauber-Schwenk, G

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition ecology is the science that studies the impacts of human nutrition on the environment, on human health and on social systems. Environmental impacts are usually the result of intensive food production, food transport and food packaging; they include soil contamination and erosion, energy consumption, air contamination and waste disposal. Health impacts of contemporary western eating behavior concern nutrition-related diseases (diabetes, hypertension, gout, overweight etc) and their psychological and social consequences; nutrition ecology aims at a balanced diet and suitable eating behavior to reduce the risks of chronic disease. The social impacts of nutrition concern the effects of feed trade on poor working conditions and poverty, especially in developing countries. The strategies of nutrition ecology agree in many points with those of the agenda 21 and of Consumer Protection. As nutrition-related diseases are increasing further, the public health services in Germany discover nutrition as an important topic in health promotion and prevention. They will contribute remarkably to a sustainable development if they include the strategies of nutrition ecology in their projects. PMID:12649791

  16. Nutrition as long-term care as experienced by persons living with inflammatory bowel disease: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Skrautvol, Kari; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how young adult people living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their body symptoms and their food intake could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospital. Thirteen young adults 18 to 45 years of age, with IBD, resided in their home environment and were engaged in different study and work activities. Two main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) confidence with symptoms of disease as a source to recovery and (2) nutritional recovery in different stages of IBD. The course of the disease may be turned toward regeneration using a balanced diet in a long-term management perspective. Development of a tailored diet will provide energy and act as a catalyst to enhance the adaptive immune system in the body. Embodied knowledge and recovery from IBD within the individual patient requires understanding, clinical support, and the skills of the IBD nurse, dietitian, and doctor in an interdisciplinary team collaboration. PMID:25470477

  17. Improving maternal nutrition for better pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2015-11-01

    Much has been learned during the past several decades about the role of maternal nutrition in the outcome of pregnancy. While the bulk of the data is derived from animal models, human observations are gradually accumulating. There is need to improve maternal nutrition because of the high neonatal mortality rate especially in developing countries. The author used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors into account when interpreting study findings. Nutrition plays a vital role in reducing some of the health risks associated with pregnancy such as risk of fetal and infant mortality, intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight and premature births, decreased birth defects, cretinism, poor brain development and risk of infection. Adequate nutrition is essential for a woman throughout her life cycle to ensure proper development and prepare the reproductive life of the woman. Pregnant women require varied diets and increased nutrient intake to cope with the extra needs during pregnancy. Use of dietary supplements and fortified foods should be encouraged for pregnant women to ensure adequate supply of nutrients for both mother and foetus. The author concludes that nutrition education should be a core component of Mother and Child Health Clinics and every opportunity should be utilised to give nutrition education on appropriate diets for pregnant women. PMID:26264457

  18. Does Nutrition Knowledge and Practice of Athletes Translate to Enhanced Athletic Performance? Cross-Sectional Study Amongst Nigerian Undergraduate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Folasire, Oluyemisi F.; Akomolafe, Abiola A.; Sanusi, Rasaki A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Nutrition knowledge of an athlete, as well as practice, is expected to influence athlete’s performance. The study assessed the nutrition knowledge and practice as well as athletes’ performance and identified the factors predicting the athletes’ performance. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey, involved 110 purposively selected undergraduate athletes (47 females, 63 males) of University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between July 2013 and December 2013. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire assessed the nutrition knowledge and practice. 24-hr diet recall and food frequency questionnaire were done. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Handgrip strength (HGS), as an indirect measure of athlete performance, was assessed with the hand dynamometer. Chi-square and t-test analysis were used for the bivariate analysis. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were used to determine relationships and predict athletic performance. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: More than half (58.2%) had good nutrition knowledge (NK), and 62.7% had good nutrition practices (NP). Majority (75.4%) had normal handgrip strength (HGS). More than 70.0% frequently do not consume cereals, roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables, legumes/nuts. About 30.0-40.0% frequently do not consume eggs/milk, meat/fish. Having good NK was significantly associated with good NP (χ2 = 15.520, p=0.000), but not with athlete’s performance (HGS). There is no significant correlation between NK, NP, and HGS. There is a significant positive correlation between HGS and lean muscle mass (LMM) (r=.670, p=0.000), weight (r=.492, p=0.000), height (r=.521, p=0.000) and energy intake (r=.386, p=0.000). There is a significant negative correlation between HGS and percentage body fat (r=-.400, p=0.000). Athletes’ performance was significantly predicted by the resting metabolic

  19. Nutritionally Variant Streptococci Bacteremia in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study, 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Abraham T.; Krishnan, Jayasree; Acevedo, Ileana M.; Halliday, Joseph; Greene, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutritionally variant Streptococci (NVS), Abiotrophia and Granulicatella are implicated in causing endocarditis and blood stream infections more frequently than other sites of infection. Neutropenia and mucositis are the most common predisposing factors for infection with other pathogens in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of NVS bacteremia in cancer patients and identified risk factors and outcomes associated with these infections. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases of NVS bacteremia occurring from June 1999 to April 2014 at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. The computerized epidemiology report provided by the microbiology laboratory identified thirteen cancer patients with NVS bacteremia. We collected data regarding baseline demographics and clinical characteristics such as age, sex, underlying malignancy, neutropenic status, duration of neutropenia, treatment, and outcome. Results Thirteen patients were identified with positive NVS blood stream infection. Ten patients (77%) had hematologic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)(1), multiple myeloma (MM)(1), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)(4), and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)(4). The non-hematologic malignancies included esophageal cancer(2) and bladder cancer (1). Conclusion NVS should be considered as a possible agent of bacteremia in cancer patients with neutropenia and a breach in oral, gastrointestinal and genitourinary mucosa (gingivitis/mucositis). PMID:25960858

  20. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.